The Combat Information Center
See also: Radar Bulletin No. 6 (RADSIX) CIC Manual
Section 1. Introduction Section 2. General Description Section 3. Functions Section 4. Organization Section 5. Operation Section 6. Training Section 7. Location Section 8. Equipment Section 9. Summary APPENDICES: A. Amphibious Fighter Direction Doctrine B. Advance Base Air Defense Control Center (Extractions applicable to Amphibious Operations) C. Publication Relating to the Tactical Uses of Radars D. Radar Reporting Procedure E. Radar Screening doctrine for large cruising disposition to achieve radar screening in depth as well as azimuth F. Type Radar Drills
Section 1. Introduction
- The development of the Combat Information Center as an adjunct of the ship's organization has come about by reason of an urgent need for such an agency to relieve command of the details attendant to collecting and evaluating of Radar and other tactical information. The function of this chapter is to serve as a guide in organizing, equipping, training, and maintenance and operation of the Combat Information Center. The basic doctrine of the U.S. Fleet relating to the organization of the CIC is set forth in USF-10(A) para. 6121 as follows:
"Maximum combat efficiency by individual ships and task organizations can best be attained through full utilization of all available sources of combat intelligence. In this, Radar shall be used to the maximum effectiveness. To develop this concept, the establishment in each ship of a center, in which information from all available sources can be received, assimilated, and evaluating of all available information by trained personnel, such data can be quickly disseminated to the flag and commanding officers, to other control stations concerned over interior communication circuits, and to other ships and aircraft via external communication facilities".
An effort has been made herein to amplify this basic doctrine in its application to ships engaged in Amphibious Operations. Certain additional information is included in the Appendices A, B, C, D, and E which should be carefully reviewed for further study in the tactical use of Radar.
Section 2. General Description
- GENERAL: The Combat Information Center is briefly an agency within the ship established to assist command by collection, rapid evaluation and dissemination of tactical information. It is charged with, (a) collecting all information pertaining to enemy movements and/or location of friendly forces in the vicinity (b) the evaluation of this information and (c) delivery of evaluated information to the various stations in the ship requiring certain portions of this information. A second function may be the controlling of aircraft when authority is so delegated by Command.
- INCOMING INFORMATION TO CIC: The Combat Information Center must be in direct communication with and receive information from: (a) ship control with reference to any change in the tactical situation, own disposition, navigational and aerological data (b) Radar stations, both air and surface search and fire control (c) fire control and gunnery stations having a visual survey of the situation (d) lookouts (e) warning net (f) fighter net, AGCs and relief AGCs or Group Flags (g) communications center and signal bridge (h) radio direction finder stations.
Section 3. Functions
- The Combat Information Center shall be organized to perform the following functions:
AGC/APA (Relief AGC) AKA 1. Air Search and Warning 1. Surface Search and Warning 2. Surface Search 2. Recognition and Identification 3. Recognition and Identification 3. Boat Wave Tracking 4. Tracking 4. Tracking 5. Plotting 5. Plotting 6. Navigation 6. Navigation 7. Fighter Direction 7. Air Search 8. Gunnery 8. Gunnery
APA (Group Flag) / APA (Div. Flag) APD 1. Surface Search and Warning 1. Air Search and Warning 2. Recognition and Identification 2. Surface Search and Warning 3. Boat Wave Tracking 3. Recognition and Warning 4. Plotting 4. Navigation 5. Navigation 5. Boat Tracking 6. Air Search and Warning 6. Plotting 7. Gunnery Information 7. Gunnery Information APA (No Special Command) LST and LCI 1. Surface Search and Warning 1. Surface Search 2. Recognition and Identification 2. Recognition and Identification 3. Boat Wave Tracking 3. Navigation 4. Tracking 5. Plotting 6. Navigation 7. Air Search and Warning 8. Gunnery Information
- GENERAL FUNCTIONS: There are certain general functions which shall be performed by the Combat Information Center. The responsibility for the operation and maintenance of all ship installed radars is part of such functions. The plotting of surfaced radar contacts is another basic function of all Combat Information centers. In accomplishing this end, own ship's course and speed must be considered in determining the course and speed of any surface target. A plot of ships in company must be maintained utilizing both radar and visual observations. Particular attention must be paid to displacement of own ships from assigned stations in the disposition. Whenever a "stranger" is detected, plotters must keep a continuous plot of its movements, but must never neglect observation of the remainder of the area of search.
- I.F.F.: Radar contacts and targets can be identified on the Radar screen by a special identification system called I.F.F. (Identification Friend or Foe). This identification is accomplished by a series of coded impulses which are transmitted by the target (BK transpondor) and when triggered by a BL interrogator and received at intervals by respondor or radio receiver associated with the radar equipment. The code can be interpreted by the trained operator and the type of friendly target identified. Coded identification should be carefully coordinated with the information received from visual lookouts. There have been some indications that enemy planes may be able to
simulate our IFF or that they have mounted captured IFF equipment.
- COUNTER MEASURES: The enemy has concluded that we are now using Radar very widely, consequently he is employing countermeasures to a limited extent and may be capable of jamming our Radars. It is an important function of the CIC to detect such activity, nullify its effects, and notify command.
- EARLY WARNING: No function is more important in the last analysis than that of accurate and early warning of impending air or surface attacks. It is imperative that reports be issued promptly and with as detailed an analysis concerning the attack as can be obtained from the information available. Strict adherence to existing Radar reporting doctrine (USF 10A) is essential to the successful repelling of an attack. All Radar reports emanating from CIC to other ships must include: (a) Raid identification (Letters indicate surface contact, numerals indicate air contact) "Skunk" precedes surface. "Bogey", air. (b) Number of targets--one, few (2 to 10), or many (over 10). (c) Bearing of enemy in degrees (true) from fleet center for surface targets; for air targets, from reference point if specified or from own position. (d) Distance in miles from fleet center for surface targets; for air target use shore reference point is specified or own position. This may also be given as distance in miles from reference point or reporting ship. (e) Course of enemy in degrees (true) (f) speed of enemy (knots) (g) altitude of enemy in feet (if approximate use "low" "High" or "very high") (h) Zone time of the above data. Additional pertinent information, if any (i) call of originating ship.
"BOGEY RAID FOUR"
"FEW, BEARING 210, DISTANCE 60"
"Bogey Raid Four, Few, Bearing 185, Distance 30
Course 110, Speed 150, Estimated high, 1114
Apparently circling fleet. Out."
The reporting of unidentified targets or contacts, when the condition of radio and Radar silence permits the use of radar and radio equipment, is the responsibility of all types of ships. Remember surface search Radar may be the only warning of low flying aircraft.
- NAVIGATION: The CIC should provide the Navigator with Radar fixes when possible. In many cases this may be the only source of information available. When suitable Radar, Navigational targets are available, the ship may be navigated entirely from the CIC. When using Radar ranges and bearings for navigational fixes a knowledge of the limitations of the equipment is necessary. Radar sets are inherently more accurate in range than in bearing. When an attempt is made to shoot tangents on land with the radar, the results are generally inaccurate. This is due to the antenna beam width and is somewhat similar, in effect, to having a half inch wide cross hair on the pelorus. In general, tangents should be avoided. A high point of land or a small island will generally give a good fix. Although range accuracy on Radars is excellent, it is sometimes impossible to know just what point of land is being ranged upon. Most radar waves travel in optical paths. If land is being ranged upon at distances beyond the horizon (as measured from antenna height), it is probably not the coast line but some point of land at a higher elevation. This is illustrated by the fact that high land is ranged upon first as landfall is approached. Low, flat beaches often give poor echoes. When ranging on land, consideration should be given to its elevation and structure. Practice and experience will enable CIC personnel to judge the effects of these various elements as they relate to accuracy of determining positions.
- FIGHTER DIRECTION: Certain responsibilities in connection with fighter direction may be a function of the Combat Information Center on an AGC and other designated ships. Fighter cover is usually controlled by one of the fighter direction destroyers in the transport screen or by the AGCs. It is the function of the Combat Information Center on the AGCs and Relief AGCs especially to assist the Fighter Director in his duties of Liaison between the Commander Support Aircraft and the Fighter Direction Ships. Vital information, especially intelligence, must be passed on to the Fighter Director. Assistance in the collection and evaluation of this information must be afforded by the CIC. The responsibilities assumed are more fully described in the Amphibious Fighter Direction Doctrine, (Appendix A).
- BOAT WAVE TRACKING: In an amphibious operation the waves of assault boats must be carefully tracked and all interested stations kept informed of their progress toward the beach. Boat wave tracking is a function of the CIC. Much valuable information can be obtained from this plot. It is possible to determine from a good plot: (a) Course of boats in to beach or line of departure; whether or not their course will take them to the proper location.
(b) Speed of waves; whether or not they can make the line of departure or beach on time and (c) position of marker, control, or support vessels. This function may be most important.
- RECORDING: All radio and Radar information, incoming and outgoing, for which the CIC is responsible shall be recorded. This serves not only as a permanent record but also should prove valuable at a later date for study leading to improvements in operation. This is a valuable function performed by the Combat Information Center.
- PLOTTING: Finally, in performing these functions it is necessary that certain procedures be established and equipment made available so that a summary plot, a strategic plot and other related plots, for example, the Display Plot (AGC), may be maintained in the Combat Information Center. These basic plots are the functional units around which the CIC is organized and from which the information required is obtained. A more complete explanation of these plots is set forth under a succeeding section entitled "Operations."
Section 4. Organization
- PERSONNEL: Each Commanding Officer shall organize the Combat Information Center of his ship within the limitations of existing equipment and personnel. It is recognized, however, that facilities in the different types and even within those of the same type are not entirely similar and a standard organization suitable for all ships is not entirely feasible at present. To maintain a continuous information summary, evaluate and disseminate all information to the Flag and Ship, total personnel requirements for various types of ships are recommended herein. The personnel of the CIC should be permanently attached to the ship. This is necessary in order to secure a continuing well organized and smooth working unit. Organization and proper functioning of CIC is a direct responsibility of the Commanding Officer of each ship.
