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[nafex] FW: Surround WP Update
Subject: Surround WP Update
Date: Thu, May 17, 2001, 10:12 AM
I wonder if you would do a favor for me. There was a series of discussions
on Surround last week on the NAFEX site. I tried to respond to the
questions with this answer but it would not go through - even though I'm a
NAFEX member. I tried fixing the problem through the yahoo but I still
don't think it went out to the NAFEX site. In the meantime, our internet
provider went bankrupt and we lost service for a few days. Anyway...did
you see the message below in NAFEX? If not, would you be comfortable
sending it out to members - it answers the questions posed and corrects
Surround Crop Protectants
Nothing I like better than a good, healthy Surround discussion! I'm a
NAFEX subscriber and an avid tree fruit "hobbyist" in NJ (because hobbyist
is all my wife let's me be). I am also with Engelhard Corporation, the
company that co-developed Surround with the USDA, and now sells it. So
here's a personal, off-the cuff discussion. As always, follow label
I can clear up some misconceptions and touch on the "new" news, as well as
the advantages and disadvantages of the product.
It doesn't "work" for all types of crops for all types of growers, but
where it does work, we are seeing huge commercial success.
Thanks to Richard Ossolinski for attaching a summary from last fall, it
saved me from going into "too" much detail.
Where to get info?
www.surround.engelhard.com will get you a full literature packet for
commercial growers. Or, call me and we'll chat about fruit 732-205-7140 or
contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org
Where is Surround WP sold?
Only through distributors.
The following sell ag-labeled product in 25 lbs bags:
Most UAP locations in the NE and Great Lakes carry it
www.uap.com/distribution-frames.html -- will get you to their location
Many dealers in WA, OR, and CA cary it.
Many Fertrell dealers carry it. www.fertrell.com You can ask for the
nearest dealer locations.
Seven Springs Farm - VA offers mail order www.7springsfarm.com
Fedco - ME offers mail order www.fedcoseeds.com
Peaceful Valley Farm Supply, Inc. - CA offers mail order
Home Use Label in 5, 10, and 25 lb bags
Garden's Alive! mail order catalogue offers the only gardening-label
product - www.gardensalive.com
Here's some questions I gleaned from the e mails and a few common ones that
What type of growers are using Surround?
Most usage is in apples, pears, citrus, and grapes with nuts and some row
crops like tomatoes (for sunburn) developing. Surprising to some, over 90%
of sales are to conventional and IPM growers.
What about organic usage?
Surround WP is Organic Material Review Institute-listed for use in organic
production. Organic-minded growers have found that the plum curculio
suppression can get them off Imidan organophosphate so they can go
transitional. Cucumber beetle, pear psylla, leafhoppers, Japanese beetle,
some aphids, and apple maggot are a few other tough pests Surround can help
organic growers with.
So what's all the fuss about? Where's it been successful on a large scale?
Pears - Surround works as well, or better, on pear psylla as anything out
there. Add to that better color and a smoother finish and you have a
winner that is economical. The Wennatchee River Valley in WA is white this
spring with Surround applications - over 50,000 acre-treatments already
Growers of fine Anjou and Comice apply 1/2 rates (25 lbs per acre) during
the summer for fruit quality and heat stress relief as well as insect
suppression. Some eastern pear growers for babyfood have adopted Surround
as well. Rainfastness in pears is not at issue in the east since the
pre-bloom sprays adhere well to bark and later sprays coat the
rain-protected leaf undersides where the nymphs are.
Western apple sunburn damage reduction - Terrific economics for the apple
grower. Something like $80's worth of Surround cut sunburn damage in half
according to two years of independent studies in WA and other hot areas.
Even in a moderate, 10% damage, year that could be 5% more fruit, or 30 to
40 boxes per acre. Multiply extra boxes times the price you may get per
box price to find payback potential. And, at the same time Surround is
suppressing leafhoppers and certain lep's.
