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[SANET-MG] Biofuels Republic Brazil
ISIS Press Release 18/12/06
Biofuels Republic Brazil
Brazil’s rapidly expanding biofuels industry pose serious threats to the
survival of people and planet. Dr. Mae-Wan Ho
A fully referenced version of this article is posted on ISIS members’
website. Details here
Integrated bioethanol and biodiesel production
President Lula has recently inaugurated Barralcool, the first integrated
biofuels plant that will produce sugarcane-based ethanol and biodiesel
from oilseeds . Brazil’s bioethanol programme goes back at least to
the oil crisis in the 1970s, and has been the world’s most advanced
biofuels market for decades. There are currently nearly 300
sugar-ethanol mills in operation, with 60 or more under construction.
Rising global demand for biofuels has provided an opportunity, not only
to expand its sugarcane ethanol, but also to save its ailing soybean
industry, by turning soybean oil into another biofuel, biodiesel.
The soy sector is in its worst crisis in decades, and the soybean
crushing industry has been in serious decline. Multinational
corporations such as Archer Daniels Midland and Bunge have closed
several crushing plants in the past year or so.
The new ethanol-biodiesel plant in Barra do Bugres, Mato Grosso, in the
heart of Brazil’s centre-west soybean belt, has been producing ethanol
from surrounding sugarcane fields for more than 20 years, but Dedini, a
leading provider of sugar-ethanol biodiesel and cogeneration plants in
Brazil, constructed the integrated biodiesel plant on the site, after
investing 27 million Reals (US$12.5 million).
The Lula government recently passed legislation that will mandate a 2
percent blend of biodiesel from oilseed crops like soybean, sunflower or
castor beans in all commercial sales of petroleum diesel by 2008 rising
to 5 percent by 2013. A few hundred filling stations already offer
blends. Brazil has about 10 biodiesel plants in operation and another 40
Currently, about half of Brazil’s sugarcane crop has gone into
bioethanol production with the rest being refined into sugar.
Motorists today can choose to fill up with 100 percent ethanol at half
the price of gasoline at over 30 000 filling stations nationwide, or
petrol blended with 20-25 percent ethanol. Ethanol accounts for 40
percent of all non-diesel consumption.
Brazil produced 15.9 billion litres of bioethanol in 2005, more than
one-third of the world’s supply and second only to the United States.
Brazil’s bioethanol is the only large-scale biofuel programme now able
to expand without government subsidies. US’ bioethanol from corn, in
contrast, is heavily subsidized  (Biofuels for Oil Addicts, SiS 30).
Brazil is set to double its bioethanol production in the next decade,
the futures market rose by 62 percent in 2005, thanks to growing demand
in the EU, US, China, Japan, India and elsewhere. It is also poised to
vastly expand biodiesel production for export, using soya, palm oil and
caster oil. Brazil is emerging as the biggest of The New Biofuel
Republics (SiS 30)  in the world, and getting bigger all the time.
Sustainable sugarcane biothanol?
Brazil’s bioethanol is often held up as a model of sustainable biofuel
production, and this appears to have been confirmed by a report released
in October 2006 by the International Energy Agency’s Bioenergy Task 40,
which analyses the international bioenergy and biofuels trade [4, 5].
The report concluded that, in general the production of sugarcane-based
ethanol as currently practised in Brazil, is “environmentally
sustainable.” Biofuels are rated in terms of energy balance, the units
of biofuel energy produced per unit of input energy; and carbon saving,
the percentage of greenhouse gas emissions prevented by producing and
using the biofuel instead of producing and using the same amount of
fossil fuel energy  (Biofuels: Biodevastation, Hunger & False Carbon
Credits, this series). Sugarcane ethanol is estimated to have an energy
balance of a staggering 8.3 on average, but could be 10.2 in the best
case; far outstrips the energy balance of any other biofuel, especially
those produced in temperate regions. The carbon saving at between 85 and
90 percent, is also bigger by a long way of any other biofuel.
The report, Sustainability of Brazilian bio-ethanol , was
commissioned by SenterNovem, The Netherlands Agency for Sustainable
Development and Innovation, and carried out by the Copernicus Institute
(University of Utrecht) and Brazil’s State University of Campinas,
Unicamp. The results are significant for Brazil’s export of sugarcane
ethanol, and Europe will be a main importer.
The relative success of sugarcane bioethanol stems from the prolific
growth rate of the crop in tropical Brazil, and a closed cycle
production process, where the energy for refining and distilling comes
from burning sugarcane residue, hence no fossil fuels are needed.
