FAQ: Faba Beans

                                 FABA BEAN  Vicia faba
                      (see seperate files on beans and lima beans)

      Faba bean, also called Fababean, Broadbean and Fava Bean is a cool
temperature vegetable popular in the Middle East and Europe, and uncommon in
the U.S.  Pods are shelled when seeds are green for cooking as a green
vegetable, commonly in stews.  The seed may be boiled, or used roasted as a
snack food.  They are also harvested after the seed has dried and ground to a
flour and used for falafel, a popular middle eastern food.


      Spring planted varieties require approximately 130-150 days, while over-
wintering varieties require approximately 240 days to reach dry seed maturity. 
Green-pod harvest for green seed would be about 30 days less:

      Aquadulce Claudia for overwinter or spring planting; Aprovecho Select,
Green Windsor, Broad Windsor, Equina, Ipro for spring planting.  Dwarf type: 
Coles Dwarf Prolific (suited to windy areas where plants may be blown over). 
Heat tolerant type:  Foul Muddamma.  For trial - spring planting:  Dread-
nought, Acme, Stereo.


Abbott & Cobb Inc. POB F307, Feasterville, PA 19047
Asgrow Seed Company, POB 5038, Salinas CA 93915
Bountiful Gardens, 19550 Walker Road, Willits, CA 95490
Crookham Co. Caldwell, ID 83606
Ferry-Morse Seed Co. POB 4938, 555 Codoni Ave. Modesto, CA 95352
Harris Moran Seed Co. 3670 Buffalo Rd. Rochester, NY 14624
Johnny's Select Seeds, Foss Hill Road, Albion, Maine 04910
Nichols Garden Nursery, 1190 No. Pacific Highway, Albany, OR 97321-4598
Rogers NK Seed Co. POB 4272 Boise, ID 83711
Sunseeds, 2320 Technology Pkwy. Hollister, CA 95023
W. Osborne Seed Co. Int'l. 1679 Highway 99 South, Mount Vernon, WA 98273 
Territorial Seed Co.  POB 27, Lorane, OR 97451
Samual Yates, Ltd., Withyfold Dr., Macclesfield, Cheshire SKI0 2BE, England
Zenner Bros. Seed Co., Inc.  1311 S.E. Gideon St. Portland, OR 97202


      Faba beans do best on well-drained silt loam soils.  Sandy loams are but
require more frequent irrigation.  Faba beans produce best on soils which are
neutral or slightly acidic.  Lime should be applied if pH levels are below
5.6.  Follow soil test recommendations.

      Rotate faba beans with grains or other crops to reduce damage from
soil-borne diseases.  Crop residues of lettuce, carrots, cabbage, parsnips,
and cucurbits may harbor white mold sclerotia.   

      Use fungicide and insecticide treated seed. 


      Faba beans germinate and grow well under cool soil conditions such as
those favorable for production of peas.  Fields may be planted as soon as they
can be worked in the spring, however, delaying planting till June or July may
reduce broad bean virus or chocolate spot infection.  In the temperate areas
of the Pacific Northwest, cold-hardy varieties like Aquadulce Claudia may be
planted in the fall (late September or October).


      Faba Bean seed numbers about 200-800 per pound.  About 60-80 lbs. are
used per acre.  Seed should be planted 5-6 inches apart in the row, with rows
24-36 inches apart.  Plant populations should be about 60,000 per acre.  Use
heavier seeding rate for fall planting than spring planting to compensate for
some over-winter mortality.


      Good fertilizer usage is only one of the important management practices,
including proper seeding, pest control, adequate irrigation, and timely
harvest.  Because of the influence of soil type, climatic conditions, and
other cultural practices, crop response from fertilizer may not always be
accurately predicted.  Soil test results, field experience, and knowledge of
specific crop requirements help determine the nutrients needed and the rate of

      Fertilizer applications for faba beans should insure adequate levels of
all nutrients.  Optimum fertilization is intended to result in for top quality
and yield, commensurate with maximum returns.  

      Recommended soil sampling procedures should be followed in order to
estimate fertilizer needs.  The Oregon State University Extension Service
agent in your county can provide you with soil sampling instructions and soil
sample bags and information sheets.  

      Recommendations are based on a row spacing of 36".  With decreased row
spacings fertilizer rates should be increased.  Use the following recommended


      NITROGEN (N)

      Rates of 50 to 80 lbs of N/A are generally recommended where faba beans
are grown on fields having a history of heavy fertilization and intensive
culture.  Rates of 80 to 110 lbs of N/A are recommended where forage legumes
or heavily fertilized vegetable crops were not grown the preceding year.  


      Phosphorus fertilizer should be banded at planting for vigorous early
seedling growth.  Bands should be located 2 to 3 inches to the side and 2 to 3
inches below the seed.  

      Response is greatest from bands properly placed at 2 x 2 inches.  

               If the OSU soil test         Apply this amount of 
               for P reads (ppm):         phosphate (P2 O5) lb/A:

                                                             0 - 15120 - 150
                                                            15 - 60 90 - 120
                                                            Over 60 60 - 90


      Potassium should be applied before planting or banded at planting time. 
Amounts above 60 lbs K2 O per acre should be broadcast and worked into the
seed bed.  

                    If the OSU soil test    Apply this amount of
                    for K reads (ppm):      potassium(K2 O) (lb/A)

                                                  0 - 7590 - 120
                                                 75 - 15060 - 90
                                                150 - 20040 - 60
                                                    Over 200  None

      SULFUR (S)

      Include 20-30 lbs/A of S in the fertilizer program for  faba beans.  S
is sometimes contained in fertilizers used to supply other nutrients such as
N, P, and K, but may not be present in sufficient quantity.  

      Plants absorb S in the form of sulfate.  Fertilizer materials supply S
in the form of sulfate and elemental S.  

      Elemental S must convert to sulfate in the soil before the S becomes
available to plants.  The conversion of elemental S to sulfate is usually
rapid for fine ground (less than 40 mesh) material in warm moist soil.  

      S in the sulfate form can be applied at planting time.  Some S fertili-
zer materials such as elemental S and ammonium sulfate have an acidifying
effect on soil.  

      The S requirements of faba beans can be provided by:

      1.  The application of 20-30 lbs S/A in the form of sulfate at or prior
to seeding.  
      2.  Applying 30-40 lbs S/A as fine ground (finer than 40 mesh) elemental
S the preceding year.  
      3.  Applying coarser ground elemental S at higher rates and less fre-

      MAGNESIUM (Mg)

      When the soil test value is below 1.5 meq Mg/100g of soil or when cal-
cium (Ca) is ten times more than the Mg, apply 10 to 15 lb Mg/A banded at
planting.  If deficiency symptoms appear, spray with 10 lbs Epsom salts in 100
gals of water/A.  

      Mg can also be supplied in dolomite, which is a liming material and
reduces soil acidity to about the same degree as ground limestone.  Dolomite
should be mixed into the seed bed several weeks in advance of seeding.  

