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Frederic Logghe
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The prime contract for construction of Monitor was awarded to her designer John Ericsson 4 October 1861, Construction of her hull was subcontracted to the Continental Iron works at Green Point, Long Island; fabrication of her engines was delegated to Delamater & Co., New York City; and the building of her turret, composed of eight layers of 1-inch iron plates, was assigned to the Novelty Iron Works, also of New York City. The revolutionary craft was launched 30 January 1862; and commissioned 25 February, Lt. John L. Worden in command.

The ironclad departed New York Navy Yard 27 February 1862, but steering failure caused her to return. On 6 March, she again departed New York Navy Yard towed by SETH LOW, and headed for the Virginia Capes. As Monitor approached Cape Henry on the afternoon of 8 March, CSS Virginia the former U.S. steam frigate Merrimack, now rebuilt as an ironclad ram, steamed out of the Elizabeth River into Hampton Roads and attacked the wooden hulled Union warships blockading Norfolk. Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan, the dreaded ram's commander, singled out sailing sloop Cumberland as his first victim. She opened the engagement when less than a mile distant from Cumberland and the firing became general from blockaders and shore batteries; but most shots from the Union guns glanced harmlessly off the Confederate ironclad's slanted sides. Virginia rammed Cumberland below the waterline and she sank rapidly, "gallantly fighting her guns," Buchanan reported in tribute to a brave foe, "as long as they were above water. " Buchanan next turned Virginia's fury on Congress, hard aground, and set her ablaze with hot shot and incendiary shell. She also damaged Minnesota before retiring to Sewell's Point for the night.

Monitor's crew could hear the roar of cannon as they rounded Cape Henry into Chesapeake Bay and headed toward the scene of battle, but all was quiet when she hove to alongside Roanoke. Captain Morston directed Worden to assist battered Minnesota, hard aground off Newport News. At dawn, Virginia again emerged and headed toward Minnesota to administer the coup de grace. Monitor steamed out of the Minnesota's shadow to intercept the Confederate ironclad ram. A Confederate officer on CSS Patrick Henry, one of Virginia's paddle wheel consorts, described the Union challenger as "an immense shingle floating on the water with a gigantic cheese box rising from its center; no sails, no wheels, no smokestack, no guns." But the bizarre federal vessel soon won the respect of friend and foe alike. For 4 hours she fought her dreaded adversary to a standstill, in a battle which revolutionized naval warfare while protecting the Federal blockade of the southern coast from its most serious challenge. In the weeks that followed, Monitor remained alert in Hampton Roads ready to renew the engagement, should Virginia venture forth. The southern ram did make a brief appearance off Sewell's Point 11 April, but strategic considerations on both sides prevented a return engagement between the two vessels. Early in May, while General McClellen pushed through Yorktown and up the peninsula toward Richmond, the South withdrew from Norfolk and the southern bank of the James, and retired toward the Confederate capital. Virginia, too deep of draft to reach Richmond, was set afire 11 May and blew up. Monitor, reinforced by ironclads Galena and Naugatuck, steamed up the James to gather information for McClellen and to strengthen the Union Army's left flank. However, when they reached Drury's Bluff 8 miles below the southern Capital 15 May, their progress was stopped by obstructions across the channel. Grayclad riflemen fired on the Union ships from both shores and heavy naval guns mounted high on the cliff shelled them from an angle which minimized the effectiveness of their armor. Monitor after moving up to protect riddled Galena, was unable to elevate her guns to hit the shore batteries, so retreated downstream.