TYPE EVAL FDO CIC-WO RAD
RM RT AGC 1 2 6 1 48 8 3 Relief AGC 1 2 2 1 18 8 3 APA Div Flag 1 3 1 12 3 APA 1 3 1 12 1 AKA 1 2 1 12 1 APD 1 2 9 1 LSD 2 6 1 LST 1 3 1 LCI 1 3 1
- The Combat Information Center shall be organized as directed by the Commanding Officer, with a Head of Department delegated to supervise its establishment, the maintenance of equipment, and the training of personnel.
- The Officer in Charge of the Combat Information Center is either the Evaluator or the Fighter Director aboard an AGC. The Evaluator should be an experienced officer charged with general responsibility for operation of the CIC. This normally requires that the executive Officer or Navigator act as Evaluator and have the CIC as his battle station.
- Officers having their battle stations in the Combat Information Center or assigned as Watch Officers should be carefully trained at a CIC Training Center. Each of these officers may be assigned special duties, for example, the "Surface Plot Officer" is a CIC Watch Officer who supervises the surface plotting and the solution of surface tactical problems. He shall see that all information is readily available and assist the Evaluator in every way possible. The "Radio Specialist Officer" may also, in APA's and AKA's, serve as a Combat Information Center Watch Officer. The overall duties of this officer will not only include his primary duty, i.e., the responsibility for keeping the electronic equipment at peak performance, but may include, (1) the supervision and training of Radar Operators and maintenance personnel (RT's), (2) interpretation of RCM and IFF indications, and (3) VHF and other radio maintenance. He must be familiar with the CIC and must be prepared to perform the various primary and secondary duties listed above.
- In the organization of the CIC additional officer personnel may be required to assist in the performance of certain added functions delegated to the Combat Information Center. The duties in connection with Fighter Direction in AGC's and Relief AGC's require officers especially trained in this field. The "Fighter Director" and the "Intercept Officer" take over the responsibilities for interception of enemy aircraft threatening our forces. Enlisted personnel stationed in Combat Information Center shall include Radar operators, recorders, plotters, talkers, and radio operating personnel. All Radar operators must become proficient as plotters and talkers in addition to being thoroughly familiar with all Radar equipment. The number of personnel needed will depend on equipment installed in the Combat Information Center as outlined in Section VIII. During General Quarters, two (2) operators will be required at each Radar, two at the Display Plot, two at the Intercept Plot and two at the DRT Plot. One man will be required at each: Status
Board, Summary Plot, and Strategic Plot. In addition a talker-recorder will be needed for each circuit manned in the Combat Information Center.
- WATCHES: Watches shall be organized so that the CIC will be able to perform its functions with utmost speed and accuracy. The battle bill recommended for the APA is described herein. For other ships a similar watch organization should be set up which will best meet its needs and conform with the number of personnel attached. There should be, if possible, two complete CIC watch organizations on all AGC's, each capable of performing all the functions of the CIC except primary Fighter Direction. During periods of considerable activity these teams shall stand watch-in-watch. At General Quarters one team will man CIC, the other may stand-by elsewhere during which time necessary briefing and instruction may be carried out. During periods of comparative inactivity the two teams should be divided into watches corresponding to the ship's condition 3 watch organization. When Fighter Direction is to be included as a primary function of CIC, special personnel shall be assigned for the operation involved. On an LST or LCI an effective set-up can be arranged with fewer personnel than described in the battle bill. It may be possible to combine some of the duties in a smaller vessel. Provision should be made for relieving radar operators at the equipment every thirty minutes. Plotters and operators may be interchanged. Radio circuits monitored and recorded in the CIC should be manned if possible by Radio personnel. New strikers should be kept in training. Team work should be stressed, and all personnel should be able to man each of the stations in the CIC.
- TYPICAL APA BATTLE BILL -- CIC:
GENERAL QUARTERS DUTY PHONE CIR-MANNED Evaluator In charge of the CIC, makes decision, presents evaluated information to Conn. JA, 21MC (Should have facilities for connecting to any circuit). Plotter Officer May supervise plotting or act as Ass't Evaluator. 21/22 JS Surface Plotter Plots surface contacts on DET or surface plotting table. 21 JS
Surface Recorder Records ranges and bearings from Surface Search Radar. This information is visible to Surf. Plot for reference. 21 JS Summary Plotter Keep Summary Plot. 21/22 JS, JA, JL Air Plotter Plots contacts from Air Search Radar 22/21 JS TBS Recorder Records TBS transmissions. May Actually acknowledge transmissions. TBS Headphones 608 Recorder Actually acknowledge transmissions. Surface Search Mans Surface Search Radar and gives information to plotters, etc. 21 JS Air Search Mans Air Search Radar and gives information to plotters, etc. 22 JS Condition IA In most cases the personnel requirement will be the same as for Condition I. Condition II CIC Watch Officer Supervises all details of the CIC, acts as Evaluator, is responsible for CIC. 21 MC(JA) Surface Plotter Plots surface contacts. 21 JS Summary Plotter Responsible for Summary Plot. 21 JS Air Plotter Plots Air Contacts. 22 JS Surface Search Radar Operator Operates Surface Search Radar. 21 JS
Air Search Radar Operator 22 JS TBS - Recorder Records TBS transmissions (may operate TBS in some cases). May be radioman. TBS Phones
- PLOTTING: In considering the operations of the Combat Information Center all plotting except where the DRT or equivalent is used shall be the standard Navy polar coordinate type. The Grid type or a combined form of Polar coordinate with a Grid overlay may be used in addition to Polar type. The plotting board will vary from the simple ten inch maneuvering board to an elaborate engraved plexiglass board depending upon the type of ship.
- SUMMARY PLOT: The Summary Plot should be carefully considered. It is important to maintain such a plot so that the exact location of other ships of the force may be known at all times. To assist the bridge in station keeping and to aid in the detection of new surface contacts at night or under conditions of low visibility, this plot is essential. Radar contacts when received from other ships can be easily converted to true bearings and distances from own ship when necessary and may be compared so as to determine the identification of air and surface contacts.
- STRATEGIC PLOT: The necessity for keeping a Strategic Plot is evident. From the plot or H.O. Chart the evaluator and other interested parties are kept informed of the location of friendly forces as well as enemy forces or bases in the general area of operations. The latest intelligence reports on enemy forces including surface, submarine and aircraft are at all times recorded on this plot. In addition, the areas of search of friendly land based search planes are maintained. At sea, during the approach and actual landings this plot is vital to coordinating and evaluating the information received by the CIC.
- DISPLAY PLOT: The Display Plot is required on AGC and relief AGC's only. From this plot it is possible to obtain an overall review of every radar and visual contact at any time. This plot is primarily for the use of the Flag Officers, the evaluator and the Fighter Director. This plot is referred to when designating and tracking several raids. When issuing instructions regarding radar search procedure, the CIC Watch Officer will refer to this plot. As a ready reference, the Intercept Officer will make good use of this plot in reviewing air activities.
- SURFACE PLOT: The Surface Plot on AGC's, Relief AGC's, and APA's is equally important to the operation of the Combat Information Center. The plot may be maintained on a DRT. It is advantageous to know at all times the location of the force with respect to land masses. Land radar contacts and aircraft contacts can be quickly distinguished. In developing the course and speed of a new surface contact quickly while zig zagging, such a plot is essential. It may be used for instantaneously locating own ship, other friendly forces, and enemy contacts whether reported in bearing and distance or in terms of grid coordinates.
- AIR PLOT: The Air Plot shall show all airborne targets, and their tracks. It is maintained by the information obtained from air and surface search radars, radio reported contacts and visual reports.
- STATUS BOARDS: Several different types of "Status Boards" are required. The "Fleet Status board" contains space for all important TBS voice calls of ships present, a vertical plot showing each ship's position in the disposition, the axis, base course, number of disposition, zig-zag plan, frequencies of the search and attack planes warning net, Task Force and Task Group Commanders circuits and any shore based radio which may be used by the OTC. This status board must be referred to by Warning Net Plotters, the Filter Officer and the Evaluator. It may also carry the latest weather information. The "Fighter Status board" maintained by AGC's and relief AGC's only, is necessary for recording all data pertaining to the Combat Air Patrol. Similarly on the "Aircraft Status board", the condition of readiness, frequency assigned and voice calls of all fighter planes are recorded. Search plane missions, the area of search, their radio calls and frequencies, and the friendly plane approach procedure must be maintained.
- REMOTE PLOTS: At various control stations throughout the ship where a summary of information from the CIC is to be furnished, "Ship's Information Plots", which are the ten inch maneuvering board with a plexiglass cover, should be maintained. In the Pilot House where the plot is adapted for night operations this will prove especially useful in affording command the information desired. Information is fed to remote plotters by a talker stationed in the CIC and is also used as an aid in interpreting the indications on the RPI (Repeater Plan Indicator).
- A "Chart" of all important maneuvers covering a twenty-four hour period should also be maintained. On this chart all important ship movements, such as ships leaving the disposition, ships taking a different station in the disposition and their times of departure or joining should be recorded; also the movements of carriers, oilers and other ships on special missions. Each ship should have with the above, a plot with own ship at the center of the polar coordinates.
- In the operation of the Combat Information Center certain personnel should be responsible for (a) providing the CIC with adequate radio facilities and maintaining such facilities in good condition and (b) monitoring the numerous circuits including the Local Air Warning in the CIC.
- A chart desk, if space permits, should be provided for preparation and stowage of charts, overlays and other similar data.
Section 6. Training
- The Commander in Chief, Pacific fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas, has directed that type commanders take action to keep themselves closely informed as to the proficiency of the CIC organizations within their commands.
- The publications listed in Appendix C should be carefully considered.
- The Radar Maintenance School, Pacific Fleet Radar Center, P.H., offers refresher course instruction to qualified maintenance personnel. Transports having only one (1) trained technician are directed to initiate steps to train at least one (1) additional enlisted man as a radar technician, following procedure contained in Pacific Fleet Confidential Letter 23CL-43. The Fighter Direction and Combat Information Center Advanced Training School, Pacific Fleet Radar Center has developed a special course to meet the CIC problems of transports of this force. A one (1) week course for officers and enlisted personnel of the CIC Team will be conducted for all ships making personnel available at Pearl Harbor.
