Re: Sterile Grass Carp Info Needed

The use of grass carp, sterile or not, is risky business...You need to know the 
target plant species, have a general idea of time span for desired control, 
know how much of the target species is present (as well as non-target species), 
etc...Control effected by grass carp is not as predictable as that achieved by 
proper use of herbicides (although copper compounds are justifiably not 

By the way, "sterile" grass carp are triploid (induced by heating eggs, i 
believe)...They are only theorectically sterile..


     Flowers provide an allure that has been used by man to
transcend the season and evoke emotion.  Dried or fresh, certain
specialty flowers can stimulate not only the eyes but also the
sense of taste or smell, empowering new marketing opportunities
for small-scale enterprisers.

     Such flowers can be marketed fresh, dried, sugar-coated, in
bulk, as singles, or by the pound, ounce, or sometimes gram.
This exciting market, although subject to whims of designers,
chefs, or fashion, continues to grow to meet demands.

     For small-scale operators, recognizing unique marketing
opportunities provides an entry into this competitive
marketplace.  Once there, an ability to provide consistent,
dependable service with high-quality products can provide
sustainable income.

     Growers of specialty flowers service specific needs in the
floral industry.  These spinoffs include rare cut flowers, edible
flowers for garnishes or salads, potpourri mixes, and medicinals.
All must meet consumer expectations that are often reflected in
production, packaging, and presentation.

     Examples of new products can be suggested by articles in
national magazines such as "Gourmet," "Bon Appetit," or "Food and
Wine."  Small-scale entrepreneurs should become acquainted with
members of the local chefs' association or state restaurant
association.  A successful entrepreneur listens to what the
customer wants or anticipates what is needed to remain


     One management tool taught at the Small-Scale Agriculture
Program at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore (Princess
Anne, MD  21853) is that the grower must become aware of the
customers' competitive environment.  Products may be anticipated
by reading the customers' trade journals.

     Specialty products, such as flower garnishes, mixes, or
specialty packaging, focus attention on customers' operations and
expand and strengthen a market base.

     Stan and Susan Devoto of Sebastopol, California, learned at a
local farmers' market how specialty flowers could be a marketing
aid.  In "The Furrow" (John Deere, 1400 13th Street, East Moline,
IL 61244-1493), they explain how 15 different varieties of edible
flowers were mixed in ready-to-eat salads. "You need something
different to get noticed," Susan said.

     Susan used the edible flowers to catch eyes and open the way
for their other produce at the local farmers' market.


     The wide variety of flowers that can be packaged for gourmet
chefs and discerning grocery shoppers include old favorites like
calendula, chrysanthemum, dianthus, dandelion, geranium, hibiscus,
lily, nasturtium, pansy, rose, and blue violets.  Others include
certain herb flowers like mint, sage, basil, and bergamot and even
vegetable flowers such as pumpkin, okra, and squash.  Many are
outlined in Claire Clifton's "Edible Flowers," 1984. (McGraw-Hill
Publishing Co., P.O. Box 400, Highstown, NJ 08520/$10.95.)

     Flowers are harvested early in the day and kept moist at
refrigeration temperatures.

     Wholesale packs of pansy blossoms protected with shrink-wrap
plastics retailed for $17 per hundred at the 1988 Mid-Atlantic
Food Exhibition.  Other presentations are discussed in "Specialty
Food Packaging Design," Association for the Specialty Food Trade,
1989. (PBC International Inc., 1 School St., Glen Cove, NY
11542/$59, including $4 for handling.)


     Production techniques such as James Crockett's "Crockett's
Flower Garden," 1981 (out of print but may be found in some
libraries), are restricted to organic practices, without
pesticides.  Production and variety selection are affected by
planting schedules, species selection, and chefs' tastes.

     Farmer David Aydelotte of Salisbury, Maryland, explains,
"Chefs using my field-grown mint flowers and herb flowers are
constantly looking for new garnishes.  That is the real challenge,
to keep them interested in what I'm producing."

     Sequence plantings every two to four weeks are used to
maintain production of annual flowers.  Many are affected by day
length and temperature but growers use fertilization and watering
to lengthen the flowering periods.  "Many chefs are looking for a
social event, a story that goes with the food," Aydelotte says.
"The farm and the flowers add a dimension to the presentation at
the restaurant."

     Presentations can be developed from books such as:

*  "Cooking with Flowers," by Jenny Leggatt, 1987. (Out of print;
consult your local library.)

*  "Cooking from the Garden," by Rosalind Creasy, 1988.  (Sierra
Club Books, 730 Polk St., San Francisco, CA 94109/$35.)

*  "The Forgotten Art of Flower Cookery," by Leona Smith, 1985.
(Pelican Publishing Co., Inc., 1101 Monroe St., Gretna, LA

*  "Gourmet Bouquet," by Julia Weinberg, 1977. (New Win
Publishing, Inc., P.O. Box 5159, Clinton, NJ 08809/$10.95.)