Although checked in their thrust toward Richmond, the Union ships continued to provide McClellan with invaluable support. After his defeat by General Lee in the 7 days campaign, their guns saved the Army of the Potomac from annihilation. At midsummer, Monitor helped corer the Union Army as it retired from the peninsula to shift operations back to northern Virginia. Thereafter, she performed blockade duty In Hampton Roads until ordered on Christmas Eve to proceed to North Carolina for operations against Wilmington. Towed by Rhode Island, she departed the Virginia Capes 29 December for Beaufort, but the historic warship foundered in a storm off Cape Hatteras shortly after midnight 31 December. Four officers and 12 men went down with Monitor. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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The first Passaic, a single turreted, coastal monitor, built by Continental Iron Works, Greenport, N.Y., under subcontract from John Ericsson, was launched 30 August 1862; and commissioned 25 November 1862, Capt. Percival Drayton in command. Two days later the new monitor departed New York and joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Hampton Roads on the 29th but was immediately sent to the Washington Navy Yard for repairs. There President Lincoln visited the ship with members of his cabinet 6 December. After returning to Hampton Roads on the 26th, Passaic, towed by State of Georgia, got underway three days later with Monitor, towed by Rhode Island, heading for Beaufort, N.C. Encountering bad weather off Cape Hatteras, N.C. , she leaked badly and was forced to work her pumps and throw all shot overboard to remain afloat, but she reached Beafort on New Year’s Day 1863. Monitor foundered during the storm.

Anchoring off Port Royal, S.C., on 21 January, she proceeded to Wassau Sound. On 23 February with Marblehead, Passaic captured schooner Glide laden with cotton. With her sister monitors, Passaic attacked Fort McAllister to test her fighting capabilities in action. On 7 April, she took part in Rear Admiral DuPont’s attack on Charleston. Severely battered during the engagement, she returned to New York and decommissioned for repairs 12 May. Recommissioned 19 July, Passaic arrived off Morris Island in Charleston Harbor on the 25th, and took part in all operations against that place. Rear Admiral Dahlgren used her as his flagship during the attack on Fort Moultrie, and she assisted in rescuing Lehigh when that monitor ran aground under the fire of Fort Moultrie. On 16 June 1865, Passaic decommissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard and was laid up there from 1866 to 1874. Repaired during the following year, she recommissioned in Hampton Roads, 24 November 1876. From 1878 to 1882 she served as receiving ship at Washington, D.C. From 1883 to 1892 she was stationed at the Naval Academy, Annapolis, and from 1893 to 1894 at the Navy Yard, Boston, Mass. During 1895 and 1896 she was loaned to the Massachusetts Naval Militia and during the next two years to the Naval Militia at Brunswick, Ga.

On 16 May, 1898 Passaic again recommissioned, was assigned to the Naval Auxiliary Force and sent to Key West and Pensacola. She decommissioned at the Navy Yard, Pensacola, Fla., 11 September 1898 and was sold to Frank Samuels 10 October 1899.

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Single-turreted monitor Montauk was built by John Ericsson at Continental Iron Works, Greenpoint, N.Y.; launched 9 October 1862; and commissioned at New York 14 December 1862, Comdr. John L. Worden in command. A principle ironclad in the naval attack on Charleston, Montauk departed New York 24 December 1862, arriving Port Royal 19 January 1863 to join the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. Taking advantage of the opportunity to test the ironclads 27 January, Du Pont sent Montauk, Seneca, Wissihickon, Dawn, and C.P. Williams to bombard Fort McAllister, Ga. Although hit 13 or 14 times, Montauk was undamaged. The ironclads made a second attack 1 February, badly battering the fort; but Montauk was hit 48 times. She destroyed blockade runner Rattlesnake 28 February in Ogeechee River but was herself damaged by a torpedo (mine) which exploded under her.

Montauk steamed into North Edison River 1 April in preparation for the attack on Charleston. At midafternoon on the 7th, Admiral Du Pont’s ironclads attacked Fort Sumter. The Union ships braved intense fire from Confederates coast artillery, and kept their own guns operating effectively until withdrawing toward evening. Damage to the monitors prevented Du Pont from resuming the attack the next day.The ironclads launched an attack on Fort Wagner, Morris Island 10 July. Gaining of this island was important as success would permit access to the interior defenses of Charleston Harbor. Assuming command of the naval forces, Dahlgren boarded Montauk 16 July and after consultation with the captains, renewed the attack on Fort Wagner and bombarded it daily until it was evacuated by the Confederates 6 September. The ships then turned their attention to Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie operating for the rest of the year against these fortifications which guarded the cradle of the rebellion. However, the Confederate works were never to be taken by sea.