- Arrangements have been made with the Radar Maintenance School to give a short course on the maintenance of SO Radar. This course is designed primarily for LST's that have SO Radar but lack trained personnel for maintenance. All LST's should take steps to have one (1) or two (2) men, preferably with a knowledge of radio material, attend this school as the SO-1 or SO-8 Radar will probably be the ultimate equipment on all LST's.
- Ships having availability in other areas should contact the Fleet School serving that area and make similar arrangements in so far as practicable.
- It is the responsibility of the Officer in Charge of the CIC on each ship to insure a state of readiness of both personnel and equipment. Exercises and drills should be conducted at frequent intervals and discussions held to instruct all personnel in current radar tactics. A record should be kept of the proficiency of all CIC personnel and steps taken to correct their deficiencies by means of additional instruction, a refresher course at a Radar School, or replacement if improvement is deemed improbable. Some ships provide regular hours of daily instruction for the CIC personnel. Men should be given courses to enable them to better themselves in their ratings and to increase their usefulness to the CIC. Each man should be familiar with every duty in the CIC and be able to take over any station without confusion. CIC Watch Officers should drill personnel whenever practicable. Tracking and plotting problems should be conducted frequently both at sea and in port. If Air Search Radars are secured when at sea due to operational policy, then additional training should be given the operators as soon as opportunity offers. A partial list of possible subjects for instruction follows:
- Plotting. All radar personnel should be proficient in surface and air plotting. The latest and best methods should be used. Regular drills should be held with special emphasis on accuracy and speed.
- The CIC Watch Officer should make up exercises and problems. The Air Plotting Manual may be used for air plotting drills. All men should thoroughly understand relative movement.
- Operation -- New strikers should be kept under training. Emphasis should be placed on speed and the best methods of multiple target reporting.
- Composition of Targets. Operators should be taught to estimate the composition of all targets. In the case of aircraft they should recognize the number and possible size of planes.
- Problems and Techniques of navigation such as: fixes on land, chart reading, dead reckoning, and zig-zagging.
- Radar Theory. Study of circuits.
- Radar Maintenance. Radar operators who are familiar with their equipment are more apt to determine when it is operating improperly.
- Training in limitations and capabilities of the Radar such as maximum and minimum ranges, range and bearing discrimination, false echoes, blanking of targets, and effect of beam angle on land.
- Talkers. Ship's lookouts should be included in the training program. (See U.S. Fleet Telephone Talker's Manual).
- Instruction in Proper Log Keeping. The CIC log should in general contain all information pertinent to CIC operations.
- Casualty drills should be conducted such as, Gyro failure, communication failure, Radar failure, power failure, battle damage to CIC.
- Use of Emergency Radar or Auxiliary CIC if installed.
- Gunnery Drills.
- Destruction of Secret Material. Demolition dry runs.
- Studying of publications. CIC personnel should have access to all pertinent publications and maintenance information.
- In order to assist this command in carrying out the orders of the Commander in Chief, each ship is directed to make a record of the results obtained from all training exercises and drills. A short brief of this record may be incorporated in a monthly radar report which will also include a copy of the Monthly Performance Report required by BuShips. Information on any changes in personnel, or formal training of existing personnel, should be included in this report. The intent is to furnish only valuable information, not require a perfunctory routine report. Omit the report if there is nothing constructive to say.
Section 7. Location
- THE COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER should be located as near as possible to the Control Station having primary interest in the information available therein. In most ships
this will be the Bridge or Flag Plot. The Combat Information Center should have sufficient space to carry out its functions, even to the curtailment of space for less important activities. In certain ships particularly AKAs, LSTs and Landing Craft, the space limitations are such that the CIC may be set up in the Chart Room, regardless of where the radar indicators are located. Normally the Combat Information Center should have the radar indicators within the CIC.
- AUXILIARY CIC: An auxiliary CIC should be provided on those ships having more than one radar unit and in which all radar receivers are not located in the same or adjacent compartments. The auxiliary CIC is to assume the functions ordinarily performed by CIC in an emergency due to battle casualty or when otherwise directed by command. Equipment should consist of plotting boards, dividers, parallel rules, and as much other equipment contained in the Combat Information Center as space will permit. Personnel to man this station should consist of relief radar operators with an officer qualified as assistant evaluator in charge. This station need be manned only at General Quarters and Condition 1A.
- RADAR -- The radar equipment installed on the vessels of this force is in general as follows:
Type Ship Equipment Purpose AGC 1 SK
AGC (Relief) 1 SK
APA (Group Flag) 1 SC-2
Same as Group Flags (Above)
Type Ship Equipment Purpose APA-AKA 1 SC or SA Series
1 SG or SH Series
1 BL Series
APD 1 SC-1 or SA-1
1 SE or SF-1
LSD 1 SF or SL
LST 1 SO-1 or SO-8
LCI(L) G 1 SO-8 or SQ
- EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS -- Radio Equipment having control in or immediately adjacent to CIC.
* 522A, 274N, 233A or equivalent
AGC AGC(R) APA AKA APD LSD LST LCI PC
TBS -- Remote Control 2 2 1 1 1 1 SCR 608 or SCR 610 1 1 1 High Frequency Warning Net--Transmit and Receive 1 1 1 1 High Frequency Warning Net--Speaker Only 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 High Frequency Fighter Net--Transmit and Receive 1 1 Very High Frequency Fighter Net (SCR 639-640) 4 2 1* Inter FDO Circuit SCR 608 1 1
- INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS -- In order that the CIC may properly carry out its functions it must be in constant and reliable touch with all the tactical components and sources of information of the ship. The internal communications of the ship will vary greatly as will the CIC which it serves. In most cases sound powered phones are provided regardless of type of ship or size of CIC involved. The M.C.s (or teletalks) are invaluable and
should be installed whenever possible, particularly where the number of stations or distances involved make it inadvisable to use voice tubes. All MC circuits should be paralleled by a sound power phone circuit. Voice tubes function at their best on short direct runs with only two or three outlets. The equipment considered necessary to provide adequate communications to the CIC on the various types of vessels is indicated in the following table:
SYSTEM AGC AGC(R) APA AKA LST LCI LSD APD 21 MC System, Captain's Command circuit X X X1 22 MC System Between Communication Stations X X 24 MC System, Admiral's Command circuit X X JA (Captain Command Circuit) CIC, Bridge, Fire Control X X X X X X X X JX (With bell circuit) CIC, Main Radio X X X X X X JF (With bell circuit) CIC, Flag Plot X X X1 JL (Lookout circuit may be combined with JA) CIC, Lookouts, Bridge X X X X X X X X 1 JY (Gun Circuits) CIC, Guns X X X X X 21JS (Surface Search Radar Circuit) Radar operation, Surface Plotter, Asst. Surface Plot X X X X X X 22 JS (Air Search Circuit) Radar Operator, Air Plotter (Asst Air Plotter2)) X X X X X VOICE TUBES CIC to Flag Plot X1 CIC to Bridge and Chart Room X X X X X X
Note 1 -- Only those APAs fitted as group Flag or Div Flag.
Surf. Search Radar to Surface Plot (If not adjacent) X X X X X Air Search Radar to Air Plot (If not adjacent) X X X X X CIC to Bridge Wings and Bridge X X
Note 2 -- 21JS and 22JS Circuits may be crossed to JA-JL circuits during condition II. Lookout information must be made available in CIC at all times.
- Plotting Facilities
AGC AGC(R) Gr
APAAKA LSD LST LCI APD (1) Surface Plot (may be DRT) x x x x x x (2) Summary Plot x x x x x x x x x (3) Air Plot x x x x x x (4) Strategic Plot x x x x x x x x x (5) Tactical Plot x x x x x x x x x (6) Fleet Status Board x x x x x x x x x (7) H.O. Chart x x x x x x x x x (8) Display Plot (Air Summary Plot) x x (9) Intercept Plot x x (10) Air Status Board x x
Section 9. Summary
- The final procedure of dissemination of information which shall be followed within a Flagship of a Task Force (Group) is the responsibility of the Task Force (Group) Commander and will be set forth in the operation plan. In the case of AGCs and related ships, the policy governing flag ships of this force dictates that the CIC shall keep the Flag, Ship Control, Commander Support Aircraft, Gunnery Control and Commander Landing Forces, when necessary, informed as to (a) Identification and location of contacts, (b) Supplemental information regarding movements of contacts, (c) Identification and location of vessels joining or leaving the disposition, (d) Unusual movements of friendly forces outside disposition (e) Periodic reports or possible actions of friendly forces outside disposition. To assist in the above, the Flag as well as the ship should make the following available to CIC: (a) All Standard publications (b) All plans, orders, charts, diagrams, etc., affecting an operation (c) Special letters and despatches affecting operations (d) Items of immediate tactical
interest as they occur. It should be fully understood in summarizing the intent and purpose of these instructions that no attempt has been made to set forth a detailed analysis of the procedure to be followed in the operation of CIC for each individual type ship; rather there has been stated herein information gained as a result of recent experiences in amphibious operations relating to the general functions and organization of the Combat Information Center. Only by a careful study of each ship's requirements within the limitations of existing personnel and equipment may the CIC of a particular ship be efficiently organized. The various publications referred to in Annex C will be of value for further study. It should be recognized in the last analysis that in order to perform its functions the Combat Information Center personnel must be continuously trained and maintained at a high degree of efficiency. Just reading this chapter will not organize the CIC. Hard work and thorough drills are essential. there can be no substitute for proper equipment, carefully planned installation and highly trained personnel. It is the responsibility of every command to see that the best practicable CIC organization is established and that it is perfected by constant improvement and attention.
Amphibious Fighter Direction
- Fighter Direction in this type of operation is conducted from command ships, carriers, destroyers, and shore based teams from the approach phase of the assault through the consolidation phase. It is necessary that these units have experienced FDOs, adequate equipment and personnel, and coordinated briefing.
