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Frederic Logghe
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06 Revenge

HMS Revenge was the name ship of the Revenge class of battleships of the Royal Navy, the ninth to bear the name. She was launched during World War I in 1915. Though the class is often referred to as the Royal Sovereign class, official documents of 1914–1918 refer to the class as the Revenge class. She was commissioned in 1916, just before the battle of Jutland. She was a truly gargantuan warship at the time, especially imposing when seen from her bow.

Revenge was present at the battle of Jutland, where she was under the command of Captain E. B. Kiddle, and served in the powerful 1st Battle Squadron, second in line behind Marlborough flying the flag of Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil Burney. During the ensuing battle, Marlborough was torpedoed, which forced Burney to transfer his flag to Revenge. Revenge was engaged with the enemy for an hour and a half, suffering no casualties or battle damage.

The day before the Grand Fleet departed their base to confront the surrendering German High Seas Fleet in Operation ZZ, a visit was made senior members of the British Royal Family: George V, Queen Mary and Edward, Prince of Wales. The King and his son visited USS New York, Lion, the flagship of the Commander-in-Chief David Beatty, and Revenge, flagship of the Second-in-Command. Queen Mary had tea in Revenge.

In 1919, at Scapa Flow, Admiral Ludwig von Reuter issued the order to the now interned German High Seas Fleet to scuttle the entire fleet of 74 ships to prevent their use by the victorious Allies. After the incident, von Reuter was brought to the quarterdeck of Revenge, flagship of Admiral Freemantle and accused of breaching naval honour. Von Reuter replied to the accusation, "I am convinced that any English naval officer, placed as I was, would have acted in the same way." No charges were brought against him.

In January 1920, the 1st Battle Squadron was detached to the Mediterranean due to crises in the region. While in the area, Revenge supported Greek forces in their war of independence, and remained in the Black Sea, due to concerns about the Russian Civil War until July, when she returned to the British Atlantic Fleet.

In 1922, Revenge, with her sister-ships, Ramillies, Resolution and Royal Sovereign, was again sent to the Mediterranean, due to further crises, in no small part due to the forced abdication of King Constantine I of Greece. Revenge was stationed at Constantinople and the Dardanelles throughout her deployment to that region. She rejoined the Atlantic Fleet the following year.
Postcard of Silver Jubilee Review 1935

In 1928 she was paid off for refit at Devonport Dockyard. She was recommissioned after the refit in March 1929 into the British Mediterranean Fleet. On 16 July 1935, Revenge was part of the Naval Review of 160 warships at Spithead in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of George V. Later in 1935 she was stationed at Alexandria due to potential dangers posed by the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.

In 1936 she was paid off for yet another refit. She was recommissioned a year later into the 2nd Battle Squadron of the immense Grand Fleet. On 9 August 1939 she was part of another Fleet Review, Royal Navy that was observed by George VI. Though Revenge was now becoming rather antiquated and slow, she was still used in abundance throughout the war, being assigned to the North Atlantic Escort Force, together with her sister-ship Resolution. On the day she was actually attached to the Force, on 5 October 1939, she departed home shores to head for Canada, carrying valuable gold bullion.

On 3 July 1940, Revenge's crew boarded the French battleship Paris, the submarines Thames and Surcouf, along with other French ships seized in British ports after the fall of France. Revenge undertook further vital convoy duties throughout the rest of her involvement in World War II, including the escort of a convoy carrying the Australian Division back to their country in February 1943 to enable them to take part in the Pacific theatre, after Japanese successes in that region, which posed a significant and very real threat to Australia herself.

In October that year, she was withdrawn from operational service due to her very poor condition, being reduced to Reserve status. Her initial service was as a Stoker's training ship, though a memo Winston Churchill remarked that the venerable battleship should be put to better use and so Churchill embarked aboard Revenge, where she sailed to Malta, en route to the Tehran Conference being held in Iran.

In May 1944, her main armament was removed to provide spare guns for the battleships Ramillies and Warspite, as well as monitors which were to be vital during the bombardardment of the beaches of Normandy during Operation Overlord.

On 8 March 1948, after so many years of dedicated service to the Royal Navy and the nations interests, she was placed on the disposal list, being sold for scrap four months later. Some of Revenges' gun turret rack and pinion gearing was reused in the 76 metre diameter Mark I radio telescope built at Jodrell Bank, Cheshire, in the mid-1950s.

