Lighthouses of China: Southern Liáoníng

Liáoníng is a province of northeastern China, at the northern end of the Chinese coast. A principal geographical feature of the province is the Liáodōng (Liaotung) Peninsula, which projects into the northern end of the Yellow Sea, separating Korea Bay on the east from Liáodōng Bay on the west. The major port complex of Dàlián is near the end of the peninsula on the eastern side. This page includes lighthouses of the Dàlián area including Dàlián city proper and Lǚshùn (the former Port Arthur).

During the colonial period Russia and Japan vied for control of this strategically located area. In 1898 Russia leased the Dàlián area from China, but Japan conquered the Russian colony during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. In 1931 Japan invaded northeast China and incorporated Liáoníng into the puppet state of Manchukuo until the end of the Second World War in 1945. Soviet troops then occupied Dàlián; the city was returned to Chinese sovereignty in 1950 but Soviet troops remained until they were withdrawn in 1955.

In addition to Dàlián, there are important Korea Bay ports at Dāndōng and Zhuānghé.

An additional note: the province of Liáoníng was known as Fengtian from 1907 to 1929 and during the Japanese administration; the name Liáoníng was restored in 1945.

Lighthouses in China are maintained by the PRC Maritime Safety Administration. There are regional offices in each province; Liáoníng lighthouses fall under the Liáoníng MSA.

The pīnyīn system for transliterating Chinese into Latin characters is now the international standard, but some locations continue to be known also under the spellings of older transliteration systems. The Chinese word for a lighthouse is dēngtǎ (灯塔). In pinyin jiāo (formerly chiao) is a reef or rock, jiǎo is a cape or headland, dǎo (tao) is an island; (tsu) is a small island, wān is a bay and gǎng (kang) is a harbor.

Names formerly used by the Japanese administration are shown in brackets {}.

ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS World List of Lights. CN numbers are Chinese light list numbers, where available. Admiralty numbers are from volume P of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals. U.S. NGA List numbers are from Publication 112.

Laotieshan Light
Lǎotiěshān Light, Lǚshùn
PRC Maritime Safety Administration photo

General Sources
Dalian Lighthouses 
This blog has photos of the major lighthouses of the Dalian area. All the photos appear to be by the Maritime Safety Administration. Several are reproduced here.
Online List of Lights - China
Coming soon: photos by various photographers posted by Alexander Trabas.
Manchuria AMS Topographic Maps
U.S. Army maps from around 1950, collected by the University of Texas.
Chinese English Pinyin Dictionary
A useful tool for juggling the representations of Chinese names.
Leuchttürme Chinas auf historischen Postkarten
Historic postcard views posted by Klaus Huelse.

