Jules and Michel Verne (1)

William Butcher

Collections of studies on Verne

#V1 Centre de documentation Jules Verne d'Amiens. Mme C. Compère, 149 rue de Rouen, F80000 Amiens. Holds an unparalleled collection of approximately 15,000 written pieces and memorabilia in the house where V. lived, 23 rue Caumartin, F80000 Amiens.

#V2 Nantes. Mlle L. Courville, Centre d'études verniennes, Médiathèque--Bibliothèque municipale, 24 quai de la Fosse, and Musée Jules Verne, 3 rue de l'Hermitage, F44100 Nantes. Have a sizable collection of Verniana.

Bibliographies

#V5 Angenot, Marc. Jules Verne and French literary criticism. SFS 1:33--37, 1973; 3:46--49, 1976.

Two bibliographical essays, giving sympathetic accounts of previous publications on V. in French.

#V6 Butcher, William. Notes de bibliographie: études verniennes. Paris, Ecole normale supérieure (Bibliothèque des lettres), 1981. 13 p.

Critical and selective bibliography of studies available in one of the biggest open-access libraries in France.

#V7 Destombes, Marcel, and Piero Gondolo della Riva. Jules Verne à la Bibliothèque nationale, Bulletin de la Bibliothèque nationale. 3:115--25, 1978.

Summarises holdings of books by V. in French and other languages, maps, posters, and contents of relevant author dossiers in the Archives Hetzel at the B.N. (NAF 16932--17012, vols 1--81).

#V8 Gallagher, Edward J., John A. Van Eerde and Judith A. Mistichelli. Jules Verne: a primary and secondary bibliography. Boston (Mass.), G.K. Hall & Co., 1980. 410 p. (Masters of science fiction and fantasy)

Immensely detailed, accurate and useful état at 1978--79. Intelligent introduction decries the "sterile and superficial" English-language criticism to that date, explodes the many myths held in English-speaking countries about V. and calls for more knowledge of Francophone research. Aiming to be exhaustive, this bibliography contains conscientious but unimaginative summaries of each critical study, however farfetched its claims. Parts A--C give play, article, book and serial publication dates, together with near-complete list of English-translation titles and dates. Critical studies in English contains many finds but is distressing in uncovering so much uninformed critical bile. Critical studies in French completes the deadpan but necessary spadework carried out on the most varied pieces and articles on V.

#V9 Gondolo della Riva, Piero. Bibliographie analytique de toutes les œuvres de Jules Verne. I: œuvres romanesques publiées. Paris, Société Jules Verne, 1977. 182 p. II: œuvres non romanesques publiées et œuvres inédites. Paris, Société Jules Verne, 1985. 160 p.

Review: O. Dumas, BSJV 75:249--50, 1985.

Partly for bibliophiles, partly for real researchers, these volumes provide exhaustive information on the "pre-original" (periodical), original unillustrated (in-18) and original illustrated (in-8) editions of the published novels and plays, and on the attributed and apocryphal works; plus details of unpublished works, together with 117 b.-and-w. reproductions of the covers.

#V10 Marcetteau, Agnès, Annie Ollivier and Claudine Sainlot. Catalogue des manuscrits de Jules Verne. Nantes, Bibliothèque municipale, 1988. 44 p.

Long-awaited information on the manuscripts, including unpublished fragments and short stories, sold by V.'s descendants in the 1970s. Nantes has refused all requests to consult them, and has so far published only Voyage en Angleterre et en Ecosse (#V19).

#V11 Margot, Jean-Michel. Bibliographie documentaire sur Jules Verne. [I:] Ostermundigen, chez l'auteur, 1978. 270 p. [II:] Nyon, chez l'auteur, 1982. 300 p.

Produced on an IBM mainframe (without diacritics and entirely in capital letters...), these two volumes have now been entirely superseded by and subsumed in the following entry.

#V12 ------. Bibliographie documentaire sur Jules Verne. Amiens, Centre de documentation Jules Verne d'Amiens, 1989. 334 p.

A major source for the present bibliography, an extremely well-produced, complete and totally accurate listing of 4222 studies on V. by 1571 different commentators, ranging from the bashful "A." to the mysterious "Z.", with indexes by theme and author. Each entry lists works and keyword-themes studied, but there is no attempt to indicate arguments or the value of pieces, more than 700 of which are in fact totally anonymous. The listing by year shows the upsurge in studies from 1966 and especially in 1978, 150th anniversary of V.'s birth. A remarkable labour of love.

#V13 Raymond, François, and Daniel Compère, avec la collaboration de Olivier Dumas et Christian Robin. Le développement des études sur Jules Verne. Minard, Paris, 1976. 96 p. (Archives des lettres modernes)

Despite its increasing age, still the most readable general introduction to "Vernian Studies". François Raymond, Connaissance de Verne, p. 5--40, gives an alert assessment of the various critical approaches; Daniel Compère, Bibliographie des études verniennes de langue française (1966--1973), p. 41--68, a critical and selective bibliography, updated in Jules Verne 2 (for 1974), Jules Verne 3 (1975--76), and much more briefly under Informations in Jules Verne 4 and Jules Verne 5; Christian Robin, Enseignements et directions de recherches universitaires (1969--1976), p. 69--72, a useful list of French university courses on V.; Raymond, Travaux en cours sur Jules Verne, p. 73--76; Dumas, Chronologie des œuvres romanesques de Jules Verne (éditions originales et préoriginales), p. 77--84, gives a very useful quick-reference table of titles and book and serial publication dates; Raymond, Guide pratique pour l'étude de Jules Verne, p. 85--93, a brief list of the most important books and articles to 1973.

Editions

Amongst the modern editions that retain all the original illustrations, Livre de poche, with 44 of the seventy-odd volumes, has been the usual reference edition. In 1988, however, Hachette: Les intégrales Jules Verne completed publication of all the Voyages extraordinaires at a very reasonable price. Michel de l'Ormeraie and Rencontre (reprinted by Edito-Service) are the only other complete editions since the war, but Union générale d'éditions: 10/18 has courageously published a dozen of the less well-known works (without illustrations).

As for the variants within the editions of works making up the Voyages extraordinaires, whether or not due to Michel (see: final section of this bibliography), most have been made available by the work of the Société Jules Verne, which has published five of the novels from Jules V.'s manuscripts (see #V16), as well as many of the shorter works in the BSJV (see: #V63, #V64, #V72, #V73, #V76, #V80).

In English, a few of the works have never been translated; and virtually all the translations show major defects including some amazing howlers: the otherwise competent but undistinguished score of volumes by I.O. Evans for Arco Publications, London, in the 1960s (reprinted by Granada, Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, London, Toronto, Sydney, New York, in the 1970s), are often very much truncated, sometimes by whole chapters. Amongst the very few exceptions are the excellent Journey to the Centre of the Earth, trans. by Robert Baldick, Penguin, London, 1965, and Mendor T. Brunetti, Twenty thousand leagues under the sea, New American Library, New York, 1969. Oxford UP are planning at least one V. volume in their World Classics series.

#V14 Avertissement de l'éditeur. In Voyages et aventures du capitaine Hatteras. (Only in the pre-original edition, MER, March 20, 1866)

This important manifesto (written by Hetzel) defines the subtitle of Les voyages extraordinaires as Voyages dans les Mondes connus et inconnus, and their aim, "résumer toutes les connaissances [scientifiques] [...] et refaire [...] l'histoire de l'univers".

#V15 Soriano, Marc. Portrait de l'artiste jeune suivi des quatre premiers textes publiés de Jules Verne. Paris, Gallimard, 1978. 234 p.

Prints the original versions of Les premiers navires de la marine mexicaine (ie Un drame au Mexique), Un voyage en ballon (ie Un drame dans les airs), Les châteaux en Californie (play) and Martin Paz, preceded by an Introduction (p. 7--50) which studies the historical-geographical, esp. American, imagination of the young V., his anti-Semitism and the scatological puns; also prints a translation of Ray Bradbury's The ardent blasphemers (#V110).

#V16 Verne, Jules. Edgar Poe et ses œuvres. Le Musée des familles 193--208, April 1864. Also in: L'herne: Edgar Allan Poe [1974], p. 320--45. Also in: Textes oubliés, 1979, ed. by Francis Lacassin (#V18), p. 111--53.

This only major study of another writer by V., provides important information about his own methods and beliefs. Referring to Baudelaire's translation and preface, it explores in particular Arthur Gordon Pym and the short stories involving scientific/detective-style deductions, esp. the cryptograms.