Montauk remained off Charleston until July 1864 when she shifted operations to the Stono River. In February 1865, she transferred to the Cape Fear River. Proceeding to Washington after the end of the conflict, she served as a floating bier for assassin John Wilkes Booth 27 April and a floating prison for six accomplices. Decommissioning at Philadelphia in 1865, she remained there until sold to Frank Samuel 14 April 1904. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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The first Nahant was launched 7 October 1862 by Harrison Loring, South Boston, Mass.; and commissioned 29 December 1862, Comdr. John Downes in command. The new single turreted monitor joined the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Port Royal Harbor, S.C., 20 February 1863 and saw her first action in the Union bombardment of Fort McAllister 3 March. A little over a month later, she participated in Rear Admiral Du Pont’s valiant but ill-fated attack on Charleston. The ironclads crossed Stono Bar and entered Charleston Harbor 6 April, but a heavy fog stopped their advance lest they run aground attempting to negotiate the tricky channels leading to the vital Confederate port. Though dawn broke clear the next morning, an ebb tide kept the warships from getting underway until noon. Shortly after 3 o’clock, Weehawkin’s guns opened on Fort Sumter and through the afternoon Du Pont’s ships stubbornly hammered at Confederate batteries while withstanding the intense and accurate converging fire of the Southern cannon. With darkness approaching and his ironclads severely battered, Du Pont broke off the action, determined to return to the fray at daybreak. However, that night reports from his captains of the serious damage suffered by their ships convinced the Admiral that the small chance of success of another attack did not justify the great risk to his squadron. In the fighting Nahant had been hit 36 times disabling her turret and breaking off a large piece of iron inside her pilot house killing her helmsman and wounding her pilot. The next day with her sister monitors, she retired to Port Royal for repairs.

On 10 June, after intelligence reports indicated that C.S.S. Atlanta was preparing to attack wooden blockader Cimarron, Du Pont ordered Weehawkin, Captain John Rodgers, and Nahant to Wassaw Sound, Ga., to await the powerful ironclad ram. Shortly before dawn, a week later, Atlanta, accompanied by stern wheel gunboat Isondiga and ram Resolute, steamed down the Wassaw River and entered Wassaw Sound to attack the monitors. The Confederate flagship carried a torpedo projecting from her bow, hoping to explode it against one of the monitors before dispatching the other with her guns. Seeing the Southern ships approach, Weehawkin and Nahant headed in to accept the challenge. As the adversaries closed to fighting range, Atlanta was first to fire, but soon ran aground where she could not aim her guns effectively. The monitors held their fire until within 200 yards. Weehawkin then quickly put five rounds from her heavy guns into the ram. With two of his guns out of action, two of his three pilots severely wounded, and his ship hard aground, Comdr. William A. Webb, C.S.N., was compelled to surrender Atlanta while her escorts scurried to safety. Atlanta was subsequently purchased from a prize court by the Federal Government and commissioned in the Union Navy. Early in July, after he had taken command of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Rear Admiral Dahlgren ordered the monitors back to Charleston Harbor. Nahant and her sisters bombarded Confederate works on Morris Island 10 July, supporting and covering the landing of Army troops. For almost two months, the shelling continued until the steadfast defenders were finally compelled to abandon Battery Wagner, their last position on the island, 6 September.