      BORON (B)

      Responses of  faba beans to B applications have not been observed in
experiments on growers' fields in western Oregon.  

      ZINC (Zn)

      Responses of  faba beans to B applications have not been observed in
experiments on growers' fields in western Oregon.  

      When the soil test is below 1 ppm Zn, a response to Zn is expected on
all soils.  

      Where Zn is required, either 10 lb/A of Zn should be broadcast and
worked into the soil prior to planting or 3 to 4 lbs/A of Zn should be banded
with the fertilizer at planting time.  
      A broadcast application of 10 lb Zn/A should supply Zn needs for 2 or 3


      Lime applications should be made when the soil pH is 5.5 or below, or
when calcium (Ca) levels are below 5 meq Ca/100g of soil.  

                           If the OSU SMP Buffer          Apply this amount
                           test for lime reads:             of lime (T/A):

                                 Below 5.2                   4 - 5
                                 5.2 - 5.6                   3 - 4
                                 5.6 - 5.9                   2 - 3
                                 5.9 - 6.2                   1 - 2
                                  Over 6.2                       0

     The liming rate is based on 100-score lime.  Lime should be mixed into
the seed bed at least several weeks before seeding.  A lime application is
effective over several years.  Do not apply lime when the soil pH is above

EASTERN OREGON, east of the Cascades:

                                                              lbs. per acre

                                    Nitrogen (N): 50-80
                                    Phosphorus (P2 O5):           50-100
                                    Potassium (K2 O):             up to 50
                                    Sulfur (S):                   20-30


      Irrigation is not recommended until about 2 weeks after planting.  Too
much water at seeding slows growth and may increase root rots.  

      During the rest of the season, keep moisture levels in the top foot of
soil at or above 50% of available water.  To avoid any water stress the two
critical times during bean development are during bloom and pod set.  It is
advisable to irrigate in the early morning hours so the plants may dry off
before the night.  A total of 10" - 16" may be needed in western Oregon
depending on location planting date, seasonal variation and variety.

      Approximate summer irrigation needs for the Hermiston area have been
found to be: 3.5 inches in May, 5.0 in June, 7.5 in July, and 7.0 in August.

      Soil type does not affect the amount of total water needed, but does
dictate frequency of water application.  Lighter soils need more frequent
water applications, but less water applied per application.


      Faba beans are usually harvested when the seeds have reached full size
but are still green.  They may also be harvested after the pods and seeds have
dried for various uses.  When harvested green, pods may be sold for shelling
by consumers or shelled, and the green seed packaged for sale.

      Store at 40 to 45 F. and relative humidity of 95%.  Faba bean pods or
seed lose moisture rapidly if not properly protected by packaging or by a
relative humidity of 95% or above.  When the relative humidity approaches
saturation, as in consumer packages, temperatures above 45 F. must be avoided
or decay is likely to be serious within a few days.

      Containers of faba beans should be stacked to allow abundant air
circulation.  If containers are packed close together, the temperature may
rise because of the heat of respiration, and the faba beans will deteriorate
rapidly.  When faba beans are stored in large bins or pallet boxes, provision
should be made for rapid cooling.  Faba beans stored too long or at too high a
storage temperature are subject to various decays.

                        PEST CONTROL FOR FABA BEANS


                          USE PESTICIDES SAFELY!

Wear protective clothing and safety devices as recommended on the label. 
Bathe or shower after each use.

Read the pesticide label--even if you've used the pesticide before.  Follow
closely the instructions on the label (and any other directions you have).

Be cautious when you apply pesticides.  Know your legal responsibility as a
pesticide applicator.  You may be liable for injury or damage resulting from
pesticide use.


     The Pacific Northwest Weed Control Handbook has no control entries for
this crop.  

     Cultivate as often as necessary when weeds are small.  Proper culti-
vation, field selection and rotations can reduce or eliminate the need for
chemical weed control.  


     The Pacific Northwest Insect Control Handbook has no control entries for
this crop.  

     Proper rotations and field selection can minimize problems with insects.


     The Pacific Northwest Disease Control Handbook has no control entries for
this crop.  

     Proper rotations, field selection, sanitation, spacings, fertilizer and
irrigation practices can reduce the risk of many diseases.  Fields can be
tested for presence of harmful nematodes.  Using seed from reputable sources
reduces risk from "seed born" diseases.

         This  information was prepared by the Oregon  State 
         University   Extension  Service  from  Oregon   and 
         Pacific  NW publications as well as other vegetable 
         production guidelines  from public institutions  in
         the U.S. and Canada.  These guidelines are intended
         as a general guide for Oregon  commercial vegetable
         producers.  Address  comments or questions  to your
         County  Extension   Agent  or  Dr.  N.  S. Mansour,
         Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University
         Corvallis, OR 9733l 

Article 9754 (136 more) in rec.gardens:
From: klier@iscsvax.uni.edu
Subject: Fertilizer FAQ
Date: 5 Aug 92 20:54:29 GMT
Organization: University of Northern Iowa
Lines: 409

                         FERTILIZER FAQL

       Initial writing by Kay Klier, using materials from
       a wide variety of sources.  Primarily written from
       the point of view of NPK.  Needs work on using
       green manures and cover crops as nutrient sources,
       since I mainly use them to add organic matter.


         I.  Fertilizer overview
        II.  Plant nutrients
       III.  What is a complete formula for plants?
        IV.  The numbers on the fertilizer sack
         V.  Calculating amounts of fertilizer to apply
        VI.  When to fertilize
       VII.  Methods of application
           A.  Commercial formulations
             1.  Dry
             2.  Soluble
           B.  Natural forms
      VIII.  Fertilizers vs. soil amendments
        IX.   Approximate analyses of commonly available natural
                   fertilizers and soil amendments
           A.  Seed meals
           B.  Manures
           C.  Animal byproducts
           D.  Stem and leaf products
           E.  Miscellaneous organics
           F.  Miscellaneous inorganics
         X.  Experiences with various formulations
           A.  Osmocote
           B.  Peter's soluble general purpose
           C.  Granular commercial fertilizers
           D.  "Weed and feed" lawn fertilizers
           E.  "Lawn fertilizers"
           F.  Houseplant formulations


Fertilizers are materials that contain appreciable amounts of
plant nutrients. Probably the most familiar categories of
fertilizer are "chemical" vs. "organic": these could better be
termed synthetic vs. natural.

The synthetic fertilizers consist almost entirely of nitrogen,
potassium and phosphorus (the three nutrients most likely to be
in short enough supply to limit growth), in forms that are
readily utilized by plants.  In contrast, the natural fertilizers
are more likely to have significant amounts of micronutrients
(trace minerals) and the macronutrients are likely to be in forms
that are not as readily absorbed-- they are in forms that must
first be metabolized by soil microorganisms before they are
available to plants.  There may also be significant bulk: useful
for tilth improvement.

Thus the synthetic fertilizers are "fast", while the natural
fertilizers tend to be more "time release".  Some people feel
that synthetic fertilizers "poison" the soil, and will not use
them in any instance; others feel that synthetics are perfectly
acceptable if used properly.

