Underwater Demolition Teams
Section 1. Introduction Section 2. Commander Underwater Demolition Teams Staff Organization and Allowed Complement Section 3. Commander Underwater Demolition Teams Staff Duty and Functions Section 4. Demolition Team Organization and Allowed Complement Section 5. Mission Section 6. Training Section 7. Equipment Section 8. Drone Boats Section 9. Loading Section 10. Tactics
Section 1. Introduction
- Naval Combat Demolition is carried out by Underwater Demolition Teams operating under Commander Underwater Demolition Teams, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet. The Underwater Demolition Team consists of five platoons organized into: one Headquarters Platoon to perform all command, administrative and supply functions, and four Operating Platoons to perform all reconnaissance and demolition work.
- Underwater Demolition Teams receive their basic training at the Amphibious Training Base, Fort Pierce, Florida, and receive advanced training in natural and man-made obstacles peculiar to Pacific Ocean Areas at the Naval Combat Demolition Training and Experimental Base, MAUI, T.H. Trained Underwater Demolition Teams are assigned to Amphibious Task Forces as required to perform the task at hand. These teams will be transported to the operating area aboard APDs and despatched from the vessels to carry out the assigned function as directed by Commander Underwater Demolition Teams, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet.
Section 2. Commander Underwater Demolition Teams
Staff Organization and Allowed Complement
- The Commander Underwater Demolition Teams aboard APD Flagship will carry out operational demolition as directed by Commander Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, or Subordinate Task Force Commanders when APDs and Demolition Teams are assigned for operational control.
- All officers of the staff will keep themselves informed of the policies of the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams in order that the staff as a whole may continue to function at all times even though operations may require them to function as individual members.
- Cooperative method and spirit is the prime essential to the efficiency of the staff as a whole. Relation between staff, Ship's Officers and Team Officers must be of cordial cooperation.
- Member of the Staff will wear proper uniform at all times.
- The Staff of Commander Underwater Demolition Teams will consist of:
- Chief Staff Officer.
- Operations Section.
- Operations Officer.
- Assistant Operations Officer.
- Demolition Operations Officer.
- Assistant Demolition Operations Officer.
- Communication Section.
- Communications Officer.
- Three Communication Watch Officers.
- Intelligence Section.
- Intelligence Officer.
- Supply Section.
- Supply Officer.
- Assignment of Duties of Members of the Staff.
- Chief Staff Officer.
- Executes the directives of Commander.
- Direct and coordinates the work of the Staff.
- Security measures.
- Type and Standard Practice Instructions and Procedures.
- Operations Section.
- Operations Officer and Assistant Operations Officer. Directs and coordinates operation functions of the Staff.
- Preparation and revisions. Operation manual and pamphlets.
- War Plans.
- Movement Reports.
- Demolition Operations Officer and Assistant Demolition Operations Officer.
- Directs and coordinates demolition operations.
- Demolition operations.
- Preparation and Revision of Demolition manuals and pamphlets.
- Demolition Plans.
- Demolition Team Movement Reports.
- Communication Section.
- Communication Officer and Communication Watch Officers.
- Radio and Sound Communication and Training.
- Radio Alteration, repair and inspections.
- Radio and Radar Security.
- Radio Intelligence.
- Communication Records and Files.
- Communication Inspections.
- Enforcement and Preparation of Communication Instruction.
- Staff Censor.
- Visual Signalling.
- Supervision Communication Watches.
- Intelligence Section.
- Intelligence Officer.
- Dissemination of Intelligence Information.
- Meteorological data.
- Supply information on Beaches and Landing Areas.
- Courts and Boards.
- Supply Section.
- Supply Officer.
- Supply Inspection.
- Supply Material for Assault Operations.
