Chapter VII
Landing Boat Training


Section 1. General
Section 2. Basic Boat Training
Section 3. Advanced Boat Group Training
Section 4. Special Landing Boat Training
Section 5. Landing Boat Training Exercises

Section 1. General

  1. The requisites for the training of boat crews are set forth in FTP 211, Chapter IV, paragraph 412. The material contained herein is submitted for use in the training of the landing boat personnel of vessels and boat pools of this Force. The Commanding Officers of vessels to which landing boat crews are assigned and the officers-in-charge of boat pools will be responsible for the continuous training and development of boat crews. The provisions of this chapter are to supplement those instructions and to establish landing boat training standards of this Force.

  2. The Boat Group Commander and the Boat Division Officers will carry out a continuous boat crew training program, as directed, and will indoctrinate all boat personnel in the customs of the Naval Service and duties on shipboard.

  3. In order to preserve the boat crew as a well-organized team, boat personnel will be permanently assigned to specific crews and boat stations. Landing boat personnel will not be assigned to duty in assault operations until deemed fully qualified in the standards of Basic and Advanced Training, as set forth in Sections 2 and 3 of this chapter.

Section 2. Basic Boat Training

  1. Basic boat training will consist of the training and development of landing boat personnel in seamanship and the practical handling of landing boats.

  2. The Basic training of landing boat crews is set forth in the following syllabus:

    1. Seamanship.

      1. Marlinspike seamanship.

        1. Care of line.

        2. Knots and their uses.

        3. Splices and whipping.

        4. Bow and stern lines.

        5. Use of and proper methods of securing lines.

        6. Securing a boat.

        7. Anchoring.

        8. Use of bow painter.


      1. Nautical terms and phrases.

        1. Landing boat nomenclature.

        2. Ship nomenclature.

        3. Tactical terms.

      2. Description and Use and Stowage of Boat Equipment.

        1. Compass.

          1. Care and upkeep.

          2. Fundamental of steering.

        2. Fenders.

        3. Boat hooks.

        4. Emergency tiller.

        5. Fire extinguishers.

        6. Anchors.

        7. Life preservers and helmets.

      3. Ramp Mechanism.

        1. Operation in lowering and hoisting.

        2. Rigging and operation of ramp hoisting gear.

      4. Lowering and hoisting of landing boats.

        1. Securing and opening of sea cocks.

    1. Piloting.

      1. Steering and maintenance of course by use of magnetic compass.

      2. Use of Pelorus and determination of bearings.

      3. Description and use of stadimeter; determination of distance and interval (See Sec. 412, FTP 167.).

      4. Bearings, courses, measuring distances.

      5. Use and reading of charts.

      6. Use of current and tide tables.

      7. Rules of Road and landing craft rules of road.

      8. Buoyage systems.

      9. Sounding exercises -- with lead and pole.

      10. Familiarization with boat channel and obstruction markings.

    2. Boat Handling and Tactical Maneuvering.

      1. Steering.

      2. Speed control.

      3. Backing down, action of rudder and propeller.

      4. Boat advance.

      5. Effect of rudder.

      6. Effect of load on board.

      7. Use of rudder and engine in coming alongside.

      8. Use of rudder and engine in beaching and retracting.

      9. Use of rudder and engine to avoid broaching.

      10. Simple maneuvering.

      11. Beaching in surf. (FTP 211, Chapter XI).

      12. Retracting in surf. (FTP 211, Chapter XI).

      13. Operation of the LCM(3). [See also Skill in the Surf).

        1. Effect of twin screws (See Sec. 1103, Chapter XI, FTP 211).

      14. Tactical maneuvering by divisions, waves and groups.

      15. Exercise at station keeping -- at proper distance and interval.


      1. Exercise at tactical boat formations.

      2. Exercise at beaching by division and by waves.

      3. Exercise at lowering and raising of ramp and speedy retraction clear of other landing boats.

    1. Landing boat engine operation and maintenance. (See FTP 211, Chapter X, Section 5).

      1. Preparation of engine for starting.

      2. Exercise of safety precautions.

      3. Use of clutch and reversing mechanism.

      4. Care of fuel filters and sand traps.

      5. Normal operating temperatures and pressures.

      6. Purging fuel oil system of air.

      7. Lubrication.

      8. Emergency repairs.

      9. General engine upkeep.

      10. Keeping of engine records.

    2. Landing boat upkeep and maintenance.

      1. Preparations for sea.

      2. Hull maintenance and repair.

      3. Painting and preservation.

      4. Painting of designating numbers.

      5. Watertight integrity.

      6. Maintenance of ramp mechanism.

    3. Landing Boat Communications (See FTP 167, Chapter IV, Sec. 445, and FTP 211, Chapter VIII).

      1. Prosigns.

      2. Semaphore and Blinker.

      3. Ship to Shore tactical signals (day and night).

      4. Boat calls (day and night).

      5. Flags.

        1. International code of flags and special Navy flags and pennants.

        2. Use of special flags.

        3. Carried by boats in tactical formation.

        4. Beach markers (day and night).

        5. Use of landing boat radio circuits.

Section 3. Advanced Boat Group Training

  1. The purpose of advanced boat group training is to qualify boat crews with basic boat training in the duties which they must execute as part of the boat group in the ship to shore movement. The elements of this training will comprise thorough knowledge of the boat group organization, its functions, duties and tactical procedure during the landing attack.

