Use of Smoke in Amphibious Operations
Section 1. Purpose. Section 2. Assault Smoke Screens. Section 3. Smoke Cover for Anchorages. Section 4. Equipment and Training. Section 5. Stowage and Safety Precautions for Chemical Smoke Munitions. Section 6. Smoke Allowance. Section 7. Sample Smoke Plan and Special Smoke Plans for Assault. Section 8. Smoke References.
Section 1. Purpose
- Smoke provides a valuable means of protection in Amphibious Operations by:
- Obscuring ships lying at anchor or in restricted maneuvering areas during air attacks at night.
- Obscuring ships or support craft which must be brought within close range of enemy shore defenses.
- Covering LVT Groups and boat groups from automatic weapon fire during the run into the beach.
- Protecting landing ships and craft which are beached.
- Deceiving the enemy as to the actual disposition of forces.
- Protecting minesweeping operations conducted close to enemy shores.
- Protecting underwater demolition operations.
- Protecting friendly troops ashore from enemy positions.
- Affording Anti-Submarine and aircraft torpedo protection when in convoy.
- Interfering with the movements of the enemy.
Section 2. Assault Smoke Screens
- A smoke screen used in the assault phase is a temporary substitute for counter-battery fire; the advantages of hiding our forces from the enemy must be weighed against the disadvantages of hiding the enemy from our forces.
- The most important single factor in the use of smoke is control. A smoke screen is easy to start, but once released, it cannot be recalled, and travels with the direction and speed of the true wind. Careful analysis of wind conditions should be made when ordering smoke. On the average, smoke will spread horizontally about 10-15 per cent and vertically about 10 per cent of the distance traveled downwind from the point of origin. This cannot be taken as an exact rule, however, because wind, temperature and other weather conditions may cause variations. One simple primary principle that many officers and men
do not seem to grasp is, that regardless of the direction in which the ship or boat laying smoke is moving, the smoke will be carried directly downwind (at the speed of the wind) from the point of origin. For illustrations and discussion see figures 1 and 2. true wind and apparent wind may differ greatly.
- The OTC must be in complete control of all smoke since smoke used in one area may effect operations elsewhere.
- To establish the screen rapidly, it should be initiated by aircraft or naval gunfire wherever practicable. Support craft can then be used to maintain the screen, using mortars, rockets or smoke generators and floats as appropriate (see figures 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7).
- The OTC must have direct communication with the task unit assigned for smoking. With support craft, this can be accomplished over gunfire control nets.
- Insofar as possible, the assault smoke screens which may be required in a given landing should be anticipated. Detailed Special Smoke Plans must be drawn up for laying these screens on call if needed. The plans should be rehearsed prior to the operation.
- Officers who may have occasion to request smoke protection or who are concerned in issuing orders for smoke (NGLOs, Control Officers, Support Craft Task Unit Commanders) should, if possible, witness rehearsals. They should be thoroughly informed as to:
- What smoke can or cannot do for them in a given situation and what screens are practical with the wind encountered.
- What special Smoke Plans have been prepared and how to call for them.
- In planning and in briefing personnel, reference should be made to CominCh Confidential publication P-04 "Smoke Screens for Amphibious Operations", which contains data on all smoke munitions and photographs of the screens they produce. A sample Smoke Plan Annex, with typical Special Smoke Plans, is included in this chapter (Section 7).
Section 3. Smoke Cover for Anchorages
- In previous operations, the use of smoke for protecting anchorages against enemy air attack at night has proved extraordinarily effective. The use of such smoke screens in the daylight, however, is considered ineffective. The disposition of ships in the anchorage area, as well as that of smoke making craft, is of utmost importance. The area should be as tight as safety permits, with transports and other heavy ships concentrated. The area should favor depth (in the direction of the wind) rather than width (perpendicular to the wind), since, with a given number of smoke craft and heavy ships, the effectiveness of the screen will vary inversely as the width of the area occupied perpendicular to the wind.