- Allowed complement of officers for Staff of the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams is as follows:
Capt. Comdr. Lt.Com. Lieut. Lt.(jg) Ens. LINE Commander 1 Chief Staff Officer 1 Operations Section Operations Officer 1 1 Demolition Officer 1 1 Communication Section Communication Officer 1 Communication Watch Officers 3 Intelligence Section Intelligence Officer 1 Supply Section Supply Officer 1 TOTALS 1 1 1 3 6 Total all Officer 12
- Allowed complement of enlisted personnel for the Staff of the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams is as follows:
- 2 Y1c
- 2 Y3c
- 1 CSM
- 1 SM1c
- 1 RM1c
- 1 RM2c
- 1 RT1c
- 1 Stlc
- 1 Cklc
- 1 StM1c
- 1 StM2c
- 1 Sp(X)1c (Cartographer)
- 3 Sp(X)2c (Cartographer)
NOTE: Regular enlisted complement of radiomen and signalmen aboard APD Flagship will supplement Staff communication personnel.
Section 3. Commander Underwater Demolition Teams
Staff Duty and Functions
- Staff Duty -- Designated Officers of the Staff will stand day's duty in port and continuous watch on the bridge when the flagship is underway in company with other ships of the command. The senior Staff Officer shall prepare watch lists for Port and Sea Watches. (See Transport Division Commanders Communication Instructions).
- Day's Duty in Port:
- Receive routine reports.
- Keep informed of current operations.
- Act on matters requiring prompt action; inform cognizant officer promptly.
- Attend the aide and regulate staff boat and transportation when Staff Lieutenant is not aboard.
- Keep informed of location of the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams in case he is needed when not on board.
- Sea Watches:
- The Staff Duty Officer is the representative of the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams on the bridge and bears the same relation to him as the Officer of the deck bears to the Captain of the ship.
- Keep himself informed of the geographical position of the flagship to continuously confirm safe passage of all ships in company.
- Keep himself informed of the disposition and formation of ships in company.
- Make reports to the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams similar to those required of the Officer of the Deck by the U.S. Navy Regulations.
- Take necessary action in an emergency; immediately report action taken to the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams.
- Report to the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams ships in company that are out of station more than one hundred yards.
- Anchoring, Mooring and Unmooring Stations.
- At all times when getting underway, coming to anchor or mooring in company with one or more ships of the command the following personnel will be stationed on the Flag Bridge:
- Staff Watch Officer.
- Staff Signal Officer.
- Communication personnel necessary to man designated circuits.
- The above personnel will take stations before getting underway and remain at their stations until all ships in company are in proper formation and proceed normally. In coming to anchor they will remain at their stations until all ships in company are anchored.
- The Staff Lieutenant shall relieve the Staff Duty Officer prior to getting underway, anchoring or mooring.
- All despatches will be released by the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams, and in his absence by the Senior Officer of the Staff on board, except that any Staff Officer may release despatches of purely routine nature concerning his specific duties.
- All incoming despatches will be promptly routed to the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams and the action Staff Officer except that routine despatches will be called to the attention of the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams by expeditious delivery of his copy to his file board. The Communication Officer, in his absence the Staff Duty Officer, is responsible that all despatches which should be, are called to the immediate attention of the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams. All officers will frequently inspect the message file board in the Flag Office.
- Comply with the policies and instructions outlined in the Division Commander's Communication Instructions.
- Leave and Liberty.
- All Staff Officers will obtain permission from the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams if desiring to leave the ship before 1600 daily.
- Liberty for the enlisted members of the Staff will be regulated by the Flag Officer and will, in general, conform to that granted by the Flagship.
Section 4. Demolition Team Organization and Allowed Complement
- Underwater Demolition Teams are organized to operate as individual units under the direction of Commander Underwater Demolition Teams. Each team consisting of thirteen officers and eighty-seven men is divided into five platoons organized as follows:
Officers Enlisted 1 Headquarters Platoon 5 27 4 Operating Platoons 2(ea) 15(ea) Totals Per Team 13 87
- The Headquarters Platoon performs all command, administrative and supply functions. In addition, all communications personnel and boat crews are attached to this platoon. Each operating platoon divides into three operating groups of five men each. These groups handle all reconnaissance and demolition work, each group operating from a rubber boat or directly from an LCPR or other landing boats. Consequently each Underwater Demolition Team can be broken down into twelve rubber boat crews.