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05 Royal Sovereign

HMS Royal Sovereign, launched in May 1915, was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy. Displacing 27,500 tons and armed with eight 15-inch guns, she ended her service in the Soviet Navy as Arkhangelsk in 1944–1949, being returned to the UK for scrapping. Part of her gun turret mechanism was later reused in the 250 foot "Mark I" radio telescope at Jodrell Bank, Cheshire built in 1955-57.

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07 Ramillies

HMS Ramillies (pennant number 07) was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, named after the Battle of Ramillies.

Ramillies was built by William Beardmore and Company at Dailmuir in Scotland. She was launched on 1916-09-12 and commissioned on 1917-09-01. Commissioning was delayed because her rudder was damaged during launch. She was towed with great difficulty to the Cammell Laird works on the River Mersey for repairs. As a result Ramillies missed the Battle of Jutland.

In common with other Revenge class battleships, Ramillies suffered from having her secondary armament, the 6 in (152 mm) guns, located too low, on the main deck, with the result that in heavy weather they were liable to be awash.

Because of an increasing awareness of the danger of torpedo attack from submarines and destroyers, Ramillies, being completed later than her sisters in this class, had anti-torpedo bulges fitted. These were streamlined external compartments fitted along the waterline and filled with various shock absorbent materials, designed to take the impact of a torpedo before it could breach the hull.

Ramillies had aircraft platforms installed on B and X turrets in 1918 as well as a catapult to launch the airplanes. The Fairey Flycatcher was flown during most of the 1918 to 1939 period, useful for both spotting shells and scouting.

Ramillies joined the 1st Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet in May, 1917.

In the disturbances between Turkey and Britain in 1920, Ramillies fired from her position in the Sea of Marmora at Turkish shore targets.

In 1924, Ramillies joined the 2nd Battle Squadron of the British Atlantic Fleet. During the 1926 general strike she was sent to the River Mersey to land food supplies, along with HMS Barham. By late 1926 she was with the Mediterranean Fleet.

During the interwar period, Ramillies was lightened by having crushing tubes, wood and cement filling removed from her anti-torpedo bulges. By 1928, her antiarcraft defences had been altered to 4-4" quick fire Mark IV guns and her two forecastle deck 6" guns were removed.

When political disturbances broke out in Palestine in 1929, Ramillies was sent out to support the British presence.

From June 1932 to August, 1934 she was in Plymouth for a major refit.

During 1937 Ramillies had her antiarcraft batteries changed to 8-4 in (102 mm) quick fire Mark XVI arranged in dual mountings. As well two eight barrelled pompom antiaircraft guns were added.

Ramillies lost her torpedo tubes before the outbreak of World War Two and had her aircraft catapult removed.

It was found more difficult to modernize the Revenge Class battleships than the Queen Elizabeth Class (ex. HMS Valiant), since the smaller displacement and more narrow hull prevented the installation of larger machinery to increase speed, perhaps the greatest need.

The new and the modernized Japanese battleships under construction in the 1930's made from 24 to 27 knots (44 to 50 km/h) while the modernized Italian ships made 26 to 28 knots (48 to 52 km/h) and the new Littorio Class made 30 knots (56 km/h). The German pocket battleships could achieve 28 knots (52 km/h), while the battleships Scharnhorst and the Gneisenau made 32 knots (59 km/h) and the Bismarck and the Tirpitz made 29 knots (54 km/h). By 1939, Ramillies' design speed of 23 knots (43 km/h) could no longer be achieved with her old machinery. Often 18 knots (33 km/h) was her top speed, though in an emergency she could sometimes make 20 knots (37 km/h).

This put the Royal Navy in a difficult spot. When Ramillies and her sisters were in a battle fleet, the entire group was reduced to their top speed. This enabled faster Italian fleets to choose whether to engage and, if battle loomed, to manouver to advantage. When faced by superior Japanese forces, the British were too slow to get away.

When on convoy protection duty and attacked by enemy battleships, Ramillies was too slow to pursue or to gain the most favourable position. However her 15 in (381 mm) guns were still lethal, and changed the course of events on several occasions.

