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Frederic Logghe
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The word barc appears to have come from Celtic languages. The form adopted by English, perhaps from Irish, was bark, while that adopted by French, perhaps from Gaulish, was barge and barque. French influence in England after the Conquest led to the use in English of both words, though their meanings are not now the same. Well before the 19th century a barge had become a small vessel of coastal or inland waters. Somewhat later, a bark became a sailing vessel of a distinctive rig as detailed below. In Britain, by the mid-nineteenth century, the spelling had taken on the French form of barque. Francis Bacon used this form of the word as early as 1605.

In the 18th century, the British Royal Navy used the term bark for a nondescript vessel which did not fit any of its usual categories. Thus, when on the advice of Captain James Cook, a collier was bought into the navy and converted for exploration she was called HM Bark Endeavour. She happened to be a ship-rigged sailing vessel with a plain bluff bow and a full stern with windows.

By the end of the 18th century, however, the term barque (sometimes, particularly in the USA, spelled bark) came to refer to any vessel with a particular type of rig. This comprises three (or more) masts, fore-and-aft sails on the aftermost mast and square sails on all other masts. A well-preserved example of a commercial barque is Falls of Clyde; built in 1878, it is now preserved as a museum ship in Honolulu. Another well preserved barque is the Pommern, the only windjammer in original condition. Its home is in Mariehamn outside the ?land maritime museum. The United States Coast Guard still has an operational Barque, built in Germany in 1936 and captured as a war prize, the USCGC Eagle which is used as a training vessel at the US Coast Guard Academy in New London, CT. The oldest active sailing vessel in the world, the Star of India, was built in 1863 as a fully square rigged ship then converted into a barque in 1901.

Throughout the period of sail, the word was used also as a shortening of the barca-longa of the Mediterranean Sea. (Source: Wikipedia)
A barquentine is a sailing ship with three or more masts, and with a square rigged foremast and only fore-and-aft rigged sails on the main, mizzen and any other masts.
a brigantine is a vessel with two masts, at least one of which is square rigged. In modern parlance, a brigantine is a principally fore-and-aft rig with a square rigged foremast, as opposed to a brig which is square rigged on both masts.
American usage was to refer to a brigantine as a hermaphrodite brig.
A brig is a vessel with two masts at least one of which is square rigged. In modern parlance, a brig is square rigged on both masts, and this is the standard name for such a vessel.
A clipper was a very fast multiple-masted sailing ship of the 19th century. Generally narrow for their length, limited in their bulk freight carrying capacities, and small by later 19th century standards, the clippers had a large relative sail area. Clipper ships were mostly products of British and American shipyards, though France, the Netherlands and other nations also produced a number of them. Clippers sailed all over the world, primarily on the trade routes between Britain and its colonies in the east, in the trans-Atlantic trade, and in the New York-to-San Francisco route round The Horn during the Gold Rush. (Source: WIkipedia)
A cutter is a small, decked ship with one mast and bowsprit, with a gaff mainsail on a boom, a square yard and topsail, and two jibs or a jib and a staysail.
East India sail ship
A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. The English name comes from Javanese djong (Malay: adjong), meaning 'ship' or 'large vessel'.

Junks were originally developed during the Han Dynasty (220 BC?AD 200) and further evolved to represent one of the most successful ship types in history. (Source: Wikipedia)
A ketch is a sailing craft with two masts: A main mast, and a mizzen mast abaft the main mast. Both masts are rigged mainly fore-and-aft. From one to three jibs are carried forward of the main mast when going to windward. On older, larger ketches the main mast may in addition carry one or more square rigged topsails, similar to a sloop.
Sailing vessels - Unsorted
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A schooner is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. Schooners were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century, and further developed in North America from the time of the American Revolution.
A windjammer is a type of sailing ship with a large iron hull, usually used for cargo in the nineteenth century. They were the grandest of cargo sailing ships, with between three and five large masts and square sails, giving them a characteristic profile. They frequently displaced several thousand tons, and were cheaper than their wooden hulled counterparts for three main reasons: iron was stronger, and thus could enable larger ship sizes and considerable economies of scale, iron hulls took up less space and allowed for more cargo to be carried, and iron hulls were cheaper to maintain than an equivalent wooden hull.

Last additions - 002v Sailing vessels
Keying, Illustrated London News article, April 1, 1848.364 viewsJul 20, 2007
Junk Keying in New York harbour, 1847. 1853 painting by Samuel Waugh. Museum of the City of New York.390 viewsJul 20, 2007
Chinese Junk Keying. 1848 engraving.332 viewsJul 20, 2007
Henry Hudson's Half Moon sailing ship351 viewsJul 16, 2007
Hans Egede is a 3 masted Danish built ship that broke up under tow, She lies at TQ 708767 on the mud by Cliffe Fort,in the Thames Estuary, on The Lower Hope399 viewsJun 29, 2007
The wreck of the Lottie Cooper in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, USA. It is was wrecked in Lake Michigan.350 viewsJun 29, 2007
Cutty Sark in Greenwich, London654 viewsNov 17, 2006
Cutty Sark in Greenwich, London547 viewsNov 17, 2006

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