NOTE: This Operation Plan was transcribed from COPY NO. 1016, typed 60 years ago. The pages have aged, the type is not always clear, and the text has been amended by hand-written notes (which will be shown in green, although it is not always clear where the hand-written notes are additions, or corrections or simply clarify faint text. Deleted text (strike-thru) is displayed in [grey].
Every reasonable step has been taken to preserve the original formatting, pagination, spelling, etc., but allowances should always be made for the possibility of errors in my transcription. --HyperWar
ANNEX "L" TO COMMANDER ALLIED NAVAL FORCES, SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA OPERATION PLAN NO. 13-44.
- Geographical Reference Points and Code Names.
- Traffic Routes, Fueling Areas and Sea Operating Areas. (Chart).
- Time and Distance Tables.
- Approach Channels, Harbor Operating Areas and Areas of Responsibility.
- Submarine Safety Lanes, Life Guard Stations, Operating Areas, Bombing Restriction Areas.
- Hydrographic Information.
- Aerological Information.
APPENDIX 1 TO ANNEX "L" TO COMMANDER ALLIED NAVAL FORCES, SOUTHWEST OPERATION PLAN THIRTEEN DASH FORTY-FOURGeographical Reference Points and Code Names.
- Reference Points for reporting positions assigned by Commander Allied Naval Forces for use in this operation:
ALLURE 02-32 South 140-45 East BELOVE 05-00 North 135-00 East CHASTE 02-00 North 140-00 East DEBASE 00-00 135-00 East ELFISH 03-00 South 145-00 East FLUFFY 07-00 South 147-00 East GARGLE 03-00 North 129-00 East HOARSE 03-00 North 128-00 East INSULT 01-50 North 128-10 East JUMBLE 07-00 North 129-00 East KIMONO 08-00 North 127-00 East LEVITY 10-00 North 128-00 East MANTIS 10-30 North 126-00 East NESTLE 12-00 North 126-00 East ORACLE 02-00 North 126-00 East PARADE 04-00 North 127-00 East QUEASY 05-00 North 126-00 East REMISS 04-00 North 125-00 East SEANCE 06-00 North 127-00 East TRIBAL 05-00 North 128-00 East VIRTUE 15-00 North 125-00 East WREATH 15-00 North 123-00 East YARROW 02-00 South 147-00 East
- Routes in use
(Appendix to Annex "L")
Route Reference Points DUCK OWL, PET ALBATROSS CUB, ART GANNET LID, TED JAEGER NET, PIG, SAT, TED KING CUB, KEY, OIL, POT, LID LOVE RAG, POT NODDY BUG, ART PLOVER TIT, PIG SHEARWATER FOB, OWL, ART, TED, FIN FERN PUD, ART XRAY FOB, GIK, CUB ZEBRA BIF, CRY, DYE, EMU, FUN, GUP, HIT, JAY HAWK ART, VIM
- Reference Points along Traffic Routes.