#V17 -------. Le secret de Wilhelm Storitz: (version originale). Paris, Société Jules Verne (SJV), 1985. 172 p. La chasse au météore: (version originale). Paris, SJV, 1986, 172 p. En Magéllanie: (roman inédit, utilisé par Michel Verne pour écrire Les naufragés du Jonathan). Paris, SJV, 1987. 200 p. Le beau Danube jaune (' Le pilote du Danube). Paris, SJV, 1988. Le volcan d'or. Paris, SJV, 1989. 316 p. All with Prefaces by Olivier Dumas.

Gondolo della Riva's affirmations (#V143) that the posthumous novels had undergone substantial revision and that parts were entirely written by V.'s son, Michel, was proved by this publication of the original typescripts, a typist's posthumous transcriptions of manuscripts in V.'s hand. These versions are, in other words, Verne's unrevised ones, allowing us to deduce Michel's changes from the published novels. What little critical commentary Michel's contributions have received as yet (see: final section) is divided about their value; but the posthumous contributions certainly contain as important self-referring subtext the themes of authenticity/imitation and paternity/filiality.

#V18 Textes oubliès (1849--1903), par Jules Verne. Recueillis pour la première fois, présentés, annotés et suivis d'un index bibliographique par Francis Lacassin. Union générale d'éditions, Paris, 1979. 402 p. (10/18, série "Jules Verne inattendu")

Review: W. Butcher, Eur 616:202--06, 1980.

Contains a very complete range of works from outside the Voyages extraordinaires, including poems and songs (amongst them an ascribed and scurrilous Lamentation d'un poil de cul de femme), V.'s study on Poe (see: #V16), Les révoltés de la "Bounty", scientific writings, futuristic SF writings including Un express de l'avenir, narrations, interviews where V. speaks of his methods and influences, speeches, mostly in Amiens. Although most of the pieces have been published elsewhere, this constitutes a most invaluable collection of source materials (even if faulty secondary sources have occasionally been used).

#V19 -------. Voyage en Angleterre et en Ecosse [published as Voyage à reculons en Angleterre et en Ecosse: manuscrit inédit appartenant à la ville de Nantes]. Ed. by Christian Robin. Paris, Le cherche-midi, 1989. 255 p.

V.'s first full-length manuscript, rejected by Hetzel who preferred Cinq semaines en ballon. Lightly fictionalised account of V.'s journey with Hignard to Scotland in 1859. Brilliantly perceptive account of Edinburgh and surroundings from literary, aesthetic, social and personal viewpoints, full of amusing adventures and highly revealing of the fascination with travel that is, more than science per se, the fundamental driving force behind V. Many of the traits that would emerge fully only in the following 60 years can be detected in this work. Its planned publication in English is a vital necessity; and will, it is hoped, help to dissipate the mythical V.

#V20 Verne, Jules, and Adolphe d'Ennery. Voyage à travers l'impossible. Paris, J.-J. Pauvert, 1981. 126 p. Also contains Robert Pourvoyeur. De l'extraordinaire à l'impossible. p. 75--101. François Raymond. Passez muscade. p. 104--17.

First edition of a strange play performed in 1882, with quasi-unrecognisable parodies of many of V.'s characters (including a highly Christian Nemo!) and fantastic settings, including Atlantis, the centre of the Earth and the planet "Altor". Despite ingenious commentaries by the editors, this work -- unlike the other plays -- seems excessively theatrical, most unliterary and very probably more d'Ennery's doing than V.'s.

Correspondence

#V21 Bibliothèque nationale. Département des manuscrits, Jules Verne, vol. 73, contains 848 letters from V. to Jules Hetzel, père et fils, 1863--1904.

#V22 Bulletin de la société Jules Verne. (BSJV). Special numbers consisting mainly of letters by V.: "No. 1", 65--66, 1983; "No. 2", 69, 1984; "No. 3", 78, 1986; "No. 4", 83, 1987; "No. 5", 88, 1988.

Annotated and commented by O. Dumas; they often replace accidentally or deliberately mistranscribed or truncated earlier versions; also published in Dumas's book (#V24). The early letters, esp. to his parents, are highly revealing of V.'s inventive word-play, extreme poverty, lack of contact with women, and persistent ill-health.

#V23 Centre d'études verniennes, Nantes. Médiathèque--Bibliothèque municipale, 24 quai de la Fosse, Nantes.

Has about 120 letters by V., especially from the all-important youthful period.

#V24 Dumas, Olivier. Jules Verne. Lyon, La manufacture, 1988. 523 p.

Review: F. Raymond, BSJV 88:6--7, 1988.

Much of the book, including the half devoted to 191 items of V.'s correspondence up to 1898, with annotations, will be familiar to readers of the BSJV; but Dumas's original and painstaking research, passion and straight-talking -- even if his views on the Michel question, anagrams and others are not universally shared and if a literary appreciation is sometimes neglected -- make this an essential volume. Also contains first publication of Pierre-Jean (which Michel completely rewrote as La destinée de Jean Morénas), together with a vital primary bibliography and various indexes.

Biographies

#V25 Allott, Kenneth. Jules Verne. London, The Cresset press, [1940]. 284 p.

Reasonably accurate, with useful plot summaries, sets historical and scientific background; but not especially revealing.

#V26 Allotte de la Fuÿe, M[arguerite]. Jules Verne, sa vie, son œuvre. Paris, Hachette, 1928, 1953. 224 p.

Trans: Jules Verne. Trans. by Erik de Mauny. London, Staples press, 1954.

By a niece on the maternal side, this biography is hagiographical and semi-fictional, and has been totally superseded by Jules-Verne's volume. The story about the 11-year-old V. stowing away on the Coralie, in particular, has no confirmation in any existing document. Dumas's pieces in the BSJV have pointed out many of the apparent confabulations.

#V27 Costello, Peter. Jules Verne, inventor of science fiction. London, Sydney, Auckland & Toronto, Hodder and Stoughton, 1978. 240 p.

A popular biography, with few references or new facts. Based on Metral's unreliable biography, esp. for stories of V.'s women-friends; contains additional misprints and errors (like V.'s moonmen playing bridge), but occasionally illuminating about English-language sources for novels and about publications in Britain.

#V28 Dehs, Volker. Jules Verne. Reinbek bei Hamburg, Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH, 1986. p. 158. (rororo Bildmonographien, 358)

Highly praised biography, also containing very many finds and new insights based partly on unpublished correspondence; strong on V. and Germany, incl. literary influences, and on views on V. expressed by other writers.

#V29 Frank, Bernard. Jules Verne et ses voyages: d'après l'ouvrage biographique de M. Allotte de la Fuÿe et les documents fournis par les héritiers. Paris, Flammarion, 1941. 250 p.

Useless.

#V30 Jules-Verne, Jean. Jules Verne. Paris, Hachette, 1973. 348 p.

Written by Michel's son, V.'s last surviving grandson, this biography is generally reliable (except for details such as terrible spelling of names and titles ("Le Zag-Frog") and, paradoxically, on the Michel question), if not particularly elegant. Half plot-summary and half detailed and referenced life, with harrowing account of V.'s early poverty and life-long bulimia and revealing selections from the correspondence.

#V31 -------. Jules Verne.

Trans: Jules Verne: a biography. New York, Taplinger, and London, MacDonald and Jane's, 1976. Trans. and adapted by Roger Greaves. 245 p.

Reviews: Anon., Economist 260:124--25, Sept. 18, 1976; J. Benthall, SPL 237:20, Aug. 21, 1976; C. Holt, Smithsonian 7:178--79, 1976; E. Korn, TLS 1575, Dec. 17, 1976; C. Nicol, SFS 3:311, Nov. 1976.

Preferable to French version, for it contains a bibliography and index, is generally rearranged, and even style and format are much more pleasant. Contains important new sections on Voyage en Angleterre et en Ecosse, on Paul Verne, on Michel, and on V.'s life around the Théâtre lyrique and Amiens town council.

#V32 Martin, Charles-Noël. Jules Verne, sa vie, ses œuvres. Lausanne, Rencontre, 1971. 570 p.

Important biography, with some analysis. Refers to Michel Verne, Robida, Wells. (See also: following entry.)

#V33 -------. La vie et l'œuvre de Jules Verne. Paris, Michel de l'Ormeraie, 1978. 292 p.

Based largely on 1971 work, but preferable, being shorter. Substantial account and analysis. Good on correspondence, variants in short stories, plays, unpublished works, Hetzel's amendments, Michel's early life, V.'s possible mistress. Contains complete lists of of exact dates of serial and book publication, of original titles (in 90 % of cases not the same as the published titles), of the Hetzels' sales figures in 1904, and of other writings.

#V34 Soriano, Marc. Jules Verne (le cas Verne). Paris, Julliard, 1978. 414 p.