Illustration of Smoke Behavior
Figure No. 1
If a boat proceeds from B to C (see figure 1) generating smoke, the direction of the screen as the smoke drifts down wind will not remain parallel to line BC but will be at an angle to it depending upon the speed of the boat and the speed of the wind because the smoke generated when the boat was at B has drifted down wind (at the speed of the wind) while the boat proceeded to C. If BA and BC represent the speed and direction of the wind and of the boat respectively, then AC represents the direction of the smoke screen resulting when the smoke boat proceeds from B to C. Thus if the boat proceeds back and forth along line BC, then the smoke screen will take the form shown in figure 2 as it drifts down wind.
Figure No. 2
Use of Smoke as a Curtain Screen to Protect the Transport Area
Figure No. 3
- Initial screen may be laid by planes or naval gunfire.
- Several (depending on length of front A-B) smoke boats or LCI types with pots or generators proceed back and forth along line AB making smoke. This method provides an "S" wave of smoke which obstructs vision from ashore and at the same time gives minimum obstruction to vision in the transport area. However, enough boats must be used to insure that the front is protected. This can be done by one boat provided it can go from A to B and then back to A before the smoke originally produced at A has drifted to the windward line of transports.
- If larger land masses are encountered the flanks can also be screened by fog generators, pots or floats as shown in diagram.
Use of Smoke as a Curtain Screen to Protect the Transport Area
Figure No. 4
- Initial screen provided by plane. (Or by WP projectiles fired on enemy positions).
- Supplementary screen laid under cover of 1st screen by smokers using fog generators, smoke pots or smoke floats.
- Smoke boats drop smoke floats upwind.
Use of Floating Smoke Bombs to Provide Frontal and/or Flank Curtain Screen Protection
Figure No. 5
- The use of floating smoke bombs in the initial phase is recommended where feasible.
- Flank screens initiated by floating smoke bombs can be reinforced by boats #1 and #2 as shown, dropping smoke floats to replace burned out bombs.
- For further discussion and photographs of this type of screen, see CominCh Confidential Publication P-04, "Smoke Screens for Amphibious Operations".
Flank Screens Laid by Projected Munitions
Figure No. 6
LSM(R), LCS(L), LCI(M) or LCI(G) fire smoke rockets or mortars on and upwind of the enemy; fire support ships using 5"/38 WP might also be used. Boats downwind make smoke and drop smoke floats if required.
Flank Screens Laid by Projected Munitions
Figure No. 7
LSM(R), LCS(L), LCI(M) or LCI(G) fire smoke rockets or mortars on and upwind of the enemy; fire support ships using 5"/38 WP may also be used.
LSM(R), LCS(L), LCI(M) or LCI(G)'s downwind make smoke and drop floats if required.
- A light consistent smoke haze is adequate to make it impossible for an enemy pilot to see a ship anchored within the haze at night. Even without smoke it is difficult for a pilot to see anchored ships at night; hence a heavy "pea-soup" smoke cover is not necessary. A consistent light smoke haze is much better than intermittent streams of heavy smoke. The fact that the stars or moon, the ship's bow or the masthead can be seen from the bridge, does not mean necessarily that the screen is inadequate.
- Ships covered by a smoke screen at night will not open fire on enemy planes unless specifically directed to do so. Anti-aircraft fire at night is inaccurate and particularly so when the ship is covered by smoke. Firing from within the smoke screen merely provides the enemy pilot an excellent target and is not justified by the remote possibility of shooting down an enemy plane. Further, wild firing by ships in the smoke screen endangers other ships present as well as installations ashore. It has been estimated that 95 per cent of the fire coming from ships within the screened area has been directed at other ship's tracer fire and not at enemy planes.