Point Lat. Long (E) Point Lat. Long (E) A 11-07-42(N) 125-07-15 ALP 5-04(S) 145-53 GUP 2-51(S) 143-02 ANT 1-13(S) 136-15 HAN AKE HIT 2-41(S) 142-02 B 10-56(N) 125-08-09 HOE BAG ICE 1-55(S) 138-55 BED 4-50(S) 145-53 INK BIF 6-03.7(S) 147-49.9 IVY BIT JAW BOX JAY 2-30(S) 141-10 BOY JIB BUG 1-04(S) 136-30 JUG C 10-54(N) 125-19-40 KEY 126-(S) 138-50 CAB KID 2-32(S) 140-48 CRY 5-30(S) 146-44 LAP 1-15(S) 138-00 CUB 2-26(S) 140-46 LEG 0-13(S) 136-00 CYD LID 01-54(N) 128-51 DAM 4-53(S) 146-26 LIK 10-11-00(N) 125-11 DEV LUX DIF MAN DOT MEX 1-30(S) 136-45 DUD MOB DYE 5-23.8(S) 146-30(S) NET 13-27(N) 144-32 EEL NUT ELK 1-50(S) 138-59 NIB 1-20(S) 135-50 EGG OAK 0-48(S) 134-50 EMU 5-12.5(S) 146-10 ODE 0-05(S) 134-10 EST 10-30(N) 124-24-30 OIL 1-05(N) 133-00 ERG ORB 1-25.5(S) 136-21 FAT OTT 10-13-30(N) 125-20-00 FEE 5-37(S) 146-33 OWL 00-05(N) 145-05 FIN 10-29-30(N) 125-56-20 PAL 0-50(S) 134-47.5 FIR PET 02-40(N) 136-36 FLY PIG 10-48(N) 137-40 FOB 1-45(S) 147-00 PIN FOG POT 1-20(N) 131-28 FUN 3-10(S) 144-40 PUD 06-54(N) 133-55 GAR QUE 0-56(S) 134-47.5 GEM RAG 0-15(S) 132-05 GIG REB 10-35(N) 124-42-45 GIK 1-45(S) 146-00 ROD 1-50(N) 128-18 GUN SAT 09-50(N) 135-10 SKI 0-20(S) 132-05 SUN 1-59(N) 128-14 TED 09°-10'-00" 128°-39'-00" TIT 10-05(N) 139-35-00 TOP 0-23.5(S) 132-11 URN VIN 07-55(N) 134-30 WAY WOW 3-05(S) 142-27
- Reference Points in Approach Channel to LEYTE GULF.
Latitude Longitude Point A 11°-07'-42" N 125°-07'-15" E Point B 10°-56'-00" N 125°-08'-09" E Point C 10°-54'-00" N 125°-19'-40" E Point REB 10°-35'-00" N 125°-42'-45" E Point FIN 10°-28'-30" N 125°-56'-20" E Point EST 10°-30'-00" N 125°-24'-30" E Point OTT 10°l;-13'-30" N 125°-20'-00" E Point LIK 10°-11'-00" N 125°-11'-00" E
- Points delineating the Demarkation Line for Areas of Responsibility between Northern and Southern Attack Forces in LEYTE GULF.
(Appendix 4 to Annex "L")
East Coast LEYTE GULF from 11°-03-36' N 125°-02-18" to 11°-03-36" N 125°-04'-12" to 10°-41'-15" N 125°-33'-'08" to 10°-41'-15" N To the Eastward
- Operating Areas Established by CANF, SWPA. Enclosing the following Points:
CONDOR 13°-55' N
ACCIPITER 12°-20' N
TERCEL 12°-20' N
DOVE 09°-02' N
QUAIL 09°-25' N
- Third Fleet Operating Areas.
75 miles (N&S) x 150 miles (E&W)
Origin is NE corner
KIMONO RELAY 13°-00' N 11°-15' E 135°-40' E 135°-00' E
50 miles (N&S) x 100 miles (E&W)
Origin is NE corner
WOOD GAS KEROSENE 07°-00' N 6°-40' N 11°-15' N 130°-30' E 133°-00' E 130°-20' E ALCOHOL STERNO MICK 12°-10' N 15°-00' N 15°-00' N 133°-00' E 131°-40' E 130°-00' E
- Secret Code Names established for Interservice Use.
Code Geographical ACCENTUATE CANALASAN COVE (near GLAN), MINDANAO ACCOUTREMENT SULU SEA ACCUMULATION LEYTE ISLAND AFFECTATION KABACAN, MINDANAO AGGREGATE CELEBES AMATEUR COTABATO, MINDANAO AMATORY BRISBANE AMOROUS MAKASSAR STRAITS ANACONDA TRUK ARTERIAL WESTERN CAROLINES BANDAGE NEGROS ISLAND (10N-123E) BEQUEST YAP ISLAND BEWITCH HOLLANDIA BICARBONATE SEEADLER HARBOR BINDWEED BOEROE ISLAND BLAZEUP DAVAO BREAKFAST ARAFURA SEA BREWER ADMIRALTY ISLANDS CELEBRATION BUAYAN (or BOAYAN), MINDANAO CENTRAL NEW GUINEA CRINGLE NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES CULTURE FORMOSA AREA (includes Formosa St. Reg.)