In ensuing months Nahant continued operations in the vicinity of Charleston, patrolling, enforcing the blockade, and bombarding Confederate positions ashore. On 15 November she joined Lehigh in supporting the Union Army at Cumming’s Point on Morris during a heavy evening bombardment from Fort Moultrie. The next day, despite heavy shelling from shore batteries, she helped refloat Lehigh after her sister monitor had run aground. On 2 February 1865, Nahant joined Lehigh and Passaic in shelling Presto after the blockade runner had run ashore under the batteries of Fort Moultrie. After three days of shelling, the hulk was completely destroyed. Nahant decommissioned at Philadelphia 11 August 1865. While laid up, she was renamed Atlas 15 June 1869, but resumed the name Nahant 10 August. The veteran monitor recommissioned at League Island 12 April 1898 and steamed to New York for harbor defense during the Spanish American War. Nahant decommissioned at League Island and was laid up there until sold 6 April 1904 to L.E. Hunt, Melrose, Mass. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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The fourth Patapsco, an ironclad monitor, was built by Harlan and Hollingsworth, Wilmington, Del.; launched 27 September 1862; and commissioned 2 January 1863, Comdr. Daniel Ammen in command. Assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Patapsco participated in an attack on Fort McAllister at Savannah 3 March 1863. Moving to the North Edisto River in April, she sailed for Charleston on the 5th to participate in the assault on that city’s defenses. Under almost continuous fire during the remainder of April and in July and August, she continued to operate against the forts in Charleston Harbor, and on 8-9 September she supported the storming of Fort Sumter. Through the fall of 1863 and 1864, she remained off that South Carolina city, engaged in the general attacks on the harbor’s defenses.

On the evening of 15 January 1865, however, while covering picket boats dragging for torpedoes (mines), Patapsco hit a torpedo and sank in less than a minute, taking 62 of her crew with her. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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The first Weehawken, a single-turreted monitor, was launched on 5 November 1862 at jersey City, N.J., by Zeno Secor & Co.; sponsored by Miss Nellie Comstock; and commissioned on 18 January 1863, Capt John Rodgers in command. The Passaic-class Weehawken was an improved and enlarged version of Monitor. Accompanied by Iroquois and towed by Boardman, she departed New York on 18 January 1863, bound for Port Royal, S.C., and duty with the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. The three vessels encountered gale force winds and high seas off the New Jersey coast on 20 January. Iroquois and Boardman headed for sheltered waters; but Rodgers pressed on in Weehawken. The Passaic ironclads differed from the original Monitor in having less overhang and a rounded lower hull. This enabled Weehawken, unlike her famous prototype, to ride out a heavy sea with relative ease. Rodgers reported that "the behavior of the vessel was easy, buoyant, and indicative of thorough safety." Weehawken put into Norfolk for minor repairs, leaving on 1 February 1863 in tow of screw steamer Lodona. She arrived at Port Royal on 5 February 1863, and deployed in the blockade off Charleston, S.C. On 7 April 1863, Weehawken led the Union fleet in the first major naval assault against Confederate installations in Charleston Harbor. The attack failed miserably and the fleet withdrew after only 40 minutes. During the action, Weehawken took 53 hits and had a torpedo explode beneath her keel without suffering serious damage. Shortly after the attack, Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren replaced Rear Admiral Samuel F. DuPont as commander of the squadron.