Synthetic fertilizers can be one of the major sources of
groundwater pollution (as can runoff from manure piles): the
nitrogen is in such a soluble form that it tends to leach from
the point of application.  Overfertilization of natural bodies of
water tends to lead to algal blooms and subsequent death of fish
from oxygen depletion.  High nitrate levels in drinking water can
cause reduction in oxygen carrying capacity in red blood cells.
Reduced oxygen levels can cause retardation in young children and
fetuses.  If you apply a highly soluble fertilizer, please use it

Besides carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the essential minerals for
most plants are:
        Element        Symbol     Available form:
MACRO  Nitrogen        N          NH4+, NO3-
       Phosphorus      P          HPO4-, H2PO4-
       Potassium       K          K+

       Sulfur          S          SO4--
       Calcium         Ca         Ca++
       Magnesium       Mg         Mg++

       Iron            Fe         Fe++, Fe+++
       Manganese       Mn         Mn++
       Boron           B          H2BO3
       Copper          Cu         Cu++
       Zinc            Zn         Zn++
       Molybdenum      Mo         MoO4--
       Chlorine        Cl         Cl-

It is relatively rare for soils to be deficient in copper, zinc,
molybdenum or chlorine.  If needed, the micronutrients plus
magnesium are often applied as a chelated mixture.  Sequestrene
is a common US brand.


Different plants require different proportions of nutrients, but
you can get some idea of the general requirements by looking at
one of the commonly used research formulations: Knop's solution
with Nitsch's micronutrients.  This will support hydroponic
growth: (soil-less culture)


The three numbers on a commercial fertilizer bag are in the order
NPK: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (=kalium).  The actual
numbers are percentages: 20-20-20 fertilizer is 20% (by weight)
nitrogen, 20% phosphorus, 20% potassium.

When choosing a fertilizer formulation, choose a balanced
fertilizer for most purposes, one in which the three numbers are
approximately equal.  If you wish to favor growth of leaves over
flowers (for instance for a leafy vegetable crop, or a lawn,
choose a fertilizer with a higher first number; for flowers or
fruits, choose a higher middle number, for better root growth,
choose a higher last number.  NPK: leaves: flowers: roots


Typically, a soil test will tell you that X pounds per thousand
square feet will be required for a certain level of productivity
(those who are fortunate enough to think metric can use
appropriate units).  As an example, consider someone who has just
gotten a recommendation to apply 3 lbs of N per thousand square
feet, in a divided (spring and fall) application.  Our hapless
homeowners wish to get their money's worth from the new mower he
purchased for their 20,000 sq ft bluegrass lawn.

To determine how many square feet a bag of fertilizer will cover
at 1 lb per 1000 sq ft, multiply the weight of the bag by the
percentage nitrogen on the label, then multiply by 1000.
Assume this 30-1-1 fertilizer is sold in 40 lb sacks.  One bag
will cover 40 * .30 * 1000 = 12,000 sq ft at that rate..  But
since we want 3 lbs N per 1000 sq ft, one sack will cover 4,000
sq ft, and our homeowners will buy 5 sacks of fertilizer
(20,000sq ft/(4,000 sq ft/sack)) and use 3 sacks in the spring
and 2 in the fall...


Quickly absorbed fertilizers should be applied only when a plant
is about to begin a growth spurt, or during heavy growth.  You
should not fertilize heavily just before a plant will be going
into dormancy (this may keep the plant from "hardening off"
properly, and can result in winter damage.  If you choose to use
"high management" on a plant (heavy fertilization), you should
also count on increasing water to the plant.  If you anticipate
major insect damage (perhaps a hatch of grasshoppers), decrease
fertilization:  tender plant tissues are more subject to damage
than tissues that grew more slowly.  In general, a _slightly_
"hungry" plant is more resistant to pests and diseases than an
overfed one.

Overfeeding can also result in salts building up in the soil.
The salt build-up decreases the water potential of the soil, and
can actually reach the point that a plant cannot extract enough
water from a moist but salinized soil.  These soils must be
"cured" by leaching with tremendous amounts of water.

Although a "proper" fertilization regime would include soil and
plant analyses, most of us guesstimate fertilizer requirements.
A cautious approach to guesstimation is to observe the plants for
nutrient deficiency symptoms  (you'll need to compare to photos
often found in basic agronomy, horticulture or botany texts).  If
any are suspected, apply a weak fertilizer and observe for
increased growth.  If this is observed, you can repeat the
application.  Stop as soon as any signs of overfertilization
(weak, floppy growth, all leaves and no flowers, salt burned
leaves) are observed.

Slow release fertilizers can be applied at almost any time, and
there is relatively little danger of "burning" the plants.
Notable exceptions are urine or fresh manures, which can be very
high N.  Composted manures are less "lively".

       1.  DRY
Basic forms of commercial fertilizer include dry granular, slow
release (e.g. Osmocote (tm)), and soluble.  Granular fertilizers
are usually broadcast or used as a side dressing (dug into a
trench near the plants), slow release fertilizers are often used
for high-value crops like greenhouse plants and as "starters"
when planting trees or shrubs.

Two additional forms of dry fertilizer are available: fertilizer
"spikes" meant to be hammered into the soil near trees or shrubs,
or inserted into soil of potted plants, and solid pellets meant
for use in such devices as the Ross Root Feeder (tm).

       2.  SOLUBLE
Soluble fertilizers (Peters is a popular US brand) were once
nearly confined to greenhouse use, but are now becoming popular
for foliar fertilization of lawns and bedding plants.  These are
usually applied diluted in large quantities of water, using a
hose-end sprayer or proportioning device (e.g. Hoze-on
proportioner (tm)).  They may also be injected directly into
irrigation systems.  Because these soluble fertilizers are
readily available to plants, most growers have found that using
weaker solutions more often than label recommendations give
superior results.  A typical schedule might be 20-25% of the
recommended strength applied at weekly intervals rather than the
suggested monthly intervals.

Growers of some specialty plants have reported problems with
colored soluble fertilizers (a dye is added so the person who is
watering can see if fertilizer or plain water is coming from the
hose).  Some manufacturers are now producing soluble products
without the tracker dye.  Crops often reported affected by the
dye include ferns, lower plants and orchids.

Highly soluble fertilizers like these can pollute groundwater
unless carefully applied.

Because these generally have lower analyses than commercial
fertilizers, generally much larger quantities are applied.  This
has the advantage of improving soil tilth by adding organic
matter, and these generally require no additional micronutrient
correction.  You can also get a fair amount of exercise spreading
and digging in a natural fertilizer.

Another common way to use these fertilizers is as a "tea", an
infusion of (for instance) manure in water.  Water is added to a
container of manure, the contents stirred and allowed to settle,
then the water siphoned off for use, often on potted plants.
Additional water can be added and the process repeated.