(Code Words Cont'd)
DEVOTION PANAY DIGNITARY S.E. CHINA COAST DOMESTIC ANGUAR ISL, PALAU Gp. DOWNTOUR WOLEAI ISLAND EARTHENWARE PELELIU IS., PALAU Gp. EXCELSIOR PHILIPPINES IS. Gp. FEARSOME HALMAHERA ISLAND FULLCRY PALAU GLOBETROTTER CAPE SANSAPOR GOSSIPMONGER TALAUD ISLANDS HIDROSIS DINGALAN BAY HOPGARDEN BALER BAY HORLICKS BIAK ISLAND HORROR ULITHI ISLAND HORSEPLAY CAGAYAN RIVER VALLEY HYDROGEN BATANGAS BAY INHERITANCE DADJANGAS, MINDANAO INSERTION SURIGAO, MINDANAO INTERGER VISAYAN IS. Group INTERLUDE MOROTAI ISLAND INTERRUPTION LAGONOY GULF INVENTION SALEBABOE IS. TALAUD Gp ISOSCELES AMBON ISLAND JOURNALBOY JAVA KILKENNY DULAG KITCHENMAID MANADO, CELEBES KNIFEREST MISAMIS, OCCIDENTAL PROVICE, MINDANAO LACUNA SAN JUANICO STRAIT LAWNMOWER NORTH LOLODA ISLANDS LOGSTUMP LESSER SUNDAS LETTERPRESS HUMBOLDT BAY LIVESTOCK SANGIHE ISLANDS LOGARITHM SURIGAO STRAIT LUBRICATE LEYTE GULF MATCHABLE PANAON STRAIT MOONSTRUCK VOGELKOP PENINSULA OBTRUSIVE APARRI OSTENTATION MAKAR, MINDANAO OVERSTRESS CAMOTES SEA PARAPET DUMANQUILAS BAY PATRIMONY FORMOSA-LUZON-CHINA COAST AREA PEKINESE DOROEBA, MOROTAI PENSIONER JOLO PERSECUTION AITAPE PLETHORA CERAM ISLAND REPROVE PALMAS ISLAND ROISTERER LEGASPI SALUBRIOUS TAYABAS BAY OXYGEN CEBU, PHILIPPINE IS. SATANIC LUZON SARTORIAL LINGAYEN GULF SAVOURY VIGAN SCHOOLBOY LAE SILVERSAND MINDANAO SPAVIN AUSTRALIA SPRITSAIL OWL ISLAND STINKER WOENDI STIRRUPPUMP GEELVINK BAY SUBLIME CHINA SUBSCRIBE KARAKELANG ISLAND TOOTHBRUSH SULU ARCHIPELAGO TOPHEAVY TOEM TRAGEDY ILOILO TRIBESMAN CELEBES SEA UNDERTAKER TACLOBAN UNERRING SAN JOSE VERBATIM BANDA SEA VOCALIST YAP ISLAND GROUP WARTIME KAOE BAY WASHSTAND FINSCHHAFEN WASSAIL DUTCH NEW GUINEA WHIMSICAL BISMARCK SEA WHITEWASH LUZON IS., P.I. WINDBAG SARANGANI BAY WITCHCRAFT SAMAR, PHILIPPINE IS. WILFBERRY BONIFACIO
APPENDIX 2, ANNEX L TO CANF SWPA OP-PLAN 13-44
TRAFFIC ROUTE, FUELING AREA AND SEA OPERATING AREAS
APPENDIX TO ANNEX "L" TO COMMANDER ALLIED NAVAL FORCES, SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA OPERATION PLAN 13-44
TIME AND DISTANCE TABLES
Steaming Time - Speed 8 kn 12 kn 16 kn 20 kn dys. hrs. dys. hrs. dys. hrs. dys. hrs. ALBATROSS- Hollandia to Point Art via Point Cub 755 3 22 2 15 1 23 1 13 NODDY - BIAK to Point Art 545 2 20 1 21 2 10 1 3 KING-Hollandia to Morotai via Points Cub,Key,Port, Lid 835 4 13 2 22 2 6 1 17 LOVE-Sansapor to Point Pot 110 0 14 0 8 0 7 0 6 GANNET-Morotai to Leyte Gulf via Point Lid to Point Ted then via Route SHEARWATER to Leyte Gulf 655 3 10 2 6 1 16 1 8 JEAGER-Guam to Point Ted via Points Net, Pig, Sat,Ted 1178 6 3 4 2 3 2 2 11 ZEBRA-Finschaffen to Hollandia via Points Bit,Cry,Emy,Bed,Gup,Hit,Jay,Kid,Cub 535 2 19 1 21 1 10 1 3 SHEARWATER - Point Art to Leyte Gulf 480 2 12 1 16 1 6 1 0 HAWK - Kossol Passage, Palau, to Point Art 110 0 14 0 9 0 7 0 6 PLOVER - Ulithi to Leyte Gulf - via Points Tit,Pig,Sat,Ted and via Route SHEARWATER to Point Fin. 860 4 12 3 0 2 6 1 19 TERN - Augaur to Point Art via Point Pup 70 0 9 0 6 0 5 0 4 X-RAY - Manus to Hollandia via Point Gik,Gup,Hit,Joy,Kid 412 2 3 1 11 1 2 0 21 Point Fin to Point Reb 15 Pint Reb to Point C 30 Point C to Point A 18.2 Point C to Point B 11.6 Point Reb to Point Lik via Points Est, Ott 45.7 DUCK - Point OWL to point Pet 535 2 19 2 10 1 9 1 3
