Dissertation Information for George Patrick Michael D'Elia
MPACT Status: Fully Complete
Title: THE ADJUSTMENT OF LIBRARY SCHOOL GRADUATES TO THE JOB ENVIRONMENTS OF LIBRARIANSHIP: A TEST OF THE NEED GRATIFICATION AND EXPECTATION FULFILLMENT THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION
Abstract: The objectives of the study were twofold: 1) to test the hypothesis that job satisfaction is a function of the concomitant influence of both need gratification and need fulfillment, and 2) to gather data descriptive of the vocational needs and job expectations of the subjects and the reinforcers operating in their library job environments. The study was designed as a short longitudinal study in which data pertaining to vocational needs and job expectations were collected from the subjects prior to their entry into their job environments, and in which data pertaining to vocational needs, environmental reinforcers, and job satisfaction were collected from the subjects after they had been in their job environments for at least six months. The sample consisted of 228 graduating students from four graduate library schools. Instrumentation included the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire for measuring vocational needs, the Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire for measuring job expectations during the first round of data collection and environmental reinforcers during the second round of data collection, and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire for measuring job satisfaction. All instruments measure the same 20 vocational dimensions. Results: Need gratification and expectation fulfillment were measured by the degree of correspondence between the pattern of reinforcers operating in the subjectís job environment and his profile of needs and his pattern of expected job reinforcers respectively. Correspondence between profiles was measured by an adjusted D score. The frequency distributions of the need gratification and expectation fulfillment D scores of the subjects (N=139) were dichotomized at the medians into high score groups and low score groups. The job satisfaction scores of these four groups were entered into a two-dimensional analysis of variance. The results of this analysis indicated that a) need gratification and expectation fulfillment are independent of each other, b) expectation fulfillment is not related to job satisfaction and c) need gratification is related to job satisfaction (p=105). Because of serious limitations in the measurement of correspondence between two complete profiles, the data were reanalyzed using each subjectís D scores which measure the difference between each of the 20 scale scores of one profile and each of the respective 20 scale scores of another profile. The D scores measuring need gratification and expectation fulfillment were each submitted to factor analysis. Five need gratification and six expectation fulfillment factors were extracted. Factor scale scores were developed for these factors and entered into a stepwise multiple regression analysis with job satisfaction scores. The results indicated that one expectation fulfillment factor accounted for 19% of the variance in the job satisfaction scores while three need gratification factors accounted for an additional 18% of the variance. Thus, job satisfaction was a function of both need gratification and expectation fulfillment. Description of the relationship between environmental reinforcers and job satisfaction: Environmental reinforce scale scores were submitted to factor analysis. Five factors were extracted, namely intrinsic-supervisory, extrinsic, service, professional recognition and advancement, and independent activity. Factor scale scores were developed for these factors and entered into a stepwise multiple regression analysis with job satisfaction scores. The results indicated that the intrinsic-supervisory factor accounted for 27% of the variance in the job satisfaction scores, the professional recognition and advancement factor an additional 7% of the variance, the service factor an additional 5% and the extrinsic factor an additional 4%. Thus it appeared that the subjects were more satisfied with job environments which encouraged or permitted individual initiative and responsibility in the exercise of professional judgment and which provided an appropriate reward structure for jobs well done.
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