  2. Syllabus of Advanced Boat Group Training.


    1. The Organization of the Boat Group (See FTP 211, Chapter IV).

      1. The boat division and duties and responsibilities of the boat division officer.

      2. The boat wave and the duties and responsibilities of the boat wave commander.

      3. The Boat Assignment Table and the development of the boat group.

      4. The boat group and the duties and responsibilities of the Boat Group Commander and the Assistant Boat Group Commander.

    2. Preparation of the boat group for assault operation.

      1. Material inspection of landing boats.

      2. Preparation of landing boats for use. (See FTP 211, Paragraph 1033).

      3. Study of intelligence data concerning nature of landing beaches and conditions of current, wind, sea and tide to be anticipated in the approaches thereto.

      4. Study of the landing diagrams, approach schedule and the tactical employment of landing boats in the landing attack.

      5. Location and designation of debarkation stations.

    3. The duties of the boat group in the transport area.

      1. Debarkation stations and the rail loading of landing boats.

      2. The lowering and loading of landing boats under varying conditions of sea.

      3. Compliance with the boat assignment table.

      4. Movement to the assembly area and the keeping of assigned station therein.

      5. Signals from transport debarkation stations.

      6. Coming alongside transport and reporting to debarkation and unloading stations.

      7. The embarkation of troops and the loading of cargo.

      8. The securing of cargo in the landing boat.

      9. Movement to the rendezvous area.

    4. The Boat Group in the Rendezvous Area.

      1. The function and location of control vessels.

      2. Designation of boat waves.

      3. The formation of wave circles and station keeping in the rendezvous area.

    5. Movement of boat waves from rendezvous area to line of departure.

      1. Boat wave formations, column, open vee, closed vee.

      2. Maintenance of course and speed.

      3. Keeping station, interval and distance.

    6. Boat Group at the line of departure.

      1. Formation of wave circles and station keeping until dispatched.


      1. Procedure at line of departure and duties of control vessels.

      2. Dispatch of boat waves.

    1. Movement of landing boats from line of departure to line of transfer.

      1. Boat wave formations.

      2. Maintenance of course and speed.

      3. Keeping of interval and distance.

      4. Maintenance of station in vicinity of line of transfer until signalled for personnel or cargo transfer.

      5. Transfer of troops and cargo to landing vehicle tracked or amphibian truck [DUKW].

      6. Movement from transfer area to transport area, clear of incoming landing boats.

    2. Movements from Line of Departure to beach.

      1. Dispatch signals.

      2. Maintenance of course and speed.

      3. Keeping of station designated in landing diagram with proper interval and distance.

      4. Response to tactical maneuvering signals of boat wave commander.

      5. Recognition of channel markings to beach and beach markers.

    3. Beaching.

      1. Approach to beach under existing conditions of wind, surf, tide, sea, or current.

      2. Beach designations and markings.

      3. Speedy lowering of ramp and discharge of troops or cargo.

      4. Methods of unloading various types of cargo and equipment.

      5. Raising of ramp and retraction from beach to nearest flank, clear of incoming traffic.

    4. Duties and functions of Beachmaster and the beach party (FTP 211, Chapter VII).

      1. Scope of authority.

      2. Boat unloading and dispatch from beach.

    5. Post-assault unloading operations.

      1. Movement to designated boat assembly area.

      2. Shuttle movement of landing boats.

      3. Functions of traffic control boat.

    6. First aid and evacuation of casualties by use of landing boats (FTP 211, Chapter XIII, FTP 167, Chapter IX).


      1. First aid -- boat crew.

      2. Medical Section of beach party.

        1. Construction and use of Miles-Harris Dual-litter sling.

        2. Construction and use of "Salmon Board Sling".

        3. Construction and use of "One Man Sling".

    1. Security and all around defense.

      1. Operation of landing boat machine guns.

      2. Procedure in the event of fire from the shore.

      3. Procedure in the event of air attack.

      4. Procedure in the event of surface craft attack.

      5. Safety precautions.
      Communications (FTP 167, Chapter IV, Section 445, FTP 211, Chapter VIII).

      1. The landing boat control circuit and circuit discipline.

      2. Voice procedure.

Section 4. Special Landing Boat Training

  1. When underwater obstructions prohibit the direct movement of landing boats to the landing beach and when the tactical plan requires the use of LVTs and DUKWs for the movement of troops, supplies, and equipment to the beach, landing boats are employed as guide boats for the LVT and DUKW waves and must be trained in the maintenance of course and speed and station keeping in guiding the LVT or DUKW wave to the line of transfer or the limits of landing boat navigation.

  2. LVTs and DUKWs require frequent fueling during extended operations. In the case of LVTs, an adequate fuel supply is required to insure the security of the vehicle itself. Landing boats designated as LVT and DUKW Fuel Carriers must be trained in coming alongside and expeditiously fueling of LVTs and DUKWs.

  3. Landing boats used by the hydrographic section of the beach party should receive special instructions in operations during the conduct of hydrographic reconnaissance, sounding and marking of channels and beach approaches.

  4. All landing boat personnel should be thoroughly trained in the fundamentals of landing boat salvage. (See Chapter XII, FTP 211).

  5. Personnel of landing boats designated as shallow water minesweeping boats should be thoroughly indoctrinated and trained in the fundamentals of minesweeping, the rigging of minesweeping gear, and the handling and disposal of mines.

Section 5. Landing Boat Training Exercises

  1. The landing boat training exercises set forth in Chapter XLI, Training Exercises, includes exercises designed to facilitate the training of landing boat personnel. These exercises and all landing boat training will be executed in conformity with the provisions of Chapter IV, Landing Boat Operations and Tactics.


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