APPENDIX 5 TO ANNEX "L" TO COMMANDER ALLIED NAVAL FORCES, SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA OPERATION PLAN NO. 13-44
SUBMARINE SAFETY LANES, LIFEGUARD STATIONS
OPERATING AREAS BOMBING RESTRICTION AREAS.
- General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area Operating Instructions NO. 69 dated 19 September 1944 is attached hereto.
- Areas FLOWERBED, CORNFIELD, BRIARPATCH and FISHPOND and all MAPLEGROVE south of 15-30 and the area between 17 and 18-30N from 124-00 to 140-00E are classified as AIR-SURFACE ZONES.
- The area between FLOWERBED, CORNFIELD, BRIARPATH and FISHPOND and the East coast of the PHILIPPINE ISLANDS is classified as a JOINT ZONE.
- Area VINEYARD is reclassified as a BLIND BOMBING ZONE.
- The locations, reference points and calls of Submarine Life Guard stations will be promulgated by despatch.
- The area between BRIARPATCH and FISHPOND and the East coast of the Philippines is classified as a SUBMARINE PATROL ZONE.
SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA
19 September 1944.
OPERATIONS INSTRUCTION ) : NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 )
- Standard Operating Procedure Instructions Number 24, 'BOMBING AND ATTACK RESTRICTIONS IN THE SEA AREA," this headquarters, dated 12 September 1944, becomes effective at 0001/I, 25 September 1944. Operations Instructions Number 64, this Headquarters dated 25 August 1944, is rescinded same date and hour.
- Effective at 0001/I, 25 September 1944 zones of the water areas of the SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA AND THOSE IN ADJACENT WATER AREAS OF THE CENTRAL PACIFIC, are classified as indicated in the following paragraphs (see Annex No. 1).
- SUBMARINE PATROL ZONES.
- The water area, north and west of the following line, except for zones classified as BLIND BOMBING ZONES in paragraphs 5b and 5c.
Point A 20-00 N 140-00 E Point B 16-00 N 140-00 E Point C 10-00 N 131-00 E Point D 08-00 N 130-00 E Point E 05-00 N 130-00 E Point F 05-00 N 126-40 E Point G 07-30 N 127-00 E Point H 07-30 N 126-35 E Thence along south MINDANAO coast to DULUNGUIN POINT 07-43 N 122-07 E LAPARAN ISLAND 05-55 N 120-00 E STROOMEN KAAP 01-20 N 120-50 E Thence along west and south CELEBES coast to Point I 04-55 S 122-00 E Point J 07-00 S 122-00 E Point K 07-00 S 120-00 E Point L 10-00 S 120-00 E Point M 10-00 S 105-20 E
- The water area:
Point BB 09-00 N 156-00 E Point CC 09-00 N 143-00 E Point DD 06-00 N 143-00 E Point EE 06-00 N 156-00 E Point BB 09-00 N 156-00 E
- AIR-SURFACE ZONE
All the water area of the SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA and adjacent waters of CENTRAL PACIFIC AREA not otherwise classified in paragraphs 2, 4 and 5.