- It is considered essential that the destroyer fighter direction ships be stationed with VHF communications range of the headquarters ships and the shore radars so that they may work closely with each other in handling the Combat Air Patrol.
- There should be sufficient Units equipped and designated for Fighter Direction so that there will be a minimum of a Primary and Secondary Unit operating with each Task Group for which air cover will be provided. Destroyers selected shall, whenever practicable, be those which have had previous FD and CIC experience in amphibious operations or special training, and should have a superior CIC Organization from the standpoint of equipment and personnel.
- Special FD teams will be detailed to temporary duty aboard such DDs for specific operations.
- FIGHTER DIRECTION CONTROL.
- Control during the operation is sharply divided in two phases. Phase one is the Amphibious stage, with control vested in the Commander Support Aircraft, afloat. Phase two is the shore based stage, with control vested in Air Defense Commander, ashore.
- Commander Support Aircraft. (C.S.A.)
- In phase one, as the direct representative of the OTC, he shall be responsible for air defense and have control of Fighter Direction during the approach and assault periods, and thereafter until the Air Defense Commander is directed to relieve him of his duty.
- The Fighter Direction Units responsible to C.S.A. will include Headquarters Ship, Fighter Direction Destroyers, Carriers operating as part of the force, and shore based teams.
- He shall designate the FD Ship or Unit to exercise Primary and Secondary Control for the various phases of the operation, their areas of responsibility, and recommend stations for such ships or units from time to time so as to
secure the most effective Fighter Direction coverage.
- He shall initiate all requests to Commander Carriers for Combat Air Patrols and for additional fighters in any emergency.
- Whenever he (C.S.A.) leaves the area temporarily and before the Air Defense Commander has taken control, he shall (1) Designate the Primary F.D. Ship or Unit that is to remain and control the CAP. (2) Arrange for the relief of the CAP then on station. (3) Notify the ADC, F.D. Ship or Unit, and the O.T.C. regarding (1) and (2).
- Air Defense Commander (ADC)
Whenever the C.S.A. and the A.D.C. are in the presence of the OTC, the CAP and control of Fighter Direction will be the responsibility of the C.S.A., as directed by the O.T.C., until such time as the A.D.C. is organized ashore and reports readiness to take over from the C.S.A. When the A.D.C. is in all respects ready to take over from the C.S.A., phase two is designated by the O.T.C. The A.D.C. then assumes responsibility for the continuation of the C.A.P. and provides for the control of Fighter Direction. It is imperative that all Fighter Direction units be notified when phase two is established, and the A.D.C. assumes control.
- Force, Group or Unit, Fighter Director.
- There shall be a Fighter Director Officer on the Staff of Commander Support Aircraft or Staff of the O.T.C., experienced in Amphibious operations and CIC organization who shall: Recommend to C.S.A. which F.D. ships or units shall be Primary, Secondary, and Standby during each phase of the operation; recommend areas of responsibility where more than one C.A.P. is employed; disseminate to such units information on all phases of air operations affecting fighter direction, initiate requests through C.S.A. for additional fighters when the tactical situation or emergency requires; assume control of Fighter Direction when being exercised by the Command Ship; train the FD and CIC organization on the Command Ship; when designated act as Primary or Secondary Fighter Director, it being anticipated that the Command Ship may be designated to assume FD Control during certain phases of the operation if necessary.
- The Force Group or Unit Fighter Director shall furnish to the Fighter Director, insofar as practicable operation orders; air operation
plans; fighter director plans; movement charts; area charts; Grids; air intelligence; aeriological data; daily changes in the schedules for CAP, ASP, or in the general Air Support Plan; all unscheduled flights expected to enter the area; the danger areas affecting the station of the Combat Air Patrol; number and location of additional fighters which might be obtainable in an emergency; he will coordinate the reporting of all radar contacts so that all fighter director ships and radar guard ships employ the necessary conversion to the fleet center or designated reference points and further use the accepted grid when applicable; he will coordinate all fighter direction units under the accepted Fighter Direction Plan for the operation and in general serve as liaison between the Commander Support Aircraft and the F.D. units.
- Primary Fighter Director.
- There shall be a Fighter Director Officer, designated by and responsible to the Commander Support Aircraft, in charge of the FD Unit assigned to one of the Fighter Director Destroyers. He should be experienced in amphibious operations and destroyer CIC organization. He shall: Exercise tactical control of the CAP assigned to him for the defense of all forces in his area of responsibility; intercept all unidentified air contacts threatening own forces so far as the VF available permit; maintain a careful check of fuel, duration of patrol, effective fighting time, and approximate distance to VF's base so that VF may be returned safely to base; initiate appropriate warnings; maintain a plot of all information affecting the air defense of own forces; determine that his ship has properly installed and arranged all of the necessary communication, radar and plotting equipment; continue to train the FD and CIC organization to the highest degree of efficiency.
- Standby Fighter Director -- There shall be a Fighter Director Officer, designated by and responsible to the Commander Support Aircraft, in charge of FD Unit assigned to each Fighter Director Destroyer. He shall have the same responsibilities and duties as the Primary Fighter Director in that he shall automatically assume control of the CAP in any emergency or when otherwise directed by the Force Group or Unit FDO or Primary FDO.
- Inter-Fighter Director Communications.
- There will normally be an inter-Fighter Director circuit designated in the communication plan. Since inter-fighter director communication is highly desirable underway and often before radio silence is broken, this F.D. Circuit should be VHF to permit its use under approach and assault conditions. (1) This circuit shall be used primarily for inter-fighter director traffic. Fighter Directors should use this circuit for any inquiry concerning the status of the CAP or the reporting of any bogey contacts. The fighter net is for the exclusive use of the Primary Fighter Director controlling the CAP and under no circumstances should be used as a substitute for the inter-fighter director net.
(2) A continuous twenty-four hour watch shall be maintained by all fighter directors on this circuit. To avoid unnecessary transmissions on all nets, Secondary and Standby Fighter Director Ships shall monitor F.D. circuit carefully to obtain first hand pertinent information regarding schedules and current status of CAP.
- Air Search Radar Doctrine.
- Radar Guardship -- Normally Fighter Director Ships shall not be assigned radar guardship duty.
- The designated Fighter Director Ships shall have unrestricted use of air search radar except under conditions of absolute Radar silence.
- Radar Screening Doctrine for a large Cruising disposition is appended as Appendix (E) and discusses Screening in depth as well as of width.
- Areas of Responsibility.
The Primary Fighter Director shall be instructed as to the forces and areas, including sea and land areas, for the defense of which he is responsible. Whenever there are two or more CAPs employed in the defense of a carrier force and a surface force or two surface forces operating in close proximity to each other each fighter director will be further instructed as to his Primary area of responsibility by the OTC. This provision is intended to indicate the fighter director who shall undertake the interception of any small unidentified contacts where there is a choice as to which FD shall be responsible. In any event it is understood that it is the primary responsibility of all fighter directors operating with any force to intercept every enemy contact where his own force is
the apparent or immediate target.
- VISUAL FIGHTER DIRECTION.
- The object of the Visual Direction of Fighter Aircraft is the interception of enemy aircraft which have approached within sight of the directing ship under conditions where [which] render visual control more effective than control through Radar.
- These conditions may arise:
- When Radar suffers in efficiency due to saturation by land echoes;
- When hostile aircraft are operating below Radar cover;
- When hostile aircraft are clearly visible or are within the effective range of Radar cover;
- When the use of Radar Countermeasures by the enemy has hindered effective Radar coverage;
- When Radar equipment suffers material failure.
- The method may be employed both against shadowers and attacking aircraft.
- Shore Bombardment.
The possibility exists that a Fighter Director Destroyer, when assigned a fire support mission, will receive material damage (possibly due to shock of gun fire) that would incapacitate it for further performance of F.D. duty. Therefore whenever such DDs are of necessity, assigned fire support missions, control of CAP shall be shifted to the secondary or other F.D. unit during the continuation of the fire support mission.
- Fighter Direction and Hunter-Killer Control.
The additional radio equipment and experienced personnel aboard the destroyer designated FD Ship is such that where there is a choice these ships will be given preference in control of the hunter-killer planes.
Advance Base Air Defense Control Centers
- The functions of the Air Defense Control Center (ADCC) are closely related to Amphibious Operations and certain knowledge of its organization is felt to be of value to ships and personnel of this force. The following paragraphs are extracted from the tentative doctrine for Advanced Base Air Defense Control Center.
- Army Air Defense Command Posts, Navy Shore Based Combat Information Centers and Marine Filter Centers shall hereafter be called Air Defense Control Centers. The functions of the air Defense Control Centers, whether manned by Army, Navy or Marine personnel, shall be as follows:
The Air Defense Control Center (ADCC) of a land base is the center at which radar and other pertinent information is received, evaluated and used.
- Radar Information is received from the following sources:
- The ADCC's of other land bases.
- All local air and surface search radars.
- Such strategically located fire and searchlight control radars as the Air Defense Commander shall designate.
- Other pertinent information includes but is not limited to the following:
- Visual reports from observation posts and other sources.
- Air and surface traffic schedules and reports from the appropriate commands.
- Intelligence reports.
- Strike and Search reports.
- The Information is used as follows:
- To defend the base and ships within the geographical jurisdiction of the base against air attack by: (a) Controlling fighter aircraft to intercept the attacking force, and (b) Coordinating the Anti-Aircraft Artillery with the Fighter Defense.
- To alert the base and warn ships in the area of air attack.
- To home lost aircraft.
- To direct the pilot rescue service. To warn the proper local commands of surface attack or possible invasion, and to assist in the defense of the base against such attacks and possible invasion by controlling designated air and surface craft to intercept the attacking force.
- To maintain an air and surface traffic plot.
- To warn the ADCC's of other land bases and ships.
- Reports on the radar telling net from the ADCC to the ADCC's of other bases shall be in the following form:
- Appropriate call sign of addressee and originator.
- Estimate of numbers in contact.
- Identification (normally only bogey contacts shall be reported).
- Grid Coordinates.
- Estimated altitude.
