Re: sending info to list members (fwd)

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Thu, 3 Apr 1997 12:01:51 -0600
From: mendezer@computo.catie.ac.cr
To: "Lawrence F. London, Jr." <london@sunsite.unc.edu>
Subject: Re: sending info to list members (fwd)

Dear cover-crop interestees:

There goes my thesis material. I want to clarify that I did this in
California, not in the tropics, which is where I am now.  However, I am very
interested in sustainable agriculture in the tropics.  I did my M.S. thesis
on the agroecology of homegarden agroforestry systems in Nicaragua.  So, any
info or discussion relating to tropical agriculture is definitely welcome.
Hope this way of sending the material works for all.


Ernesto Mendez
Agroforestry Consultant
CATIE/GTZ Agroforestry Proyect
CATIE 7170
Turrialba, Costa Rica

Méndez, V.E.  1994.  Use of clovers as living mulches in small-scale,
low-input vegetable production.  B.Sc.  Thesis.  California Polytechnic
State University.  San Luis Obispo, CA.  USA.  39 p.  


	Living mulches, cover crops planted with a companion or cash crop, have the
potential of benefiting agricultural systems by improving soil properties
and adding biodiversity to agroecosystems.  The objectives of this
experiment were to determine the effects of two potential living mulch
species, White Dutch clover(Trifolium repens  L. cv. Dutch) and Strawberry
clover(Trifolium fragiferum L. cv. Salina), and living mulch seeding time on
soil properties and broccoli (Brassica oleracea group italica cv. Marathon)
dry weight and yield in a low-input agricultural system.  Four broccoli dry
weight measurements were taken starting 3 months after transplant and at 15
day intervals in an attempt to record effects of  living mulches at
different stages of  broccoli development.  Broccoli yield was significantly
lower (p£0.01)  in living mulch plots than in bare plots.  Soil organic
matter was significantly higher (p£0.05) in pre-established mulch plots than
in simultaneously seeded plots.  Soil resistance was significantly greater
(p£0.01) in bare plots.  Plots where mulch was seeded prior to broccoli
transplant resulted in lower yields than all other plots.  In this
experiment living mulches were beneficial to the soil system but detrimental
to broccoli yield.  This issue presents the challenge of adapting living
mulch techniques so they do not result in crop yield loss.


Akobundu, I.O. and B.N. Okigbo.  1984.  Preliminary evaluation of ground
covers for use as live mulch in maize production.  Field Crops Res. 8:177-186.

Altieri, M.A. and M. Liebman.  1986.  Insect, weed and plant disease
management in multiple cropping systems.  p. 183-219.  In C. A. Francis
(ed.)  Multiple cropping systems.  Macmillan Publishing Co.  New York, NY.

Altieri, M. A. and L. L. Schmidt.  1985.  Cover crop manipulation in
northern California orchards and vineyards:  effects on arthropod
communities. Biol. Agric. and Hort. 3:1-24.

Anonymous.  1981.  The concept of living mulch.  Am. Vegetable Grower

Andow, D.A., A.G. Nicholson, H.C. Wien and H.R. Wilson.  1986.  Insect
populations on cabbage grown with living mulches.  Environmental  Entomology

Baker, D.C. and D.W. Norman.  1990.  The farming systems research and
extension approach to small farm development.  p.  91-104.  In M. A. Altieri
and S.B. Hecht.  Agroecology and small farm development.  CRC press.  Boca
Raton, Fla.

Bugg, R.L., F.L. Wackers, K.E. Brunson, J.D. Dutcher and S.C. Phatak.  1991.
Cool-season cover crops relay intercropped with cantaloupe:  influence on a
generalist predator, Geocoris 	punctipes (Hemiptera:  Lygaeidae).  J. Econ.
Entom. 84:408-416.

Coleman, E.  1989.  The new organic grower.  Chelsea Green.  Chelsea, VT.

Elkins, D., D. Frederking, R. Marashi and B. McVay.  1983.  Living mulch for
no-till corn and soybeans.  J. of Soil and Water Cons. 8:431-433.

Enache, A. J. and R. D. Ilnicki.  1990.  Weed control by subterranean clover
(Trifolium subterraneum) used as a living mulch.  Weed Tech. 4:534-538.

Fawzy, M.  1992.  Establishment techniques for living mulches in
transplanted vegetable production.  M.S. thesis.  Cal Poly Univ., San Luis
Obispo, CA.

Fischer, A. and L. Burrill.  1993.  Managing interference in a sweet
corn-white clover living mulch system.  Am. J. of Alt. Ag. 8:51-56.

Francis, C. A., 1986.  Introduction: distribution and importance of
multiple cropping.  p. 1-19.   In C. A. Francis (ed.)  Multiple cropping
systems.  Macmillan Publishing Co.  New York, NY.