- JOINT ZONES.
- For a distance of fifteen (15) nautical miles on each side of the following routes:
(1) Point NIN 27-00 S 153-20 E Point GIN 23-15 S 156-05 E Point TAP 17-25 S 156-10 E Point HAND 11-25 S 154-40 E Point GOLF 09-10 S 154-00 E Point LIMB 06-30 S 148-05 E Point CART 05-45 S 147-25 E Point PIPE 05-00 S 147-25 E Point LAKE 03-50 S 148-15 E Point CHAT 01-50 S 148-15 E Point SOUP 00-53 S 144-00 E Point ANNA 03-00 N 128-30 E Point BIRD 02-26 N 126-10 E Point RAFT 02-26 N 125-00 E Point TERM 04-20 N 120-25 E (2) Point CHAT 01-50 S 148-15 E Point TAUT 06-00 N 148-15 E (3) Point AJAX 31-56 S 115-18 E Point BRAT 29-00 S 112-55 E Point CLAM 25-30 S 112-20 E Point DRAY 20-00 S 113-00 E Point EBON 15-00 S 114-45 E Point FLAG 10-00 S 115-40 E
(4) Point DRAY 20-00 S 113-00 E Point GRIM 15-42S 113-00E Point HOME 15-00S 121-25E Point IRON 113-11S 124-00E Point LIMB 12-10S 130-22.5E (5) Point GRIM 14-42S 120-00E Point KING 09-00S 123-11E Point LARD 08-30S 125-30E Point VICE 03-00 125-30E Point LEAN 02-24S 126-45E Point BIRD 02-26N 126-10E Point STUD 05-00N 126-10E Point BULL 07-30N 127-00E (6) Point QUID 01-30S 136-30E Point TENT 00-55N 136-30E (7) Point JAMB 12-10S 130-22.5E Point WORK 12-10S 129-20E Point OVER 08-20S 127-30E Point SHAD 07-30S 127-00E Point NEST 06-40S 125-30E Point CORN 06-40 122-00E (8) 06-15N 156-00E 07-00N 170-30E (9) 16-00N 156-00E 15-00N 142-00E 15-00 144-30E (10) 16-21N 145-00E 19-00N 156-00E
- The water area between 21-30S and 22-00S from 113-00E to the Australian coast, including that part of EXMOUTH GULF involved.
- BLIND BOMBING Zones.
- The water area:
Point E 05-00N 130-00E Point F 05-00N 126-40E Point G 07-30N 127-00E Point H 07-30N 126-35E
Thence along south coast MINDANAO to DULUNQUIN POINT 07-43 N 122-07 E LARARAN ISLAND 05-55 N 120-00 E STROOMEN KAAP 01-20 N 120-50 E Thence along west and south CELEBES coast to Point I 04-55 S 122-00 E Point J 07-00 S 122-00 E Point K 07-00 S 120-00 E Point N 11-00 S 120-00 E Point O 11-00 S 124-00 E Point P 07-00 S 135-00 E Point Q 04-53 S 137-05 E Thence northwest along south coast NEW GUINEA to Point R 01-23 S 130-55 E Point S 01-23 S 127-00 E Point T 03-00 N 127-00 E Point U 03-00 N 130-00 E Point E 05-00 N 130-00 E
- The water area between the coast of BORNEO and following line:
Point V 00-41 S 117-30 E Point W 03-00 S 117-30 E Point X 05-00 S 116-30 E Point Y 05-00 S 115-00 E Point Z 03-30 S 110-00 E Point AA 01-55 S 110-00 E
- The water area northwest of a line from TOURANE, INDO CHINA (16-05 N,108-15 E) to 20-00 N, 112-00 E.