Natural fertilizers are often used not just for their nutritive
value, but to improve soil tilth.  Commercial fertilizers are
generally not useful for tilth improvement.  However, other soil
amendments, like gypsum or agricultural lime, affect the
availability of soil nutrients by their effect on soil pH.


                       N     P     K    comments
Alfalfa meal           2.4   0.2   2.1
Coffee grounds         2     0.3   0.2  acidic; add lime;
                                           caffeine residues may
                                           inhibit germination

Cottonseed meal        6     2     1    cotton is a high
                                           pesticide crop
Soybean meal           7     0.5   2.3

Bat guano (fresh)     10     3     1    
Bat guano (subfossil)  2     8     0    
Chicken manure (dry)   4     4     2
Cow manure (dry)       2     2.3   2.4  compost or apply in fall
Horse manure           1.7   0.7   1.8  
Pig manure (dry)       2     1.8   1.8  neighbors downwind will
Sheep manure (dry)     4     1.4   3.5

Blood meal            10     0     0    
Bone meal              3    12   0-0.5  1 yr P availability
Bone meal (steamed)    1    11     0    
Crab meal (shrimp m., seafood m.)
                       4     3     0.5
Eggshell               1.2   0.4   0.1
Feather meal          11     0     0
Fish emulsion          4     1     1    5% sulfur
Fish meal           5-11   3-6   0-3    may attract cats and
                                           other carnivores
Horn & hoof meal   12-14     2     0    1 year N availability
Worm castings          0.5   0.5   0.3

Bluegrass hay          1.8   0.6   1.8  
Corn stover (dry)      1.2   0.4   1.6
Corn stover (green)    0.3   0.1   0.3
Cowpeas (dry)          3.1   0.6   2.3
Cowpeas (green)        0.4   0.1   0.4
Fescue hay             2.1   0.7   2.4
Grass clippings (green)0.5   0.2   0.5
Hairy vetch            2.8   0.8   2.3
Lespedeza hay          2.4   0.8   2.3
Oak leaves             0.8   9.4   0.1
Orchard grass hay      2.3   0.7   2.8
Red Clover hay         2.8   0.6   2.3
Sweet clover hay       2.2   0.6   2.2
Timothy hay            1.8   0.7   2.8
Wheat bran             2.6   2.9   1.6
Wheat straw            0.7   0.2   1.2
White clover (green)   0.5   0.2   0.3

Apple pomace           0.2   0     0.2
Compost (commercial)   1     1     1
Compost (homemade, high nutrients)
                       4     4     4    
Compost (homemade, low nutrient)
                       0.5   0.5   0.5  
Kelp meal            1-1.5 0-0.5 1-2.5
Milorganite (Milwaukee sewage sludge)
                       6     4     0
Oyster shell           0     0     0    31-36%  calcium + trace     
Sawdust                0.2   0     0.2  uses lots of N as it rots
Sewage sludge, Iowa, average of 40 municipalities: very wide
ranges, depending on source
                       2.77  1.41  0

Ammonium nitrate      33     0     0    soil acidifier
Ammonium sulfate      21     0     0    strong acidifier
Aragonite              0     0     0    96% calcium carbonate
Borax                  0     0     0    10% boron
Calcitic limestone     0     0     0    65-80% calcium carbonate
Colloidal phosphate    0     2     2    
Dolomitic limestone    0     0     0    51% Calcium carbonate,
40% magnesium carbonate
Epsom salts            0     0     0    10% magnesium, 13% sulfur
Granite meal           0     4     0    67% silica, 19 trace
Greensand              0     1.5   6.1  32 trace minerals +
                                         10 year release K
Gypsum                 0     0     0    22% calcium, 17% sulfur
Muriate of potash: see potassium chloride
Potassium chloride     0     0    60    commonly used in
                                          commercial fertilizers
Potassium nitrate     13     0    44    basifier (makes soil more
Rock phosphate         0     3     0    32% total P, 32% Ca,
                                         11 trace minerals
Soft phosphate         0    18     0    2-3 yr P availability
Superphosphate         0    20     0    12% sulfur
Sulfur elemental or flowers of sulfur
                       0     0     0    99% sulfur; soil
Treble superphosphate  0    45     0
Urea                  45     0     0    highest available N in
                                          granular form


   A.  Osmocote
One midwestern botanist with a tendency to forget to fertilize
greenhouse plants has had good results with osmocote; others have
reported poor results with other crops and better management.

   B.  Peter's soluble general purpose
Useful for most greenhouse crops, general bedding crops.  Too
high in nitrogen for good vegetable crops.  Blue tracking dye is
suspected in difficulties with orchids, ferns and lower plants.
Uncolored forms available.  Easy to handle.  May require
supplementation with micronutrients in greenhouse soils.

   C.  Granular commercial fertilizers.
Generally cheap and convenient; general purpose and easy to keep
on hand.  Buy by cost per pound of nutrients:  10 lbs of 15-15-15
at $1.30 is a better deal than 10 lbs of 10-10-10 at $1.00.
Broken sacks of dry granulars can often be purchased cheaply at
farm supply outlets.  5-10-5 is a typical "tomato" or "flowering
houseplant" formulation.  10-10-10 or similar near-equal number
formulation is an all-purpose balanced fertilizer.

   D.  "Weed and feed" lawn fertilizers
Combination herbicides and high nitrogen formulations.  Consensus
of the net seems to be that these are unneeded and polluting; a
more balanced lawn fertilizer and perhaps spot applications of a
selected herbicide (or a dandelion digger!) is a better choice
for lawn, people and environment.

   E.  "Lawn fertilizers"
Formulations like 43-1-1 encourage leaf growth at the expense of
root growth.  A more balanced fertilizer is better if clippings
are removed.  If clippings are allowed to rot in place, or
returned to the lawn as compost, potassium and phosphorus are
reclaimed, so a better choice would be a fertilizer in the
vicinity of 20-5-5.  High N fertilizers can be applied just a few
weeks before a special occasion requiring a deep green lawn
without harm if the lawn is basically healthy.

   F.  Houseplant formulations
Specialty houseplant formulations are common and expensive; a
soluble 10-10-10 or similar balanced fertilizer promotes good
growth of most plants; plants grown for their flowers may benefit
from 10-15-10 or similar formulations.  30-10-10 is a common
formulation for epiphytic orchids growing in pots.  In general,
do not fertilize a newly potted plant or one that is about to
enter dormancy.  Resume fertilization when new growth starts.

Newsgroups: rec.gardens,misc.rural
From: ron@mlfarm.com (Ronald Florence)
Subject: Re: Fertilizer FAQ
Date: Tue, 17 Aug 1993 13:51:14 GMT

klier@iscsvax.uni.edu writes:

   Besides carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the essential minerals for
   most plants are:
	   Element        Symbol     Available form:
   MACRO  Nitrogen        N          NH4+, NO3-
	  Phosphorus      P          HPO4-, H2PO4-
	  Potassium       K          K+

	  Sulfur          S          SO4--
	  Calcium         Ca         Ca++
	  Magnesium       Mg         Mg++

	  Iron            Fe         Fe++, Fe+++
	  Manganese       Mn         Mn++
	  Boron           B          H2BO3
	  Copper          Cu         Cu++
	  Zinc            Zn         Zn++
	  Molybdenum      Mo         MoO4--
	  Chlorine        Cl         Cl-

The FAQ was clearly intended for rec.gardens, and not for misc.rural,
but it might be useful to add that boron is an important element in
assuring growth of forage legumes like alfalfa and ladino clover.