Despite her age, she gave useful service in the Second World War, doing everything from engaging enemy battleships to convoy escort to shore bombardment. Ramillies illustrated the value of an old capital ship for its deterrent effect, making technically superior enemy ships decide not to attack for fear of sustaining damage while in British controlled seas, far from repair bases.

While it is often argued that Britain during the 1930s should have replaced the battleships she was allowed under the Washington Naval Treaty (and subsequent London Conferences) with newer vessels, the fact remains the she was close to bankruptcy after World War One and later mired in the Great Depression. It could be argued that victory in World War Two hinged, among other things, on Britain's possession of the obsolescent battleships left over from World War One, as they were superbly manned, ably led and aggressively used.

Without the five old Revenge class battleships, Britain might well have lost control of the Mediterranean Sea after France surrendered. Malta would then have fallen, and convoys from Italy would have reached North Africa unmolested, ensuring intact supplies for Rommel's Afrika Korps. This could have led to the loss of Egypt and the oil fields of the Persian Gulf.

Without the Revenge class ships on North Atlantic convoy duty, German raiders could have created significant destruction and, breaking out beyond, threatened the troop convoys from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India.

The outbreak of the war found Ramillies as part of the British Home Fleet based at Scapa Flow. She participated in a sweep of the waters between Iceland, Norway and Scotland from 31 August to 7 September 1939 with a mission to intercept German merchant ships trying to get back home before the start of war.

In late September 1939 Ramillies escorted a troop convoy to Alexandria in Egypt. In October she was stationed at Gibraltar.

In late 1939 Ramillies sailed for the East, with a stint in the Indian Ocean, when HRH Prince Philip was a crew member. She visited New Zealand at Christmas 1939 and from January 6, 1940 to February 12 she escorted 13,000 New Zealand troops from Wellington to Suez. From April 15 to May 7, 1940 she escorted Australian soldiers from Melbourne to Suez.

But before this she was diverted from escort duties when the Admiralty became aware of the presence of the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee in the Indian Ocean off Lourenco Marques (current Maputo) on November 16, 1939. Ramillies was detached at Aden and formed Force J along with the battleship HMS Malaya, and the aircraft carrier HMS Glorious. They were sent south to intercept the German raider, but she sailed back into the South Atlantic where she was caught in the Battle of the River Plate off Montevideo by Force H, the cruisers HMS Ajax and HMS Achilles, joined by HMS Exeter from Force G.

After the entrance of Italy into the war in June 1940, Ramillies served in the Mediterranean. Along with HMS Royal Sovereign she escorted a convoy from Alexandria, Egypt, to Malta between June 27 and June 30, 1940. From August 16 to August 18 she bombarded the port of Bardia and Fort Capuzzo in the Italian colony of Libya in North Africa. On the way back she was attacked by Italian aircraft, but was not hit. She was a part of Admiral Andrew Cunningham's Mediterranean fleet, Force D, based at Alexandria.

Ramillies escorted a convoy from Alexandria to Malta between October 8 and October 14, 1940. On the way back the ships were attacked by eight Italian torpedo boats. There were no British losses, but three of the Italian boats were sunk and four damaged.

From October 25 to October 28, 1940, Ramillies escorted a convoy bound from Alexandria to Crete. In the period November 10 to November 13 she was on convoy escort duty from Alexandria to Malta, and then went on to Crete. During this time an enemy submarine spotted Ramillies and fired torpedoes but did not hit her.

The Royal Navy's attack on the main Italian naval force at Taranto, on November 11th, 1940, reduced the Italians to two serviceable battleships. So, Cunningham was able to release to North Atlantic convoy duty his oldest and slowest battleships, the Ramillies and the Malaya, thus freeing up escort destroyers in the Mediterranean.

Hence Ramillies steamed west with the Mediterranean fleet in late November, 1940, forming part of the escort for four merchant ships bound for Malta with much needed supplies. When she was in the central basin of the sea, she broke off from the rest and headed for home, and, accompanied by the cruiser HMS Berwick, steamed on alone through the Sicilian Narrows. She was to join up with Force H from Gibraltar under Admiral James Somerville which was in the area escorting two large fast merchant ships headed east for Malta and one headed east for Alexandria. They would then turn the escort duties over to Admiral Cunningham and make haste out of the danger area and return to Gibraltar. Ramillies was making her best possible speed of 20 knots (37 km/h) running the gauntlet nicknamed "bomb ally".

