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[SANET-MG] rice based vaccine
The main problem with the invention described below is oral tolerance.
When the food supply is contaminated with the vaccine there will be no
resistance and the pathogen will thrive.
Published online before print June 15, 2007
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.0703766104
Rice-based mucosal vaccine as a global strategy for cold-chain- and
Tomonori Nochi , Hidenori Takagi , Yoshikazu Yuki, Lijun Yang , Takehiro
Masumura , Mio Mejima , Ushio Nakanishi *, Akiko Matsumura *, Akihiro
Uozumi *, Takachika Hiroi , Shigeto Morita, Kunisuke Tanaka , Fumio
Takaiwa , and Hiroshi Kiyono
Capable of inducing antigen-specific immune responses in both systemic
and mucosal compartments without the use of syringe and needle, mucosal
vaccination is considered ideal for the global control of infectious
diseases. In this study, we developed a rice-based oral vaccine
expressing cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) under the control of the
endosperm-specific expression promoter 2.3-kb glutelin GluB-1 with codon
usage optimization for expression in rice seed. An average of 30 µg of
CTB per seed was stored in the protein bodies, which are storage
organelles in rice. When mucosally fed, rice seeds expressing CTB were
taken up by the M cells covering the Peyer's patches and induced
CTB-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies with neutralizing
activity. When expressed in rice, CTB was protected from pepsin
digestion in vitro. Rice-expressed CTB also remained stable and thus
maintained immunogenicity at room temperature for >1.5 years, meaning
that antigen-specific mucosal immune responses were induced at much
lower doses than were necessary with purified recombinant CTB. Because
they require neither refrigeration (cold-chain management) nor a needle,
these rice-based mucosal vaccines offer a highly practical and
cost-effective strategy for orally vaccinating large populations against
mucosal infections, including those that may result from an act of
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