One other mineral which can be important to the health of animals fed
on forage is selenium.  The soils in many areas of the United States
are low in selenium; animals raised on hay or pasture from these soils
can suffer from selenium/vitamin-E defficiency (White Muscle Disease),
a chronic muscular dystrophy that ultimately affects the heart
muscles.  The condition can be relieved by injections of vitamin-E and
selenium, or by diet supplements.  I don't know whether selenium can
be added to deficient soils.

These comments are only a shepherd's nit-picks to a very useful FAQ.

				Ronald Florence

Article 34255 of rec.gardens:
Newsgroups: rec.gardens
From: pharvey at quack dot kfu dot com (Paul Harvey)
Subject: Re: organic phosphorus source needed
Date: 2 Jun 1994 19:07:19 UTC

>Do I remeber it correctly that chicken manure is high in phosphorus?

Relative to other manures: [N-P-K-S-C/N ratio] (~75% moisture contents)

	Cow: 0.6-0.2-0.5-0-18
	Horse: 0.6-0.2-0.5-0.1-22
	Pig: 0.7-0.4-0.4-0.1-14
	Sheep: 1-0.3-1-0.1-16
	Poultry: 1.5-1-0.5-0.2-7

Ref: Fertile Soil, Robert Parnes, 1990, ISBN:0-932857-03-5, agAccess,
Davis, CA, (916) 756-7177

Contents of the ftp directory:
Update: 4-19-1995


part1	part2	part3	part4	part5

fertilizer.faq		pond.faq		tomato-problem.faq


faqupdate.001*	seedcats

mail-order-plants	poisonous-plants	seedcats.faq
Date: Fri, 2 Oct 1992 14:36 CDT
From: KLIER@iscsvax.uni.edu

1st draft, 2 October 1992

     "Do you think 200 paperwhites are enough?  I'm giving a few
     pots for Christmas presents, and I haven't got enough
     refrigerator space to do that many tulips..."
            --3rd year bulb-forcer, who just discovered
               wholesale catalogs

A.  Why force bulbs?
B.  Bulbs that need no prechilling
C.  How to force bulbs
   1.  Equipment and supplies
   2.  Planting the bulbs
   3.  Chilling period
   4.  "Bringing them on"
   5.  Aftercare
D.  Species and cultivars suitable for forcing, and cultural remarks

A.  Why force bulbs?

  To (in)temperate zone gardeners, winter can be those 8 months before
there's something blooming outside again.  About mid-January, seed
catalogs pall, and snow piles up, and the gardeners get a bit testy.
There are several ways of coping with the winter-garden blues.  n
Pruning the apple orchard is productive, but a bit chilly.  Revamping the
entire garden on paper, adding drystone walls, subterranean irrigation, a
new pond and small arboretum is exciting, but it's a bit expensive to
actually do the work and guilt-inducing to not do the work...

  Or, with a bit of planning, you can beat the winter doldrums and have
spring flowers all winter, with modest space and equipment requirements.

  Because flower buds are already formed in dormant bulbs, if you buy
bulbs from a reputable supplier, you are almost guaranteed success.

  This FAQ was prepared by Kay Klier, and reflects her experiences and

B.  Bulbs that need no prechilling

  The simplest bulbs to "force" (bring into out-of-season bloom) are
species that require no prechilling.  These include _Hippeastrum_
(amaryllis), _Narcissus tazetta_ (paperwhite narcissus), and _Colchicum
autumnale_ which will bloom in the fall just sitting on a shelf.
Cultural instructions are in the list below.

C.  How to force bulbs
   1.  Equipment and supplies
  Equipment needs are fairly minimal: a sunny, cool window for bringing
the bulbs to flower, pots and ordinary potting soil for growing, and a
refrigerator, coldframe, or a box stuffed with leaves-- something to
maintain the pots at about 40oF.  Choice of bulbs is critical: some
species and cultivars force better than others, and larger bulbs give a
better show than smaller bulbs of the same cultivar.

   2.  Planting the bulbs
  Some authors advocate special "bulb fiber" for forcing, or specially
shaped glasses to allow bulbs to be rooted in water.  Others specify a
mixture of pebbles and charcoal, glass marbles, or similar non-absorbent
rooting media.  My experience with bulb fiber is that it is good, but
expensive.  The other media are prone to a number of ills, including
tipping, rot, and malodors.

  However, most professional growers use a simple, well-drained, standard
potting soil in an ordinary clay or plastic pot with drain holes.  This
offers a heavy enough base that top growth won't flip the pot.  If
available, "bulb pans" or "azalea pans" (pots that are very squat or
sort-of-squat in comparison to the standard flower pot shape) can be
used; these require less soil and are a bit more aesthetic to some eyes.

  Prepare the pot as if you were potting a house plant.  New clay pots
should be soaked in plain water for 24 hours before use*.  Old clay or
plastic pots should be scrubbed, disinfected and dried** before re-use.
Crock the pot (put broken overlapping pot shards into the pot) to prevent
soil running out the drain holes.  Add enough soil so that the tips of
the bulbs set on this base are about 2" (5 cm) below the rim.  Place the
bulbs on this base, one cultivar per pot, with the bulbs just barely
separated.  Put as many bulbs in as will fit.  Continue filling the pot
with soil to about 3/4" (2 cm) below the rim.  Tag with cultivar and
date.  Place filled pot in water and allow the soil to soak up from the
bottom; drain for 12 hours, then placed into the chilling chamber.  Don't
forget to write some "check on it dates" on the calendar!
      *  New clay pots can "steal" water from roots as the clay
     molecules rehydrate from firing.
      **  Scrub mineral deposits and old soil and algal crusts from
     pots with a stiff-bristled brush.  Soak clean pots in 10%
     sodium or calcium hypochlorite solution (chlorine bleach)
     diluted to 10% of commercial strength for an hour.  Drain,
     rinse in clean water, and air dry until no trace of chlorine
     smell remains.
  It is possible to use undrained containers for bulb forcing, but I do
not recommend this until you've mastered forcing at least a few species
in ordinary pots-- watering is infinitely trickier in undrained pots.
Instead choose a growing pot that will slip into the undrained display

   3.  Chilling period
  Place the pots in a cool chamber: something with a temperature that can
be maintained at 35-40oF.  This can be a refrigerator (beware, though,
ethylene gas from ripening fruit, esp. apples, can cause flowers to
abort), a cold basement or root cellar, a cold frame, or an outdoor
trench filled with insulating but non-freezing materials such as straw
over a gravel base.  A cardboard box stuffed with straw and placed on
insulating materials like a couple of inches of styrofoam will provide
adequate temperature control in an unheated garage in USDA zones 4 or 5.
You will want to be able to check on the pots about once a month.
Arrange the pots in the chilling chamber, and remember to give them a
drink every month or so.
  Actual length of the chilling period will depend on planting date and
cultivar.  In general, pots are ready to be brought on (grown) when the
root system is well developed (go ahead, turn out a pot and peek!) and
the new shoots are an inch or so high.