     Reviving the Victorian technique of candying flowers
generated a marketing opportunity for Jo and Rob Pendergraph of
Midlothian, Virginia.  As Jo explained in the "Delmarva Farmer"
newspaper, each petal is painted with egg white and sprinkled with
granulated sugar. After the sugar has crystalized, flowers are
stored in air-tight containers.  The candied flowers sell for $45
per hundred at a major department store in New York City.

     Edible flowers to brighten up custom salad mixes include
chives, nasturtiums, pansies, and bergamot.  "Most chefs are
paying $9 per dozen for edible flowers flown in from California,"
Pendergraph adds.


     The competition is even fiercer in the dried flower market.
This is where volume growers can stockpile quantities and provide
a stiff marketing challenge.  Producers listed in the "1990
Organic Wholesalers Directory/Yearbook,"  published by California
Action Network (P.O. Box 464, Davis, CA 95617; $25), can often
suggest trends for your area.

     Carol Kopolow, reference librarian at the U.S. Department of
Agriculture's National Agricultural Library (NAL), has prepared
listings of journal articles, books, and associations providing
information on  "Marketing of Floricultural Products in the United
States," "Agri-Topics on Dried Flowers," and "Agri-Topics on Cut
Flowers:  Production and Marketing."  To request copies, write to
USDA/NAL, Reference Branch, Room 111, Beltsville, MD 20705 and
enclose a self-addressed gummed label.

     Current production practices of both wild-gathered and
commercially grown flowers are discussed in the 207-page
proceedings of the "Commercial Field Production of Cut and Dried
Flowers Symposium," hosted by the American Society for
Horticultural Science and the Center for Alternative Crops and
Products.  Presentations covered marketing, economics, production,
and handling of dried and fresh cut flowers and decorative plants.
(The book costs $20 per copy, from Nancy Breneman, Extension
Special Programs, 405 Coffey Hall, 1420 Eckles Avenue, University
of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN  55108.)

     In "The Business of Herbs," Paula Oliver (Ed.) focuses on the
potpourri market blends and supplies.  Including both herbs and

flowers, this publication provides classified ads for both buyers
and sellers. (Northwind Farm Publications, Route 2, Box 246,
Shevlin, MN  56676/ six issues per year/$20.)  Sample ingredients
are outlined in Clarence Meyer's "Potpourri and Incense Recipes,"
1986. (Meyerbooks, P.O. Box 427, Glenwood, IL 60425/$3.95.)

     Information on producing dried flowers can be found in
Hiller, Malcolm, and Hilton's "The Complete Book of Dried
Flowers," 1987 (Simon and Schuster, Inc., 200 Old Tappan Road, Old
Tappan, NJ 07675/$22.95 plus State sales tax); and similar books
found in regional libraries.

     "Spend about a year doing research.  I think that is very
important for anyone getting into any type of business, including
specialty cut flowers and bedding plants," grower Brian McCreight
explained at a Delaware horticultural exposition.

     Brian, whose family business distributes wholesale flowers,
said, "Experimentation is part of the learning process, and we
usually try 10 to 15 new varieties of flowers every year.  There
are two `musts' if you grow flowers outdoors.  Facilities for
cooling are essential, and so is irrigation."

     The Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers (ASCFG, 155
Elm St., Oberlin, OH 44074; annual membership: $55) was recently
established by growers and educators across the country to improve
the industry through conferences, information, research, and
education.  Judy Laushman, executive director, distributes
"Gatherings-The Cut Flower Quarterly," the association's
newsletter.  Regional directors, such as Leonard Perry for the
Northeast Region (University of Vermont, Plant And Soil Science
Department, Hills Building, Burlington, VT 05405-0082), help
coordinate Extension and research information.


     One major problem domestic growers face is the import of
floral products.  Despite such intense competition, some
established growers, such as Kitayama Brothers (Watsonville,
California), have not only survived but thrived.  Kitayama
Brothers expanded over 50 percent with new production greenhouses
from 1986 to 1989.

     Demand is good for mainstream cut-flower species such as
snapdragons, lilies, alstroemeria, irises, and delphiniums.  But
any new production volume can depress prices.

     In "The Furrow" magazine (June 1989), Kee Kitayama adds, "A
few acres of any cut-flower crop can flood the market.  We try to
grow not only ones that we hope will be in short supply but ones
that also will be profitable."

     Recognizing trends and gaining production experience become
necessary tools in this industry.  Information appears in
marketing publications, such as:

*  "Floral Marketing Directory and Buyer's Guide," Floral
Marketing Division, Produce Marketing Association, P.O. Box 6036,
Newark, DE  19714-6036 ($25 a copy for members, $50 for

*  "Florist" (12 issues a year/$24), "Trends" (once a year/$7.50),
and "Florist Buyer's Directory" ($4 a copy), Florist Transworld
Delivery Association, P.O. Box 2227, Southfield, MI 48037.