East Entrance South Side Light, Dàlián, March 2012
Wikimedia photo by CEphoto, Uwe Aranas / CC-BY-SA-3.0
Dàlián City: Offshore Approach Lighthouses
Note: Dàlián, Liáoníng's largest port and second-largest city, occupies a narrow waist of the Liáodōng Peninsula about 80 km (50 mi) northeast of the end. Port facilities are on the east side of the city, facing Korea Bay. The area was occupied by Britain in 1858 but was returned to China in the 1880s. Along with the rest of the peninsula it was occupied by Russia in 1898, by Japan from 1905 until the end of the Second World War, and then by Soviet troops until 1955. Political administration was transferred to the new People's Republic in 1950. The city was called Darien in English and Dalny in Russian.
Yuándǎo (Round Island)
1925 (substantially rebuilt in 1949). Active; focal plane 66 m (217 ft); white flash every 15 s. 20 m (66 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with lantern and gallery, attached to a 1-story keeper's house. Lighthouse painted white, lantern roof red. An MSA photo is at right, and a visitor account has several photos, but the island is barely visible in Google's satellite view. Heavily damaged during World War II, the lighthouse was repaired and operated by the Soviet Union from 1949 to 1955. Located on a small island far out in Korea Bay, about 50 km (30 mi) east southeast of Dàlián. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower closed. ARLHS PRC-073; CN-1096; Admiralty P4064; NGA 18212.
Nánsānliàngchējiāo (Xian Jiao) (3)
1987 (station established 1928). Active; focal plane 21 m (69 ft); white flash every 5 s. 21 m (69 ft) round hourglass-shaped fiberglass tower mounted on a hexagonal cylindrical concrete pyramid. Fiberglass tower painted with red and white horizontal bands, concrete base unpainted. The original light was on a 10 m (33 ft) tower, and the second lighthouse was built in 1961. The Dalian Lighthouse blog has a photo (fifth lighthouse on the page), but Google has only a fuzzy satellite view of the location. Located on a rocky reef about 25 km (15 mi) southeast of Dàlián. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower closed. ARLHS PRC-062; CN-1080; Admiralty P4060; NGA 18222.
Dàsānshāndǎo
1905. Active; focal plane 81 m (266 ft); white flash every 10 s. 12 m (39 ft) round stone tower, painted white. Fog siren (4 blasts every 30 s). An MSA photo is below right, a 2015 view from the sea and a very distant view from the sea are available, and Google has a satellite view. Construction of this historic lighthouse began in 1903, presumably by the Russian government then in control of Dàlián. According to MSA, the lighthouse was refurbished in 1947, a fog signal was added in 1958, and in 1994 action was taken to stabilize the slope around the lighthouse. Dàsānshāndǎo is an island off the southern entrance to Dàlián Bay, about 25 km (15 mi) east southeast of the city. Located at the southern tip of the island. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower closed. ARLHS PRC-023; CN-1097; Admiralty P4058; NGA 18220.

Yuándǎo Light, Korea Bay
PRC Maritime Safety Administration photo
Yùyán (Yu Yan, Gugan, Encounter Rock)
1925. Active; focal plane 20 m (66 ft); white light, 1.5 s on, 2.5 s off. 16 m (52 ft) round concrete tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. The Dalian Lighthouse blog has a photo (second lighthouse on the page), and another site has the same MSA photo (halfway down the page), but the rock is not seen in Google's satellite view. The lighthouse was restored in 1998 and MSA repaired the lighthouse when it failed in October 2012. Located on a rocky reef about 35 km (22 mi) south of Dàlián. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower closed. ARLHS PRC-072; CN-1145; Admiralty P4062; NGA 18216.

Dàlián City: Gānjǐngzi District Lighthouses
Héshàngdǎo Main (General Cargo Pier) Breakwater
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 14 m (46 ft); light characteristic unknown. Approx. 12 m (39 ft) round tower. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Héshàngdǎo is a former island, now joined to the mainland, at the northern end of Dàlián harbor. Located at the end of the main breakwater of the harbor. Site and tower closed. Admiralty P4047.6.
Liaohaixun Breakwater
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 12 m (39 ft); white light, 2 s on, 2 s off. 10 m (33 ft) round fiberglass tower colored with black and white horizontal bands. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located at the end of a pier at the northern end of Dàlián harbor. Site and tower closed. Admiralty P4045.23; NGA 18283.
Gānjǐngzi (Kanchingtzu) {Kanseishi} Oil Wharf
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 16 m (52 ft); white light, 2 s on, 2 s off. 10 m (33 ft) round fiberglass tower colored with black and white horizontal bands. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located at the end of the pier. Site and tower closed. Admiralty P4045.22; NGA 18279.1.


Dàsānshāndǎo Light, Dàlián
PRC Maritime Safety Administration Wēnzhōu Office photo

Gānjǐngzi (Kanchingtzu) {Kanseishi} Wharf (2)
1997 (station established 1930). Active; focal plane 12.5 m (41 ft); continuous green light. 12 m (39 ft) tapered round fiberglass tower, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located at the end of the longest pier of Dàlián's old harbor. Site status unknown. CN-1124; Admiralty P4044; NGA 18280.

