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[SANET-MG] synthetic genes
The article below deals with a matter that I have discussed for a few
years. The article indicates that most GM crops are constructed from
synthetic genes that bear little resemblance to the originals. In North
America government regulators have taken to testing the original genes
not the actual synthetic genes for their safety in the environment.
Along with that science journal editors appear to be very slovenly in
neglecting to mention the major alterations in the genes that they are
reporting on and sometimes even accept tests on the original genes as
representing the synthetic genes without mentioning that the synthetics
are not being reported but the original genes are. The entire concept of
"substantial equivalence" seems to have been based on high level
trends in biotechnology
Codon bias and heterologous protein expression
Claes Gustafsson, Sridhar Govindarajan and Jeremy Minshull
DNA 2.0, 1455 Adams Drive, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
The expression of functional proteins in heterologous hosts is a
cornerstone of modern biotechnology. Unfortunately, proteins are often
difficult to express outside their original context. They might contain
codons that are rarely used in the desired host, come from organisms
that use non-canonical code or contain expression-limiting regulatory
elements within their coding sequence. Improvements in the speed and
cost of gene synthesis have facilitated the complete redesign of entire
gene sequences to maximize the likelihood of high protein expression.
Redesign strategies are discussed here, including modification of
translation initiation regions, alteration of mRNA structural elements
and use of different codon biases.
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