Good psychoanalytical biography based only on published material, but goes too far in ascribing strong homosexual streak to V. and in excessively scatological interpretation of proper names and other words. Contains family tree, unmotivated attack on Jules-Verne's biography, careful analysis of short story Frritt-Flacc.

#V35 Waltz, George H., Jr. Jules Verne: the biography of an imagination. New York, Henry Holt and Co., 1943. 238 p.

Pleasant reading, but contains no hard information, apart from the fact that King George V was a great reader of V.

Books

#V36 Butcher, William. Jules Verne: prophet or poet?. Paris, INSEE, 1983. 17 p.

Destroys long-established myths about V., by summarising the "Michel" question, by showing that he was not a great traveller, that the works were not generally set in the future, that the "anticipations" were not specially accurate or original, and that the term "science-fiction" is unsuitable for V.'s works.

#V37 -------. Verne's journey to the centre of the self. London, Macmillan, 1990. Preface by Ray Bradbury. XVIII, 201 p.

Derived from a Ph.D. thesis, A study of time in Jules Verne's Voyages extraordinaires (Queen Mary College, Univ. of London, 1983, 1985. 260 p.) but with many amendments and additions.

First full-length scholarly study to be written on V. in Britain, and only major study to date to explore Michel's contribution from the literary point of view. Based on extensive knowledge of studies in French. Structuralist-influenced approach, but replaces conclusions in very wide context. Claims V. as authentic writer, with literary version of time-travel and radical new-novel-like experimentation on form. V.'s poetic sensibility is above all visible in his kinaesthetic awareness of space, with his real travel being the introspective and ultimately self-destructive one.

#V38 Chelebourg, Christian. La réception des idées darwiniennes dans l'œuvre de Jules Verne. Univ. de Dijon, 1986. 108 p. (Mémoire en vue de l'obtention du diplôme d'études approfondies de philosophie)

Lucid account of V.'s prehistorical, geological and evolutionary ideas.

#V39 Chesneaux, Jean. Une lecture politique de Jules Verne. Paris, Maspero, 1971. 196 p. (2nd edn 1982 with Postface pour les années quatre-vingt). (Textes à l'appui)

Trans: The political and social ideas of Jules Verne. Trans. by Thomas Wikeley. London, Thames and Hudson, 1972.

Reviews: Anon., TLS 1391, Nov. 17, 1972; D.G.C[harlton], JES 89:3, 1973.

Influential study by eminent specialist in Chinese politics. Good on social and political context of V., but curiously blind to all literary aspects, and hence to intrinsic irony and ambiguity. Links V.'s life and "crisis of capitalism" in 1880s to decline in his supposed optimism; claims V. as influenced by Saint-Simonisme and Fouriérisme. Attacks or ignores all other studies on V.

#V40 Compère, Daniel. Approche de l'île chez Jules Verne. Paris, Minard, 1977. 172 p. (Lettres modernes, Thèmes et mythes, 15)

Structuralist study of the theme of the island in V. Useful on later works, but contains few insights otherwise.

#V41 -------. Jules Verne: texte et intertexte. Rennes, Univ. de Haute-Bretagne, 1987. 534 p. (Thèse de doctorat d'Etat (Littérature française))

By influential writer of over 150 articles on V., this thesis, or any information about it, is unobtainable from the author.

#V42 -------. Un voyage imaginaire de Jules Verne: Voyage au centre de la Terre. Paris, Minard, 1977. 80 p. (Archives des lettres modernes, Archives Jules Verne)

Clear and perceptive study of structures, especially points and lines, and of themes and sources (Hoffmann, Poe, Dumas) of V.'s third novel, with useful references to previous studies and to other works and events of V.'s life, but presents few general conclusions.

#V43 Dehs, Volker. Imagination, réalité et fantastique dans Le sphinx des glaces. Univ. de Nantes, 1986. 72 p. (Maîtrise en littérature française)

Detailed, knowledgeable and informative account of structures and of Poe's influence. Starting from a detailed comparison of the works of the two writers, it studies the role of imagination and reality in each of them, before analysing the nature of the fantastic.

#V44 Delabroy, Jean. Jules Verne et l'imaginaire: ses représentations et ses fonctions principales dans la période de formation de l'œuvre romanesque (1851--1875). Paris, Univ. de la Sorbonne nouvelle (Paris III), 1980. 1154 p. (Thèse de doctorat d'Etat)

Review: W. Butcher, BSJV 60:132--35, 1981.

Brilliant but over-long study of pre-1875 works. "Psycho-thematic" approach, close-reading. "Chapter" on time (p. 463--581) esp. good on exploration of past. Lacks summary or index, and Conclusion is not really one, but instead an interesting tangent on L'île mystérieuse. Despite a tendency to build up whole theories on a single textual instance -- and to read too much into the names of the characters -- Delabroy is especially subtle in analysing the polysemy and self-negation of the Vernian text.

#V45 Diesbach, Ghislain de. Le tour de Jules Verne en quatre-vingts livres. Paris, Julliard, 1969. 322 p.

Old-fashioned and impressionistic account of the works, but semi-illuminating remarks on nationalities (British, Americans, Germans), on the lack of women and on the characters.

#V46 Evans, Arthur B. Jules Verne rediscovered: didacticism and the scientific novel. New York, Greenwood Press, 1988. XVIII, 204 p. (Contributions to world literature, 27)

Much shortened version of Ph.D. thesis. Jules Verne and the scientific novel: a study of didacticism and fiction. New York, Columbia Univ., 1985. 513 p.

Well-documented and painstaking study of V.'s didacticism, in terms of its internal functioning, the borrowings from contemporary scientific writings and the (Romantic then positivist) literary context. Contains useful accounts of French criticism and of the lamentable English-language translations.

#V47 Evans, I[drisyn] O[liver]. Jules Verne and his work. London, Arco publications, 1965. New York and London, Twayne publishers, 1966. 190 p.

Competent study of works, esp. as science-fiction and their influence, in terms of V.'s imagination, descriptive powers and energy.

#V48 -------. Jules Verne, master of science fiction. New York, Rinehart & company, 1956. XXXVI, 236 p.

Reviews: Anon., Time 70:78-79, Aug. 5, 1957; H.H. Holmes, New York Herald Tribune Book Review 9, Aug. 18, 1957; Norman MacKenzie, NSN 52:320--21, Sept. 15, 1956.

Anthology of extracts from novels, preceded by undistinguished introduction.

#V49 Froidefond, Alain. Voyages au centre de l'horloge: essai sur un texte-genèse Maître Zacharius. Preface by François Raymond. Paris, Minard, 1988. 132 p. (Archives des Lettres Modernes, 234, Archives Jules Verne, 3)

Reviews: V. Dehs, BSJV 91:23--24, 1989; Eur 720:165--77, 1989.

Employing a psycho-thematic approach, this perceptive study, originally a master's degree dissertation, examines the very early work in the perspective of science, religion, time, clockwork and the machines in general. Despite its exploration of the structures in the work, it ignores the structures of the work.

# #V50 Hobana, Ion. Douácezi de mii de pagini în cáutarea lui Jules Verne [20,000 pages in search of JV]. Bucharest, Editura Univers, 1979. 240 p.

Review: R. Pourvoyeur, BSJV 53:197--200, 1980.

Trans: 20.000 pagine alla ricerca di Jules Verne. Milan, Editrice Nord, 1981. 230 p.

This important study assesses previous critical writings on V., but also examines the myths surrounding V.'s life, his mistresses, the origins of Vingt mille lieues sous les mers, the "Romanian" novels, including much detailed information on Le château des Carpathes, influences on V., and Michel Verne. [Many of the ideas of this book are synthesised in Hobana's A la recherche de Jules Verne, CREL 1:1--15, Jan. 1978.]

#V51 Huet, Marie-Hélène. L'histoire des Voyages extraordinaires: essai sur l'œuvre de Jules Verne. Paris, Minard, 1973. 208 p. (Lettres modernes, Avant-scène, 6)

Modern, readable account of V.'s works in the historical context: the colonial expansion period, the re-awakening of nationalities (Celts, Anglo-Saxons, French) and the questioning of history. Contains good general introduction.

#V52 Luce, Stanford L., Jr. Jules Verne: moralist, writer, scientist. Yale Univ., 1953. (Ph.D. dissertation)

Considers V. as Christian moralist; and both as imaginative writer and as enthusiast but critic of science. Appendices contain plot-summaries and selection of sources for the works.

#V53 Martin, Andrew. The mask of the prophet. Oxford, Oxford univ. press, 1990.

Martin's two aims are to place V. firmly where he belongs: on the literary map (as distinct from genre fiction), and as a model for reading literature in general. This he most convincingly achieves, showing that V. often embodies in his works a masked prophet who sets himself up against a monolithic empire; and that, more generally, V. is torn between realism and invention, repression and transgression, imperialism and anarchy. Essential reading for the 90s.