- Direction flight is proceeding (using only eight points of the compass).
- Time of contact.
One report every four minutes will be made unless addressee indicates further reports are unnecessary.
- The permanent ADCC will normally become operative in the third of three stages of development of the fighter direction and air warning system of an advanced base. The three stages are summarized in terms of the equipment to be landed as follows:
- If the base or beachhead to be occupied is enemy held, the first radar equipment to be taken ashore will be the SC-2(3) mobile fighter direction unit including communications trailer and power unit. Improved assault stage radar equipment may be come available at a later date. The SC-2(3) will serve as the temporary ADCC until the SCR-527 or equivalent radar is taken ashore and placed in efficient operation. The minimum radio communication requirements for the temporary ADCC during the fist stage are as follows:
- Inter FDO circuit with fighter direction ships. (FM or HF) (2 channels)*.
- Air Ground Fighter Circuit (VHF) (4 channels).
- Air Ground Fighter Circuit (HF) (1 channel).
- Local air warning circuit (FM or HF) (1 channel).
- AAA liaison circuit. (FM or HF) (1 channel).
- Island and Air Commander Circuit (FM or HF) (1 channel)**.
- Radar telling Circuit (HF) (1 channel).
- Local Radar reporting circuit (FM or HF) (1 or more channels as required).
* This does not require simultaneous monitoring of all channels.
** When the air field becomes operative, the pilot alert station should be set up on this circuit.
- If the base of beachhead to be captured is not enemy held and the tactical situation warrants it, the first stage may be eliminated. In such event, the first radar equipment to be taken ashore shall be the SCR-527 or its equivalent. The SCR-527 will become the temporary ADCC when it has been placed in efficient operation. The same minimum communication requirements stated for the SC-2(3) are necessary for the SCR-527. During the period that the SCR-527 serves as the temporary ADCC, the communication facilities shall be expanded to the final form as indicated on Appendix A.
- The permanent ADCC should become operative at about the time all radars have been installed at the base and set in operation. The SC-2(3) will have been removed or ceased operation. The SCR-527 will have become the alternate ADCC and primary intercept station.
- The code listed herewith is for the information for those who may intercept ADCC reports and is not for use by CIC units for this force:
IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT CODE DEFINITION Able Experimental or calibration. Charlie Army. Dog Navy. Green Star Area activity, friendly planes How Transport. Item Anti-Submarine Patrol. King Combat Air Patrol. Red Star Area raid, hostile. X-Ray Indian Gunnery or local maneuvering mission. Bandit Identified enemy aircraft. Bogey Unidentified aircraft. Bombers Enemy high level bombers. Chickens Own fighters.
CODE DEFINITION Fishes Enemy Torpedo aircraft. Friendly Friendly aircraft. Hawks Enemy dive Bombers. Rats Enemy Fighters. Shad Enemy shadower. Snooper Enemy low shadower (below 2000 feet). MISCELLANEOUS Angels Altitude in thousands of feet. Bluebird Crash Boat. Bojangles Turn on IFF. Check Oil Check Radar Station for azimuth accuracy. Check Water Check Radar Station for range accuracy. Curtains Turn off IFF. Fortune Attempt local identification. Fortune Negat Cannot identify locally. Rainbow IFF Mark III response from more than one transpondor in such a manner that the code cannot be distinguished. Rusty IFF Mark II. Snow Window. Stretcher IFF Mark III abnormal response from single transpondor (not according to any give code). Wet Cat Pilot (or crew member) bailed out in vicinity of ____________________.
Pacific Fleet Radar Center
Publications Relating to the Tactical Uses of Radar
- The following bibliography is not an exhaustive list of all publications in this field, but rather an index to certain titles which are representative of the types of material available.
Publications listed may usually be obtained from the nearest Navy Issuing Office or, if not available there, directly from the command or activity charged with its distribution, by means of an official request.
- The titles in this list are grouped under the following subject headings for ready reference:
COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER (C.I.C.)
DOCTRINE AND TACTICS (GENERAL)
IFF AND IDENTIFICATION
RADAR -- General
RADAR -- Countermeasures
RADAR -- Airborne
RADAR -- Equipment
RADIO -- General
RADIO -- Airborne
RADIO -- Equipment
- In addition to grouping titles under appropriate subject headings, the classification of each publication according to the primary application or use is also indicated. Four columns are provided along the left hand margin as follows:
COLUMN ABBREVIATION MEANING 1 RM Radar Maintenance. 2 OP Radar operational techniques. 3 CIC For use in Combat Information Center (CIC). 4 OTC For use by CO's and/or OTC's.
An "x" placed in the column under "RM", for example, indicated that the corresponding publication is primary interest or use in the maintenance of radar.
Classification is indicated after each title as follows:
S - For secret.
C - For Confidential.
R - For restricted.
U - For unclassified.
Reg. For Registered (Short titles for these are omitted.)
RM OP CIC OTC ACTION REPORTS Publications x x "Secret Information Bulletins (Battle Experience)" Nos. 1-13, December 1941 to October 1943, Cominch, S. x x "Report of Amphibious Operations for the Capture of the Gilberts." 4 Dec. 1943, Commander FIFTH Amphibious Force, S.
RM OP CIC OTC AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE Publications x x x FTP-167 "Landing Operations, Doctrine, U.S. Navy, 1938" CNO, August 1943 (Change #3), C. x "Fighter Direction Manual (Tentative) for Island Base Fighter Director Officers" ComAirPac, 11/9/43, C. x x "Air Defense Control Center Doctrine (Tentative)" CinCPac, March 1944, C. x "C.I.C. -- Shore Based Fighter Control, Air Warning and Radar Notes" (Monthly magazine) CNO (No. 1-44:March) C. x x "Combined Amphibious Communications Instructions" June 1943, Combined Communications Board, C. Training Films x x MN-942s "Amphibious Warfare -- The Ship to Shore Movement in joint Amphibious Operation". x x MN-942u "Amphibious Warfare -- Naval Gunfire Support in a Landing Operation".
RM OP CIC OTC AVIATION Publications x x x x "Naval Aviation Confidential Bulletin" to date, monthly summary, Aviation 8/43 Training Div., Dep. CNO (Air) & BuAero, C. x "Naval Aviation News," Semi-monthly magazine. Aviation Training Division, Deputy CNO (Air) and BuAero, R. x "Useful Sources of Information for Air Combat Information Officers" Deputy CNO (Air) OP-35, 10/15/43, C. Training Films x MN-1327n "Flight Characteristics of the F4U, Corsair" x MN-1327p "Flight Characteristics of the F6F, Hellcat" x MN-840 "Flight Combat Tactics; Attack against Bomber Formations" x MN-84f "Offensive Tactics Against Enemy Fighters" x MN-84g "Defensive Tactics Against Enemy Fighters" x MN-1460f "American Torpedo Plane Tactics and Combat Incident." x MN-150ah "Carrier Landing Signals" x MB-1247 "Fighter Pilot" x MN-32w "Oxygen in Aviation" x MN-84c "Snoopers, and How to Blast 'Em"
RM OP CIC OTC COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER (C.I.C.) Publications x "C.I.C. Handbook for Destroyers, Pacific Fleet." June 1943, Commander Destroyers, Pacific Fleet, C. x "C.I.C. Information Bulletins." (Irregular) No. 1-44, 17 Feb. 1944. Commander Destroyers Pacific Fleet, C. x "Tentative Destroyer Escort Combat Information Center Handbook." DD-DE Shakedown task Group. Dec. 1943, C. x "Tentative Combat Information Center Doctrine," August 1943. Commander Air Force, Atlantic Fleet, C. x "Combat Information Center (Radar) Information and Instruction Notes." December 1943, COTCPac, C. x "Radar Gunnery Notes for Destroyers, Pacific Fleet," May 1943. ComDesPac, C. Training Films x MN-16-a-m "Training Lookouts" (Series)
RM OP CIC OTC COMMUNICATIONS Publications x x "United States Fleet Basic Rapid Communication Doctrine and Basic Communication Plan for War" (Includes Pacific Fleet Supplement) March 1943, plus changes later. CominCh, C. Reg. x x "General Signal Book" (Includes Appendix on combined signals for U.S.-British tactical cooperation) Change 5 (Rev.) March 1944, CNO, C. Reg. x x DNC-5 "Communication Instructions" 1944. CNO, R. x DNC-1 "U.S. Naval Radio Frequency Usage Plan" Aug. '43 (Change 3) VCNO, R. x CCBP-3 "Combined United States-British Radiotelephone (R/T) Procedure" 22 Dec 1942, VCNO, R. (In. DNC-5). x x "Black Magic in Communications" 15 Apr. 1942, VCNO, S. Reg. x x "United States Fleet Telephone Talkers' Manual" Nov. '43 Cominch, R. x x CCBP-01 "Combined Amphibious Communications Instructions", June 1943. Combined Communications Board, C. x "Pacific Fleet Confidential Communication Bulletins," 10 May 1943 to date (1RB-43 to 5RB-43, 1RB-44--) C. x "Aircraft Code No. 16, Pacific Edition" (Contains aircraft reporting procedures, etc.) VCNO, C. Reg. x x CSP-2156(A) "Shore Fire Control Code," May 1943, VCNO, C. x PAC-3a "Voice Card, Call and Authenticator System," Feb. 1943, CinCPac, C. x x CCBP-2-2 "Combined Operating Signals" (U.S.-British) 1944, Combined Communications Board, R. x "Notes on Communication Security" Revised 1943, VCNO, R.