- The following areas designated by code names to permit their reclassification as the tactical situation develops.
a. WOODLOT 20-00 N 140-00 E 20-00 N 126-00 E 17-00 N 126-00 E 17-00 N 140-00 E 20-00 N 140-00 E b. MAPLEGROVE 17-00 N 140-00 E 17-00 N 134-30 E 12-30 N 134-30 E 16-00 N 140-00 E 17-00 N 140-00 E
c. FLOWERBED 17-00 N 134-30 E 17-00 N 131-00 E 11-30 N 133-00 E 12-30 N 134-30 E 17-00 N 134-30 E d. CORN FIELD 17-00 N 131-00 E 17-00 N 126-20 E 10-40 N 131-45 E 11-30 N 133-00 E 17-00 N 131-00 E e. BRIAR PATCH 17-00 N 126-20 E 17-00 N 124-00 E 16-00 N 124-00 E 14-00 N 126-00 E 12-00 N 127-00 E 10-00 N 127-00 E 10-00 N 131-00 E 10-40 N 131-45 E 17-00 N 126-20 E f. FISH POND 10-00 N 131-00 E 10-00 N 127-00 E 07-30 N 127-00 E 07-30 N 130-00 E 08-00 N 130-00 E 10-00 N 131-00 E g. VINEYARD 07-30 N 130-00 E 07-30 N 127-00 E 05-00 N 126-40 E 05-00 N 130-00 E 07-30 N 130-00 E
By command of General MacARTHUR:
Lieutenant General, U.S. Army
Chief of Staff
OFFICIAL: S.J. CHAMBERLIN
Major General, G.S.C.
Asst. Chf of Staff, G3
ANNEX NO. 1:
Map - Air and Naval Operating Zones.
APPENDIX 6 TO ANNEX "L" TO CANF,SWPA OP-PLAN NO. 13-44
Specific information on the currents in LEYTE Gulf is limited. The Tide and Current Tables, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 1944 (July-December), U.S.C. and G.S., gives the predicted times and strength of the current in SAN JUANICO Strait which separates LEYTE and SAMAR Islands. The same publication, extracts from which are included in this appendix, gives the times and heights of tide at various points on LEYTE Island.
Tidal currents up to 6 knots are indicated in the entrance to LEYTE Gulf between HOMONHON Island and DINAGAT Island, with the flood setting 270° true and the ebb 90° true. The flood divides and turns southward through SURIGAO Strait and northward towards SAN PEDRO Bay and in to SAN JUANICO STRAIT.
It is estimated that on 20 October the maximum ebb between the entrance and SAN PEDRO Bay will occur between 0300 and 0400 ITEM Time with a strength of 4 to 5 knots in the entrance and about 2 knots in SAN PEDRO Bay. The ebb should begin about 0000 to 0100 and the flood about 0600 to 0700. Maximum flood should be 0900 to 1000 with a strength of about 5 knots at the entrance and 2 knots in SAN PEDRO Bay.
The maximum tidal difference between hand and low water for the period 15 to 30 October 1944 in SAN PEDRO Bay and along the east shore of LEYTE Island is 21.2 feet. The times of high and low water in SAN PEDRO Bay for the period 17 to 30 October 1944 are:
TACLOBAN (LEYTE ISLAND)
October HIGH LOW Day Time Ht. Time Ht. Time Ht. Time Ht. 17 0815 1.7 2019 1.8 0213 0.2 1419 0.2 18 0845 1.7 2034 2.0 0240 0.0 1437 0.3 19 0914 1.6 2055 2.0 0309 -0.1 1454 0.3 20 0943 1.5 2117 2.1 0340 -0.2 1513 0.5 21 1016 1.3 2142 2.2 0414 -0.2 1531 0.5 22 1050 1.1 2214 2.2 0455 -0.1 1545 0.6 23 1132 0.9 2248 2.1 0542 0.0 1559 0.6 24 1234 0.8 2333 2.0 0646 0.1 1607 0.6 25 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0822 0.2 ---- ---- 26 0036 1.8 ---- ---- 1020 0.2 ---- ---- 27 0235 1.6 1828 1.0 1131 0.2 2243 0.9 28 0437 1.6 1833 1.3 1214 0.1 ---- ---- 29 0557 1.7 1854 1.5 0006 0.6 1250 0.1 30 0657 1.8 1921 1.8 0100 0.3 1320 0.2
APPENDIX 7 TO ANNEX "L" TO COMMANDER ALLIED NAVAL FORCES, SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA OPERATION PLAN 13-44.
- Climate and Weather.