*  "Flowers &," Teleflora Inc, Teleflora Plaza, Suite 260, 12233
West Olympic Blvd., Los Angeles, CA  90064 (12 issues per

     Growing expertise, innovative technologies, and production
supplies can be found in industry publications such as:

*  "The Flower Market," going to 20,000 floral-related businesses
(growers, grocery chains, wholesalers, retailers, and trade
suppliers), 780 North Fourth St., San Jose, CA 95112 (12 issues a

*  "Nursery Manager" or "Greenhouse Manager," Branch-Smith
Publishing, 120 St. Louis Avenue, Fort Worth, TX  76104 (each: 12
issues per year/$24).

*  "Greenhouse Grower," Meister Publishing Co., 37733 Euclid Ave.,
Willoughby, OH 44094 (14 issues per year/$25).

     Other information sources can also be found in the "Directory
of Small-Scale Agriculture." (Order No. 001-000-04539-3,
Superintendent of Documents, United States Government Printing
Office, Washington, DC  20402/$5.50 per copy.)
            ******************    ******************

     Prepared by Thomas S. Handwerker, Small Farms Research Leader
at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore, and George B. Holcomb
of the Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
for USDA's Office for Small-Scale Agriculture (Howard W. "Bud"
Kerr, Jr., Program Director). The address is Office for Small-
Scale Agriculture, Cooperative State Research Service, Room 342-D,
Aerospace Building, USDA, Washington, DC 20250-2200.  (Telephone:

     Mention of commercial enterprises or brand names does not
constitute endorsement or imply preference by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture.

June 1990
                                          5FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, 

Howard W. "Bud" Kerr, Jr., Program Director
The Office for Small-Scale Agriculture
14th and Independence Ave.,S.W.
Washington, DC 20251-2200.

FAX (202)447-2497
Dialcom AGS 3023
BB contact: Durwin Knutson

Article 22909 of rec.gardens:
Path: samba.oit.unc.edu!concert!news-feed-2.peachnet.edu!darwin.sura.net!howland.reston.ans.net!spool.mu.edu!uwm.edu!rutgers!uwvax!astroatc!nicmad!nuntius
From: nicmad!klebba%astroatc.uucp@spool.cs.wisc.edu (Bob Klebba)
Newsgroups: rec.gardens
Subject: Re: USDA Hardiness Zones Digitized?
Message-ID: <1993Sep22.050040.13001@nicmad.uucp>
Date: 22 Sep 93 05:00:40 GMT
References: <27fp5s$m1h@vixen.cso.uiuc.edu> <CDp64n.902@cen.ex.ac.uk>
Sender: usenet@nicmad.uucp
Organization: Nicolet Instrument Corporation
Lines: 51
Nntp-Posting-Host: mac1_00
X-Useragent: Nuntius v1.1

In article <CDp64n.902@cen.ex.ac.uk> A.F.Kettle, afkettle@cen.ex.ac.uk
>Is a 'hardiness zone' the same as I have been seeing in various US
>messages eg 'I'm in zone 5'?
>It looks like a fine bit of shorthand, but the trouble with all
>shorthand is that it you don't know what it means then its no use.
>Could someone post a brief summary of what the climate is like in 
>these zones - or if that would take too long, then just tell me
>what zone we are on this side of the pond!
>Thanks, Anna ;-)

There are two "hardiness zone" maps of the US.  One done by the USDA and
the other by the Arnold Arboretum.  There is also a third for the western
US which has hundreds of microclimates, but I think the majority of
Americans use the USDA map.  I grew up with the USDA map and can't seem
to reckon with the Arnold system.

In any case the hardiness numberings go by winter cold.  Plants also get
killed by lack of moisture or too much summer heat, so the hardiness
rating is just a guideline.  I use it mostly for woody perennials.  The
herbaceous perennials survive well when we have snow cover all winter and
get killed when the winters are warm.  The zone definitions look
something like:
	1	below -50F	(way cold)
	2	-50 to -40F	(most of Canada, but not where most Canadians are)
	3	-40 to -30F	(where Centrigrade and Fahrenheit meet)
	4	-30 to -20F	(where I live!)
	5	-20 to -10F	(where people can grow lots more plants than I can)
	6	-10 to 0F	(pecan trees)
	7	0 to 10F	(azaleas galore)
	8	10 to 20F	(yea, but it's hot in the summer)
	9	20 to 30F	(growing apples is questionable, not cold enough)
	10	30 to 40F	(I can see the palm fronds swaying)

To give you an idea of my climate:  I'm at 43 deg. N (same as Barcelona),
first frost is 25 September, last 10 May.  We get about 3" precipitation
per month (in normal years) evenly distributed throughout the year.  It's
too cold for peaches, most pears, all Mediterranean grapes, sweet
cherries.  Nevertheless there is still a lot that can be grown here.   Of
course, the lakes freeze over in winter and people drive on them, but I'm
sure you already knew that.

Bob Klebba
Madison, Wisconsin, USDA zone 4
Inet: nicmad!klebba%astroatc.uucp@spool.cs.wisc.edu
"Feed the soil, not the plant"