   4.  "Bringing them on"
  Abnormally high temperatures (for spring bulbs) will lead to loose,
floppy growth, and perhaps flower abortion (esp in Iris).  50-55oF is an
good growing temperature for most hardy spring bulbs, often obtainable in
a bright windowsill, or in a basement under fluorescent light.  Put new
pots in half-bright light for a couple of days until the shoots green up,
then move to a strongly lit cool area to keep growth compact.  In
general, do not fertilize (if you must, no N-- it makes floppy leaves!).
You may also need to do a certain amount of discreet staking: I use
chopsticks and a variety of shades of green embroidery floss.

   5.  Aftercare
  After bloom has finished, the hardy bulbs are badly exhausted.  If you
feel morally obliged to save the bulbs, move the pot back to a cool, very
bright area and water with a balanced fertilizer solution.  As soon as
possible, remove the soil and bulb mass and transplant to a discreet
location in the service garden where the foliage can be allowed to die
off naturally.  Transplant to a better location in fall, but do not
expect good bloom for 2-3 years.

D.  Species and cultivars suitable for forcing
Species marked as "Green thumb" require some experimentation and at least
a coldframe or cool greenhouse; other species are suitable for growing
entirely in the house.

  A rough pronunciation is given after the genus name; these are
"American Botanical Latin", based on Church Latin.  European botanists
and gardeners tend to use Classical Latin pronunciation, with some
slightly different vowel and consonant sounds.  For instance, Americans
would pronounce "Julius Caesar" as JEW-lee-us SIEZE-er; Classical Latin
would be approximately YOU-lee-us KI-sar.


BABIANA  [Baboon root] rating: Green thumb  [bah-bee-ANN-nah]
Sunny;  Growing temp: 40-50oF
6-10" tall with dark green, pubescent foliage and blue, violet, red or
white flowers.  5 bulbs per 4.5" pot, 2.5-3.5" deep, sandy soil mix,
strong sun.
B. disticha:  blue                [DIS-tick-ah]
B. plicata: violet and blue       [pleh-CAH-tah]
B. ringens: scarlet               [RIN-jens]
B. stricta: white with lilac      [STRICT-tah]

COLCHICUM   rating: Brown thumb  [COAL-chee-come or COAL-key-come]
Any light, including none; temps above freezing
    Technically, a corm.  Will bloom sitting on a bookshelf, producing 8-
20 "giant crocus" flowers.  Plant outdoors in sunny, well-drained soil,
2" deep.  Leaves produced spring and summer.  Hardy to southern Canada.

C. autumnale var. album:  white single   [aw-tum-NAH-leh]
C. autumnale var. minor:  rose-lilac, star-shaped, shorter
  than C. autumnale.
C. autumnale:  pink-lavender single
C. byzantinum rose-lilac single          [biz-zan-TEEN-num]
    ---Hybrids and cultivars---
Autumn Queen (+ Princess Astrid):  purple checkered over white
Lilac Wonder: late-flowering lilac
The Giant: late-flowering lilac-mauve with white base
Waterlily:  double lavender

CONVALLARIA MAJUS [Lily of the Valley] rating: Green thumb
        [con-val-AIR-ee-ah  MAY-jus]
Shaded window;  Growing temp 55-65oF

You can buy Lily of the Valley pips prepared for forcing, and even
arrange for them to be shipped to you throughout the winter.  The
prepared pips are easy to grow, and will flower 3 weeks after planting.
Maintain a 60-65oF temperature at first, rising to 70oF and full light.

It is also possible to grow Lily of the Valley from your own plants:
This is much less certain, but fun to try.  Treat your Lily of the Valley
well the previous growing system, applying a balanced fertilizer several
times in the growing season.  Before hard frost, select a healthy clump
and put it in a dark cool place, watering once a week.  About 1 February,
bring into light.  As the flowering stalks appear, you can separate out
the flowering pips from those that are too small to bloom, and put the
flowering pips in a container of pebbles and water.  Or just let the
clump bloom.  In the spring, you can set the clump back in the bed for
bloom some other year.


CROCUS   rating: Easy   [CROW-cuss]
Sunny window;  Growing temp: 45-55oF

Both fall and spring blooming species are available.  Fall crocus (Crocus
sativus, C. speciosus, C. byzantinus) is potted upon receipt in August or
September.  Pots will bloom almost immediately in an east-facing window.
Remove from the pot after flowering and set out in the garden.

Spring flowering crocus includes both species and hybrid crocus.  For
reasons I do not understand, I've never had luck forcing yellow crocus,
though the lavender and white cultivars flower easily.

Plant several corms just below the surface of the soil in a 4" pot; hold
in the cold until shoots reach about 1.5" (3-4 cm); bring into a dim 50oF
room, then to a sunny 55oF window.  Higher temperatures can prevent

  Children may enjoy "crocus balls"; crocus corms are embedded in
sphagnum moss, shaped into a ball, and enclosed in coarse netting or a
network of string.  The sphagnum ball is moistened, then chilled.
Following the pre-chill period, the ball is suspended on a string until
bloom.  Water by dipping in a bucket, being sure to place a pan on the
floor after to catch the drips!

ERANTHUS HIEMALIS  (winter aconite)  rating: Experienced   [air-AN-thus
Shaded window;  Growing temp 45-55oF

Eranthus hiemalis, winter aconite, forces about 70% of the time for me; I
plant the tubers just below the soil surface, and treat as for tulips.
They will flower in late January if brought in to a sunny cool window in
late December.


ERYTHRONIUM (trout lily; dogtooth violet)  rating: Experienced
Shaded window;  Growing temp 45-55oF

Most species and hybrids are handled just as for Eranthus; but planted 3"
deep, several per pot.

GALANTHUS (snowdrop)  rating: Experienced   [ga-LAN-thus]
Sunny window;  Growing temp 40-50oF

Galanthus nivalis [niv-VAL-us] has smaller flowers than G. elwesii [el-
WES-ee-eye], but both are small charmers with green markings on the
perianth that look a bit like rabbits.   Plant several to a pot, and
force slowly as for tulips.  These prefer sun and 45-50o temperatures.
Blossoms open in warmth, close in cooler temperatures.

This genus will survive and grow if planted in the garden.