Dàlián City: Zhōngshān District Lighthouses
Dàgǎng Běikǒuxī (North Entrance West Side)
1915. Active; focal plane 19 m (62 ft); continuous red light. 19 m (62 ft) tile-covered tower with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted white, lantern red. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. The lighthouse was "transformed" in 1964, presumably by adding the tile covering. Located at the end of the west breakwater of Dàlián. Site and tower closed. CN-1108; Admiralty P4028; NGA 18268.
Dàgǎng Běikǒudōng (North Entrance East Side)
1915. Active; focal plane 19 m (62 ft); continuous red light. 19 m (62 ft) tile-covered tower with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted white, lantern red. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. The lighthouse was "transformed" in 1964, presumably by adding the tile covering. Located at the west end of the detached main breakwater of Dàlián. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower closed. CN-1107; Admiralty P4026; NGA 18264.
Dàgǎng Dōngkǒuběi (East Entrance North Side) (Dàlián Wān)
1913. Active; focal plane 13 m (43 ft); white light, 6 s on, 6 s off. 13 m (43 ft) round tapered stone tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. The Dalian Lighthouse blog has a photo (just over halfway down the page), Huelse has a historic postcard view, and Google has a satellite view. Located at the east end of the detached main breakwater of Dàlián, on the north side of the Dàlián peninsula. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower closed. ARLHS PRC-022; CN-1110; Admiralty P4022; NGA 18256.
* Dàgǎng Dōngkǒunán (East Entrance South Side)
1913. Active; focal plane 11 m (36 ft); red light, 6 s on, 6 s off. 13 m (43 ft) round tapered stone tower with lantern and gallery, painted red. A photo by Uwe Aranas is at the top of this page, the Dalian Lighthouse blog has a photo (just over halfway down the page), another photo is available, Huelse has a historic postcard view showing a long-vanished signal tower behind the lighthouse, and Bing has a satellite view. Located at the end of the east breakwater of Dàlián. Site and tower closed, but the lighthouse can easily be viewed from shore. CN-1109; Admiralty P4020; NGA 18260.
Huang
Huángbáizuǐ Light, Dàlián
PRC Maritime Safety Administration Wēnzhōu Office photo
#Dàlián Oil Pier # 2 (2)
1965 (station established 1932). Removed, apparently in 2009. This was an 11 m (36 ft) round concrete tower, painted white, located at the end of the longer pier of the former Dàlián oil terminal, on the northeastern edge of the city. A recent Google satellite view shows that the entire pier and terminal have disappeared in a newly filled area. ex-CN-1122; ex-Admiralty P4018; ex-NGA 18244.
Huángbáizuǐ {Kohakushi} (2)
1996 (station established 1925). Active; focal plane 95 m (312 ft); flash every 5 s, alternately red and white. 16 m (52 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower, attached to a round 2-story coast guard or harbor control building. Entire structure painted white. An MSA photo is above right, and Bing has a satellite view. This light is the landfall light for Dàlián harbor. Located on a sharp, rocky promontory on the northeast corner of the Dàlián peninsula, about 12 km (7.5 mi) east of the center of the city. Site status unknown. ARLHS PRC-032; CN-1098; Admiralty P4010; NGA 18236.
* Lǎohǔtān Wān Breakwater (2?)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 27 m (89 ft); light characteristic unknown. Approx. 24 m (79 ft) ornate square tower with lantern. Matthew Stinson has a photo, and Bing has a satellite view. Located on a breakwater in Lǎohǔtān Bay on the south side of the Dàlián peninsula. Site open; the tower may be open as well. Admiralty P3988.
Lǎohǔtān Wān (Tiger Beach)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane and light characteristic unknown. Approx. 15 m (49 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with lantern and gallery, covered with white ceramic tiles. The small lantern is red. Dmitry Klimenko has a 2009 photo, a distant view is available, and Bing has a satellite view. We need additional information on this lighthouse. Located on a promontory on the west side of the entrance to Lǎohǔtān Bay. Site open, tower closed. Not listed by the Admiralty.
* Xīnghǎi
Date unknown. Active (probably unofficial); light characteristic unknown. Approx. 17 m (56 ft) round hourglass-shaped stone stone tower with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted red. Brian Yap's photo is at right, Jo Manolo has a nighttime photo of the lighthouse in action, and Google has a satellite view. We need information on the history of this interesting lighthouse. Xīnghǎi, on the south side of the Dàlián peninsula, has tourist facilities including a cruise ship terminal and swimming beach. Located on the west side of the harbor entrance at Xīnghǎi. Site open, tower closed. Not listed by the Admiralty.
Lǎopiāndǎo
2001. Active; focal plane 88 m (289 ft); white flash every 4 s. 8 m (26 ft) white round concrete tower. Yin Hu has a photo, and Google has a satellite view. The area is included in a marine ecosystem preserve. Located on a small but high island about 10 km (6 mi) south of Xinghai. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. CN-1143; Admiralty P3985.
Xinghai Light
Xīnghǎi Light, Dàlián, October 2006
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Brian Yap