#V54 Martin, Charles-Noël. Recherches sur la nature, les origines et le traitement de la science dans l'œuvre de J. Verne. Paris, Sorbonne (Univ. de Paris VII), 1980. 618 p. (Thèse de doctorat d'Etat)

Reviews: O. Dumas, BSJV 59:107--09, 1981; R. Pourvoyeur, BSJV 59:103--06, 1981; S. Vierne, BSJV 61:191--93, 1982.

By a scientist and literary specialist, produces much useful information by seeking out original sources, but is lacking in depth of analysis of science. Individual parts study the reasons for V.'s phenomenal success, the claimed influence of Freemasonry and the role of science and scientists. Too many lists and quite a few errors. Ignores all previous critics.

#V55 Moré, Marcel. Nouvelles explorations de Jules Verne. Paris, Gallimard, 1963. 246 p.

Many of its ideas have been shown to be false, but this was a pioneering work at the time. Illuminating on V.'s musical tastes, the conflict between chance and Providence, the early infatuation with Caroline, Le château des Carpathes, V.'s wife, the machines and the influence on other writers.

#V56 -------. Le très curieux Jules Verne: le problème du père dans les Voyages extraordinaires. Paris, Gallimard, 1960. 246 p.

Often dated, but still interesting. Claims Hetzel as spiritual father, and that much of V.'s career was a coming to terms with his "two fathers"; demonstrates considerable influence on Roussel; and, highly exaggeratedly, on Pres. Aristide Briand. Claims above all to have detected a persistent homosexual tendency in the man and the works.

#V57 Noiray, Jacques. Le romancier et la machine: l'image de la machine dans le roman français (1850--1900): Jules Verne -- Villiers de l'Isle-Adam. Paris, Librairie José Corti, 1982. p. 424.

This work was, surprisingly, commended by the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, but is disappointing: a survey of V.'s machines and technology, but without a large number of insights or much knowledge of previous criticism. Useful principally for its information on the sources.

#V58 Robin, Christian. Un monde connu et inconnu: Jules Verne. Preface by Luce Courville. Nantes, Centre universitaire de recherches verniennes, 1978. 288 p.

Rather uncentred survey of works and life, but good on allusions and references to other writers (Baudelaire, Chateaubriand, Hoffmann, Scott, Byron, Cooper, etc.), on theme of photography, and on conditions of V.'s publication in serial form.

#V59 Serres, Michel. Jouvences sur Jules Verne. Paris, Editions de Minuit, 1974. 296 p. (Critique)

In the Serres fashion, a fascinating and brilliant but idiosyncratic and occasionally unreliable close-reading of selected texts from a philosophical and scientific perspective. Main themes are "Cartes", "Chanceler", "Faim" and "Jeu", but scintillations include the Oedipal messenger, time and space, circles and centres, chancels and chance lords, statics and dynamics, amongst others. Model of a certain sort of criticism but has found surprisingly little echo.

#V60 Vierne, Simone. L'île mystérieuse de Jules Verne. Paris, Hachette, 1973. 94 p.

Review: J. Roudaut, Les cahiers du chemin 15:164--67, April 15, 1974.

Useful monograph on this central novel; studies structures, characters, themes, critical reactions.

#V61 -------. Jules Verne et le roman initiatique. Paris, Editions du Sirac, 1973. 820 p.

Originally a major doctoral thesis (Univ. de Lille III, 1972), this was the pioneering work which paved the way for all the others. The pretext is an initiatory schema, with three degrees of initiation of the young hero and three perspectives on the question, but one reads it rather for a passionate and detailed account of V.'s heroes in the perspective of the whole works. Vierne is readable and common-sensical but, showing the book's origins, drawn-out. Good on "mythical archetypes", including classical themes, esp. islands, caves and other natural refuges.

#V62 -------. Jules Verne, une vie, une œuvre, une époque. Paris, Balland, 1986. 448 p. (Phares)

Review: W. Butcher, SFS 15:94--95, 1988.

For general audience, without many substantively new conclusions, but highly readable: contains chronology of V.'s life, and commentaries on 6 of the novels, together with quotes from each, plus previous critical commentaries. Good on character-types, tree-refuges, intertextuality, symbolism and above all critical reactions, including Rimbaud and Zola; but contains a number of errors.

Collections of articles

Bulletin de la société Jules Verne. (BSJV). Special mention should be made of this quarterly review, ed. by Dr O. Dumas, 11 bis rue Pigalle, F75009 Paris, for its unique role as an enthusiastic forum for studies on Verne, and particularly for its sterling work in publishing many of the original versions of V.'s works and in providing information about V.'s life and new publications. The following is a list of recent issues, most of which have been devoted to individual subjects (see also: #V21), with abbreviated references to less significant pieces:

#V63 BSJV 91, 1989: Maître Zacharius.

Esp. Porcq's article (#V127) and Dumas's article on differences between 1854 and 1874 versions.

#V64 BSJV 90, 1989: Aventures de la famille Raton.

Publication of original version of this short story.

#V65 BSJV 87, 1988.

Esp. Terrasse on the maps.

#V66 BSJV 84, 1987.

Esp. Jean-Pierre Picot, Tombeaux et sépultures en papier: de quelques lieux funéraires dans les Voyages extraordinaires, p. 9--14, Lanthony and Dusseau.

#V67 BSJV 82, 1987.

Esp. Daniel Compère, Reflets et projections de l'œuvre vernienne, p. 9--17.

#V68 BSJV 81, 1987: Poésie.

48 selected poems, plus Dumas's very complete Bibliographie des poésies de Jules Verne (159 poems).

#V69 BSJV 80, 1986.

Esp. Chelebourg, Thuilière and Dehs.

#V70 BSJV 79, 1986.

Esp. Olivier Dumas, En Magéllanie: le testament littéraire de Jules Verne, p. 7--13, Dehs and Froidefond.

#V71 BSJV 77, 1986.

Esp. Dumas, Christian Chelebourg, Le blanc et le noir: amour et mort dans les Voyages extraordinaires, p. 22--30.

#V72 BSJV 76, 1985: Le Humbug.

Reprints Jules V.'s version of this important short story, without Michel's posthumous changes; esp. Dumas, Le Humbug en version originale, p. 256--57, Christian Chelebourg, Le Humbug: une pierre au jardin des enfants, p. 278--82, Albert Bastian, Jules Verne et les Anglais, p. 283--85.

#V73 BSJV 75, 1985.

Contains the original version of the dénouement of Hector Servadac; also Dumas, passim and Les manuscrits inédits de Jules Verne: a list of the manuscripts held at Nantes.

#V74 BSJV 73, 1985.

Esp. Dumas, Dehs, Terrasse.

#V75 BSJV 72, 1984.

Esp. Dehs, E.T. Hoffmann et Maître Zacharius, p. 167--74, Chelebourg, Le miroir de Jules (imaginaire et fantastique dans M. Ré-dièze et Mlle Mi-bémol, p. 185--97.

#V76 BSJV 71, 1984: Une fantaisie du docteur Ox (version originale).

Esp. Dumas, Le docteur Ox, censuré par Hetzel, p. 98--103.

#V77 BSJV 68, 1983.

Esp. Raymond, Compère, Le bas des pages, p. 147--53.

#V78 BSJV 67, 1983.

Esp. William Butcher, Les dates de l'action des "Voyages extraordinaires": une mise au point, p. 101--03 (internal settings of novels are often deliberately imprecise, or else form part of a clearly defined historical "clou"; only from 1886 are any of the works set in the future).

#V79 BSJV 64, 1982.

Esp. Compère, Les inédits de Jules Verne, p. 290--91 (list of unpublished manuscripts -- summarises Compère's Bibliographie des œuvres de Jules Verne, Centre de documentation Jules Verne d'Amiens, 1978), William Butcher, Vernet, Vernon, Vernier et quelques autres, p. 317--20.

#V80 BSJV 63, 1982.

Esp. Compère, A la recherche de systèmes nouveaux, p. 250--59 (studies V.'s earliest writings), Dumas, p. 259--64 (quotations from Le mariage de M. Anselme des Tilleuls), Dumas, Bibliographie des nouvelles, articles, discours et récits de Jules Verne, p. 278--82 (lists different versions of these writings).

#V81 BSJV 62, 1982.

Esp. Gondolo della Riva, A propos des œuvres inédites Les vieux continents, L'ancien monde et Le nouveau monde, p. 222--23, Dumas, Verne et Balzac ou un misogyne lu par un autre, p. 230--31, Jean-Pierre Picot, Du sphinx des glaces au sphinx des tropiques, p. 234--40 (links between Le sphinx and Voyage au centre de la Terre).