- In disposing smokers and ships for smoke cover, the following plan should be followed:
- Heavy fire support should be assigned central berths; tankers, whenever practical, should be placed on the downwind side of the concentration (see figure 8). Ammunition ships must be anchored in isolated berths and assigned special smokers. To assure that ships actually make their assigned berths and that late-comers are properly protected, it is recommended that an officer representing the SOPA patrol the anchorage during the late afternoon, so that if the disposition is not satisfactory, corrections can be made.
- Available LCI & LSM types should be detailed as a task unit for smoking to windward of the heavy ships in such positions as to best cover the area. (see figures 9, 10 and 11). It may be advisable to divide large anchorages into two or more areas and assign responsibility for each area to a subdivision of the smoker task unit.
- From sunset to sunrise, transports will have their smoke boats standing by ready to proceed to windward to cover the parent vessel. These smoke boats have the function of providing cover quickly, before the smoke arrives from the line of smokers; of insuring the parent vessel against holidays in the general blanket; and of augmenting the overall screen.
- Ships not equipped with their own smoke boats will be provided each night with individually assigned boats from the smoke boat pool or from assault transports. Transports will be called upon to furnish one of their smoke boats for this purpose when the number of ships without boats makes it necessary. Two LCI or LCM type smokers, in addition to LCVP smokers, will be assigned each isolated ammunition ship.
Berthing Heavy Ships for Best Smoke Cover
- Ships too scattered.
- BB's shown in position which receives poor protection.
- Tanker in windward position, is poorly protected and a hazard to other ships if hit.
- Ships concentrated. (Even greater depth and less width would be desirable if anchorage conditions permit.)
- BB's are in positions which receive good protection.
- Tanker is to leeward.
Proper Stationing of Ships to Provide Blanket Screens for Anchorage Areas
Figure No. 9
- Each ship in addition has own smoke boats(s).
- Greater depth of formation would be desirable if practicable for anchorage and unloading.
- If depth of formation is great enough and LCI types sufficient, another line of LCI types parallel to and approximately 3,000 yards downwind of the line shown above would be desirable.
- Generators ashore not shown in sketch.
- When wind is from the outboard side of the anchorage, it may be undesirable to station LST's outboard, since their presence might prevent ships arriving at the anchorage at dusk from making their assigned berths within the anchorage.
Disposition of Ships to Provide Cover for the Anchorage Area
- With the wind direction shown, smoke coverage of the anchorage area at night may be accomplished by LCI types by the method shown.
- Area ABLE should be covered by Division ABLE plus attached BAKER Units.
- Area BAKER should be screened by Division BAKER less detached Units.
- A shift in the wind direction as indicated requires a change in disposition of the smoke making vessels.
- Area ABLE would be screened by Division ABLE less detached Units.
- Area BAKER would be covered by Division BAKER plus attached ABLE Units.
- When offshore winds prevail in the anchorage area, Army Smoke Generator Companies with mobile equipment, or a naval unit organized and trained for the purpose, should operate shore-based smoke generators. These should be set up 200 or more yards inland at intervals small enough to provide a solid blanket of smoke over vessels which are beached or anchored close inshore. The SOPA will control this smoke, which is a part of the naval protective plan for the anchorage.
- All ships equipped with smoke generators will maintain a sunset to sunrise watch, prepared to make smoke immediately on order. Ships equipped with more than one generator will stop operating all but one unit after a satisfactory screen is established. Large ships will mount one generator on the forecastle to assist in covering the superstructure in light winds.
- Smoke boats covering individual ships should lie to, 500 to 1000 yards directly upwind, and should move about only when changes in wind direction make it necessary. Distance upwind should be increased as wind velocity increases. Normally, smoke boats should not steam back and forth crosswind, since such maneuvers produce only intermittent coverage (see figures 12, 13 and 14) and increases the chances of the boats becoming lost. With wind below 3 knots, however, it is advisable for boats to patrol crosswind or circle the ship as necessary. It will be the responsibility of each ship to control it's own smoke boats. Boats will be equipped with SCR 610 radios. On "A" channel, they will guard appropriate Transport Division Boat Control frequency; Channel "B" will be set on the Landing Boat Common.