Lǚshùnkǒu District Lighthouses
Note: Lǚshùn is a port near the southern tip of the Liáodōng Peninsula. The city is north of the Laotieshan mountain, with port facilities on both coasts of the peninsula. The history of the city is complex. The British, who had outposts on the peninsula as early as the 1850s, called the city Port Arthur. The Japanese occupied it in 1894-95 during the First Sino-Japanese War, but they were forced to give it up by the Western powers. In 1898 Russia occupied the port and made it the terminus of the Chinese Eastern Railway. The city was then re-occupied by the Japanese in 1905 and remained under their control until the end of the Second World War. During this period, the city was known as Ryojun in Japanese, but it continued to be called Port Arthur in the west. Soviet troops occupied the city in 1945 and remained in control until 1953. Additional note: the lights of Lǚshùn's main harbor are missing from international light lists. We need more information about these lighthouses.
Lǚshùn East Reef
Date unknown. Active; light characteristic unknown. Round concrete tower with gallery, probably at least 12 m (39 ft) in height. Lighthouse painted with red and black horizontal bands. Vladislav Nikitenko has a photo, another photo and a distant view are available, and Bing has a satellite view. Located at the end of a dangerous reef about 2.5 km (1.5 mi) east of the entrance to the eastern (Korea Bay) harbor of Lǚshùn. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed.
Báiyùshān Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane and light characteristic unknown. Approx. 18 m (59 ft) round concrete tower with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted white, lantern red. A photo of the three range lights is at right, and Google has a satellite view. Located on the Báiyùshān (White Jade Mountain) ridge opposite the entrance to Lǚshùn harbor. Site status unknown; the ridge appears to be a public park.
* Báiyùshān Range Middle
Date unknown. Active; focal plane and light characteristic unknown. Approx. 18 m (59 ft) round concrete tower with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted white, lantern red. A photo of the three range lights is at right, Mapio.net has a closeup photo, and Google has a satellite view. Located on the Báiyùshān (White Jade Mountain) ridge about 100 m (330 ft) north of the front light. The ridge appears to be a public park. Site open, tower closed.
* Báiyùshān Range Rear
Date unknown. Active; focal plane and light characteristic unknown. Approx. 18 m (59 ft) round concrete tower with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted white, lantern red. A photo of the three range lights is at right, and Google has a satellite view. Located on the Báiyùshān (White Jade Mountain) ridge about 100 m (330 ft) north of the middle light. The ridge appears to be a public park. Site open, tower closed.