#V82 BSJV 57, 1981: Monsieur de Chimpanzé [previously unpublished play].

Esp. Pourvoyeur, Jules Verne aux Bouffes parisiennes, p. 2--10, Compère.

#V83 BSJV 56, 1980.

Esp. Ch.-N. Martin, Terrasse, Picot, Prélude à une exploration de la mort vernienne, p. 310--17 (brilliant study of life, love and death).

#V84 BSJV 54, 1980.

Esp. Dumas, Terrasse, Compère, Les nouvelles de Jules Verne: un jeu de devinettes, p. 233--38.

#V85 BSJV 53, 1980.

Esp. Carré, Piero Gondolo della Riva, Jules Verne et l'Académie française, p. 173--76, Christian Robin, Jules Verne à l'université, p. 177--79 (account of Jacques Davy, Les "nègres" dans les romans de Jules Verne, Master's degree at the Univ. of Nantes, 1978), Dumas, Pourvoyeur.

#V86 BSJV 52, 1979.

Esp. Compère, Le jeu du chinois, p. 133--37.

#V87 BSJV 51, 1978.

Esp. Picot, Jules, Blaise, César et quelques autres... ou: deux souvenirs de Pascal dans l'œuvre vernienne, p. 97--103.

#V88 BSJV 50, 1979.

Esp. Goracci, Compère, Poétique de la carte, p. 69--74.

#V89 L'arc: Jules Verne. 29, Sept. 1966.

Esp. Michel Foucault, L'arrière-fable, p. 5--13, studies the "real" plot of V.; Michel Serres, Géodésiques de la terre et du ciel, p. 14--20; Jean Roudaut, Le château des Carpathes, p. 21--25; Pierre Versins, Le sentiment de l'artifice, p. 56--65, claims that at most three of Verne's novels are based on ideas not already used in fictional works, let alone non-fictional ones); Francis Lacassin, Les naufragés de la terre, p. 69--80.

#V90 Cahiers du Centre d'études verniennes et du Musée Jules Verne. (CCEVDMJV) Bibliothèque municipale, Nantes.

Esp.: 4, 1984, Xavier Noël, L'épave du "Cynthia" d'André Laurie et Jules Verne: contribution respective des deux auteurs, p. 15--64; 3, 1983, Christian Robin, Proust lecteur de Verne, p. 1--17; 2, 1982, Lauric Guillaud, Du voyage au centre de la Terre au monde perdu, p. 1--13 (influence on Doyle); 1, [1981], esp. Robin, Jacques Davy, A propos de l'anthropophagie chez J. Verne, p. 15--24.

#V91 Colloque d'Amiens II: filiations -- rencontres -- influences. Paris, Minard, 1980. 110 p.

Esp. Arlette Michel, Jules Verne et la science romantique, p. 117--24, places V. in the literary and scientific context; Simone Vierne, Jules Verne et le fantastique, p. 141--54, interesting study of V.'s anti-realist tendencies; Robert Pourvoyeur, Jules Verne et le romantisme musical, p. 155--68, sensitive analysis of theme of music; Jean Delabroy, "Le Humbug" et la crise des spéculations, p. 187--97, fascinating study of theme of inauthenticity in science and in creation within works; Anne-Marie Amiot, Jules Verne et Raymond Roussel, p. 199--218.

#V92 Colloque d'Amiens I: nouvelles recherches sur Jules Verne et le voyage. Paris, Librairie Minard, 1978.

Amongst an undistinguished collection, the main items of interest are Jean Bessière, Voyage au centre de la Terre ou l'ordre du quotidien, p. 37--55, on the archetypes in this novel; Isabelle Jan, Le voyage au centre de la Terre est-il un livre pour enfants?, p. 81--88, on the supposed and real audience for V.'s works.

#V93 Colloque de Cerisy: Jules Verne et les sciences humaines. Paris, Union générale d'éditions, 1979. Ed. by François Raymond and Simone Vierne. 444 p. (10/18, 6)

Review: W. Butcher, Eur 616:202--06, 1980.

Key collection of often brilliant pieces, given at the Colloquium in 1978, together with transcriptions of the ensuing discussions. Marie-Hélène Huet, Itinéraire du texte, p. 9--35, distinguishes romans-lecture from romans-écriture, pre-programmed ones from undetermined ones; Raymond, L'odyssée du naufrage vernien, p. 36--75, a narratological and psychoanalytical study of the shipwreck and desert-island novels; Dominique Lacaze, p. 76--100, Lectures croisées de Jules Verne et de Robida, claims In the year 2889 as a plagiarisation of Robida, and also gives an illuminating account of the "semi-metric" in V., showing that the three dimensions of space are often reduced, "linearised" even; Alain Buisine, Verne appellation d'origine, p. 101--34, studies the origins of the men and of Man in Le Village aérien; Guy Rosa, Jules Verne et l'idéologie: le grand instituteur du sujet "jeune", p. 147--71, the readers of the works and their underlying ideology; Jean-Luc Steinmetz, La plus dangereuse figure de rhétorique, p. 172--211, the metaphor and its persistent undermining in V.; Jean Delabroy, Une transe atlantique (texte-échangeur et fantasmatique sociale), p. 212--40, the closed microsociety of Le chancellor, with its savage breakdown of the conventions and "omophagie, nécrophagie, [...] anthropophagie"; Daniel Compère, Une figure du récit vernien: la doublure, p. 241--63, examines the understudies, the "lining" of the narration and the "duplicity" of the characters; Olivier Dumas, La race noire dans l'œuvre de Jules Verne, p. 264--76, claims V. treated blacks better than his contemporaries, but this is perhaps not the point; Robert Pourvoyeur, Jules Verne économiste, p. 277--92, he wasn't!; Françoise Gaillard, L'éternel Adam ou l'évolutionnisme à l'heure de la thermodynamique, p. 293--325, contemporary evolutionary debate and the Lamarckian (and anti-Darwinian) tendencies of the works; Béatrice Didier, Images et éclipses de la femme dans les romans de Jules Verne, p. 326--57, contains little that is new; Ray Bradbury, La révolution invisible, p. 358--81, argues that V.'s spirit lives on in man's desire to enter the quasi-divine realms of outer space; Jacques Neefs, Le château des Carpathes et la question de la représentation, p. 382--409, on scientific ideology; Vierne, Trompe-l'œil et clin d'œil dans l'œuvre de Jules Verne, p. 410--40, studies three of V.'s favourite devices: the theatrical backdrop, the narratorial "wink" and the "third (unconscious) eye".

#V94 Un éditeur et son siècle: Pierre-Jules Hetzel (colloque de Nantes, 1986). Ed. by Christian Robin. Saint-Sébastien-sur-Loire, Editions Crocus, 1988. 366 p.

Review: V. Dehs, BSJV 91:7--8, 1989.

Useful on the editorial role of Hetzel, criticised here by Dumas, but considered beneficial by Vierne. Also important piece by Gondolo della Riva on correspondence from Hetzel to Verne (in his own private collection), together with frustratingly brief information about the as yet unpublished Paris au XXe siècle and Oncle Robinson (original version of L'île mystérieuse), both held at Nantes.

#V95 Grand album Jules Verne. [Ed. by Jacques Leclerc.] Paris, Hachette, 1982. 390 p. (Grandes œuvres: les intégrales Jules Verne)

Reprints (without references) more than 20 oldish articles concerning V.'s life or incidental features of works, by a wide variety of "Verniens" and "Vernistes". Reprints Le tour du monde en 80 jours, the successful play of the book performed at the Châtelet over many decades, written by A. d'Ennery and V.

#V96 L'herne: Jules Verne. Ed. by P.A. Touttain. Paris, L'herne, 1974. (25)

Jean Jules-Verne, Souvenir de mon grand-père, p. 112--16; Théophile Gautier, Les voyages imaginaires de M. Jules Verne, p. 85--87, reprinted from 1866, the first piece of literary criticism published on V., emphasises especially the convincingness and scientific accuracy of Voyages et aventures du capitaine Hatteras; François Raymond, L'homme et l'horloge, p. 141--51, seminal study of clocks and personal character traits, esp. rivalry and companionship; Simone Vierne, Puissance de l'imaginaire, p. 152--71; Jean Roudaut, L'éternel Adam et l'image des cycles, p. 180--212, scintillating, unparalleled study of civilisation, cycles, narration and time in individual and in historical affairs; Michel Serres, Le couteau de Jannot, p. 213--15, highly entertaining sketch of an eternal married couple and of the central, determining structure of Maître Antifer; Pierre Terrasse, Jules Verne et les chemins de fer, p. 311--16.