Refining and distillation are very energy intensive especially for
But is it really sustainable as claimed by the report? The report used a
set of sustainability criteria, drafted by a parliamentary Commission in
The Netherlands, that are preliminary in nature, with many uncertainties
due to disagreements among the stakeholders. The criteria include a
carbon saving of 30 percent or more in 2007, increasing to 50 percent or
greater in 2011; provisions for protecting biodiversity in sensitive
areas, albeit rather weak; setting a limit of no more than 5 percent
conversion of forest to plantations within 5 years; no negative economic
impacts on the region or nation; compliance with welfare standards such
as labour rights, basic human rights, property and use rights, and
anti-bribery laws; compliance with environmental laws in waste disposal
and management, and the use of genetically modified organisms.
Among the main concerns are ecological and social impacts, including
food security. It is as yet unclear how additional land use for
sugarcane will impact on biodiversity, or compete for land needed for
growing food. The report did not deal at all with social welfare, and
that, in a country where human rights and land rights are still
problematic. There are also no considerations on health impacts to
workers and the general public.
The impact of intensive sugarcane cultivation on soil organic carbon,
particularly as the result of changes in land use, has also not received
due attention. A study published in 1999 found a decrease in soil
organic carbon of 24 percent over 20 years when forest is turned into
pastureland in Brazil. The remaining 47 t C per ha of pastureland was
further reduced by 22 percent over the next 20 years when a sugarcane
plantation was established on the pastureland .
Sugarcane encroaches on the Amazon, but far more so on the Atlantic
forest and the Cerrado, a very bio-diverse and unique savannah-type
ecosystem. Two-thirds of the Cerrado have been destroyed or degraded
. Sugarcane also does not provide home for birds. If sugarcane
cultivation were to expand, the outlook for the world’s natural
biodiversity would be grim.
A WWF report to the International Energy Agency in 2005 suggested that
Brazil’s bioethanol programme reduced transport emissions by 9 Mt a
year, but 80 percent of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions came from
deforestation. A study found that while a hectare of land in Brazil
grows enough sugarcane to make ethanol to save 13 t CO2 a year. But if
natural forests were allowed to regenerate on the same hectare of land,
the trees would absorb 20 t of CO2 every year.
Soy biodiesel far worse
Soybean is certainly the most damaging choice – not just because it
gives very low energy balance and carbon saving – but because soya
monoculture is responsible for more Amazon destruction than any single
other business, including cattle ranching or logging  (Soya
Destroying Amazon, SiS 20). It is linked to the destruction of Brazil’s
Deforestation rates in the Amazon had been coming down for eight years
until 2003, when it suddenly increased, almost solely due to soya
monoculture. The business is largely controlled by a company Gruppo
Maggi belonging to the governor of the Amazon state Mato Grosso, and the
US corporation Cargill is the main exporter.
So far, soya is mainly grown for animal feed to satisfy Europe’s demand
for GM-free soya, and for US and China. The soya-based biodiesel
programme supported by President Lula’ government is almost certain to
accelerate the destruction of the Amazon forest.
The Enawene Nawe Indians’ land in Mato Grosso is being rapidly cleared
for soya plantations and cattle ranching . State governor and soya
baron Blairo Maggi, one of the world’s largest soya producers, is
planning to build hydroelectric dams on their land to provide energy to
the soya industry. He is also lobbying the federal government not to
recognize Indian land in his state.
Three-quarters of UK’s soybeans came from Brazil in 2004. There are now
only 420 Enawene Nawe Indians left. They are one of the few tribes that
eat no red meat, and depend on catching fish and collecting honey from
the forest to survive. Brazilian Indian organisations say that under
Lula’s government, demarcation of their land has almost ground to a
halt. Violence against Indians has increased and Indian health has
seriously deteriorated, with children dying of starvation at record
levels. No wonder Enawene Nawe Indians say, “Soya is killing us”; and
biodiesel from soya may well finish them off altogether.
Potentially catastrophic for global warming and biodiversity
The Amazon is one of the largest terrestrial carbon sinks, and losing
that would greatly increase carbon emissions and contribute to warming
the planet by perhaps a further 0.6 to 1.5 C over and above the warming
already predicted by the IPCC for this century . Scientists are
increasingly concerned about a likely threshold of deforestation beyond
which the entire ecosystem could collapse and begin to die back  (Why
Gaia Needs Rainforests, SiS 20). The reason is that much of the rainfall
that sustains the forest is recycled; water is absorbed by the trees and
returned to the atmosphere by evapo-transpiration. An estimated 7
trillion tonnes of water are recycled, which helps to cool the
atmosphere immediately above the forests. The water cycle - which
supports agriculture in the region and elsewhere - could break down, and
that could affect the US grain belt  (Why the United States Needs
the Amazon, SiS 20). Permanent drought over the Amazon basin may
seriously reduce the already diminishing global food supply, and at the
same time send ever larger amounts of carbon emissions into the
atmosphere in a catastrophic upward spiral of global warming that would
despatch most species on earth to extinction, including our own.
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