Grapes - Surround has worked on every leafhopper/sharpshooter that it's
faced and the glassy wing sharpshooter that's vectoring Pierce's disease is
no exception. I just saw the data yesterday - dramatic reduction in GWSS.
Since Surround is a powerful feeding deterrent, they don't first spread the
disease - then die, like with a knockdown. Studies are showing brix
increases, presumably due to heat stress reduction. Wine grapes are
sprayed until veraison, table and raisin grapes until 5 mm. In the east,
usage would be for Japanese beetles, rose chafer, and leafhoppers.
Western citrus - Thrips and sunburn control with heat stress reduction.
Organic tree fruit growers - Surround WP is the only known suppressant for
plum curculio. The secret is to keep the young fruit covered! The most
common program is weekly sprays from PF to 5 to 6 weeks after petal fall.
This gets suppression of the first flight of codling moth too. Applying to
this point only will leave negligible residue at harvest. A nice feature
of Surround is that it can be tank mixed with lime-sulfur and wettable
sulfur for disease suppression. Superb apple maggot control for organic
'processing apples' (assuming a well-equiped washing facility is not
available to clean them for fresh market fruit). Sustainable/low-spray
growers that use Imidan can tank mix Surround for improved protection.
What's so special about Surround?
Surround is made of specially-sized and shaped particles. It's been known
for a long time that particle have effects on insects. But, like other
things in life, details are everything. There are dozens of types of
different types of clays alone. In Surround, the base substance of the
active ingredient is kaolin - but then a truly unique kaolin type. The
adjuvants that allow it to spead and stick in a controlled way are what
make the particles perform to their potential. We obtained 6 patents on
the technology it's so unique. The gas you put in your car is "petroleum,"
but you can't put crude oil, kerosene, or asphalt into your gas tank. In
this analogy, a crude or non-optimized mineral doesn't perform.
OK, but what's so special?
- Most if not all particles block light and can also block gas
transpiration. Surround allows usable light and gases to pass through. In
fact, Surround particles reflect infrared light which lowers heat on the
leaves by around 8 degrees and on the fruit by up to 15 degrees.
In case you think light blockage isn't a real concern, a grower sprayed a
clay on his trees, then needed to wash it off quickly when the trees
started suffering from blocked light.
- Many particles stick, or grow into to the fruit's natural wax making the
particles difficult or impossible to remove at harvest. Surround particles
are uniquely-shaped to give a controlled amount of "bite" into the fruit
skin without sticking.
- Surround particles are optimized for insect irritation. Insects seem to
just push some other types aside. Surround particles are difficult for
insects to "groom' off.
- Surround lacks abrasive components that abrade nozzles and pump gaskets.
- Surround has very low toxicity (nothing has "no toxicity"). Many
minerals contain harmful contaminants like breathable crystalline silica (a
carcinogen). Read the MSDS of an ordinary clay.
- The product had to be designed to be practical to use. It must mix
well, settle slowly to a soft settle, and, this is crucial, spread evenly
on fruit and foliage.
- The particle film must have a degree of rainfastness without being
difficult to remove a harvest. The friability of the particles must be
maintained for insect irritation.
- EPA law is clear. Commercial growers must use registered pesticides on
crops, no exceptions. Surround WP is a registered pesticide which means it
has been through EPA scrutiny.
Any one of these requirements, if not met, would preclude usage.
What was learned in 2000?
Surround tankmixed with lime-sulfur and wettable sulfur improved their
performance on scab, powdery mildew, sooty blotch and flyspeck in a WV
study and gave results close to the conventional control. A good combo was
3 gallons L-S, 5 lbs S, and 25 lbs Surround applied pre-pink, then, after
petal fall reduce to 1/2 gallon L-S, 5 lbs S, and 37.5 to 25 lbs Surround.
All mixes are per 100 gallons. This can be great news for certified
organic growers with disease problems. The 2001 label allows sulfur
Apple maggot - Apples coated with Surround applied before and during the
AMF flight showed almost complete ovipositional deterrence in Cornell and
MSU studies - control was at OP levels.