Báiyùshān Range Lights, Lǚshùn
Chinese news agency photo
Lǚshùn (2)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 45 m (148 ft); light characteristic unknown. Approx. 21 m (69 ft) rectangular concrete tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. An MSA photo is at right, Vladislav Nikitenko has a photo, Zhāng Yùhuī has a distant view across the bay, and Google has a satellite view and a very distant street view. The lighthouse is part of a large complex of buildings, probably a military base; the harbor appears to be a major base for the Chinese Navy. The modern lighthouse replaced a much smaller light seen to the right of the tower in MSA's photo at right. Located on a promontory on the west side of the entrance to the eastern (Korea Bay) harbor of Lǚshùn. Site status unknown.
** Lǎotiěshān (Liaotieshan Xijiao, Port Arthur)
1893. Active; focal plane 100 m (328 ft); two white flashes every 30 s. 14 m (46 ft) round cylindrical cast iron tower with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted white. Original 1st order Fresnel lens. Several keeper's houses and other light station buildings. An MSA photo is at the top of this page, Américo Alves has a 2010 photo, Mapio.net has a photo, another closeup photo is available, the lighthouse appears on a postage stamp, and Google has a satellite view. Prefabricated in France, this historic lighthouse marks the southwestern tip of the Liáodōng Peninsula. The lighthouse was installed by Chinese authorities, but was managed by Russia (1898-1904), Japan (1904-1945), and the Soviet Union (1945-1955) before being returned to Chinese control. Today the lighthouse is a popular attraction for visitors to Lǚshùn. Located about 12 km (7.5 mi) southwest of Lǚshùn (known as Port Arthur during the colonial period). Site open, tower closed. ARLHS PRC-038; CN-1175; Admiralty P3986; NGA 18312.
Lǚshùn Xīngǎng East Outer Breakwater
2012. Active; focal plane 23 m (75 ft); green light, 3 son, 3 s off. 6 m (20 ft) round concrete tower, colored with green and white horizontal bands. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located at the end of the outer breakwater of the Lǚshùn Xīngǎng harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty P3984.69.
Lǚshùn Xīngǎng East Breakwater
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 7 m (23 ft); continuous green light. 6 m (20 ft) round concrete tower with lantern and gallery. Tower covered with white ceramic tiles; lantern painted green. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located at the end of the inner east breakwater of the Lǚshùn Xīngǎng harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty P3984.6.
Lüshun Light
Lǚshùn Light, Lǚshùn
PRC Maritime Safety Administration photo
Lǚshùn Xīngǎng West Breakwater
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 7 m (23 ft); continuous red light. 6 m (20 ft) round concrete tower with lantern and gallery. Tower covered with white ceramic tiles; lantern painted red. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located at the end of the west inner breakwater of the Lǚshùn Xīngǎng harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty P3984.5.
Lǚshùn Xīngǎng West Outer Breakwater
2012. Active; focal plane 23 m (75 ft); white light, 3 son, 3 s off. 6 m (20 ft) round concrete tower, colored with red and white horizontal bands. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located at the end of the outer breakwater of the Lǚshùn Xīngǎng harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty P3984.7; CN-1176.11.
Shuāngdǎowān
Date unknown. Google's satellite view reveals a substantial lighthouse with lantern and gallery on the breakwater of Shuāngdǎowān, a sheltered bay about 15 km (9 mi) north of Xīngǎng harbor. No other information is available about this lighthouse.
Shédǎo (Snake Island, Xiǎolóngshān, Little Dragon Mountain) {Sho-ryu-san-to}
1932. Active; focal plane 69 m (226 ft); white flash every 4 s. 8.5 m (28 ft) round concrete tower, painted white. An MSA photo is available, and Google has only a fuzzy satellite view of the location. Located at the northwestern tip of an island about 10 km (6 mi) off the northwestern point of the tip of the Liáodōng Peninsula. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. CN-1177; Admiralty P3984; NGA 18316.
 

Information available on lost lighthouses:

Notable faux lighthouses:

Adjoining pages: Northeast: Southeastern Liáoníng | Northwest: Southwestern Liáoníng

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Posted February 25, 2008. Checked and revised April 19, 2018. Lighthouses: 30. Site copyright 2018 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.