Admiral Somerville had the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal somewhat behind the rest of the force, his flag in the old battlecruiser HMS Renown, along with the cruisers HMS Sheffield, HMS Manchester and HMS Despatch and five destroyers. At 10:40 am on November 27, 1940, a scouting plane from the Italian cruiser Bolzano reported a force of one battleship, two cruisers and four destroyers north of Bône Algeria. Italian Admiral Inigo Campioni was at sea with two battleships, six heavy cruisers and fourteen destroyers. His orders were to attack only if faced by a decisively inferior enemy. With a two to one superiority in capital ships, he had his opportunity and altered course to intercept. His force was centered around the new and powerful battleship Vittorio Veneto and the modernized battleship Giulio Cesare. This was a dangerous situation for the British.

Somerville became aware of the danger from the Italian fleet and sent his convoy off to the southeast with a small escort. He pushed ahead to rendezvous with the Ramillies and the Berwick, so as to get between the Italians and the convoy. Odds favoured the Italians, since Ramillies was slow and her guns were outranged by the Italians. In addition Somerville's ships were within easy range of shore based enemy aircraft. But, his object was to get the convoy safely to Malta, so he charged ahead at the Italians. He sent his cruisers out front under Vice-Admiral Lancelot Holland, keeping his two slower capital ships further back screened by destroyers. The Ark Royal was well behind with two escorting destroyers. Campioni, after hearing of the presence of another British capital ship and an aircraft carrier, decided not to risk Italy's only two serviceable capital ships and after a brief exchange of gunfire at long range, in which Ramillies got off several salvoes, the Italians turned away and made for Naples. Berwick was damaged in the engagement, as was one Italian destroyer. The engagement was called the Battle of Cape Spartivento.

Ramillies was assigned to North Atlantic convoy duty on her return to Britain. This was a critical assignment as Britain was now alone, submarine losses were high, and the home country was in immediate danger of being starved into submission. Should German surface raiders, whether converted merchantmen, heavy cruisers, pocket battleships or full sized battleships, break out and destroy a British convoy, it might be sufficient to tip the balance. Across this ocean came food, rubber, lumber, mineral ores, weapons and munitions from Australia, New Zealand, South East Asia, South Africa, South America, Canada and the United States, oil from Venezuela and the Middle East and troops from India and Canada. One destroyed troop convoy might lead Canada and the other dominions to stop moving troops across. Outward bound were troops, munitions and aircraft for East Africa, the Middle East, India and the Far East.

On January 12, 1941 Ramillies left Britain as escort for 40,000 troops in a large convoy from Britain south past the danger zone to West Africa. They were bound for the Middle East.

The Ramillies was on duty in the North Atlantic Ocean escorting Convoy HX-106, some 41 ships, eastbound from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Liverpool, England when on 8 February, 1941 the two new German battlecruisers, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, appeared over the horizon. The German squadron was under the command of Admiral Günther Lütjens. The captain of the Scharnhorst offered to draw off the Ramillies, so that the Gneisenau could sink the merchant ships. This strategy, if successful, would have entailed little risk to Scharnhorst as she was 11 knots faster than Ramillies, and her newer 11" guns outranged the 1915 era 15" guns of the British ship. But, Lutjens strictly followed Hitler's directive not to engage enemy capital ships.

The presence of Ramillies was sufficient to deter the attack. Later two of the convoy's merchant ships were sunk by submarines, including the MV Arthur F. Corwin loaded with 14,500 tons of aviation spirit. She went down on February 13 taking all 59 crew with her.

On May 24, 1941, Ramillies, Captain Arthur D. Read commanding, was south of Cape Farewell, Greenland, on duty escorting Convoy Hx 127 eastbound from Halifax. Some 57 merchant ships were in the group bound for Liverpool, with the most common cargoes being, oil, aviation spirit, lubricants, gasoline, lumber, grain, steel, sugar, scrap iron, and pig iron. Two ships carried general cargo, and there were single ships carrying molasses, trucks and cereal. Other escort vessels were designed to meet a submarine menace, and included a modern Canadian destroyer, HMCS Ottawa, the Indian navy sloop, RIN Sutlej, an ex-US Navy obsolete destroyer, HMS Salisbury, an escort destroyer, HMS Hambledon, corvettes HMS Larkspur, HMS Begonia and several other smaller ships. If anything Ramillies would have been a liability dealing with submarines. She was there as insurance against attack by surface raiders.