Fukuoka, M., 1985.  The natural way of farming:  the theory and practice of
green philosophy.  Japan Publications.  New York, NY.
Grubinger, V. P. and P.L. Minotti.  1990.  Managing white clover 	living
mulch for sweet corn production with partial rototilling.  Am. J. of Alt.
Ag. 5:4-12.

Hartl, W.  1989.  Influence of undersown clovers on weeds and on 	the yield
of winter wheat in organic farming.  Agric. Ecosystems and Environ. 27:389-396. 

Khan, M. J., E. J. Monke and G. R. Foster.  1988.  Mulch cover and canopy
effect on soil loss.  Trans. of the ASAE 31:706-711.

Lanini, W. T., J. M. Shribbs and C. E. Elmore.  1988.  Orchard floor
mulching trials in the U.S.A.  Components 1:5-6.

Latheef, M. A., J. H. Ortiz and A.Q. Sheikh.  1984.  Influence of
intercropping on Phyllotreta cruciferae  (Coleoptera:  	Chrysomelidae)
populations on collard plants.  J. Econ. Ento. 77:1180-1184.

Miller, R. W. and R. L. Donahue.  1990.  Soils, an introduction to soils and
plant growth.  Prentice Hall.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Nabhan, G., M. Slater and L. Yarger.  1990.  New crops for small farmers in
marginal lands?  wild chiles as a case study.  p. 19-26.  In M. A. Altieri
and S.B. Hecht.  Agroecology and small farm development.  CRC press.  Boca
Raton, Fla.

Paul, E. A. and F. E. Clark.  1989.  Soil microbiology and
biochemistry.Academic Press.  San Diego, CA.

Plucknett, D. L. and N. J. H. Smith.  1986.  Historical perspectives on
multiple cropping.  p.  20-39.  In  C. A. Francis (ed.)  Multiple 	cropping
systems.  Macmillan Publishing Co.  New York, NY.

Regnier, E. E. and R. R. Janke.  1990.  Evolving strategies for managing
weeds.  p.  174-203.  In C. A. Edwards, R. Lal, P. Madden, R. H. Miller and
G. House (eds.)  Sustainable Agricultural Systems.  	Soil and Water
Conservation Society, Ankemy, IA.

Sarrantonio, M.  1992.  Opportunities and challenges for the inclusion of
soil-improving crops in vegetable production systems.  HortScience 27:757-758.

Savory, A.  1988.  Holistic resource management.  Island Press.  Washington, DC.

Scott, T. W., J. Mt. Pleasant, R. F. Burt and D. J. Otis.  1987.
Contributions of ground cover, dry matter and nitrogen from intercrops and
cover crops in a corn polyculture system.  Agron. J. 79:792-798.

Stewart, R. H., K. W. Lynch and E. M. White.  1980.  The effect of growing
clover cultivars in association with barley cultivars 	upon grain yield of
the barley crop in the year of sowing and the subsequent year.  J. Agric.
Sci. 95:715-720.

Stirzaker, R. J., B. G. Sutton and N. Collis-George.  1992.  Soil management
for irrigated vegetable production.  I.  the growth 	of processing tomatoes
following soil preparation by cultivation, zero-tillage and an in situ-grown
mulch.  Aust. J. Agric. Res. 44:817-829.

Tomar, J. S., A. F. MacKenzie, G. R. Mhuys and I. Alli.  1988.  Corn growth
with foliar nitrogen, soil-applied nitrogen and legume intercrops.  Agron.
J. 80:802-807.

Vrabel, T. E., P. L. Minotti and R. D. Sweet.  1983.  Regulating competition
from white clover in a sweet corn living mulch system.  Weed Sci. Soc. Am.
Abstracts 23:4.

White J. G. and T. W. Scott.  1991.  Effects of perennial forage-legume
living mulches on no-till winter wheat and rye.  Field Crops Res. 28:135-148.
At 22:54 29.03.97 -0500, you wrote:
>---------- Forwarded message ----------
>Date: Sat, 29 Mar 1997 18:46:13 -0500
>To: "Ernesto Mendez (G.T.Z.)" <mendezer@computo.catie.ac.cr>
>Cc: sanet-mg@ces.ncsu.edu
>Subject: Re: sending info to list members
>Ernesto Mendez (G.T.Z.) wrote:
>> march 7, 1997
>> Hello to everyone !
>> As you may have noticed there is an interest in cover crops and living
>> mulches.  I want to send those interested the bibliography of my thesis
>> and want to know what is the best way to do it.  Is it an attachment?  I
>> do not want to bother those not interested.
>> Ernesto Mendez
>> Agroforestry Consultant
>> CATIE-GTZ Agroforestry Project
>I would reall appreciate your sending me a copy of your cover 
>crops/living mulches bibliography. I have a collection of resources 
>on these topics that I make available on the Web.
>If you're interested see various directories in: 
>Lawrence London