- Allowed Complement of Officers for the Headquarters Platoon is as follows:
Lieutenant Commander (1) Commanding Officer. Lieutenant (1) Executive Officer. Lieutenant, Lieutenant (jg)
(1) Officer trained in Mine Disposal. Ensign (1) Communication Officer. Ensign (1) Boat Officer. TOTAL 5 LINE OFFICERS
- Allowed complement of enlisted personnel for the Headquarters Platoon is as follows:
CPO (1) Master-at-Arms CPhM (1) Medical Y1c (1) Administration MoMM2c (2) Engineers MoMM3c (2) Engineers PhoM1c (1) Photographer PhoM2c (1) Photographer RM2c (1) Radio Operator StM1c (1) Steward's Mate Petty Officer 1c (any rating) (2) Boat Operators Petty Officer 2c (any rating) (7) Boat Operators S1c (7) Boat Operators TOTAL 27 FOR PLATOON
- Allowed complement of officers for the Operating Platoon is as follows: (Four Platoons each Team)
Lieutenant (jg) (1) Platoon Leader. Ensign (1) Assistant Platoon Leader. TOTAL TWO LINE OFFICERS.
- Allowed Complement of enlisted personnel for the Operations Platoon. (Four Platoons each Team)
Chief Petty Officer Any rate 1 1st Class Petty Officer " 6 2nd Class Petty Officer " 6 3rd Class Petty Officer " 2 TOTAL FOR EACH OPERATING PLATOON: 15 TOTAL FOR FOUR OPERATING PLATOONS: 60 TOTAL ENLISTED: 87 Summary of Pay Grades: Grade 1 6 2 28 3 35 4 10 5 8 6 --- TOTAL 87
NOTE: Underwater Demolition Teams are composed of volunteer personnel who, regardless of ratings, prove themselves best adapted for the duty, therefore the complement is based on pay grades with no specific rates. Advancements in rates will be on the basis of performance of assigned duties rather than actual rates held. The complement as established shall in no way exclude the use of combat demolition personnel whose rates might be higher than the complement allows.
Section 5. Mission
- The Primary Mission of an Underwater Demolition Team is:
- Reconnaissance prior to the assault to determine the hydrographic conditions and the presence or absence of underwater obstacles.
- Clearance of channels to landing beaches through natural and man-made underwater obstacles and mines, in order to permit landing craft, landing boats and landing vehicles to land troops safely on the beach.
- The Secondary Mission of the Underwater Demolition Team is:
- Within the limits of its personnel and equipment, and prior to the arrival of the Sea Bees, harbor clearance groups or other engineers, to clear harbors and channels of assault areas of underwater obstacles of all sorts detrimental to safe navigation.
- The tasks of the Primary Mission are:
- Demolition of natural and man-made obstructions and destruction or removal of mines prior to the assault in order to clear the approaches to the beaches.
- Improvement of existing approaches to the beaches during and immediately after the assault in order to permit the more expeditious landing of supporting elements and supplies.
Section 6. Training
- The Base provides both basic and advanced training, the former course designed for personnel who have had no previous training and the advanced course designed for personnel who have already had basic training in amphibious warfare, explosives, drone boats and other demolition devices. Both of these courses include training over coral reefs and on beaches where actual conditions encountered in previous operations have been reproduced, training in the use of landing boats (LVTs, LCPRs, DUKWs, and rubber boats) through knowledge of methods and means adopted in hydrographic reconnaissance, placing and laying various types of explosives, methods of loading explosives to blast channels through reefs and coral heads, destruction of man-made enemy obstacles, countermining, etc.
