MaritimeDigital Archive Encyclopedia

Frederic Logghe
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002b Inland vessels
002c Coastal vessels
002d Harbour vessels
002e Offshore vesselsOffshore construction is the installation of structures and pipelines in a marine environment for the production and transmission of oil and gas. Construction in the offshore environment is a dangerous activity and where possible the construction is modular in nature with the individual modules being assembled onshore and using a crane vessel to lift the modules into place. Oil platforms are key fixed installations from which drilling and production activity is carried out. Drilling rigs are either floating vessels for deeper water or jack-up designs which are a barge with liftable legs. Both of these types of vessel are constructed in marine yards but are often involved during the construction phase to pre-drill some production wells. Specialist floating hotel vessels known as flotels are used to accommodate workers during the construction and hook-up phases.

Other types of offshore vessels are seasend ships, also known as Offshore Radio stations (Source WIkipedia).
002f Fishing vessels
002g Great Lakes vesselsThe Great Lakes are used as a major mode of transport for bulk goods. The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by Ren? Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was built at Cayuga Creek, near the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first sailing ship to travel the upper Great Lakes on August 7, 1679.
002p Passenger liners and cruise vesselsPassenger liners and cruise vessels have seen an evolution from their start in 1840 till now with cruise vessels of more then 100.000 tons.

Vessels are classified according their time.

This category has been separeted from 002s in October 2007.
002s Sea & Ocean vessels
002v Sailing vesselsThis category contains sailboats and sailing vessels. Since the wide range of type of vessels powered by sails, it was decided to create this item.
Concrete ships
Concrete ships are ships built of steel and concrete instead of more traditional materials, like steel or wood. The most famous of this sort of ship is the small fleet constructed by the United States Navy at the end of World War I. These ships were made from ferro-cement instead of steel due to the materials shortages experienced during the war. The war ended before more than a few of the ships were built, and those that were never saw use in more than a transportation role.

The oldest known ferro-cement ship was a dingy built by Joseph Louis Lambot in Southern France in the year 1848. The boat was featured in the 1855 World's Fair held in France. An Italian engineer, Carlo Gabellini, built barges and small ships out of ferro-cement in the 1890s. The most famous of his ships was the Liguria.

1910s saw the building of several ferro-cement ships in UK. One of these ships, the Violette, was built in 1917 and is currently used as a boating clubhouse on the River Medway in England. This makes her the oldest ferro-cement ship still afloat.

On August 2, 1917, N.K. Fougner of Norway launched the first ocean-going ferro-cement ship, an 84-foot long boat named Namsenfjord. With the success of the ship, several more small ferro-cement vessels were built. In 1917, when the United States finally entered World World I and steel became scarce while the demand for ships went up. The U.S. government invited N.K. Fougner to head a study into the feasibility of ferro-cement ships.

At the same time, businessman W. Lesie Comyn took up the initiative to build ferro-cement ships on his own and formed the San Francisco Ship Building Company (in Oakland, California) to begin constructing ferro-cement ships. He hired Alan Macdonald and Victor Poss to design the first American ferro-cement ship, a steamer named the SS Faith.

The Faith was launched March 18, 1918. She cost $750,000 to build. She was used to carry cargo for trade until 1921, when she was sold and scrapped as a breakwater in Cuba.

President Woodrow Wilson finally approved the Emergency Fleet Corporation program which oversaw the construction of 24 ferro-cement ships for the war. However, only 12 were under construction and none of them had been completed by the time the war ended. The 12 ships were completed and sold to private companies who used them for light-trading, storage and scrap.

World War II led to shortages in steel supply. In 1942, the U.S. government contracted McCloskey & Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to construct a new fleet of 24 cement ships. Construction of the fleet started in July, 1943 in Tampa, Florida. Innovations in cement mixing and composition technology made these ships stronger than the World War I efforts.

Other companies were contracted to build barge ships. These too were large vessels that lacked engines to propell them. Instead, they were used for storage and towed around by other ships.

After the war, several of the ships were turned into a floating breakwater in Canada and ten more were sunk as a breakwater in Virginia.

Although the end of WW II marked the end of large-scale ferro-cement ship building, to this day, smaller recreational boats are still being made from ferro-cement.

In Europe, Ferro Cement Barges (FCBs) played a crucial role in World War II operations, particularly in the D-Day Normandy Landings as part of the Mulberry harbour defences. These were used for fuel and munitions transportation and as floating pontoons. Some were fitted with engines and used as mobile canteens and troop carriers. Some of these vessels survive as abandoned wrecks in the Thames Estuary; two remain in civil use as moorings at Westminster. The most notable wartime FCB, previously beached at Canvey Island, was destroyed by vandals 22 May 2003.
Concrete ships are no longer in use; however several live on in museums or natural barriers. New Jersey, on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America, has at least one still visible in Cape May. (Source: Wikipedia)
Fishing vessels
A vessel for fishing which has often a well to keep the catch alive. Vessels are sorted by port of registry and not by type.
2 121
Great Lakes bulk freighters
Inland barges - Other vessels
Jack-up rigs
Multi-purpose vessels
Replicas
A ship replica is a reconstruction of a no longer existing ship. It can either be a real seaworthy ship or one that just looks like the original (in which case it is often a museum ship). This does not include scale models. It can also be a generic replica, one that represents a certain type of ship rather than a particular ship, like the Kamper Kogge, a Cog, which is a type of ship that was used extensively in the Netherlands in the Middle Ages, as a result of which there is little knowledge of specific ships.

Reasons to build a replica include historic research into Shipbuilding, national pride, exposition at a museum or entertainment (e.g. for a TV series). Apart from making the ship genuine, the construction material, tools and methods can also be genuine, as is the case with the replica of the Batavia.

Some ships are in a sense replicas, but not in the sense meant here. For example, the Mircea is an almost exact copy of the Gorch Fock because that was such a successful ship. So she was not built for nostalgic or research purposes but simply to perform economically, in this case as a training vessel. The Stad Amsterdam is a generic replica, a combination of the best qualities of clippers of the past (with fitting results).

A genuine replica is preferably the same size as the original, but the Kanrin Maru is actually twice the size of the original.

The USS Constitution is strictly speaking not a replica, but everything about the ship has been replaced over time, except the keel. This is a modern version of the philosopher's dilemma over the Ship of Theseus.

Some replicas are temporary and thus cheap and very simple, such as the replica of a Viking ship that was burnt at the Leixlip Festival. (Source: WikiPedia)
Tjalken
A Tjalk is a Dutch flat-bottomed sailing boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
Tugs
A tugboat is a motor ship used to manoeuvre, primarily by towing, other vessels in harbours, over the open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to tow barges, disabled ships, or other equipment.
More information: MDA Content
Work platforms & floating barges
Yachts (historical)
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(c) 2009 Frederic Logghe GNU Free Documentation License Birds in the sky
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