#V97 Jules Verne 5: emergences du fantastique. Ed. by François Raymond. Revue des lettres modernes, Paris, 1987. (Minard, série Jules Verne)

Perhaps the overall subject of this volume, but has no. 5 of the series lost a bit of zest? In any case, still highly informative and entertaining. Daniel Compère, L'incertain, p. 15--26, starting from definitions of the fantastic, systematically analyses its components in V.; Daniel Couégnas, Traces intertextuelles: le "gothique" de Jules Verne, p. 27-44; Jean Delabroy, La pierre du dernier salut: "Les indes noires", p. 45--54, death of earth, return to the past, emergence of shadows, signs of great gloom; Genèse de l'artifice -- quelques notes autour du "Château des Carpathes", Marie-Hélène Huet, p. 55--76; La morte-vivante et la femme sans ombre, Jean-Pierre Picot, p. 77--100, women, Scotland, invisibility, signs of great anguish (and only 5 self-references!); Boîtes, Henri Zukowski, p. 101--16, aspects of photography in works -- article ends with a (brilliant or self-indulgent) self-parody, all verbless sentences and word-association; Chronique gallienne: imaginaire et fantastique dans "Hector Servadac", Christian Chelebourg, p. 131--54, science, metaphors and characters in this novel are all marked with the sign of the fantastic; "Frritt-Flacc" revisité, Raymond, p. 157--62, brilliant gem on solipsism and reflexivity, eminently anthologisable; Inspirations du fantastique? -- Jules Verne et l'oeuvre de E.T.A. Hoffmann, Volker Dehs, p. 163-90, influence of Hoffmann, esp. in Zacharius, Le château des Carpathes, Les indes noires and Storitz.

#V98 The Jules Verne companion. Ed. by Peter Haining. London, Souvenir press, 1978. 128 p. (Pictorial presentations)

Highly popular and often inaccurate but well-illustrated collection of pieces in English. Esp. George Orwell, Two glimpses of the moon, p. 17--19, tendentious, erroneous review of Allott (see: #V); (incomplete) reprinting of Marie A. Belloc, Jules Verne at home (first publ. The Strand magazine, Feb. 1895), p. 20--25; reprinting of Robert H. Sherard, Jules Verne re-visited (T.P.'s weekly, Oct. 1903), p. 58--61; (unreferenced) reprint of four unfavourable paragraphs on V. by Herbert George Wells, Jules Verne and I, p. 62--63; William Golding, Astronaut by gaslight, p. 79--87, attack on V. under guise of review of Arco translations of works (see supra, Editions); Jules Verne, The day of an American journalist in 2889, p. 97--116, appears to be an (anonymous) re-translation of the official French translation of the short story which first appeared in The forum in 1889 in English!

#V99 Jules Verne 2: l'écriture vernienne. Ed. by François Raymond. Revue des lettres modernes, Paris, 1978. (Minard, 523, série Jules Verne)

Esp. Simone Vierne, Kaléidoscope de "L'île mystérieuse", p. 19--32; Christian Robin, Le récit sauvé des eaux: du "Voyage au centre de la Terre" au "Sphinx des glaces", réflexions sur le narrateur vernien, p. 33--55, despite some illuminating remarks, the critic consistently confuses an authentic diary form, a form superficially resembling a diary, and normal first-person narration!; Yves Chevrel, Questions de méthodes et d'idéologies chez Verne et Zola: "Les cinq cents millions de la Bégum" et "Travail", p. 69--96, sensible and detailed analysis of V.'s adaptation of Laurie's (alias Grousset) manuscript, and balanced literary comparison of V. and Zola; Alain Buisine, Repères, marques, gisements: à propos de la robinsonnade vernienne, p. 113--39, detailed account of desert-island theme in V., in context of Crusoe and his myriad imitators.

#V100 Jules Verne 4: texte, image, spectacle. Ed. by François Raymond. Revue des lettres modernes, Paris, 1983. (Minard, 669, série Jules Verne)

Jean-Pierre Picot, Hublots, miroirs, projecteurs, spectacles de la mort, p. 15--36, an entertaining survey of death -- with 8 self-references!; Philippe Bonnefis, A voir et à manger, p. 37--54, good on eating and cannibalism, but self-indulgent on puns; Daniel Compère, Fenêtres latérales, p. 55--71, description of V's illustrations; Philippe Mustière, Le chiffre et la lettre: la forclusion du nom du père dans le récit vernien, p. 95--103; Raymond, "Voyage à travers l'impossible" et "Voyages extraordinaires", p. 105--23, to the point and intelligent, but not necessarily convincing as to the importance of this rediscovered play (#V20); William Butcher, Le verbe et la chair, ou l'emploi du temps, p. 125--48, claims that V. wrote first French novel in continuous prose in the present and the first in the present and in the third person; Jean Delabroy, "Michel Strogoff" ou le sacrifice du spectacle, p. 149--60, stimulating and elegant on the "spectacular" in this novel; Didier Coste, Où Jules Verne montre son jeu: "Le château des Carpathes" comme allégorie de la communication narrative, p. 161--78, hostile, confusing, often erroneous account of time in V.; Robert Pourvoyeur, Théâtrographie de Jules Verne, p. 211--15, very complete list of plays by V., who was a playwright before becoming a novelist.

#V101 Jules Verne 3: machines et imaginaire. Ed. by François Raymond. Revue des lettres modernes, Paris, 1980. (Minard, 570, série Jules Verne)

Review: Comité de rédaction, BSJV 54:211--12, 1980.

With the Cerisy proceedings, perhaps the most important collection of articles on V., employing as it does a wide variety of methods, pointing to many new conclusions, and with Raymond's usual scrupulous formal presentation. Raymond, Pour une connaissance appliquée, p. 5--12, dense study of V.'s machinery; Jean Delabroy, La machine à démonter le temps, p. 15--23, psychological motivations of clock-imagery, esp. in Maître Zacharius, whose positivism ushers in the modern age; Alain Buisine, Machines et énergétiques, p. 25--51, powerful study of networks of energy and sex, and the opposition circulation-immobility; Marie-Hélène Huet, L'écrivain tératologique, p. 53--66, and Daniel Compère, Les machines à ecrire, p. 91--102, intelligent on the machinery of the text, namely self-transformations, mises-en-abyme, animal--human--mechanical syntheses; Philippe Bonnefis, La mécanique des chutes, p. 67--90, Michel Serres on a bad day; Jean-Pierre Picot, Véhicules, nature, artifices, p. 103--26, the ecological side of V., with "do-it-yourself" improvisation of vehicles, including volcanic lifts, sledge-avalanches and wind-propelled kites and wheelbarrows; Mireille Coutrix-Gouaux, "L'étoile du Sud" ou la machination de la nature, p. 127--34; Jean Bellemin-Noël, Analecture d'un fiasco double, p. 137--56, claims V.'s writing in one work at least is a "fiasco"; Raymond, Le héros épinglé, p. 157--74, shows that each hero has both a caricature and an ideal model, undermining and reinforcing Authority in often highly complex structures.

#V102 Jules Verne 1: le tour du monde. Ed. by François Raymond. Revue des lettres modernes, Paris, 1976. (Minard, 456-61, série Jules Verne)

First volume in series, uneasily balanced, as Raymond himself implies in introduction, between the scholarly and the merely admirative. Jean Chesneaux, "Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours" -- notes de lecture, p. 11--20, readable account of "lyrisme ferroviaire", claimed humanisation of Fogg by Mrs Aouda and Passepartout, imperialist ideology in India and worldwide; André Lebois, Poétique secrète du "Tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours", p. 21--29, brief analysis of themes of gold, Providence, time, mathematical precision and of influence on Jarry; Daniel Compère, Le jour fantôme, p. 31--52, knowledgeably traces possible sources for basic idea of novel, including publications before 1872, Poe and historical documents; Jean-Pierre Poncey, Misère de Jules Verne, ou l'écehec d'un projet, p. 53--64, unrelenting and rather "m'as-tu vu?" attack on V.; Raymond, Tours du monde et tours du texte: procédés verniens, procédés rousselliens, p. 67--88, entertainingly explores V.'s tours: both the closed circuits over the globe and the narratorial traps, bluffs and deliberate omissions; Simone Vierne, Le poète autour du monde, p. 89--94; Marie-Hélène Huet, Exploration du jeu, p. 95-108, the role of bets, games and death; Pierre Terrasse, Le "Tour du monde" au théâtre, p. 109--24, account of the play; Jules Verne, Les méridiens et le calendrier, p. 125--30; Jules Verne, Un express de l'avenir, p. 131-38.

#V103 Modernités de Jules Verne. Ed. by Jean Bessière. Paris, Univ. de Picardie (Centre d'études du roman et romanesque) and Presses Univ. de France, 1988. 250 p.