- Floating smoke pots, M4A2, should be used to supplement the smoke boats generators in providing cover rapidly before the general screen is established and whenever the generator is being refueled or has broken down. Economy is essential. When a line of floats is laid crosswind, they should be spaced at least 75 feet apart. Smoke pots, or smoke floats, should be on hand near all fog generators for use in the event of generator failure.
Section 4. Equipment and Training
- In the operation and maintenance of smoke generators, the provisions of AdComPhibsPac Conf. Circular Letter AL-163 of 11 June 1945 will be followed carefully. In combat areas no smoke will be made for test purposes except during full daylight and never after one hour prior to sunset.
- All personnel involved in operating smoke generators and smoke boats will be thoroughly trained. Smoke training schools have been established in OAHU and GUAM by AdComPhibsPac. Commanding Officers of ships, when in these areas, will send untrained personnel to these schools for the one day smoke course.
Using Smoke Boats to Cover Individual Ships
Figure No. 12
- Boat steaming back and forth gives only intermittent cover.
Figure No. 13
- Boat stationed well upwind, shifting only when wind shifts, gives constant cover.
Method of Controlling Smoke Boats
Figure No. 14
- Points A, B, and C have been picked out in relation to other ships and these points are used in directing boats where to go. If the wind shifted to the right side the boats would be directed to move to the vicinity of "C".
- Smoke boats, LCVPs or LCMs, will be equipped as follows:
- One portable smoke generator with protective metal guard, canvas cover, rags or waste for cleaning, and tools.
- Twelve (12) drums fog oil.
- Ten (10) 5 gallon cans of gasoline, with pouring spout.
- Ten (10) 5 gallon cans of fresh water, with pouring spout.
- Twenty-four (24) smoke floats, M4A2, stowed in a suitable cradle to prevent shifting about, and covered by canvas. Floats packed in metal containers should be left in them until needed.
- Eight (8) smoke pots, Mk 3.
- SCR 610 radio.
- Running lights, battle lantern, red flashlight, g. Tas masks and asbestos gloves.
- An awning forward and other facilities for the crew's comfort.
- An officer or competent petty officer should be in charge of each pair of smoke boats.
- Auxiliary Landing Craft Tenders (ARLs), operating in combat areas, will be equipped to accomplish major repairs on smoke generators. Minor repairs will be made by ship's personnel and spare parts for this purpose will be issued by ARLs.
- Boat pools should be equipped prior to the landing to take care of the number of smoke boats which it will be necessary to maintain at the objective as a smoke boat pool for assignment to fire support ships, tankers and other ships not equipped with their own boats. It will be necessary that boats be assigned exclusively as smoke boats to allow for upkeep during the daytime; utility LCVPs of the boat pool cannot double as smoke boats at night. Smoke boats and crews for the pool will normally be taken from transports departing the area. A nucleus of trained personnel should be part of the permanent boat pool staff, including trained officers who will supervise the smoke boat pool operations and repair personnel trained in maintaining smoke generators. Spare parts of minor generator repairs will be part of the boat pool equipment.
- Navy Fog Oil (Navy Fog Fluid No. 1) and Army Fog Oil (SFG-1) is a medium weight all petroleum distillate lubricating type oil without additives. The following lubricating oil may be used as substitutes when necessary: 2190, 3050, 3065, 2134, 2110. Either 1100 or 3080 may be used if diluted with 25 per cent Diesel Oil. Only in cases of extreme emergency may 9000 service lube oil be used in Besler and York-Hession generators, and never in Todd Generators. After such use for several hours, the Besler boiler coil must be replaced and the York-Hession atomizer nozzle must be cleaned. Diesel oil will not produce a persistent fog and its use alone is never recommended. In emergencies, to "stretch the supply" of fog oil, Diesel oil (up to 50 per cent of the mixture) may be mixed with fog oil or any acceptable substitute. Mixing Diesel oil with fog oil reduces the effectiveness of smoke in approximately a direct ratio to the percentage of Diesel oil used.