After repairs, Weehawken proceeded to Wassaw Sound, Ga., on 10 June 1863 to block the expected sortie of ironclad CSS Atlanta. The Confederate ram and two escort steamers showed themselves early on the morning of 17 June 1863. Weehawken and Nahant weighed anchor to meet Atlanta which ran hard aground only moments after entering the sound. Weehawken commenced firing at 0515 and ceased a quarter of an hour later when the Confederate vessel surrendered. With only five shots, Rodgers blew the roof off Atlanta’s pilothouse and pierced the grounded ram’s casement, putting the two gun crews out of action. News of the capture electrified the North. Capt. Rodgers became a national hero and received commendations from Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles, President Abraham Lincoln, and Congress. He was promoted to commodore and ordered north to command the new ironclad Dictator. Both Weehawken and Atlanta returned to Port Royal. Weehawken resumed operations against Confederate strongholds in and around Charleston harbor. On 10 and 11 July 1863, Union ironclads Catskill, Montauk, Nahant, and Weehawken shelled Confederate batteries at Fort Wagner on Morris Island, S.C., to cover an Army amphibious landing under Brigadier General Quincy A. Gillmore. Despite additional bombardments on 18 and 24 July, the monitors failed to silence the fort, leaving General Gillmore’s troops pinned down on the beach caught between a murderous hail of cross fire. Fort Wagner was finally reduced during a naval bombardment of Forts Gregg, Sumter, and Moultrie on 17 August 1863. Weehawken, Montauk, Nahant, Passaic, and Patapsco now took aim at Fort Sumter, pounding it to rubble during two separate bombardments on 23 August and 1 and 2 September 1863. Admiral Dahlgren demanded Sumter’s surrender on 7 September and ordered Weehawken to deploy in a narrow channel between the fort and Cumming’s Point on Morris Island. There, Weehawken grounded, taking concentrated gunfire from Fort Moultrie and Sullivan’s and James Island. The vessel was refloated with the help of tugs on 8 September, and received a "Well done!" from Admiral Dahlgren for outstanding defensive gunnery while aground. Weehawken repaired at Port Royal until 4 October 1863, then returned to Charleston for routine patrol duty in the harbor.

The next two months were uneventful, and Weehawken lay anchored off Morris Island during a moderate gale early on the morning of 6 December 1863. Suddenly, the ironclad signaled for assistance and appeared to observers ashore to be sinking. Attempts to beach the vessel failed, and she sank bow first five minutes later in 30 feet of water. A court of inquiry found that Weehawken had recently taken on a considerable amount of heavy ammunition in her forward compartments. This change excessively reduced her forward freeboard, causing water to rush down an open hawse pipe and hatch during the storm. As the bow sank, and the stern rose, water could not flow aft to the pumps and the vessel foundered. Four officers and 27 enlisted men drowned aboard Weehawken. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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The first Sangamon, a Passaic-class monitor built by John Ericsson, was laid down under the name Conestoga in the summer of 1862; renamed Sangamon on 9 September 1862; launched on 27 October 1862; and commissioned on 9 February 1863 at Chester, Pa., Comdr. Pierce Crosby in command. The monitor was assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron and soon began efficient but unspectacular operations in Hampton Roads and in the roughly parallel rivers which drain tidewater Virginia and empty into Chesapeake Bay. Sangamon was one of the vital ships in the Navy which guaranteed the Union Army control of the waters which border and penetrate the bitterly contested land which separated Washington and Richmond. After repairs at Philadelphia on 21 February 1864, she was towed by Wachusetts to Port Royal, S.C. for duty with the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. After blockade duty off Charleston, she returned to Hampton Roads in the summer to support Grant’s drive on Richmond.

Sangamon performed widely varied duties. She conducted reconnaissance expeditions up the river to obtain information, and often dueled Southern forces hidden along the banks. She guarded Union troop concentrations and served as part of the Union naval force which patrolled the upper James to prevent the Confederate flotilla from threatening Union transports. Early in April 1865, during the final thrust on Richmond, she assisted in clearing the river of Confederate torpedoes so that Union shipping could proceed safely to the Confederate capital. After the war ended, Sangamon was decommissioned at Philadelphia and placed in reserve. No record has been found of any subsequent active service until she was recommissioned on 13 May 1898 for service in the Spanish-American War. The old monitor was stationed at Fisher’s Island, Long Island. In 1899, she returned to reserve at League Island, Pa., and she remained there until she was sold in 1905. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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Catskill , a single-turreted monitor, was launched 16 December 1862 by Continental Iron Works, Greenpoint, N.Y.; outfitted at New York Navy Yard; commissioned 24 February 1863, Commander G. W. Rodgers in command; and reported to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. Catskill reported for duty at Port Royal, S.C., on 5 March 1863, and for the remainder of the war operated intensively on the blockade off Charleston, S.C. In the lengthy series of operations against the strongly fortified and stoutly defended harbor, Catskill repeatedly took part in attacks on the batteries and forts protecting Charleston from the sea. She also cruised on picket duty, guarding other ships of the squadron from the determined and ingenious attacks launched against them, and patrolling constantly against blockade runners.