Review: V. Dehs, BSJV 91:6--7, 1989.

Proceedings of highly successful conference held at Amiens in 1985. Bessière, Propositions, p. 3--7; Olivier Dumas, Jules Verne retrouvé ou le héros vernien trahi par Hetzel, p. 11--20, familiar attack on Hetzel's editorial role; Daniel Compère, Jules Verne en ses miroirs, p. 21--31; Jean Perrot, La politique des éléments dans l'œuvre de Jules Verne, p. 35--54, on energy, cycles, time, madness; Jean Chesneaux, Jules Verne et la modernité: des "Voyages extraordinaires" à nos années quatre-vingts, p. 55--66, an interesting analysis of V.'s modernity, including a passionate and possibly ad hominem attack against the idea of detecting reductionist figures such as lines, arborescences and binarity in V.'s works; Robert Pourvoyeur, L'invention des noms étrangers chez Jules Verne, p. 69--85; Arthur B. Evans, Le "franglais" vernien (père et fils), p. 87--105, list of V.'s spelling mistakes in English; Daniel Mortier, Le récit et le spectacle: Jules Verne et le théâtre, p. 107--22, V.'s theatre and theatricality; William Butcher, Etranges voyages de la ligne: fleuves, logos et logique dans l'œuvre de Jules Verne, p. 123--38, claims V. as highly innovative in use of rivers, latitudes, text-in-the-text, his whole attempt being to "temporalise" space, to convert science and geography into lines on the page; Maryse Ducreu-Petit, Personnage second et redoublement du personnage, p. 139--55, schizophrenia and sidekicks; Alain Buisine, Voglio morire..., p. 157--80, very complete but totally unreferenced study of death in the works, which itself comes to a sudden end with a unique footnote in extremis announcing that the study may be continued at a later date!; Jean Bessière, Jules Verne: point mort, sacrifice de la mimésis, p. 181--99, knowledge and nothingness in the works; Mireille Gouaux-Coutrix, Voyage au centre de la Terre comme auto-analyse, p. 203--12; Christian Chelebourg, Le paradis des fossiles: stylistique de l'histoire naturelle dans "Voyage au centre de la Terre", p. 213--27, dense and informative study of geology, biology and the different editions of this novel; Henri Zukowski, Boussoles, p. 229--45, brilliant analysis of spatial structures, but which then totally sidetracks off to Roussel.

#V104 La nouvelle revue maritime. 386--87, 1984.

Esp. William Butcher, Crevettes de l'air et baleines volantes, p. 35--40, for V. the sea is at the same time enticing freedom and frightening openness, so he invents complex forms and extended elemental metaphors to structure the story; Daniel Compère, L'invasion de la mer, p. 41--53, interaction and conflict of earth and sea; Christian Robin, Verne et Michelet, chantres de l'océan, p. 59--65; Robert Taussat, Des capitaines courageux, p. 88--98, V.'s sea-captains in the light of history; Jean Gagneux, Le "Nautilus" pouvait naviguer, p. 99--111, plausibility of Nemo's vessel; Robert Pourvoyeur, Le grand opéra de la mer, p. 118--24.

#V105 Textes et langages X: Jules Verne. Ed. by Christian Robin. Univ. de Nantes, 1984 [for 1985]. 188 p.

Robin, see: #V144; Simone Vierne, Jules Verne devant la critique de son temps, p. 15--27, reveals the repetitive and stereotyped view of V. generally promoted by his contemporaries; Jacques Davy, Les mésaventures de la mission Barsac ou la perversion du discours, p. 47--70, reasonably complete study of L'étonnante aventure de la mission Barsac and its context and sources; Claude Gaugain, Verne et Wells, p. 71--101, studies critical attitudes to the two writers; Luce Courville, Inventaire alphabétique des personnages de Jules Verne, p. 109--85.

Individual articles

#V106 Barthes, Roland. Par où commencer?. POET 1:3--9. Also in his: Nouveaux essais critiques. Seuil, Paris, 1972, p. 145--51.

Seminal study of L'île mystérieuse, both formalist and thematic, involving a close analysis of the incipit, and enquiring as to possible points of entry to the global text.

#V107 -------. Nautilus et Bateau ivre. In his: Mythologies. Paris, Seuil, 1957 (2nd edn 1970). p. 80--82.

Brilliant but ultimately limited exploration of psycho-physiology of V.'s ships, with their closure, their finitude, their appropriation of space.

#V108 Berge, François. Jules Verne, romancier de la navigation. RGB 455--68, April 15, 1929.

Sensitive early study of style and symbolism in marine novels.

#V109 Besnier, Patrick. Les ténèbres ont leur beauté (Jules Verne et la fin de l'histoire). Annales de Bretagne et des pays de l'ouest. 82:213--18, 1975.

Brief but poetic account of metaphor of past time as embodied in the geological layers, implying the possibility of progressively discovering it.

#V110 Bradbury, Ray. The ardent blasphemers. In: Twenty thousand leagues under the sea. Bantam, Toronto, New York, London, Sydney, 1962, 1981. p. 1--12.

Lyrical comparison by longstanding admirer of V. of "American" spirit of Nemo and Ahab, with Nemo representing more positive values of curiosity and historical progress.

#V111 -------. Introduction. In: Around the World in Eighty Days. Los Angeles, Plantin press, 1962. p. vii--xii.

Enthusiastic piece showing that Fogg and Passepartout are respectively thinking and doing, eccentric genius and un-creative shadow.

#V112 -------. Introduction. In: The Mysterious Island. Baltimore, Garamond press, 1959. p. v--x.

V.'s works are eminently cinematic, representing a rare art of magic and exhilaration.

#V113 Butcher, William. Graphes et graphie: circuits et voyages extraordinaires dans l'œuvre de Jules Verne. In: Regards sur la théorie des graphes, Actes du colloque de Cerisy, 12--18 juin 1980. Lausanne, Presses polytechniques romandes, 1980. p. 177--82.

Employs mathematical graph theory to formalise aspects of the journeys and other structures, such as mappings, closure and openness, Eulerian forms and Hamiltonians.

#V114 Butor, Michel. Le point suprême et l'âge d'or à travers quelques œuvres de Jules Verne. ALE 15:3--31, 1949. Also in his: Répertoire [I]. Paris, Minuit, 1960. p. 130--62. Also in his: Essais sur les modernes. Paris, Minuit, 1960. p. 36--94

The first substantive literary study of Verne. Concentrates on cryptograms, geographical singularities, Providence, the role of science and increasing pessimism. Also situates V. in the literary context.

#V115 Chambers, Ross. Cultural and ideological determinations in narrative: a note on Jules Verne's Les cinq cents millions de la Bégum. ESPC 21:69--78, 1981.

Unfortunate choice of novel (which was written by André Laurie and V., and is untypically crude) leads nevertheless to a sensitive account of the ideology of the novel and how it was explored in a university teaching situation.

#V116 Evans, Arthur B. Science fiction vs. scientific fiction in France: from Jules Verne to J.H. Rosny aîné. SFS 15:1--11, 1988.

Studies V.'s didactic insertion of scientific material into novels, compares him with d'Ivoi, Robida and Rosny aîné, and argues that V. was "scientific fiction", but not SF proper.

#V117 Lacassin, Francis. Jules Verne et le roman policier. In Le pilote du Danube. Paris, Union générale d'éditions, 1979. (10/18, série "Jules Verne inattendu"). p. 5--18.

Placing V. in the context of the development of the detective novel, claims him as a precursor.

#V118 Macherey, Pierre. Jules Verne ou le récit en défaut. In his: Pour une théorie de la création littéraire. Paris, Maspéro, 1966. p. 183--266.

Left-wing reading of V., which, behind an objectivist and modern language is in fact highly critical in the most traditional terms. Argues that V.'s essential theme is the conquest of nature by industry. Full of insights on ideology of colonisation, trains, retrospection.

#V119 Martin, Andrew. Chez Jules: nutrition and cognition in the novels of Jules Verne. FS 37:47--58, 1983.

A slightly ironic but dense and perceptive analysis of V.'s carnivorous characters, whose aim is to eat everything, the problems this causes on the Raft of the Chancellor, and the anti-Romantic philosophy this implies. Interspersed with interesting titbits on Rabelais, Flaubert, Sartre.

#V120 -------. The entropy of Balzacian tropes in the scientific fictions of Jules Verne. MLR, 77:51--62, 1982.

Perhaps the most brilliant article in English to date, although unduly harsh on V.'s style. Shows that the entropic tension between an imperfect world and an intellectual ideal leads 19th-C. writers to espouse scientific discourse as a model, hence the great legitimacy of science within V.'s texts. The key images of the ocean, the volcanoes and electricity render the inanimate highly personalised and more or less subsume the personal under the Vernian obsession with numbering, naming and classifying.

