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[nafex] Grafting trials ...did you try Dr. Cummins technique with IBA?


This week there have been several postings relative to graft success.

A couple of years ago Dr. Cummins had an article in the Pomona where he had
success with the use of IBA rooting hormones during grafting.
His article is listed below.

Since there is so much interest in grafting at this time we make this offer:
We will send you free samples of rooting hormones (tablets to be mixed with
water) for you to make your own trials.
For samples: email to me *directly* your name and mailing address.
The only thing(s) that I would like you to do is
(1) try the samples, and
(2) post (or publish in the Pomona) your results ... success and failures.

Joel Kroin

     *************** Hortus USA Corp ***************
                        International HQ
PO Box 1956 Old Chelsea Sta, New York NY 10113 USA
US Importer of US Registered Rhizopon Rooting Hormones
Maker/Registrant of IBA Water Soluble Salts
http://www.rooting-hormones.com         info@hortus.com


the following is a part of Mr. Cummins article from the Pomona, Spring 1997,
Volume 2, number34 XXX: publication of  The North American Fruit Explorers

Dr. James N. Cummins
N. Y. State Agricultural Experiment Station
Geneva, NY 14456

Success of a graft union depends on the establishment of a callus bridge
between the cut surfaces of scion and stock, and the subsequent
establishment of a functioning vascular cylinder connecting scion and stock.
Initial callus formation appears to develop about equally on the cut
surfaces of both partners, arising not from the cambial layers but from
parenchyma cells, mostly in the wood just inside the camblum. Soon after
scion and stock calluses have merged, callus cells just below the cambial
cells of the scion begin to divide in the same plane as the camblum. Waves
of cell division proceed from the top down, suggesting that a regulatory
stimulus moves to the cut surface from the growing-shoot tip. Callus
parenchyma cells inside the new camblum cylinder re-differentiate into
functioning xylem cells. Last of all, the new cambium begins producing
phloem cells.

We sought to enhance that regulatory stimulus by applying a solution of a
synthetic growth regulator. In the dormant season, we prepared whip-and
tongue bench grafts of seven hardy varieties with potential as
winter-tolerant frame builders. On half of the grafts of each variety, we
applied a 2000 ppm solution of IBA (3-indole butyric acid) to the cut
surface of the scion before joining stock and scion. After four weeks of
callusing in a storage cellar at about 45 to 50F, we planted the grafts in
the nursery; during the summer, we provided normal tillage but no
irrigation. Trees were harvested in November. We evaluated each set for
survival and for tree quality.

With all seven varieties, survival was greater for the IBA-treated grafts
than for those not treated; with five of the varieties, all treated grafts


  I BA Check
Charlamoff 100% 92%
Delawine  100 83
Delcon 100 57
Kanorkowa 100 82
Wedge 80 35
Ottawa 274 100  78
Ottawa 292 93 69

Tree quality of the surviving grafts was as striking as the survival rate,
based on grading into salable and non-salable trees:


  As % of Survivors As % of Original Grafts
  IBA Check IBA Check
Charlamoff 73% 0%  73% 0%
Delawine 75 10 75 8
Delcon 57 25 57 14
Kanorkowa 33 0 33 0
Wedge 100 67 80 54
Ottawa 274 57 24 57 20
Ottawa 292 71 64 66 44

We have not made microscopic examination of the progress of union
establishment and vascularization after IBA treatment, but it seems probable
that the IBA is increasing both the formation of callus and the rate at
which the new cambium cylinder is differentiated through the callus
parenchyma cells.

Using one of the common rooting compounds, such as the 2000 ppm IBA solution
reported here, may improve both grafting success and tree quality of
bench-grafted trees. Powdered proprietary mixtures could offer advantages
over the liquid mixtures and should be tried. The technique is sufficiently
promising to merit small-scale trial.


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