HIPPEASTRUM [Amaryllis]  rating: Easy   [hippie-AST-rum]
Shaded window before flowering, sunny after;  Growing temp 65-75oF
Standard size: 20-25", blooms 8-10 weeks after planting, 3-4 flowers 5-6"
across, per stem.  Usually 2 stems per bulb.  Plant in potting soil in 4
or 5" clay pots, or several in a larger pot (1/2" between bulbs); 1/3 of
bulb above soil.  Houseplant fertilizer (10-10-10 or 10-20-20) once
monthly from planting to Sept 1.  Withhold water gradually, no water from
1 Oct to early or mid-December.  Remove yellowed foliage.  Temps: 60-70
oF.  Sun.  Some cvs. will bloom at Christmas if planted mid-Nov.  These
are marked with an asterisk.  Colors in parentheses are the overall
impression of flower color from 10 ft.
  Apple blossom:  pink stripes over white (light pink)
  Cantate:  fuchsia
* Carnival:  red with white edge
  Christmas Gift:  white
* Cocktail: red with white star
  Dazzler: white
* Desert Dawn: salmon
  Donau: rosy-red
  Liberty: red
  Masai:  white with a few scarlet stripes (peppermint stripe)
* Milady: pink
  Minerva:  scarlet with white central star; green throat
  Orange Sovereign: orange
  Oscar:  blue-red
  Picotee:  white with red margin
  Rilona:  peach
* Safari: red
* Springtime:  light pink
  Star of Holland: red with white star
  Susan: pink
  Valentine: med. pink with white central star
  Vlammenspel:  scarlet with white central star
* Wedding Dance: white

  Double Picotee:  white with red edge, also red blush on petals
  Lady Jane:  dark coral with a small amount of white striping
  Pasadena:  red with white star

  Culture as for standard size Hippeastrum.  15-20" tall, usually 4
flowers per umbel, 2-3 umbels per bulb.  Nicest grown in groups of 3-5

  Charm: orange with yellow-green throat
  Germa: yellow
  Pamela:  red
  Scarlet Baby =(+ Gracilis Dulcinea):  scarlet
  Spotty:  terra-cotta red with narrow white stripes (light terra-cotta))


HYACINTHUS [hyacinth]   rating: Easy   [hi-ah-SIN-thus]
Shaded window while in flower: sunny after;  Growing temp 60oF; FRAGRANT

You can purchase hyacinths in a number of forms.  The quickest to bloom
will be "prepared" bulbs of Dutch Hyacinths-- L'Innocence will be in
bloom by Christmas if planted by early October.  These will bloom about
2-3 weeks before "unprepared" bulbs.

If planting bulbs in soil, figure 3 bulbs per 6" pot of the largest size
bulbs, 4-6 medium bulbs for a 6" pot.  Plant with about 3/4" (1.5 cm)
exposed bulb tip.  Allow 8-10 weeks of chilling; a bit of leaf and a
small tip of flowerbud should be visible before they are removed from the
cold.  Gradually bring into a 60oF dimly-lit room for growing.  When
flower stalks are about 4", bring them into full sunlight, but avoid
temperatures over about 65oF.  Allow 12-16 weeks start to finish.

Dutch hyacinths can also be grown in special "hyacinth glasses" in water,
and treated much like the soil-grown plants.  I have not had as much
success with this as with soil culture.

Some cultivars suitable for forcing: (Dutch hyacinths that can take
                          water culture are marked with an asterisk*)
  Ann Marie:  single pink; early
  Bismark; large single sky blue; midseason
  City of Harlem: soft yellow; late
* Grand Maitre: single lavender; midseason
  Jan Bos: single red; early
* King of Blues: single dark blue; late
  King of Lilacs: light mauve; late
* L'Innocence: white single; early if prepared; midseason unprepared
* La Victoire: deep red; midseason
* Lady Derby: light salmon pink; midseason
* Myosotis: single light blue; midseason
  Ostara: single blue-violet; very early
* Pink Pearl: pink single; early
  Queen of Blues: mid blue; late
  Queen of Pinks: largest of pinks, late
  Queen of Whites: late
  Rosalie: small, bright pink; very early
  Yellow Hammer: single soft yellow, midseason

French-Roman Hyacinths are offered only in color strains of white, pink
or blue.  These plants should be rooted at 55-60oF, and produce short
flower stalks.  For continuous bloom from January on, plant every 2-3


IRIS   rating: Experienced   [EYE-riss]
Sunny window;  Growing temp: 50-55oF

Never allow iris to dry out or the temperature to rise above 55oF, or you
will never have flowers.  If you can provide these conditions, however,
you can easily grow the Dutch Iris cultivars Wedgewood, White Excelsior
or Yellow Queen or the tiny Iris reticulata (reh-tick-you-LAH-tah].
These are grown in a sunny window, not prechilled.   Feed every two weeks
with a balanced fertilizer and salvage for the garden.

MUSCARI   rating: Experienced   [muss-CARE-ee]
Sunny window;  Growing temp: 60oF
  Two of the best for forcing are 'Early Giant', a large blue,, and
Muscari botroides var. album [bot-ree-OY-dees ALB-bum].  Plant several in
a 6" pot, just under the soil surface, and root in the cold until the pot
is full of roots.  Gradually bring into a sunny window of 55-65oF.

  This species will continue to grow and increase if planted outdoors
after flowering.

NARCISSUS   rating: Easy   [nar-SIS-us]
Sunny window;  Growing temp: 55-65oF

Force most "non-paperwhites" as you would tulips, choosing varieties
noted in the catalog marked as suitable for forcing.  There are so many
cultivars, I can't begin to list them, but some are:

   Cragford: white with orange corona; fragrant
   Forerunner: yellow trumpet
   Magnificence:  golden yellow trumpet
   Rembrandt: large yellow
   Allard Pierson: yellow corona, white perianth
   Cheerfulness; double-white; fragrant
   Early Beauty:  yellow corona, white perianth
   Early Perfection:  yellow corona, white perianth
   Fortune:  lemon yellow with orange corona
   Geranium:  white with red corona
   Golden Harvest:  golden yellow
   Helios:  perianth yellow, corona orange
   Innocence: white with yellow corona
   John Evelyn:  white, frilled corona with orange edge
   King Alfred: giant yellow
   La Fiancee: perianth white, corona light orange
   Laurens Koster: white, red eye; fragrant
   Mount Hood:  creamy white
   Music Hall: creamy white with yellow corona
   Scarlet Elegance: yellow with scarlet-bordered corona
   Von Sion: double yellow

Miniature cyclamen species suitable for forcing include N. bulbocodium,
the hoop-petticoat narcissus, N. cyclamineus ('February Gold', 'February
Silver', 'Beryl' and 'Peeping Tom') and N. triandrus ('Thalia' and


Sunny window; Growing temp 55-65oF

Several umbels of strongly-scented flowers are produced 3-5 weeks after
planting.  Soil or pebbles or bulb fiber.  Room temperature, no
prechilling.  Sweet odor may be cloying in a small room.  No fertilizer.
Toss after flowering.  If bulbs are not planted immediately, store cool
and dry, but does not require refrigeration for storage.  (45o-50oF

Erlicheer:  cream double
Galilee:  large, pure white flowers; improved version of old
Omri:  white flowers with yellow trumpets
Soleil d'Or:  old favorite yellow; orange trumpet
Ziva:  white

PUSCHKINIA SCILLOIDES  rating: Experienced
        [push-KIN-ih-ah skil-LOY-dees]  (yep, named for the Russian
          poet Pushkin)

  Culture as for Muscari.