If Ramillies had to face a major surface attack, the two destroyers were probably the only escorts of value to her.

The new German battleship Bismarck broke out into the North Atlantic after sinking the battlecruiser HMS Hood, Britain's largest warship, in the Battle of the Denmark Strait. Ramillies was well east of Newfoundland to the southwest of Bismarck, and if Bismarck had continued its raid, Ramillies was all that the Royal Navy had to stop it from ravaging the sealanes off North America. On May 24, 1941 the Admiralty ordered Ramillies to leave the convoy and steam on a course to intercept the enemy ship.

Fortunately for the crew of the Ramillies, Bismarck decided to make for the coast of France and the old ship did not have to face the world's most powerful battleship.

Another typical assignment was to provide ocean escort to convoy HX 130, bound for Liverpool with 45 merchant ships. Ramillies joined the convoy just outside Halifax harbour at 1530 hours on June 1st, 1941 and remained with the ships till June 9 at 53 30 north and 46 48 west, the mid-ocean meeting point, where an escort from Britain took over.

Ramillies was a part of a British fleet put together hurriedly in March of 1942 under Admiral James Somerville in an attempt to prevent Japanese naval forces from cutting the sea lanes to India. The scratch fleet consisted of two aircraft carriers and three old battleships of the Revenge Class. Fortunately the main part of the British fleet did not meet this crack Japanese fleet. After causing great destruction to Allied shipping, sinking an aircraft carrier and several other smaller warships, the Japanese withdrew.

In May 1942 Ramillies was still in the Indian Ocean and was sent to cover the Allied invasion of Madagascar. On 1942-05-29, a reconnaissance plane from the Japanese submarine I-10 spotted Ramillies at anchor in Diego Suarez harbour. Ramillies changed berth after the plane was seen. However, the Japanese submarines I-16 and I-20 launched two midget submarines, one of which, commanded by Lieutenant Saburo Akieda, managed to penetrate the harbour and to fire its two torpedoes. The first torpedo severely damaged Ramillies at about 20:25; the second sank the oil tanker British Loyalty at 21:20. Lieutenant Akieda came under depth charge attack from the corvettes Genista and Thyme but managed to beach his submarine and flee inland with Petty Officer Masami Takemoto. Both were killed in a firefight with Royal Marines three days later.

Ramillies was reported sunk by the Japanese, but in fact was merely severely damaged. She was towed to Durban for temporary repairs, then in August 1942 she returned to Plymouth under her own steam and was back in service in June 1943.

While in drydock, an additional 2 in (51 mm) of steel was added to the main deck over the magazines. This reflected the lessons from the sinking of the Hood as well as of the effectiveness of dive bombers at the Battle of Midway. As well an additional 4-6 in (152 mm) guns were removed and two more four barrelled antiaircraft pompoms were added. This reflected the awareness of a greater risk posed by aircraft than by smaller surface vessels. It was ironic that Ramillies faced such a surface attack later in the war. Fortunately the remaining 6 in (152 mm) guns were sufficient to handle it.

On 6 June 1944 Ramillies provided fire support for the Normandy Landings. Sword Beach, at the east of the landing area, was her assigned area with the primary task of silencing the Berneville battery. She began by opening fire on the 6" battery, knocking out four of the six guns in the first 80 minutes and keeping the attention of the rest, allowing landing craft to proceed unmolested. By evening she accounted for the other two guns.

During the course of the first day she repelled an attack by two German destroyers which fired five torpedoes at her, all missing. She also drove off a pack of E boats with her secondary 4 and 6 inch (102 and 152 mm) guns. That evening she returned to Portsmouth and reammunitioned the next day. She was back off Normandy on 8 June, 1944 and knocked out another 6 in (152 mm) battery.

On 9 June Ramillies, directed by forward observation posts, fired on German tanks, guns, infantry concentrations and motor vehicles with great success, breaking up German units before they could launch counterattacks. She also beat off an attack by German motor torpedo boats.

On 10 June, she hit enemy railway marshalling yards near Caen, many miles inland.