RM OP CIC OTC COMMUNICATIONS (Continued) Publications x x "Black Magic, II" July '43 (Change 1) VCNO, S. Reg. x "Communication Standing Orders" CNO. C. (Irregular issue) x CCBP-5 "Combined Visual Signalling (V/S) Procedure" May '43. Combined Communications Board, R. Training Films x x SN62r "Sound Powered Telephone" (Film strip) DOCTRINE AND TACTICS (GENERAL) x x NDP-2 "Base Defense Manual" CNO, 1943, C. x FTP-155 "Joint Action of the Army and the Navy, 1935" Joint Board, War & Navy Depts. (June 1942, Change #8), C. x x FTP-167 "Landing Operations Doctrine, U.S. Navy, 1938" CNO (Aug. 1943 Change #3), C. x "Cruisers and Destroyers in the General Action" Naval War College, June 1937, C. x "Sound Military decision" Naval War College, 1942, R. x x "Standard Cruising Instructions for Carrier Task Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet" PacFlt Conf. Ltr. 1CL-43. x x 15L-44 "Avoiding Collision" PacFlt Ltr. 15L-44, 4/3/44, CinCPac, R. x x USF-10(A) "Current Tactical Orders and doctrine, U.S. Fleet" CominCh, Feb. 1944, C. (Note List of Page VI, of Tactical Publications in effect in U.S. Fleet, and also the Radar Doctrine: Part VI.) x x USF-74(Rev) "Current Tactical Orders and Doctrine, U.S. Fleet Aircraft; Vol. 1: Carrier Aircraft" ComAirBatFor 1/43 (Temp. Change), C.
RM OP CIC OTC DOCTRINE AND TACTICS (GENERAL) (Continued) x x USF-75(A) "Current Tactical Orders and Doctrine, U.S. Fleet Aircraft; Vol. 2: BB & Cruiser Aircraft" ComAirPac May 1943, C. x x USF-76(Rev) "Current Tactical Orders and Doctrine, U.S. Fleet Aircraft; Vol. 3: Patrol Aircraft" CominCh, February 1942. x x USF-16 "Current Tactical Orders, Battleships" ComBatFor, 1938. x x USF-17 "Current Doctrine, Battleships" ComBatFor, 1938, C. x x USF-77(A) "Current Tactical Orders, Aircraft Carriers, U.S. Fleet ComAirPac, 1943, C. x FTP-215 "Escort of Convoy Instructions, U.S. Fleet" 1943, CominCh, C. x x USF-20 "Current Tactical Orders, Cruisers" CominCh, 1/41, C. x x USF-21 "Current Doctrine, Cruisers," CominCh, 1/41, C. x x USF-32(Rev) "Current Tactical Orders, Destroyers, 1940" ComDesBatFor, C. x x USF-33(Rev) "Current Doctrine, Destroyers, 1940" ComDesPatFor, C. x x FTP-146 "Scouting Manual, U.S. Navy" CNO, 1934, C. x x FTP-219 "U.S. Fleet Anti-Submarine Instructions" 1943, CominCh, C. x x USF-25(Rev) "Current Doctrine, Submarines, 1939" ComSubFor, C. x FTP-183/188 "General Tactical Instructions, U.S. Navy" 1940-42, CominCh, C. x FTP-143 "War Instructions, U.S. Navy, 1943" CNO, C.
RM OP CIC OTC FIGHTER DIRECTION Publications x "Fighter Direction Manual (Tentative)" ComAirPac, 9/43, C. x "British Fighter Direction and Guardship Doctrine" PacFlt Conf. Notice 9CN-43, May 1943, C. x Fighter Direction and Combat Air Patrol" ComDesPac, 1/44, C. x CCBP-11 "Fighter Director Vocabulary" (U.S.-British) Combined Communications Board, 1943, R. x "Textbook for Student G.C.I. (Ground-Control Intercept Controllers)" Sch. Applied Tactics, Orlando, Fla. 1/43, S. x "Argus Notes" (Digest of Radar and Fighter Direction for Land Based Units) CNO, 1/15/44, C. x Fighter Direction Manual (Tentative) for Island Based Fighter Director Officers" ComAirPac, 11/9/43, C. x "Air Plotting Manual (Tentative)" PacFlt Radar Center 11/43, C. x "C.I.C. -- Shore Based Fighter Control, Air Warning and Radar Notes" (Monthly magazine) CNO, C. (No. 1-44: Mar.) x x "Air Defense Control Center Doctrine (Tentative)" CinCPac March 1944, C. Training Films x MN-1006a "Fighter direction, Part I" x MN-1006b "Fighter Direction, Part II" x MN-1006h-m "Fighter Direction--Typical Intercepts, Part I-VI" (A series; in production). x MC-1147 "The Weather"
RM OP CIC OTC GUNNERY Publications x x FTP-134 "Gunnery Instructions, U.S. Navy" CNO, Rev., 1940, C. x x "Radar Gunnery Notes for Destroyers, Pacific Fleet" ComDesPac, May 1943, C. x x DTB 1-44, DTB 2-44 "Gunnery Doctrine and Standard Fire Control Procedures for Destroyers with 5"/38 & 3"/50 Batteries" Destroyer Tactical Bulls. 1,2-44, ComDesPac, Jan. '44, C. x x DTB 4-43 "Destroyer Torpedo Attack Instructions (Tentative)" Destroyer Tactical Bulletin 4-43, ComDesPac, 10/24/43, C. x x DTB 1-43 "Destroyer Torpedo Doctrine and Manual of Torpedo Control" Destroyer Tactical Bulletin 1-43, ComDesPac, 2/20/43, C. x "Gunnery Approaches" (Fixed gunnery and Combat Tactics Series, 2) TraDiv, BuAero, Sept. 1943, C. x x CSP-2156(A) "Shore Fire Control Code," May 1943. VCNO, C. Training Films x MN-942u "Amphibious Warfare -- Naval Gunfire Support in a Landing Operation." (2 reels) x MN-84b "Fighter Combat Tactics--Gunnery Approaches" IFF AND IDENTIFICATION Publications x x x "IFF Mark III System" Pacific Fleet Confidential Letter 15CL-44 (4p.) CinCPac, 4/19/44, C. x x x "Radar Identification Systems -- IFF" Combined Communications Board, 26 January 1943, C.
RM OP CIC OTC x "Routing, Recognition and Identification of Aircraft, Part 4 -- Identification Procedure: Instructions for use by U.S. and British Forces" (Revised edition for combined use) CNO, 1/19/44 (Change no. 5), C. Reg. x x "Radar Operator's Handbook" (Prepared by PacFltRadar Center) CominCh, 1944, C (Not yet distributed). Part 2 -- "General IFF Theory". x "The Radar Installation Plan, Part E -- IFF Equipment". BuShips, January 1944 (Change #35) C. Training Films x x x MN-3224 "Mark III IFF" (In production) NAVIGATION Publications x Dutton's "Navigation and nautical astronomy" 7th ed., 1942. U. x HO-9 Bowditch's "American practical navigator" 1938. U. x HO-216 "Aircraft navigation manual" Hydrographic Office, 1941. x HO-71 "Azimuths of the Sun and Other Celestial Bodies of Declination 0° to 23° for Latitudes Extending to 70° from the Equator" (Red Azimuth Tables) Hydrographic Office, 15th Edition: 1934, U. Training Films x MA-390 "Aerial Navigation, Maps and the Compass" RADAR -- GENERAL Publications x x "Fundamentals of Radar" Nav Air Tech Tra Ctr, Corpus Christi, Texas, Nov. '43, C.
RM OP CIC OTC x "Radar Gunnery Notes for Destroyers, Pacific Fleet" ComDesPac, May 1943, C. x x x "Radar Information Notes" BuShips (Irregular issue No. 8, 4/1/44) C. x x RADON "The Tactical use of Radar" (Radar bulletin no. 1) CominCh, 3/42, C. x x x "Radar Target Discrimination" (PacFlt Conf. Notice 15CN-43) CinCPac 10/2/43, C. x x x x ENG-129 "Radar Technical Bulletins" (Nos. 1-7: 1941-1943) BuShips, C. x "Routing, Recognition and Identification of Aircraft, Part 4--Identification Procedure, Instructions for use by United States and British Forces" (Revised edition for combined use) 19 January 1944: Change #5; CNO, C, Reg. "Radar" (magazine) Army Air Forces, Vol. 1, No. 1: April 1, 1944, C. Training Films x x MN-1550 "Radar, Weapon of Attack" x x x MN-955a "Finding the Enemy" x x x MN-3224 "Mark III IFF" (In Production) x SN-2726a-h "LZ Radar Test Gear -- Testing with LZ" (Series) (Slide Film) RADAR COUNTERMEASURES Publications x x "Radio and Radar Countermeasures" VCNO, 3/30/43, S, Reg. x x x CSP-2465(1) "Countermeasures and Deception, Bulletin No. 1" CNO 11/9/43, C. x x x CSP-2465(2) "Countermeasures and Deception, Bulletin No. 2" CNO 1/5/44, C. x x x ENG-233 "Radar Jamming" BuShips, May 1943, C.
RM OP CIC OTC RADAR COUNTERMEASURES (Continued) Publications x x x "Black Magic II" VCNO, 8 May 1943, S, Reg. x x x x "Countermeasures and Deception--Summary of Information", Issues No. 1-3, CinCPac, 3/15/44, 3/26/44, 4/44, 4/24/44, S. x x x "What to do if Your are Jammed" PacFlt Radar Center, RCM School, Bulletin No. 1, 1944, C. x x x "What is WINDOW" PacFlt Radar Center, RCM School, Bulletin No. 2, 1944, C. Training Films x x x x MN-955j "Radar Jamming" x x x x MN-2867a "Radar Countermeasures--WINDOW" (In Production) x x x x MN-2867b "Radar Countermeasures--ASB Radar" (In Production) RADAR -- AIRBORNE Publications x x RADTWO "The Tactical Use of Radar In Aircraft" (Radar Bulletin No. 2) CominCh, 29 July 1942, C. x x x x "Digest of Airborne Radio and Radar News" Airborne Coordinating Group, BuAero. Vol. 1, No. 1 (6/20/43) to date. Semi-monthly, C. x x "Nomenclature list for Bureau of Aeronautics Aircraft Electronic Equipment" BuAero, 1 Feb. 1944, C. (CO-NAVAER 08-5Q-227) x x ARMB "Airborne Radar Maintenance Bulletin" No. 13 to date. (Jan. 1944-) BuAero, C. (In 9 parts; revised & brought up to date, in new format with No. 13.)