Blueberry maggot - Same story as AM in an MSU study.
Plum curculio - Suppression ability was confirmed, but also confirmed that
reapplication during rainy periods like last May are required.
Pear psylla - Confirmed that green pre-bloom sprays are important for
ovipositional deterrence. Surround performed well in eastern trials
despite the rainy season. Although not recommended, Surround can be used
for psylla rescues.
An organic-oriented study that used Surround only (University of Missouri)
on scab resistant cultivars showed usable fruit jumped to 85% vs. 25 % in
the untreated control. Cedar apple rust was markedly suppressed by
Surround in this season-long study.
Japanese beetle suppression, due to repellancy and feeding deterrence, was
shown if applications are made at first adult emergence. Lab bioassays (no
choice studies) showed surprisingly high knockdown after 24 hours. They
apparently starved or were highly irritated.
The lacanobia worm was controlled in WSU studies.
Glassy wing sharpshooter - A CA study in lemons showed complete control.
Is it dusty while spraying?
Surround is sprayed on in water so there's no dust while spraying.
What are the concentrations and rates?
See the label for details as always, but concentrations are generally 37.5
lbs per 100 gallons at first then go to 25 lbs per 100 gallons after a film
has been established. Rate per acre depends on the foliage canopy.
Coverage is crucial. Apply enough fluid to get to near-drip. Dwarf trees
allow the most efficient usage of Surround. Large trees are problematic
due to difficulty in obtaining coverage. In a hand sprayer, use 1/2 lb per
How often do you apply?
Generally, every 7 to 14 days. Bottom line is, Surround is a barrier-type
product and the plant part to be protected must be covered during pest
infestation. During dry periods, the intervals can be widened, but during
rainy periods resprays at short intervals can be necesary - especially on
primary pests. On most fruit, later season applications last longer than
early season applications.
What is the 5%? Is anything being hidden?
The 5% 'other' is made up of adjuvants or additives that are crucial for
the product to perform properly. The exact ingredients are, of course, a
trade secret. The Organic Material Review Institute (OMRI) and EPA
evaluate the additives under confidentiality. Surround WP is arguably one
of the safest, if not the safest, pest controls available.
- Surround is exempt from requirements of a tolerance for a residue per the
- There is no pre-harvest interval
- The ingredients in Surround are all on the FDA list for food use
What is the effect on harvest date?
The cooling effect of Surround will delay maturity 4 to 7 days on most tree
Is Surround expensive?
The grower has to get the best quote and determine value for themselves.
In some cases, it's a bargain, and a substantial payback is possible in
areas like sunburn reduction. Competing against low-priced broad-spectrum
insecticides is not possible. Coverage on standard trees is difficult.
For a hobbyist or any hand gun application, it's a bargain, a little goes
along way as there is little wastage like with an airblast sprayer. You
can cover a lot of M-9's or Bud-9's on a gallon of Surround.
Can Surround be used at pick-your-owns?
Admittedly, this is a challenge because it looks wierd to say the least,
but a few growers have been able to "sell" it by educating the consumer
about what it is. We have consumer-oriented pamphlets "Why are the crops
white?" which explain the product in layman's terms. As for me, and other
hobbyists, I rub my fruit in the kitchen under running water and eat it.
How about post-harvest washoff?
For the fresh fruit market, you'll need to have a large well-equipped fruit
washing line if you apply late in the season. Short lines do not get the
white out of the stem and calex end unless you have pressure washing.
Processing fruit can usually be applied until harvest.
What about sprayer plugging?
Sprayer plugging is very rare but can happen it the product is added
quickly or there is no agitator in the tank. For hobbyists, my backpack
has never clogged. Make sure to follow order of addition directions.
What about beneficials?
Surround is soft on bees, and on a ladybeetles and lacewings making it a
nice spirea aphid material.
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