Section 5. Stowage and Safety Precautions for Chemical Smoke Munitions
- HC smoke mixtures, used in all smoke floats and pots, are subject to spontaneous combustion when wet, do not require oxygen in burning, and produce a smoke which is toxic when concentrated in confined spaces. The stowage must be:
- Easily jettisonable.
- Protected from the weather.
- White phosphorous filling (WP), used in most smoke projectiles, ignites spontaneously on contact with air. WP projectiles should be stowed in separate magazines or should be clearly separated if stowed with other munitions, so as to permit ready access.
- Safety precautions include:
- Careful handling to preserve water and air tight integrity of containers.
- Personnel exposed to HC smoke in heavy concentration or unclosed spaces should wear rescue breathing apparatus, or if it is not available, gas masks.
- In the event of fire with HC Munitions:
- Jettison if possible. Asbestos gloves and rescue breathing apparatus or gas masks must be kept readily available near stowage and in smoke boats for this purpose.
- Flood with large volumes of water to prevent ignition of nearby munitions. (Foamite and carbon dioxide are not affective).
- In the event of fire with WP munitions:
- Flood with water and jettison. Personnel should be completely covered by wet clothing, including wet gloves. (Gas masks should be worn in case of long exposure to concentrated WP smoke).
- Clean magazine thoroughly. As long as the white phosphorous is wet it will not burn, but once dried out it will again ignite.
- Safety precautions in fog generator operation will be taken in accordance with enclosure (A) of AdComPhibsPac Confidential Circular Letter AL-163 of 11 June 1945.
Section 6. Smoke Allowance
- Smoke allowance will be established by current directives.
Section 7. Sample Smoke Plan and Special Smoke Plans for Assault
ANNEX TO COMMANDER TASK FORCE ATTACK ORDER SMOKE PLAN
- Wind -- At __________ winds varying between east and southeast occur during (April) and (May) approximately eighty per cent of the time. Seventy-five per cent of these winds have a velocity of one to eight knots and twenty-five percent have a velocity of eight to sixteen knots.
- Ships and boats will be provided with combat operational allowance of smoke equipment and supplies in accordance with Transport Doctrine.
- General data on smoke and standard procedure for its use will be found in the Transport Doctrine.
- This force will lay smoke when directed during the operation in order to:
- Assist landing forces to land with minimum casualties.
- Screen own forces from attack by aircraft and gunfire.
- Assist minesweeping operations.
- Assist underwater demolition operations.
- Deny the enemy knowledge of the exact movements of our forces.
- Assist troops in operations ashore.
- Support Aircraft (frequency Kc primary, Kc secondary) provide planes on station at Point __________, in accordance with the following schedule:
- During underwater demolition operations, three planes equipped with FS Smoke tanks and three with clusters, M25 of HC smoke bombs, M77.
- D-Day, three planes equipped with FS smoke tanks and three with HC smoke bombs from H-60 to H+120.
If planes are required to lay smoke near landing beaches or in bombardment areas, plan NEGAT will be observed by naval gunfire, unless planes drop smoke bombs from over 1500, in which case plan VICTOR will be observed.
- Fire Support group fire WP shells, FS rockets or 4.2 CW mortar shell (WP) into designated Target Areas when directed.
- Minesweeper Group conduct smoking missions during minesweeping operations as directed by Senior Minesweeping Officer concerned. Except in emergencies, authority to use smoke must be obtained from OTC.