RM OP CIC OTC RADAR -- AIRBORNE (Continued) Publications (NOTE: Maintenance and operation instruction books for airborne radar equipment are usually shipped with the equipment. Extra copies may sometimes be obtained from Issuing Offices, BuShips, or BuAero.) Training Films x MN-1309 "ASB Radar Interpretation" x MN-1311 "ASD Radar Interpretation" x MN-1315 "ASE Radar Interpretation" x MN-1312 "ASG Radar Interpretation" x SN-1307a-d "AIA Radar Interpretation" (Series) (Film Strip) x SN2737a-d "AN/APS-4 Radar Operation" (A Series) (Film Strip) x SN-1317a-e "ASB Radar Operation" (Series) (Film Strip) x SN-1303a-p "ASB-3 Radar Maintenance" (Series) (Film Strip) x SN-1300a-j "ASG-ASG Radar Operation" (Series) (Film Strip) x SN-1318a-e "ASD Radar Operation" (Series) (Film Strip) x SN-1304a-t "ASD Radar Maintenance" (Series) (Film Strip) x SN-1316a-ad "ASE Radar Maintenance" (Series) (Film Strip) x SB-1305a-o "ASG/ASG-1 Radar Maintenance" (Series) (Film Strip) x SN-1071-85 "ASV Radar Operation" (Series) (Film Strip) x SN-1302a-b "IFF" (Airborne) (Series) (Film Strip) x SN-2357a-c "Airborne LORAN Operation" (Series) (Film Strip) RADAR -- EQUIPMENT Publications x x x "U.S. Radar: Operational Characteristics of radar Classified [by] Tactical Application" Joint Chiefs of Staff, 8/1/43, S, Reg. x x x "NDRC Index of Radar Systems" Nat'l Defense Research Committee, 2/15/44, S. x x x "Radar Equipment: A Survey of Radar Equipment in or Near Production in the U.S.". Army Chief Signal Officer; BuShips, BuOrd. In five books, (Limited distribution), 1943, S, Reg.
RM OP CIC OTC RADAR -- EQUIPMENT (Continued) Publications x "Field Service Manual for Equipment Manufactured for the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships by Hazeltine Electronics Corp." No date, C. x "Shipboard Radar Maintenance Bulletin" No. 1 to date, BuShips, (Monthly addenda and revisions to info. on radar equipment.) C. x "Western Electric Field Engineers Handbook" Western Electric Co. (Kept up to date with supplements, issued regularly; "Extracts" of info. on 11 types of equip. also issued), C. x "Microwave Radar. Vol. 1: Theory and Practice of Pulsed Circuits" By D.G. Fink, Radiation Lab., M.I.T., C. x x DUMBO "Elements of Microwave Radar Set Operations and Handbook for Radar Equipment 596-RL (AI-10)" April 1942, S. x ORD-657 "Fire Control Radars Mark 3 (FC) and Mark 4 (FD)" (Operation) BuOrd, April 1943, C. x ORD-658 "Fire Control Radar, Mark 8--Operation" BuOrd, Jan. 1943, C. x "Instructions for the Operation of SC-1 Radar" BuShips, '43, C. x "Instructions for the Operation of SG Radar" BuShips, 1943, C. x "Instructional Radar Diagrams" BuShips, 1944, C.
No. 1--SE Radar (Prepared by Radar Maint. Sec. Navy 128)
No. 2--SA Radar (Prepared by Radar Maint. Sec. Navy 128)
No. 3--SC/SK Ser (Prepared by Radar Maint. Sec. Navy 128)
Mark 3/4 (2 editions) Distributed by CinCPac.
RM OP CIC OTC RADAR -- EQUIPMENT (Continued) Publications x "The Radar Installation Plan, Part A: Administration General Policy" BuShips, March 1944 (Change 36), C. x "The Radar Installation Plan, Part B: Allowances and Installations" BuShips, March 1944 (Change #36), C. x "The Radar Installation Plan, Part C: Misc. Technical Maintenance Information" BuShips, January 1944 (Change #34), C. x "The Radar Installation Plan, Part D: Search Equipment" BuShips, March 1944 (Change #36), C. x "The Radar Installation Plan, Part E: IFF Equipment" BuShips, January 1944 (Change #35), C. x "The Radar Installation Plan, Part F: Fire Control Radar" BuShips, Jan. 1944 (Change #34), C. x x "Radar Operator's Handbook" CominCh, 1944, C. (Prepared by the Pacific Fleet Radar Center.) (Not yet distributed).
Part 1 -- General radar Theory.
Part 2 -- General IFF Theory.
Part 3 -- Operational Techniques.
Part 4 -- Plotting Procedure.
Part 5 -- Individual Equipment.
Part 6 -- Hints for Radar Division Officers.
(Note: Instruction books for radar equipment are usually shipped with the equipment. Books for other gear may sometimes be obtained from Navy Issuing Offices, BuShips, BuOrd, or BuAero.)
RM OP CIC OTC RADAR EQUIPMENT (Continued) Training Films x MN-955c,d "Operation of FC/FD (Mark 3,4) Radar" x MN-955b "Operation of SC-1 Radar" x MN-955e "Operation of SG Radar" x MN-055m "SL Radar Operation" (In production). x MN-2562a "The Coaxial Line" x MN-2562b "The Wave Guide" x x MN-2104a "Cathode Ray Tube -- How it Works" x x MN-2104b "Cathode Ray Oscilloscope" (In production). RADIO -- GENERAL Publications x "Radio division Production Report" BuShips, monthly, C. x "Practical analysis of Ultra High Frequency" Transmission Lines, Resonant Sections and Cavities, Wave Guides" Radio Corp. of America, 2d ed., August 1943, U. x DNC-13(1) "IRPL Radio Propagation Handbook, Part I" Joint Communications Board, Interservice Radio Propagation Lab. at Nat'l Bureau of Standards, 15 Nov. 1943. x "Basic Radio" (A Textbook), No date, Naval Air Technical Training Center, Corpus Christi, Texas, U. RADIO -- AIRBORNE Publications x "Radio and Electrical Equipment for Naval Aircraft" BuAero, June 1943, C-Reg. x ARMN "Airborne Radio Maintenance Notes" No. 2, 1 Jan. 1944 supersedes ARMN #1; Subsequent issues revise and modify No. 2. In two parts; Confidential, Restricted. BuAero.
RM OP CIC OTC RADIO -- AIRBORNE (Continued) Publications x "Aircraft Radio" (A textbook) No date, Naval Air Technical Training Center, Corpus Christi, Texas, R. Training Films x MA-750 "Airplane Antennas: Types and Installations" (NOTE: Maintenance and Operation instruction books for airborne radio gear are distributed by BuAero, for the most part, and/or shipped with the gear) RADIO -- EQUIPMENT Publications x ENG-105(B) "List of Naval Radio and Underwater sound equipment; Arranged by Navy Model Letters" BuShips, 15 Aug. 1943, C. x ENG-175 "Catalog of Naval Radio Equipment (Transmitters)" BuShips, 1943, C. x Ships-207 "Catalogue of Naval Radio Equipment (Transmitters, Receivers, Direction Finders)" (A continuation of ENG-175, above). BuShips, 15 October, 1943, C. Training Films x x MC-509 "Modern Alladin's Lamp" x MA-1706 "Radio Transmitters" (NOTE: Maintenance and operations instruction books for radio equipment are distributed by BuShips, BuAero, U.S. War & Navy Depts., and/or shipped with the several items of equipment)
Detailed Procedure for Initial and Amplifying Radar Reports Made by Voice Radio in General Accord with Part VI, USF 10(A)
- Initial Report (When contact is probably Airborne)
- The first word spoken shall be the descriptive designation i.e., "Bogey or Friendly" followed by estimate of size (single-few-or many)* if available. After estimate of size give information available in following sequence:
** Bearing (true).
** Distance (nautical miles).
* Rough estimate of altitude (high or low).
Local zone time.
OTC acknowledge (initial report only).
Bogey, - single*, - Two one Zero**, - Forty-six**, - high*, - Time eleven-forty, - able yoke peter*, -- Buckeye acknowledge, --Flapjack over.
* Include if immediately available but do not delay initial report to ascertain this information.
** Note in the example that the spoken words "bearing" and "distance" are note required. They may be used if necessary to avoid confusion.
# Authenticate only when required by existing instructions.
- Only the OTC, his flagship or designated Fighter Director ships will assign raid numbers. Blocks of numerals will not be assigned Radar Guard Ships. After an initial report has been made raid number will be assigned if the status of the contact so dictates. Note this interpretation of paragraph 6251 and 6253, USF 10(A).
- Bearing and distance shall be with point of origin in the reporting ship when in a cruising disposition but shall be converted to an established reference point when deployed around an island objective. (See paragraph 6265 USF 10(A)).
- Amplifying Reports (When contact is probably Airborne)
The first word spoken shall be the descriptive designation, normally "Bogey" (may be friendly), followed by designated Raid Number if established. After Raid Number the following is sequence:
Size (single-few-many) or more accurate estimate if available.
Distance (nautical miles.
Altitude (high, low, estimate of angels if available).
** Local Zone Time.
Bogey, - Raid One, - Six to eight, - bearing Two one Zero - distance forty-six, - course zero four zero, - speed one eighty, - Angels ten, - Time Eleven-Forty,** - Closing, - Able dog zebra*, - Flap jack, - Out.
* See notes under initial report relative to authenticator. Also note that words "bearing" and "distance" will be used in amplifying reports to avoid confusion.
** Local Zone time may be omitted from amplifying reports.
- Raid Designations and Raid Splits.
As mentioned above, only the OTC, his flagship or designated Fighter Director Ships will designate Raid Numbers. However any reporting ship which is "Holding" a raid may designate raid splits for that raid. The following procedure shall be used:
If Raid one splits, the resultant components shall be designated clockwise as raid eleven, Raid twelve, Raid thirteen, etc. Similarly, if Raid two splits, the resultant components shall be designated clockwise, raid twenty-one, raid twenty-two, etc. Note slight variance with USF 10(A), paragraph 6252
In using shackle authentication as prescribed in CentCom TWO, if the last word in the text is a one or two letter word borrow the last one or two letters from the next to last word of the text for forming the first or first and second letters of the authenticator as necessary. If the last word of text is a group of numbers authentication may be based either on the figures or on the number written out.