#V121 -------. The machine stops: the breakdown of the Vernian vehicle. RS 63--77, summer 1985.

Studies, with the fireworks and scintillations one has come to expect from this writer, the idea of the masked prophet in the novels involving vehicles, in particular Robur-le-conquérant and Maître du monde.

#V122 -------. The mask of the prophet: Napoleon, Borges, Verne. CL 318--34, fall 1988.

See: #V53.

#V123 ------. The scientific fictions of Jules Verne. In The knowledge of ignorance, from Genesis to Jules Verne. Cambridge, Cambridge univ. press, 1985. (Cambridge studies in French). p. 122--79.

Based on a Ph.D. thesis, The knowledge of ignorance: science, nescience and omniscience in some French writers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Univ. of Cambridge, 1982 (awarded 1983).

Review: W. Butcher, MLR 83:1001--02, 1988.

This "chapter" is a perspicacious, subtle and ironic account of V.'s attempts to eat, measure, map out and sexually unite with the whole globe. V. is shown to veer from the quasi-mathematical to the restlessly evolutionary, from the atemporally static to the entropically insecure. Polymathic.

#V124 Miller, Walter James. A new look at Jules Verne. Jules Verne, rehabilitated. In: The annotated Jules Verne: Twenty thousand leagues under the sea. New York, Crowell, 1976. p. 7--22, 356--62.

Analyses V.'s strange reputation in US, caused, inter alia, by the generally atrocious quality of the translations. Quotes some wonderful howlers.

#V125 Moore, Patrick. The genius of Verne. In his: Science and fiction. Harrap, London, 1957. p. 43--62.

Although containing few literary insights, praises V.'s critical attitude and concern for plausibility.

#V126 Picot, Jean-Pierre. Parodie et tragédie de la régression dans quelques œuvres de Jules Verne. Romantisme 27:109--23, 1980.

Studies themes of primitiveness, senility, decadence, nature, cannibalism.

#V127 Porcq, Ch. Jules Verne et le pape de l'an mil. BSJV 91:36--46, 1989.

Substantial article from psychoanalytic viewpoint, convincingly revealing the puns, the various perverse forms of sexuality, and the mechanical metaphor in Maître Zacharius.

#V128 Raymond, François. Postface. In Sans dessus dessous. Grenoble, Glénat, 1976. p. 181--90.

Influential piece, presenting this novel as V.'s most modern, critical, ironic, subversive, not recuperable in terms of a particular methodology or ideology.

#V129 -------. Jules Verne, ou le livre en défaut. Romantisme 44:105--19, 1984.

Erudite and alert account of the "materiality" of the writing process in V.'s works and its various emblems, consequences and contradictions.

#V130 -------. Jules Verne ou le mouvement perpétuel. Subsidia pataphysica 8:21--52, 1969.

Perhaps the article which went furthest in establishing a method to approach the systematically evasive V., by examining such constants as space and time, the characters' motivations, and the systematically self-qualifying affirmations. A model of new criticism, and a foundation of much of what came later.

#V131 -------. Les machines musicales de Jules Verne: esquisse pour une esthétique vernienne. Romantisme 41:101--14, 1983.

Destroys myth of V.'s machines as Saint-Simonian, capitalist or in any way mechanical, by studying the many natural and man-made creative musical machines, whose role is to combine opposites, to abolish gender, to convert time into the instantaneous.

#V132 -------. Le scaphandrier des abîmes. In Jules Verne. Ed. by François Raymond. Paris, Presses pocket, 1986. p. 7--26.

Review: O. Dumas, BSJV 79:5--6, 1986.

Studies the science-fiction facets, as merely one of the aspects of V. (The rest of the volume is made up of five of V.'s short stories, plus extracts from ten of the novels.)

#V133 Ricardou, Jean. In his: Problèmes du nouveau roman. Paris, Seuil, 1967.

Claims that V.'s attempt in Le sphinx des glaces to provide an ending for Poe's Arthur Gordon Pym is misguided.

#V134 Sartre, Jean-Paul. Les mots. Paris, Gallimard, 1964. p. 36, 56--59, 107--09.

Neatly complementing Camus's early love of Verne, Sartre recounts that he learned to read so as to be able to decipher Les tribulations d'un Chinois, that he was in love with Mrs Aouda, that Strogoff's unitary destiny, governed by geography, the Tsar and God, made him cry with joy and fascination (was it also one of the causes of his own subsequent attempted "unitarism"?).

#V135 Serres, Michel. Loxodromies des Voyages extraordinaires. In his: Hermès ou la communication. Paris, Minuit, 1968. p. 11--19, 207--13.

Studies loxodromies, rhumb lines and other over-determined one-dimensional structures in V., bringing in various scientific theories. Slightly hermetic but illuminating.

#V136 Suvin, Darko. Introduction. In: H.G. Wells and modern science fiction. Ed. by Darko Suvin, with Robert M. Philmus. Lewisburg, PA, Bucknell univ. press, 1977. p. 9--32.

Here (and in several other pieces at this period) Suvin erroneously claims V. as a strict Newtonian, as a lower stage of the development of SF, as a mere St John the Baptist for H.G. Wells.

#V137 Tournier, Michel. Les météores. Paris, Gallimard, 1975. 600 p. The fictional works of Tournier -- plus Le vent paraclet, 1977 -- are a hymn to V., containing a large number of allusions, pastiches and extensive borrowings. This novel, esp. p. 400--02 in the Folio edition (1978), points out the contrasting temporal and spatial conceptions of Fogg and Passepartout, and is generally illuminating about the construction of Verne's novel.

Michel Verne

#V138 Boia, Lucien. Un ecrivain original: Michel Verne. BSJV 70:90--95, 1984.

Useful survey of three traits distinguishing MV from Jules: turned to the future rather than the present; deeper -- and more left-wing -- political analysis; and generally greater pessimism.

#V139 -------. L'éternel Adam et les fins du monde. BSJV 68:127--32, 1983.

Unfortunately avoids an internal, literary analysis, but good in setting the context for the catastrophes of this short story: fin-de-siècle millenarism, volcanic explosions and earthquakes, renewed interest in Atlantis, Flammarion, Wells, Rosny aîné.

#V140 Butcher, William. Le sens de L'éternel Adam. BSJV 58:73--81, 1981.

Claims Michel Verne as authentic and distinct writer, studies cyclical and other structures, and argues that previous critics have neglected interaction between form and content in this brilliant story, and hence exaggerated its pessimism.

#V141 Dumas, Olivier. La main du fils dans l'œuvre du père. BSJV 82:21--24, 1987.

While summing up our knowledge of the posthumous production, especially the surprising absence of hand-written manuscripts, proposes the hypothesis that MV may have collaborated with V. even on some of the novels published before 1905.

#V142 -------. Prefaces to the original versions of 5 posthumous novels: see: #V17.

#V143 Gondolo della Riva, Piero. A propos de l'activité littéraire de Michel Verne. CCEVDMJV 5:14--22, 1985.

Lists, summarises and comments on the only known writings signed MV (the first of which was apparently discovered by C. Robin – see: #V): nine pieces under the general title Zigzags à travers la science in the Supplément littéraire of the Figaro in 1888. MV writes alert and polished but otherwise unexceptional journalism.

#V144 -------. A propos des œuvres posthumes de Jules Verne. Eur 73--88, Nov. 1978.

Paper first presented to general consternation at Cerisy Colloquium, then published, and which started the whole debate about MV by quoting documentary evidence (manuscripts in MV's hand and typescripts) which proved that he had written considerable parts of the posthumous works including the whole of the brilliant short story L'éternel Adam; this fine analysis also comments perspicaciously on MV the writer.

#V145 -------. Encore à propos du manuscrit de Storitz. BSJV 58:72, 1981.

Further to his previous article (A propos du manuscrit de "Storitz", BSJV 46:160--63, 1978), where he analyses MV's amendments to Le secret de Wilhelm Storitz, here proves that the posthumous change of setting from turn of century to 1757 was in fact imposed by Hetzel fils.

#V146 Robin, Christian. Les débuts de Michel Verne. In: Textes et langages X: Jules Verne. Ed. by C. Robin. Univ. de Nantes, 1984 [for 1985]. p. 1--3, 9--13.

Reproduces for the first time the second of MV's Zigzags à travers la science, and comments briefly on it.

1. As it has recently been proved that many of the posthumous works published under the name Jules Verne were in fact written partly or -- in one case -- entirely by his son Michel, it is appropriate to give credit here to the two authors. Also, the final section of this bibliography is devoted to studies specifically on Michel Verne.