Like the rest of the Central PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, the climate of the LEYTE area is characterized in all seasons by gentle winds, moderate cloudiness, uniformly high temperatures and high relative humidity. During the year, the north and Central PHILIPPINES area is affected by from 3 to 20 tropical storms, about half of which are of hurricane (i.e. typhoon) intensity. These storms occur mainly from July to November. From November through March the northeast monsoon prevails over the island,s bringing maximum rainfall to the northern and eastern PHILIPPINES, including SAMAR and LEYTE. From June to October, the southerly monsoon dominates the circulation, coincident with the typhoon season. The southerly monsoon is weaker than the northeast, and yields quite readily to the latter. The transition process is completed quite abruptly in a two week period, normally in late October or early November. The change from south to northeast monsoon will, therefore, probably occur about the target date. However, in any year, the change may deviate from the period indicated, possibly by as much as a month. Definite indications of the time of actual change should be manifested well before the change occurs.
The LEYTE GULF area experiences no really dry season but rather a pronounced maximum of rainfall in winter (November-March).
The weather element having the most significant influence on the LEYTE Area is the frequent occurrence of typhoons, which cross the PHILIPPINES moving in a generally northwesterly direction. Within the center of these intense tropical cyclonic storms the winds attain a velocity in excess of seventy knots, on occasions even exceeding one hundred knots. These typhoons follow fairly predictable tracks. In October as many as three typhoons pass close to or over the islands. The tracks of those passing over the islands lie within a zone bounded on the north by the northern tip of LUZON and on the south by SURIGAO STRAIT. In November as many as two typhoons cross or pass close to the islands, the northernmost track passing over northern LEYTE. Any typhoon or tropical cyclone passing over the PHILIPPINES will cause high winds, heavy rain and heavy surf in the LEYTE GULF Area and seriously hamper landing operations, but a storm passing to the south of LEYTE will
cause even higher winds, and heavier surf, as the LEYTE GULF Area will be in the so-called "dangerous semi-circle". The entire eastern shore of LEYTE will then be exposed to the full force of the easterly winds and seas, making landing operations impossible. The majority of typhoons affecting the PHILIPPINES originate somewhere between the MARSHALLS and the Western CAROLINES and should be "spotted" by our forces in time to postpone the landings, effect a retirement or take a course to avoid damage, as necessary. Few typhoons form west of 130 degrees East longitude, and would be of only moderate intensity by the time the PHILIPPINES were reached.
Skies will be partly cloudy to cloudy. Since this is also the doldrum season, numerous sharp, shortlived squalls may be expected. About 20 days with rain are usual during October, causing an average of nine inches of rainfall for the month. Convective and frontal thunderstorms are prevalent, especially in the afternoon and evening.
Except when a typhoon is in the area, winds will be variable in direction and relatively light. A sea breeze sets in about 1100, reaches a maximum oat 1600 and disappears shortly after sundown. A weaker land breeze sets in about 2200 and lasts until about 2000. These breezes augment or diminish the existing prevailing winds. Calms occur in the early morning about 40% of the time. The intensity of the winds at any point will depend on its geographical location, the winds in the TACLOBAN area being noticeably lighter than those further south, where not as great a lee is afforded. The most probable wind will be from the Northeast, averaging 4-7 knots at night and 8-16 knots by day near the entrance to the Gulf, decreasing in velocity in the upper SAN PEDRO BAY area.
- Surf, Sea and Swell.
As with the winds, the surf, sea and swell conditions will be more intense near the entrance to the Gulf than in the TACLOBAN area. An approaching typhoon will set up a heavy swell and consequent heavy surf. Since these swells reach out far in advance of the typhoon, they serve to warn of the storm's approach. Sea conditions are largely dependent on local winds and are therefore variable, but waves of 1-4 feet are usual except during a storm or strong wind when the height may increase to 5-9 feet. Swells normally average from 1-6 feet, increasing to 6-12 feet with the approach of a typhoon. The surf at the beaches should vary from 2-8 feet except during heavy weather.