Initial and Amplifying Report Forms for Radar Reports by
Voice radio, Logs and CIC Recorder
Bogey Skunk or Friendly Raid # or Letter Size True Bearing Miles Distance True Course Speed High, Low or Angels Local Zone Time REMARKS Authen-
Radar Screening of Cruising Dispositions
- The optimum use of radar for screening requires efficient utilization of the several radar range bands of various types of radar to obtain complete coverage not only in azimuth but also in depth. Coverage in depth is a comparatively new concept not fully provided for in standard radar screening instructions now in effect. experience has demonstrated that one operator can watch only a small portion of a radar screen efficiently for unexpected contacts, about 11/2" of base line on an A scope or sweep line of a PPI scope.
- Radar coverage in depth makes use of the various types of search radars with special emphasis upon a particular range band on the radar selected to search for specific types of targets. Simultaneous use is made of SK, SC and SG type equipments operating in different range bands on appropriate ships of the disposition. Prescribed operating technique must be used for best results; the range scale to be used depends upon the type of radar, type of ship, station in the disposition and primary type of target sought.
- Long range air search should be conducted by large ships near the center of the disposition using SK Radar, or SC type if no SK is available. The 375 miles scale should normally be used and operators should watch the range between 40 and 150 miles on the "A" scope most closely. Medium range air search should be conducted at the same time by ships in interior stations with concentrated attention between 20 and 75 miles on the PPI scope using the 75 mile range.
- The SC Radar can be used for long or medium range air search as above and also to search for snoopers and low flying aircraft. Against low flying aircraft (VTB) the following technique should be used:
- 75 mile scale on both "A" and PPI scopes.
- PPI for detection (Major emphasis).
- "A" scope for identification.
- Adjust gain setting for best readability of PPI scope at 20 mile range.
- Rate of antenna sweep 4 rpm.
- Range of contact will be about 22 miles. Watch this range closely. Target echo will appear suddenly as a strong signal.
- Ships having SG or similar type radar may be assigned one of several searches. Three of these, of particular interest for large dispositions, are described below:
- For detection of Low Flying Aircraft (VTB).
- Use slowest practicable rate of antenna sweep, in both manual and automatic control, combining the two. Use automatic for 4 minutes at 4 rpm; then manual for 2 minutes at 2 rpm. Continuous manual operation, although desirable, is not practicable because of operator fatigue despite the advantage it affords from increased ability to stop and locate the target quickly.
- Use Maximum Gain Setting practicable for efficient scope observation.
- When available use Two operators ("A" and PPI) with major emphasis on "A". When only one operator is available he should watch the "A" scope.
- Concentrate attention between 20000 and 40000 yards on 75000 yards scale, 30000 yards is probable maximum range of contact against low flying aircraft.
- For detection of small surface craft or submarines on the surface. (SS)
- Set receiver gain for 1/4" "Grass height".
- Use both "A" and PPI, with major emphasis on "A".
- Use slowest rate of automatic sweep, 4 rpm.
- Use short range scale (30000 yards) Look for "Hole" in the "A" trace.
- Concentrate attention near 10000 yards. A submarine awash may be detected by a skilled operator at 8000 yards.
- Normal long range surface search for large and medium size vessels. Use high gain with the 75000 yards scale and concentrate on ranges between 10 and 20 miles.
- In Radar Screening each radar should sweep a complete 360° arc paying especially close attention to assigned arcs of emphasized search, or "Sector Responsibility".
- The Force Flagship should not be assigned as a guard ship but should be free to conduct whatever type of search will be most useful to the Force Commander at the moment.
- Vessels assigned a specific type of search should continue that search regardless of alarms or threatened attacks, relying on the Force Commander and other guardships to furnish information. Complete and efficient radar coverage can only be achieved by teamwork.
- In dispositions having carriers present:
- Each carrier will ordinarily reserve own air search radar for Fighter Direction purposes.
- Radar Screens in depth will be compared from screening and supporting ships of each carrier task sub-division independently.
- Fighter director ships should not normally be assigned air search radar guards. They should be free to use air search radars at discretion unless complete air search radar silence is ordered by OTC.
- Diagrams 1 and 2, attached, are not independent but should be considered together. The combined use of all types of search radar through several ranges is necessary to provide adequate radar coverage in both azimuth and depth. Specific assignments of ships should be directed by the OTC depending on number and type of ships present and requirements of underwater sound anti-submarine screens.
Diagram 1 of Appendix (E)
Preferred Assignments for Air Screen Radars of SK, SC or similar types
to achieve Radar screening in depth.
Diagram 2 of Appendix (E)
Preferred Assignments for Surface Search Radars of SG or similar types
to achieve Radar screening in depth.
Type Radar drills
- I.F.F. Drill:
Beginning at plus 30 minutes, OTC will call various ships at random and direct each to turn on IFF. As each is called the only reply necessary is to turn on IFF with currently effective code setting. Target ship (or ships) observe with BL and, if proper signal is noted, target ship broadcasts own call on TBS followed by "Affirmative". If no IFF is noted after several minutes, target vessel broadcast "Negative". OTC then tells vessel concerned to turn off IFF and tells another vessel to turn on. Depending on time available, as many ships as practicable are checked. Those receiving a "Negative" effect repairs and OTC should give them another check later when practicable.
Sample transmissions: (Assigned voice calls are used in place of underlined words).
DD456 This is OTC Bojangles OUT
This is Target ONE affirmative OUT
This is Target TWO affirmative OUT
DD456 This is OTC Curtains OUT
DD515 This is OTC Bojangles OUT
This is Target ONE negative OUT
This is Target TWO affirmative but very weak OUT
DD515 This is OTC Curtains make repairs will check you later OUT
The above may seem long and complicated but has been used with success. It will be noted that a minimum of TBS transmissions are involved. Only targets and OTC need say anything except in unusual circumstances. No receipts are required.
If IFF is exercised on all ships in a task group on convoy at the same time, confusion invariably results and positive check of each IFF is impracticable. The individual call up is the quickest and only definite way of insuring that a certain ship's IFF is working correctly.
In final writing and printing of exercises recommend each exercise be complete in itself and practice of writing "Same as Exercise blank except -----" be discontinued.
- Contact drill:
- On TBS, or other voice radio circuit if assigned, OTC announces commencement of the exercise. OTC then directs guardship or screening vessel to make drill report.
- Designated ship makes sample "Skunk" raid report and a minute later suitable amplifying report using proper forms and giving data on an imaginary contact; precede report with word "Drill".
- When designated ship has made proper sample reports, and OTC is satisfied that principles and forms are understood, OTC designates another ship to make sample report of an imaginary contact. OTC designates various ships at random to make sample reports as long as time permits or until each ship has made report.
- OTC may call upon any ship to, (a) make amplifying report of an initial contact reported by another, or (b) hold, sweep or watch the imaginary raid.
- Similar to 1766 except that OTC may designate certain ships to work out sample raids and tracks ahead of time to give more realism to exercise.
- Similar to 1766 except for imaginary Bogey raids instead of Skunk raids.
- Similar to 1767 except for imaginary Bogey raids instead of Skunk raids.
Experience in one campaign after another indicates that the above exercises, which may seem absurdly simple, are nevertheless what our ships need most. Such exercises accomplish some or all of the following.
- Overcome "Mike Fright" and inertia on the part of guardship personnel.
- Exercise all concerned in the actual use of standard forms, before an enemy appears.
- Develop teamwork among screening vessels and guardships. Exercise and bring out defects in communication circuits and equipment.
- Insure that personnel in each ship know what a standard report looks like and what is expected of a guardship.
It has been rare indeed to find a ship in any disposition who can make proper, complete, or even recognizable reports until after several of the above exercises have been held. There is no substitute for actually talking to other ships on the voice radio and having the OTC bark questions.
The modern concepts of radar screen teamwork and radar screening in depth to combat the low flying aircraft menace make actual drills of the above type mandatory to successful operations. Similar drills in port are useful. But they do not take the place of drills underway, in the disposition, with the Captain and the OOD on the bridge listening.
- Tracking exercise.
- Single target plane, preferably a large bomber type, or a section of smaller planes if no large bombers are available, be on station 20 miles abeam of disposition at designated Zero hour. Guard VHF radio circuit, normally 140.58 meg., direct to OTC who conducts exercise and will give orders to target.
- At low altitudes, from 200 to 1000 feet, target make runs back and forth over disposition, withdrawing beyond visual range from time to time, circling disposition and orbiting from time to time as enemy aircraft frequently do during night torpedo attacks.
- Radar guardships track target continuously, using all available radars. Make reports as required by USF 10A and be alert for orders described in paragraph 6266 of USF 10A. At least one vessel, by virtue of different distance or bearing, will usually be able to track Bogey and must be alert to report same. OTC should develop teamwork among guardships.
- Vessels exercise AA control parties at discretion.
- At about plus 30 minutes, or when directed by OTC, target plane climb to 5000 feet and repeat runs.
- At about plus 60 minutes, or when directed by OTC, target climb to 10,000 feet and repeat runs.
- If two target planes are available they may be used simultaneously and at different altitudes.
Night torpedo and bombing attacks by enemy aircraft continue to be a most serious threat.
Possibly because of inexperience of our radar operators and plotters, possibly because of inherent weaknesses of our radars, or present ability to track low flying aircraft and high flying aircraft within 12 miles, particularly when near land, is definitely unsatisfactory.
Considerable experience with enemy night air attacks near Saipan indicates that considerable improvement in tracking and locating enemy aircraft can be obtained by training and exercise in teamwork of Radar guardships and by judicious placing of Radar Pickets, with exchange of information on inter-fighter-director officer nets.
Fighter Director equipped destroyers have proved very valuable as night radar pickets and have occasionally assisted in directing night fighters before SCR-527 was fully set up on shore. Use of destroyer Mark IV radars to furnish accurate altitudes to night fighters has been valuable.
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