- The Syllabus of Training and the Schedule of Training given at the Naval Combat Demolition Training and Experimental Base, MAUI, are contained in the SECRET Supplement to this chapter issued separately in the SECRET SUPPLEMENT TO THE TRANSPORT DOCTRINE.
Section 7. Equipment
- Equipment for Underwater Demolition Teams consists of explosives of various types, and other special equipment as set forth in the SECRET Supplement to this chapter issued separately in the SECRET SUPPLEMENT TO THE TRANSPORT DOCTRINE.
- Upon completion of the demolition mission, the APDs are not to carry large amounts of explosives while assigned to escort, screening or picket duty as this is considered extra hazardous. If surplus explosives are not needed for post-assault demolitions, it is desirable to establish a temporary dump ashore or transfer same to shore agencies as soon as possible. However, if transfer cannot be made or if there is a delay, jettisoning all explosives in deep water is authorized. By experience it has been
found that arrangements for disposition of surplus explosives must be made prior to operations. This is the responsibility of Commander Underwater Demolition Flotilla or Commander Underwater Demolition Squadron.
- Infantry gear will not be furnished personnel upon their leaving the United States but will be supplied by the Force Supply Officer on a team allowance basis through request from C.O., NCDT & EB.
Section 8. Drone Boats
- The Base provides training in the handling and operation of drone LVTs and LCVPs. Drone personnel do not form a part of the teams but, when ordered to combat, accompany their drones and equipment aboard an assault transport. Upon arrival in the combat area, drone personnel report to the Commanding Officer of the Underwater Demolition Team in that area and operate under his command.
Section 9. Loading
- Much of the equipment for Underwater Demolition Teams must be combat loaded. The present policy of the team is to carry only relatively stable explosives in the assault transports. Sensitive explosives are customarily used only for post-assault work and should be carried in vessels arriving in the combat area after the assault phase has been completed. Team personnel, pre-assault and assault explosives, rubber boats, radios and other equipment will be carried in an APD which will be used as the Operating Base of the Demolition Team.
Section 10. Tactics
- In order to execute its assigned mission the employment of an Underwater Demolition Team is divided into three phases:
- Reconnaissance and pre-assault demolition.
- Assault Demolition.
- Post-assault channel clearance and removal of hazards to navigation.
- Execution of the Primary Mission includes phases (a) and (b) above and is carried on prior to and during the assault stage of a landing operation. Reconnaissance begins with a careful study of all available intelligence on the area to be attacked. This includes a study of written reports, aerial photographs, hydrographic information, reports from scouting submarines, etc. Reconnaissance at the scene of operation is divided into two phases:
- Night reconnaissance, which permits approach to the beaches under cover of darkness and is designed to provide accurate hydrographic information prior to the landing of the first assault wave.
- Daylight reconnaissance, which should be carried on under cover of a diversionary action, a smoke screen, or supporting naval gunfire and aerial bombardment.
- Pre-assault and assault demolition may be undertaken in connection with night or daylight reconnaissance work. If undertaken in connection with the former, emphasis is placed on the removal of man-made obstacles because demolition of natural obstacles at night present almost insuperable difficulties. Assault demolition is divided into three phases:
- Night or daylight demolition undertaken in connection with pre-assault reconnaissance work.
- Daylight demolition preceding the first assault wave and, like daylight reconnaissance, carried out under the protection of supporting gunfire. This work may commence several days prior to the landing of the first assault waves and, in most cases, will continue until such waves have reached the beach.
- Daylight demolition after the assault waves are ashore for the purpose of improving the approaches to beaches for unloading assault equipment and supplies. For this purpose, the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams will cooperate very closely with the senior beachmaster.
- After the situation on shore has become stabilized and the Commander Underwater Demolition Teams has been released by the ship-to-shore Commander, he reports to the Task Force Commander.
- Tactical employment of Underwater Demolition Teams is embodied in the SECRET Supplement of the Transport Doctrine.
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