On 11 June, Ramillies hit a concentration of 200 enemy tanks, inflicting great damage. That night she bombarded more railway marshalling yards.

On June 12, she suffered a near miss when attacked by a dive bomber.

A German mobile artillery fired 32 rounds at Ramillies on June 15, of which two hit the ship. One crew member was wounded in the leg. Ramillies moved out of range and continued her bombardment. On June 16 she continued her bombardment and on June 17 she hit a mobile battery.

In the course of her Normandy engagement she fired 1,002 15 in (381 mm) shells, thought to be the greatest bombardment by any single ship to that time.

Ramillies provided similar fire support for the invasion of southern France on August 15, 1944. Her particular task was to silence the batteries at the entrance to Toulon harbour.

John Egerton Broome was captain of the Ramillies from 1945 to 1946. The old ship was put in reserve on January 31, 1945 at Portsmouth and was used as an accommodation ship. She was sold in 1946 and scrapped in 1949. One of Ramillies' 15 in (381 mm) guns has been preserved and can be seen at the Imperial War Museum in London. The Ramillies' ships bell is preserved at HMCS Star, a Naval Reserve Division at Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

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09 Resolution

HMS Resolution was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy. She was laid down at Palmers of Jarrow on November 29, 1913, launched on January 14, 1915, and commissioned on December 30, 1916.

She was bombed at Narvik in May 1940, took part in the destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, was torpedoed at Dakar in September 1940, and served in the Indian Ocean during 1942 and 1943. She became a stokers training ship in 1944 and was sold for scrap on May 5, 1948.

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08 Royal Oak


HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, sunk early in World War II.

She was laid down at Devonport on 15 January 1914 and launched on 17 November of that year. She was commissioned on 1 May 1916 having cost almost £2.5 million, the eleventh Royal Navy vessel to bear the Royal Oak name, replacing a pre-dreadnought that had been scrapped in 1914. She fought in the Battle of Jutland, in line behind the Iron Duke of John Jellicoe.

She was refitted from 1922 to 1924, the main changes being the removal of torpedo tubes and a general upgrading of her anti-aircraft defences. She was modified again in 1934 at a cost of £1 million, much of the money being spent on upgrading her hull armour and torpedo bulges. She was assigned to the Mediterranean for most of the inter-war period and was accidentally struck by an anti-aircraft shell in February 1937 off the coast of Spain. She returned to the Home Fleet in 1938 and was made the flagship of the Second Battleship Division. She was preparing for another 30 month tour in the Mediterranean when World War II began. She was assigned to Scapa Flow and took part in a fruitless search for the German battlecruiser Gneisenau in October 1939; in heavy seas her poor top speed left her out of contact for much of the time.

She was the first of the five Royal Navy capital ships sunk in World War II (the others being Hood, Prince Of Wales, Repulse and Barham) . On 14 October 1939 she was moored within the defences of Scapa Flow. In a daring operation, the German U-boat U-47, commanded by Günther Prien, entered the anchorage through Kirk Sound at high tide, passing over the sunken block ships with barely 1.5 m to spare. Most of the fleet was out to sea, and Royal Oak was the only capital ship present. U-47 attacked her twice. The first salvo, fired at 01:04, did no damage, as all of the torpedoes failed (the German torpedoes at the time suffered serious malfunctions with their magnetic detonation and depth control systems). Prien reloaded and fired a second salvo of three torpedoes at 01:22, and this time he was successful. Royal Oak, struck amidships, rolled onto her side and sank in around 15 minutes, killing 833 sailors. The tender Daisy 2 rescued another 386 crew members.

Initially the Royal Navy believed that sabotage was the cause of the sinking. When they realized that it had been a submarine attack, the anchorage was sealed, but U-47 had already escaped and proceeded safely back to Germany. Despite having warned of the paucity of anti-submarine defences, Sir Wilfred French, Admiral Commanding Orkney and Shetland, was blamed for the loss and forcibly retired. The eastern approaches to Scapa Flow were sealed with extensive concrete walls, the Churchill Barriers, linking Lamb Holm, Glimp Holm, Burray and South Ronaldsay to Orkney Mainland. Anti-aircraft defences were also significantly strengthened.

The wreck has been designated a War Grave; all diving or other forms of exploration are prohibited as a controlled site under the Protection of Military Remains Act.

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