United States Navy
UNITED STATES FLEET
Headquarters of the Commander in Chief
Table of Contents
Page Preface vii Chapter 1 The Human Element in Naval Strength 1 Chapter 2 Command and Operations: Section I -- General comment 3 Section II -- Command 3 Section III -- Initiative 4 Section IV -- Naval directives 4 Section V -- Information 5 Section VI -- Cooperation with Army, with Allies, and with Merchant Marine 6 Section VII -- Doctrines of action 6 Chapter 3 Bases: Section I -- Protection of naval units at a base 9 Chapter 4 Individual Ship Readiness: Section I -- Conditions of readiness 11 Section II -- Darkening ship 11 Section III -- Lights 12 Section IV -- Speed requirements 12 Section V -- Material casualty 12 Section VI -- Exhaustion of fuel and ammunition 12 Chapter 5 General Instructions for Communications, Contact Reports, Recognition and Identification, Radar, Aviation Personnel Rescue: Section I -- Communications 13 Section II -- Contact reports 13 Section III -- Recognition and identification 16 Section IV -- Combat information center 17 Section V -- Radar 17 Section VI -- Air sea rescue provisions for aviation personnel 18 Chapter 6 Dispositions and Instructions: Section I -- Requirements of cruising dispositions 19 Section II -- Selection of cruising dispositions 19 Section III -- Forms of cruising dispositions 20 Section IV -- Covering force 23 Section V -- Miscellaneous instructions 23 Section VI -- Convoys 24 Section VII -- Scouting 25 Chapter 7 Action Against Submarines, Aircraft, Mines, Chemicals: Section I -- Antisubmarine measures 29 Section II -- Antiaircraft measures 30 Section III -- Mines 33 Section IV -- Chemical defense 34 Chapter 8 Night Actions: Section I -- General 35 Section II -- Night battle plans 36 Section III -- Use of star shells and searchlights 37 Section IV -- Night action instructions 39 Chapter 9 Employment of Submarines: Section I -- Submarine characteristics 43 Section II -- Submarine tactics 43 Section III -- Doctrine of general employments 44 Section IV -- Submarine operation in conjunction with other types 46 Section V -- Submarines cruising in company with or in the vicinity of friendly forces 47 Chapter 10 Aircraft Operations: Section I -- Aircraft employment 49 Section II -- Forms of air attack 49 Section III -- Tactics of attacking aircraft 50 Section IV -- Aircraft operating in the vicinity of friendly ships 50 Section V -- Night operations 51 Chapter 11 Sortie and Entry: Section I -- General 53 Section II -- Sortie 54 Section III -- Entry 55 Chapter 12 Major Action: Forward 57 Section I -- Task groups for a major action 57 Section II -- Initial contact 59 Section III -- The approach 59 Section IV -- Battle task groups during approach 60 Section V -- Forces in contact 63 Section VI -- Deployment 64 Section VII -- Battle dispositions 66 Section VIII -- Battle plans 67 Section IX -- Types of major actions 68 Section X -- General instructions for battle task groups in major actions 70 Section XI -- Fire distribution 76 Section XII -- Torpedo instructions 78 Section XIII -- Smoke screens in battle 79 Section XIV -- Own vessels disabled in action 80 Section XV -- Flagship disabled in action 81 Section XVI -- Enemy vessels disabled in action 81 Section XVII -- Aircraft disabled in action 81 Section XVIII -- Assistance to disabled vessels during action 82 Section XIX -- Rescue of survivors during action 83 Section XX -- Night attacks before main engagement 83 Section XXI -- Normal action 83 Section XXII -- Reverse action 86 Section XXIII -- Day pursuit action 88 Section XXIV -- Retirement action 90 Section XXV -- Delay action 92 Section XXVI -- Withdrawal action 93 Section XXVII -- Night action 95 Chapter 13 Procedure Following a Day Engagement: Section I -- General 99 Section II -- Chase 100 Section III -- Disabled vessels after action 101 Section IV -- Assistance to disabled vessels and rescue of survivors after action 101 Chapter 14 Amphibious Operations: Section I -- Definition, purpose, and scope 103 Section II -- Organization 103 Section III -- Command relationship 104 Section IV -- Major group tasks 105 Section V -- Plans 105 Section VI -- Training 106 Section VII -- General 106 Index 107
UNITED STATES FLEET,
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF,
Washington 25, D.C., 1 November 1944.
F.T.P. 143 (A)
- War Instructions, 1944 (F.T.P. 143 (A)), is approved for the use and guidance of the Naval Service, and is effective upon receipt. Its purpose, scope and applicability is as set forth in the preface.
- This publication supersedes War Instructions, 1934 (F.T.P. 143), copies of which shall be destroyed by burning. No report of destruction is required.
- F.T.P. 143 (A) is a [formerly] confidential [but now declassified], non-registered publication which shall be transported, handled and stowed as prescribed by Article 76, U.S. Navy Regulations, 1920, and the Registered Publication Manual.
- IT IS FORBIDDEN TO MAKE EXTRACTS OR COPY THIS PUBLICATION WITHOUT SPECIFIC AUTHORITY FROM THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY, OR CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS, EXCEPT AS PROVIDED FOR IN THE REGISTERED PUBLICATION MANUAL. [Unlimited distribution of this document is authorized since its declassification.]
- The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (Registered Publication Section) has cognizance of the distribution of this publication.
- This publication shall not be carried for use in aircraft.
Commander in Chief, United States Fleet,
and Chief of Naval Operations.
War Instructions 1944, derived from experience, is issued to indoctrinate officers in a common concept of naval combat warfare, and fighting procedures. Acceptance and understanding of these basic principles reduces the necessity for detailed instructions in orders.
War Instructions 1944 defines the doctrine of command, operation of ships and fleets, and encounters with the enemy. All paragraphs assume that there is a state of war or armed resistance, actual or probable.
Amplification of this doctrine, with application to specific circumstances, is found in Navy Regulations, General Tactical Instructions, Current Tactical Orders and Doctrine U.S. Fleet, and other appropriate publications.
The publication Joint Action of the Army and Navy defines the assigned common mission of the Army and Navy, the general functions of the two services, and the demarcation between them. The Joint Chiefs of Staff may establish specific joint functions and command relationships by addition to or modification of the general directives of the above publication.
War Instructions 1944 do not limit in any respect the authority of a fleet or force commander to issue supplementary instructions or to suspend within his command the provisions of any paragraph. In the absence of such modifications, lower echelon commanders are governed by the instructions contained herein.