SECRETINFORMATION BULLETIN NO. 22
BATTLE FOR LEYTE GULF
(A) BATTLE OF SURIGAO STRAIT (B) BATTLE OFF SAMAR (C) BATTLE OFF CAPE ENGANO
(EAST OF LUZON)
23-27 OCTOBER 1944
THIS BULLETIN AND THE INFORMATION CONTAINED
HEREIN MUST NOT FALL INTO THE HANDS OF THE ENEMY
UNITED STATES FLEET
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF
UNITED STATES FLEET
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF
WASHINGTON 25, D.C.
1 March 1945
These bulletins on "Battle Experience" are issued for the general information of officers.
They are planned to promulgate reliable information concerning actual war experience. Any adverse comment made, is not intended to reflect criticism on any individual but to assist officers in appreciating the best line of action in many circumstances.
It is inevitable that there would be considerable delay if complete analysis were made before issue to the Fleet. Comments that are made in these bulletins represent those expressions of opinion from responsible sources that were available at the time the particular operation under discussion was completed.
Studies are continuing to the end that divergent views may be reconciled and complete analysis made.
Encounters with the enemy discussed in these bulletins, are generally presented in their chronological order. it will be apparent that "lessons learned" during the earlier part of the war were put to good advantage in subsequent engagements.
Air combat actions, antisubmarine experiences, submarine patrol experiences, amphibious operations and technical gunnery experiences are not specifically covered in this bulletin.
Material contained in these bulletins was drawn largely from war diaries, and battle reports of various commanders and ships.
These bulletins are
SECRETand shall be safeguarded in accordance with the provisions of Article 76, U.S. Navy Regulations, 1920. They should be widely circulated among commissioned personnel.
When no longer required they shall be destroyed by burning. No report of destruction need be submitted.
Transmission by registered Guard Mail or U.S. registered mail is authorized in accordance with Article 76 (15) (e) and (f), U.S. Navy Regulations.
C.M. COOKE, Jr.,
Chief of Staff.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface 1 Composition of Forces 2 Charts: Japanese Fleet Approaches 3 Three-Pronged Battle of Philippines Sea 4 Results of Battle 8 Box Score 9 Time Table 9 Preliminary Events 10 Plans 14 Chart: Type "A" Battle Disposition for Small Task Forces 16 Narrative 17 Battle of Surigao Strait 17 Charts: Sequence of Contacts with enemy Ships Attempting Entry of LEYTE Gulf 18 Track of Night Action 19 USS Daly Track 22 Battle East of Samar 25 Charts: T.U. 77.4.3 Track 27 Composite Plot of T.U. 77.4.1, 77.4.2, 77.4.3 Tracks 28 Probable Formation of Japanese Fleet 44 Battle East of Luzon 38 Chart: USS Lexington Track 39 General Recapitulation 43 Highlights of Philippines Fleet Action 45 Photographic Section I - Aerial Strikes on FORMOSA, 12-14 October 1944 Ia II - Enemy Southern Force, SULU SEA, 24 October 1944 IIa III - Enemy Central Force, SIBUYAN SEA, 24 October 1944 IIIa IV - Sinking of the Princeton, 24 October 1944 IVa V - Japanese Cripples from Battle of SURIGAO STRAIT, 25 October 1944 Va VI - Our CVEs Under Fire, East of SAMAR, 25 October 1944 VIa VII - Our Ships Under Suicide Attacks VIIa VIII - Japanese Northern Force, 25 October 1944 VIIIa Comments, Lessons Learned, Recommendations and Conclusions Aerial Photography 