Neem seeds

Not too long ago there was a discussion on the net of the neem tree
and all its benefits. Does anyone know where this discussion is
archived or more importantly a source for neem seeds? Please
reply directly to me, thanks.

Don Harris
National Research Council
University of Prince Edward Island
550 University Ave., Charlottetown, P.E.I.
Canada, C0A 1R0
902-566-0794, Fax: 902-566-0756
Article 17198 of rec.gardens:
Path: samba!concert!news-feed-1.peachnet.edu!darwin.sura.net!wupost!cs.utexas.edu!uunet!ivgate!axolotl!mtask!Bob.Batson
From: Bob.Batson@mtask.omahug.org (Bob Batson)
Newsgroups: rec.gardens
Subject: Neem & Beneficial Insects
Message-ID: <88.2bf4a148@axolotl>
Date: 13 May 93 21:48:41 CST
Reply-To: bob.batson@mtask.omahug.org
Organization: Multitasking Systems, Kansas City
Sender: news@axolotl.omahug.org (UUscan 1.10)
Followup-To: rec.gardens
Lines: 62

         Neem Active Ingredient Can Adversely Affect Beneficials

  In past issues of _HortIdeas_, we've enumerated the unique properties of
insecticides derived from the tropical neem tree, Azadirachta indica:
effectiveness against many pest species, low risk to human health, and
low toxicity to beneficial insects. But recent research indicates that
sub-lethal doses of azadirachtin (the main insecticidal chemical in
neem-based products) applied to European corn borers can adversely affect
the development of beneficials (Diadegma terebrans) which parasitize the
borers. Azadirachtin applications did not significantly affect
parasitization rates, but death rates of the beneficials were
significantly greater if the borers they parasitized were exposed to
azadirachtin---many of the beneficials were unable to survive to adulthood
after emerging from azadirachtin-exposed hosts. The researchers conclude
that successful integrated pest management for the borer, combining a
neem-based insecticide and parasites, would need imported parasites
because the local parasite population couldn't be self-sustaining.
  This is not to say that neem insecticides should not be used as
components of IPM for European corn borers (or for other pest insects where
adverse effects on beneficials are seen; one such example is the tobacco
hornworm parasite Cotesia congregata); after all, neem insecticides still
have important advantages over some other kinds of insecticides. It does
provide yet another illustration of the ecological law that "one cannot do
ONLY ONE thing." Whatever kinds of interventions humans make in natural
processes, there are liable to be unforeseen consequences which must be
addressed. We must deal with those consequences (in this case, by
importing parasites as necessary), instead of ignoring them and wishing
for an (illusory) "simple and safe" solution to the problem at hand. In
short, things tend to be more complicated than we often would like to
  Reference: C. McCloskey, J.T. Arnason, N. Donskov, R. Chenier, J.
Kaminski, and B.J.R. Philogene (Ottawa-Carleton Institutes of Biology and
Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA K1N 6N5), "Third
Trophic Level Effects of Azadirachtin," _The Canadian Entomologist_
125(1), January/February 1993, 163-165. (Entomological Society of Canada,
1320 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario. CANADA K1Z 7K9.)
Reprinted with permission from the April 1993 _HortIdeas_(ISSN 0742-8219).
Copyright 1993 by Greg and Pat Williams. HortIdeas is $15 (2nd class mail
within the USA) for one year (12 issues). For more information or a
subscription, write: HortIdeas, 460 Black Lick Road, Gravel Switch, KY
40328, USA. 
         For More Info on Research Reported in HortIdeas...
  ...write to the author(s) of the original article for a copy of it,
and/or additional details. The accepted method for communicating research
findings throughout the scientific community is via OFFPRINTS, which are
simply reprints of published articles available FREE UPON REQUEST FROM
and send a postcard  for an offprint!


Bob Batson
bob.batson@p3.f322.n280.z1.fidonet.org          |       Primary address
bob.batson@mtask.omahug.org                     |       Backup address
Under the most controlled conditions, the experimental apparatus will do
exactly as it pleases.