- Requests for smoke may be initiated by control officers, gunfire support craft, flotilla commanders, and commanding officers of Regimental Combat Teams, using gunfire control nets wherever practicable. Requests for aircraft smoke may be made over support gunfire control nets and orders to smoker planes will be coordinated by the OTC. Requests for smoke screens over land will be cleared with the Landing Force Commander by the OTC.
- Any plane or vessel equipped for smoke may be ordered, within the limitations of subparagraph (1) of paragraph 3(c) above, to lay a smoke screen making a run on a definite course from a point of origin designated on the Gunnery Target Map.
Example of order:
"Lay smoke screen. Origin Target Area 9674H. Run on Course 290° true, 3000 yards, minimum altitude, maximum speed."
- Any vessel equipped for smoke may be ordered, within the limitations of subparagraph (1) of paragraph 3(c) above, to lay a smoke screen in accordance with signals from CSP 734.
- When directed, all vessels concerned execute the Smoke Plan for transport Areas and Anchorages, Appendix 1.
- When directed vessels concerned execute Special Smoke Plans, Appendix 2.
- This force will be accompanied to the objective by a smoke supply vessel LST_____, ARLs_____ and _____ will provide facilities and parts for smoke generator repairs at the objective.
- Communications as in basic attack order as supplemented in Appendices 1 and 2 to the Annex.
- Smoke plan for Transport Area and Anchorages for Protection against Air Raids.
- Special Smoke Plans and Diagrams.
Appendix 1 to Annex ________ to CTF ________ Attack Order ________.
SMOKE PLAN FOR TRANSPORT AREAS AND ANCHORAGES
- The smoke plan for Transport Areas and Anchorages will be executed in accordance with Transport Doctrine, as modified by this Appendix.
- Prior to sundown, Commander Task Force _____ will station ships in proper positions for smoke cover and will detail smokers as necessary to individual ships.
- Available LCI types will be assigned by Commander Task Group _____ (Commander Support Craft) to the Commander Night Objective Task Unit _____ (LCI Smoker Unit), and will keep station in line to windward of heavy ships under his direction.
- On direction of Commander Task Force _____, Smoke Generator Beach Detachment _____ (the _____ Chemical Warfare Smoke Company) will be landed with equipment and will set up smoke generators at intervals behind the beaches. Beach generators will be operated under the direction of the Force Beachmaster, Commander Task Unit _____. Should there be any doubt as to the advisability of making smoke on the beaches because of the tactical situation ashore, smoke will not be made without the approval of the troop commander in the sector affected.
- The smoke boat pool for the _____ anchorage will be established on order of Commander Task Force _____ and will operate as a part of Boat Pool _____, in accordance with Annex _____, "Boat Pool Plan." Boats and trained smoke crews will be taken from designated transports departing from the area, and at the time of transfer will be completely equipped for smoke in accordance with Transport Doctrine and fitted with machine guns for use in patrol duties.
EXECUTION OF PLAN
- When warning of a possible air raid is received, all ships and smoke boats will be alert and ready to execute this plan expeditiously when directed.
- The order "Make Smoke" will be given over normal communication channels by the OTC. When the order is given, all ships will start smoke generators. Smoke boats will make smoke, utilizing pots or smoke generators and floats to windward of their parent vessel. Ships will maintain strict discipline in smoking, particularly at dusk; "Flash red" conditions must not be taken as an order for smoking unless accompanied by the order "Make Smoke."