Catskill 's commanding officer, Commander Rodgers, was killed in action 17 August 1863, while directing the fire of his ship against Charleston's forts. The ship was hit by Confederate gunfire on several occasions, but skillful work by her crew returned her to action without returning for repairs. When Charleston was evacuated, on 18 February 1865, Catskill boarded and took possession of the grounded blockade runner, Deer, and later in that day raised the flag over another grounded steamer, Celt. Relieved from duty, Catskill cleared Charleston 13 July 1865, and sailed to the Philadelphia Navy Yard, where she was decommissioned 26 July 1865. Here she remained in ordinary until 1873. During that time she was briefly renamed Goliath (15 June-10 August 1869). Repaired at New York, during 1874 and 1875, Catskill joined the North Atlantic Squadron, with whom she cruised along the northeast coast between 4 March 1876 and 5 November 1877. From 1878 to 1895, Catskill was in ordinary at various anchorages in Virginia, and from 1895 to 1898, in ordinary at Philadelphia's League Island Navy Yard.

Upon the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, Catskill was one of the craft recommissioned for patrol duty in New England waters, thus releasing more modern ships for active fighting. This period of commission lasted from 16 April 1898 to 22 September 1898, after which Catskill returned to League Island until sold 4 December 1901. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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The first Nantucket, a Passaicclass coastal monitor, was launched 6 December 1862 by Atlantic Iron Works, Boston, Mass.; and commissioned 26 February 1863, Comdr. Donald McN. Faifax in command. Assigned to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Nantucket participated in the attack on Confederate forts in Charleston Harbor 7 April 1863. Struck 51 times during the valiant but unsuccessful assault on the vital Southern port, the single-turreted monitor was repaired at Port Royal but returned to Charleston to support Army operations on Morris Island, engaging Fort Wagner 16, 17, 18, and 24 July. She captured British steamer Jupiter at sea 15 September. She again challenged the Charleston Harbor forts 14 May 1864 and thereafter remained on blockade duty through the end of the Civil War.

Decommissioned at Philadelphia Navy Yard 24 June 1865, she remained in ordinary there for a decade. Renamed Medusa 15 June 1869, she resumed the name Nantucket 10 August 1869. Transferred to Portsmouth Navy Yard, N. H. in 1875, Nantucket twice briefly recommissioned 29 July to 12 December 1882 and 16 June to 6 October 1884, and operated along the northern east coast. She lay in ordinary at New York until turned over to the North Carolina Naval Militia in 1895. During the Spanish-American War, Nantucket was stationed at Port Royal, S. C. She was sold to Thomas Buller & Co., Boston, Mass., 14 November 1900. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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The first Lehigh was launched 17 January 1863 by Reaney, Son, and Archibold, Chester, Pa., under contract from John Ericcson; and commissioned at Philadelphia Navy Yard 15 April1863, Comdr. John Guest in command. A week later the new monitor joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Newport News, Va. She performed blockade duty in the Hampton Roads-Virginia Capes area, and on the night of 10 June joined a flotilla under Rear Adm. S. P. Lee in an expedition up the James River to assist Army troops. Returning to Newport News 2 days later, she resumed blockade duty until sent back up the James with seven other Union warships to threaten Richmond. The movement was designed to divert Confederate strength from Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army of northern Virginia which had invaded the North and imperiled Washington. The expedition caused the South to evacuate Fort Powhattan, leaving no defenses on the James below Chaffin’s or Drewry’s Bluffs, some 8 miles from Richmond. The situation relaxed as the southern army retreated across the Potomac, and the Union warships dropped down river to Hampton Roads. On the morning of 23 July, Lehigh, towed by Circassian, got underway north and arrived New York 2 days later for repairs.