There are almost no clear days in this area; about 20 days being cloudy and only 8 partly cloudy. Mean cloudiness is about 7/10. Predominating cloud [types] are cumulus, alto-cumulus,
cirrus and alto-stratus. Cumulus bases are at about 2000 feet. Cumulo-nimbus clouds form in the late afternoon and early evening, bases lowering to less than 1000 feet.
In general, visibility is good, being reduced only by heavy rain. Fogs, which dissipate after sunrise, are fairly prevalent over the inland areas.
- Temperature and Humidity.
Average temperature 82 degrees Farenheit Maximum temperature 89 degrees Farenheit Minimum temperature 75 Degrees Farenheit Average humidity 85%.
Mean pressure is 29.85 inches (1010.8 millibars). Diurnal variation is 0.1 inch (3.5 millibars). Diurnal highs are at about 0900 and 2200, lows at 0300 and 1500.
- Weather and Operations.
- Naval Operations.
- Except during storms, the winds should be favorable for naval operations in general, but rather lighter than desired for carrier operations. The sea and swell should be sufficiently low to make fueling operations feasible except with typhoon activity in the area. No fogs occur at sea.
- The routes between the HOLLANDIA-MANUS area and the objective area in October will pass through two zones of weather. The first zone will lie between the NEW GUINEA area and latitude 5 degrees North, and will be characterized by light southerly winds, partly cloudy skies, isolated moderate rain squalls (especially in the early morning hours), and average flying conditions. Seas will be light to moderate and swell slight. The second zone, extending from about 5 degrees North to the target area will be characterized by typical doldrum weather, with cloudy to overcast skies, low ceilings, frequent short-lived but intense rain squalls, gentle variable winds increasing sharply during squalls, and generally undesireable flying conditions. Excellent cover from enemy air observation will be provided by the overcast skies. This second zone very nearly coincides with the typhoon belt. The only reduction to visibility is the frequent occurrence of heavy tropical rains.
- Amphibious Operations.
The sea, swell and surf normally encountered are favorable for amphibious landings. Typhoon activity in the area will necessitate postponement of landings until seas and surf abate.
- Air Operations.
Low level operations will be hindered by cumulo-nimbus clouds, which will give low ceilings, reduced visibility and turbulence, and can be expected 5-15% of the time. Local
[thunderstorms], or cyclonic activity will hamper all air operations for shorter or longer periods and high level operations will be constantly hindered by cloudiness. Average or better flying conditions can be expected about two thirds of the time.
- Ground Operations.
The heavy rainfall will be a critical factor insofar as it causes flooding of the lowland areas and will seriously interfere with soil trafficability in the less well-drained areas.
- Incendiary Bombing and Bombardment.
Due to the high humidity and heavy rainfall, the incendiary effects of napalm and white phosphorous bombs and of white phosphorous projectiles will be reduced.
- Chemical and Smoke Operations.
The variability of the wind and the turbulence and instability of the air at the surface of the land areas will tend to decrease the effectiveness of either smoke or chemical operations during the day. Calms during early morning hours are favorable for area smoke.
- Weather Reports and Typhoon Warnings.
- Weather Reports.
- SOPA in LEYTE GULF Area, if an aerological unit is embarked, will make routine 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 GVT synoptic reports to Weather Central MANUS using station number 878 (TACLOBAN), land station form and current "K" cipher. Upon the arrival in the area of a tender under Commander Aircraft, SEVENTH FLEET, weather reports will be made by the aerological unit of the senior tender until such time as reports are made by Army weather unit ashore.
- Commander Central PHILIPPPINES Attack Force will issue a special typhoon warning whenever a typhoon is indicated with reasonable certainty, or conditions indicate that typhoon is forming in areas affecting our operations.
- Commanders of ships and tactical units operating independently may break radio silence to report signs of typhoon activity whenever the strategic situation permits, keeping in mind that the existence of unreported typhoon weather may outweigh the security considerations dictating radio silence.
- Units proceeding independently will include weather reports in radio despatches. Use CSP 1300 A, re=enciphered in ECM. A despatch to which weather has been added need not be addressed to weather agencies; normal communication facilities will deliver.
- Daily weather forecasts, enciphered in ECM, will be broadcast by Weather Central MANUS on MANUS FOX schedule at about 0000 G.C.T., addressed to "All concerned Current Operations, Southwest Pacifica Area."
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