47 Air Support 47 Ammunition 48 Allowance 48 Disposition 50 Empties 50 Expenditure 50 Performance 51 Ammunition Ships -- Loading of 51 Anti-Aircraft Defense 51 Anti-Aircraft Dispositions 52 Approach Procedure for Friendly Planes 55 Assessment of Damage Inflicted by Air Attack 55 Attacking Planes 56 Easing Aircraft Ashore 56 Battle Damage -- Lack of 56 Bombs -- Effectiveness of Against Enemy Heavy Ships 56 Carrier Searches 57 Carriers in Northern Enemy Force 57 Casualty Drill 57 CL(AA)s 58 Combat Fatigue 58 CIC 58 Fighter Direction and Radar 58 General 61 Identification by IFF 64 Position reports 64 Radar 64 Radar Control Limitations 68 Radar Deception 69 Radar Equipment 70 Radar Spares 70 Station Keeping 71 Communications 71 Circuits 71 Eliminate difficulty of Understanding Voice Circuit Names 73 Equipment 73 General 74 Jamming 75 Plain Language -- Use of 75 Radio Traffic 76 Relay Communication Planes 77 Security 77 Support Air Radio Center 77 TBS 78 VHF Aircraft Frequencies 79 Visual 80 Communication Troubles 80 Contact Reports 81 Control Officers Completely Informed 81 Cooperation by Aircraft 81 CVE Limitations and Recommended Protection 81 Damage Control 82 Defense Against Japanese Low-Flying Torpedo Attacks 84 Destroyer Escort Carry a Doctor 84 Doctrine 84 "Don't Give Up the Ship" 85 Emergency Antennae 85 Enemy Aerial Torpedoes 85 Enemy Air Operations 85 Enemy Anti-Aircraft 86 Enemy Gunnery 87 Enemy Radar 88 Enemy Radio 89 Enemy Tactics 89 Enemy Torpedo Attack 91 Enemy's Plan Fails 92 Engine Room Personnel 92 Fire Hazards -- Elimination of 92 Flag Plot Internal Communications 92 Forming a Large Disposition in Darkness 93 Fueling 93 Going Alongside Damaged Ships 93 Gunnery 94 Effectiveness 94 Fire Control 94 Fire Discipline 95 Fire Distribution 96 Orders 96 Restriction 96 Salvo Fire 97 Inadequacy of Air Power Against Well-Armed Units 97 Japanese Fire Control 97 Japanese Language Officer 98 Japanese Pilots and Operations Personnel Demonstrate Understanding of Certain Principles 98 Japanese Striking Force Tactics, "Know Your Enemy" 98 Japanese Survivors 99 Laying Traps 99 Liquid loading 100 Loss of Gunpower 100 Medical Department Recommendations 100 Napalm 101 Navigation 101 Night Operations and "Dishpan" Lights 101 Ordnance Material -- Performance of 102 Own Tactics 104 Photographic Records 107 Planes Failed to Stay Together in Groups 107 Priority of Targets 107 PT Boats for Reconnaissance 107 Rations 107 Rescue of Aviation Personnel 108 Smoke, Camouflage and Deception 108 Suicide Attacks 109 "Suicide" Attacks -- Summary of Defensive Measures Against 120 Supply 121 Survivors 121 Tactical Commander's Battle Station 121 Target Coordinator 122 Time 122 Torpedo Attacks and Gunfire Attacks of Destroyers and Cruisers 122 Torpedoes 122 Towing Fleet Units 123 Training 124 Weather 125 Wind -- Direction of 125 Window 125
List of Effective Pages
Page Promulgating Letter I Table of Contents III, IV, V inclusive List of Effective Pages VI Chapter 78 1 to 45 inclusive Photographic Section I Ia to Id inclusive Photographic Section II IIa to IIf inclusive Photographic Section III IIIa to IIIj inclusive Photographic Section IV IVa to IVd inclusive Photographic Section V Va to Vf inclusive Photographic Section VI VIa to VInn inclusive Photographic Section VII VIIa to VIIIt inclusive Photographic Section VIII VIIIa to VIIIn inclusive Chapter 78 47 to 125 inclusive
Blank pages: II, 46, Ib, IIb, IIf, IIIb, IVb, IVd, Vb, Vf, VIb, VInn, VIIb VIIt, VIIIb.