In August, commanded by Comdr. Andrew Bryson, she headed south and joined the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. The monitor took part in the attacks on Fort Sumter of 1 and 2 September, being struck several times; engaged Sullivan’s Island 7 September, Fort Moultrie 8 September, receiving 29 hits; covered a landing party attacking Fort Sumter 9 September; and from 27 October to 20 November engaged Fort Sumter almost daily, running aground 16 November off Sullivan’s Island under heavy enemy fire. After repairs at Port Royal, Lehigh rejoined the fleet off Charleston 13 January 1864, was assigned to picket duty, and during the following year kept up intermittent fire on various enemy fortifications in Charleston Harbor. In March 1865, Lehigh joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron and served in the James River through the end of the Civil War. She decommissioned at the League Island Navy Yard 9 June 1865. Laid up and under repairs at League Island for a decade, Lehigh recommissioned 15 December 1875, Comdr. George A. Stevens in command, and served as prctice and school ship at the U. S. Naval Academy. In April 1876 she was assigned to the North Atlantic Station, and operated in the vicinity of Port Royal.

From 1879 to 1895 Lehigh lay in the James River at City Point and off Richmond. In 1895 she was taken to League Island and repaired, and 18 April 1898 recommissioned under Lt. R. G. Peek for coastal defense and stationed off the New England coast. She was decommissioned 8 September 1898, and remained at League Island until sold 14 April 1904. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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Camanche, a monitor, was built in 1863 by Secor Brothers, Jersey City, N.J. and disassembled and shipped to California on board Aquila, which sank at her dock in San Francisco 14 November 1863. Salvaged from Aquila's hulk, Camanche was assembled at San Francisco, launched 14 November 1864; and commissioned 22 August 1865, Lieutenant Commander C. J. McDougal in command. Laid up at Mare Island throughout most of her career, Camanche served as a training ship for the California Naval Militia in 1896 and 1897 She was sold at Mare Island 22 March 1899. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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The first Canonicus , a single-turret monitor, was launched 1 August 1863 by Harrison Loring, Boston, Mass., and commissioned 16 April 1864 at Boston, Commander E. G. Parrott in command. Canonicus sailed from Boston 22 April 1864 and arrived at Newport News, Va., 3 May for service with the James River Flotilla. Her heavy guns pounded Confederate batteries at strong points along the James on 21 June, 16 August, and 5-6 December.

Reassigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, the monitor arrived at Beaufort, N.C., 15 December 1864, and took part in the heated attacks on Fort Fisher, N.C. In the first engagement on 24 and 25 December, Canonicus was hit four times, but suffered no casualties and only minor damage while her own well-directed fire put two guns of Fort Fisher's battery out of action. On 13 January 1865, during the second attack, Canonicus felt the full effect of the Confederate fire receiving 36 hits. Twice her flag was shot away, twice gallantly replaced. Miraculously, none of her men was killed, and only three wounded. Again, she dismounted two of the Fort's guns. In February 1865, Canonicus joined the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston, S.C., and during the closing months of the war aided in the capture of several blockade runners off the South Carolina coast, as well as voyaging to Havana, Cuba, in search of CSS Stonewall.
The monitor entered Philadelphia Navy Yard 25 June 1869, and was decommissioned 5 days later. Renamed Scylla 15 June 1869, she was reassigned her former name 10 August 1869. Recommissioned 22 January 1872, Canonicus cruised in coastal waters in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico when not out of commission, as she was frequently during this time. Her final decommissioning took place at Pensacola, Fla., in 1877, and she performed no further service until sold 19 February 1908. (Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships)

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(c) 2009 Frederic Logghe GNU Free Documentation License Birds in the sky
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