SKETCH I for APPENDIX 2 to ANNEX _____ to CTF _____
ATTACK ORDER _____
(Contour Interval -- 50 feet)
SPECIAL SMOKE PLANS -- ABLE AND BAKER
Plan ABLE (Not suitable if wind is north or easterly -- 350° to 110°T) Run 1 - TBF smoker #1 drop 10 clusters of M77 HC bombs in train at 150 ft. intervals, as indicated by figures (1,1,1, etc.); approach in dive as though on strike mission, drop from 1500 ft. Naval gunfire observe plan VICTOR for target areas 9731 E and 9632 F. If wind is southerly, move line of impact southwestward. Run 2 - TBF smoker #2 drop clusters, after Run #1, along ridge as indicated by figures (2,2,2, etc.) to cover upper part of hill. If wind is southerly, the line of impact centers will be shifted to southern side of ridge. Other procedures same as for run #1. Run 3 - TBF smoker #3, if specifically ordered to do so, reinforce or extend the life of the screen, dropping bombs in positions indicated by performance of smoke from earlier drops. Plan BAKER (Not suitable if wind is westerly or northerly -- 260° to 70°T) Run 1 - TBF smoker #1 drop 10 HC clusters as indicated, using same procedures as in Plan ABLE, except that interval between clusters will be 300 feet. Run 2 - TBF smoker #2 drop along line indicated, at intervals of 250 ft., making run simultaneously with smoker #1. Run 3 - TBF smoker #3, if specifically ordered, reinforce or extend the life of the screen, dropping bombs as for Run 1, unless performance of smoke from earlier drops indicates that another position is more desirable.
Appendix 2 to Annex ________ to CTF ________ Attack Order ________.
SPECIAL SMOKE PLANS
- Units will be prepared to execute on order the special smoke plans indicated in attached sketches, as follows:
- Plan ABLE -- planes screen hill at Target Area _____ on right flank of landing beaches, using HC smoke clusters, M77. Screen will be effective for 8 to 10 minutes; its life may be extended for an additional 10 minutes by the reserve smoker #3 (see sketch ONE).
- Plan BAKER -- planes screen ridge behind left flank of landing beaches, using HC smoke clusters, M77. The same effective life may be expected as for plan ABLE (see Sketch ONE).
- Plan CHARLIE -- planes lay screen between Transport Area DOG and ________ peninsula, using FS spray tanks. Mortar Support Divisions TWO and THREE, or other designated support divisions, using oil fog generators and floating smoke pots, maintain screen initiated by planes. (sketch, not shown, will be similar to figures 3 and 4 above, adapted to the specific operations).
- Plan DOG -- during run to beach and subsequent call for assignment, Mortar Support Division ONE, on left flank, will be prepared to lay smoke, on designated targets, using 4.2 CW mortar, WP-filled, or to lay smoke over water with smoke generators and smoke floats as directed. (Sketch, not shown, will be similar to figures 6 and 7 above).
- Play EASY -- Mortar Support Division THREE, on right flank, will be prepared to perform tasks corresponding to Plan DOG on the left flank. (Sketch, not shown, will be similar to figures 7 and 7 above).
Section 8. Smoke References
- CominCh Conf. Publication, CominCh P-04. Subject: "Smoke for Amphibious Operations".
- BuOrd Rest. O.P. 1042 of 23 Sept. 1943, Subject: "Chemical Smoke Munitions".
- ComPhibsPac Sec. CL No. AL-44 of 9 June 1945. Subject: "Use of Smoke in Screening Anchorages Against Enemy Air Attack at Night".
- ComPhibsPac Conf. CL No. AL-42 of 10 May 1945. Subject: "Policy for Providing Smoke Equipment including Fog Generator Spare Parts".
- AdComPhibsPac Rest. CL No. AL-164, Ser. 15853 of 18 June 1945. Subject: "Guard and Canvas Covers for Fog Generators -- Construction of".
- BuOrd CL No. A348-43 of 17 May 1945. Subject: "Precautions to take with Smoke Munitions".
- BuOrd Conf. ltr. No. A30-42 of 28 Nov. 42. Subject: "Smoke Float Mk 1".
- BuOrd Rest. CL AV3-44 of 17 Jan. 1944. Subject: "Chemical Smoke Munitions".
- War Dept. Technical Manual TM1-282 of 27 Feb. 1942. Subject: "Tactics and technique of Oil Chemical Spraying".
Table of Contents * Previous Chapter (29) * Next Chapter (31)