SCILLA   rating: Easy   [SKILL-ah] or [SILL-ah]
Sunny window;  Growing temp:  55-65oF

  Culture as for Muscari.  Scilla siberica and S. campanulata (=S.
hispanica) are both easy species.

TULIPA  [tulip]  rating: novice to experienced   [too-LEAP-ah]
Sunny window;  Growing temp 55-65oF
  Tulips are classified according to blooming season, doubleness, and
species -- most of our garden tulips are of hybrid origin.  The garden
tulips in the list below are slightly more difficult than paperwhites,
but not much...  Plant several bulbs per pot in soil, bulbs not quite
touching.  (usually 6-7 bulbs in a 6" pot, 8-9 in a 7", 9-12 bulbs in an
8" pan)  Conventionally, the flat side of the bulb is oriented toward the
outside of the pot: the first leaf will appear on this side.  Store at
35-50 oF for 12 weeks; you may need to water if the pots dry out in this
period.  Bring indoors when top growth has reached about 2", gradually
bringing them into full sun and 55-65 oF growing temperature.  Taller
cultivars may require staking.
  After bloom, toss the bulbs.  If you must try to grow them next year,
fertilize with houseplant fertilizer, and keep in as cool and sunny a
spot as you have until you can transplant (in clumps) to a pre-dug trench
in the garden.  Be prepared for very disappointing flowering for the next
2-3 years.  Cultivars marked "late" in the list below may require longer
prechilling, and will bloom about March.
  As you gain more experience, you can branch out into other
classifications of tulips.  Some experiments will be rewarding, others,
well -- live and learn!

                 (mostly easy to force;  # marks
                   cultivars used for commercial forcing:
                 details available in Ball Red Book.
                 Dates in parentheses denote year of origin.
#  Albury: red; late
   All Bright: deep red with white base and ring of pure blue
   Ambassador: red
   Anna Jose: pink with white edge, 16-18"; late
#  Apricot Beauty: apricot, late
#  Attila: dark lavender; 18-20"; late
   Attraction: orange scarlet; early
#  Atom: red; late
#  Bellona: yellow, 15"; fragrant (outstanding yellow!); early
   Bestseller: coppery-apricot pink; fragrant, 16-20"; late
#  Bing Crosby: red
#  Blenda: rose
#  Blizzard: white; late
   Boccherini: lilac blue, 20"; late
   Brilliant Star: scarlet, 12"
   Broadway: red with white edging: 16-18"; late
#  Carl M. Bellman: bicolor, late
#  Cassini: red
#  Charles: red
   Cheerleader: red; 16-20; late
#  Christmas Gold: yellow
#  Christmas Marvel: cherry pink, 12
#  Comet: bicolor: bicolor
   Cordell Hull: white, splashed deep cherry red (Rembrandt)
#  Couleur Cardinal: dark red, 12", fragrant (1845); late
   Crater: dark red
#  Danton: red
   Demeter: violet; early
#  Denbola: bicolor; late
#  Diplomate: red; late
   Don Quichotte: medium fuchsia; 16-18; late
   Douglas Bader: pale pink; 16-18"; late
   Dreaming Maid: rosy violet, white edge; 16-18"; late
   Duc de Berlin: red, edged yellow; early
   Duc van Tol Scarlet: scarlet; early
   Duc van Tol White: white, early
   Early Queen: deep rose; early
   Easter Fire: red, late, 14-16"
#  Edith Eddy: bicolor; late
   Elmus: cherry red, edged pure white
   Ganders Rhapsody: pink shaded to red edge; 16-18"
   General de Wet: orange, 13"; fragrant (outstanding); early
#  Golden Eddy: bicolor; late
   Golden Glory: yellow, early
   Golden Harvest: deep lemon
   Golden Melody: soft yellow, 20", late
   Ibis: dark rose, 13"
#  Hibernia: white
#  Invasion: bicolor
   Jo-Ann: soft pink, 20"; late
#  Karel Doorman: bicolor
#  Kareol: yellow
#  Kees Nelis: bicolor
   Keizerskroon: dark rose, edged yellow, 15"; fragrant (1750)
   King of the Yellows; yellow; early
   Leen van der Mark: bright red with white edge; late; 22"
#  Madame Spoor: bicolor
#  Makassar: yellow; late
#  Merry Widow: bicolor: red with white margin
#  Mirjoran: bicolor
#  Monte Carlo: yellow
   Mon Tresor:  yellow, 12"; early
   Negrita: deep purple; 18-20"; late
   New Design: pale yellow, white midpetals, pink edges; 16-20"; late
   Niphetos: soft lemon; late
#  Olaf: red
   Olga: violet red, edged white; early.
#  Orange Sun: orange, late
   Orange Wonder: orange, fragrant, 18", late
#  Ornament: deep yellow; late
   Page Polka: white with broad pink border; 18"; late
#  Palestrina: rose; late
#  Paris: bicolor; late
#  Paul Richter: scarlet; mid season
#  Pax: white
#  Peerless Pink: pink, large flowers, 20"; late
   Praestens Fusilier: bunch flowering scarlet;  February, grow 55-60oF
#  Preludium: rose
   Prince Carnival: red/yellow, 15"
#  Prince Charles: lavender
#  Princess Irene: orange, fragrant, late; 10-12"
   Prince of Austria: scarlet, 15"
#  Prominance: red
   Proserpine: deep rose; early
   Queen of Bartigons: salmon pink with yellow stamens
#  Red Giant: red; late
#  Robinea: red; late
#  Stockholm: red
   Tambour Maitre: red, slight fragrance, 18"; late
#  Thule: bicolor
#  Topscore: red
#  Trance: red
   Van Der Neer: plum, 12"; fragrant  (1860)
   Vermilion Brilliant: scarlet
   Victor H. Ries:  purple, 16-20"; late
#  Virtuoso: rose; late
   White Dream: pure white, 16-18"; late
   White Dream: white, 20"; late
   White Hawk: white, 12"
   Yellow Present: pale yellow, 16-18"; late

--Early Doubles
   Dante: red
   Mr van Der Hoef: pure yellow
   Peach Blossom: rosy pink
   Scarlet Cardinal; scarlet double; early
   Willemsoord: bright carmine, edged white


VELTHEIMIA  rating: Green thumb   [velt-HI-me-ah]
  Growing temp 50-55oF

  Culture as for Hippeastrum; plant in a pot just an inch or so larger
than the bulb in November or December.  Feed with a balanced fertilizer
every couple of weeks until growth starts.  A tall stalk with 20-30 long
lasting, pinkish flowers will appear.  When flowers fade, rest the plant
dry in the pot until August or September.

                                                    --Kay Klier