Meadville Space Center

Project Apollo - NASSP => Planning => Topic started by: movieman on February 28, 2005, 09:49:35 AM



Title: Apollo Applications Project
Post by: movieman on February 28, 2005, 09:49:35 AM
Here's something for a future release:

http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/alsj/misc/apmisc-S69-41519.jpg

Apparently it was tentatively planned for use on Apollo 20, if they'd got that far (and got it to work :))...


Title: Lunar Rover Mk2
Post by: Anonymous on March 03, 2005, 01:53:48 AM
:lol: Interesting

-RODION


Title: Lunar Rover Mk2
Post by: Zachstar on March 03, 2005, 01:51:15 PM
"Look ma! No hands! on the moon!"


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: movieman on October 20, 2005, 10:17:48 AM
At some point in the distant future I was thinking that we're probably going to want to add more of the proposed Apollo Applications Program missions (of which Skylab was about the only real-world result).

One big change that would be beneficial there would be to remove the monolithic 'Saturn V', 'Saturn 1b' and 'LEM' classes and replace them with stages which can be stuck together to build Saturn spacecraft from scratch. Not something we'd want to do in this release, but it's worth thinking about for the next one.


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: Tschachim on October 20, 2005, 01:49:35 PM
This is a great idea and sounds very cool!  :)
Just because I'm still an Apollo newbie: What were the proposed Apollo Applications Program missions, except Skylab (and ASTP?)?
I already heard about a MOL orbital station, but this was planned by the Air Force?

Cheers
Tschachim


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: movieman on October 20, 2005, 02:04:29 PM
MOL was Gemini-based.

There were a variety of plans for Apollo in the 70s, including a mini spacestation launched with a long-duration CSM on a Saturn 1b, and an orbiting manned telescope built from a LEM (parts of which were incorporated into Skylab).

I have been looking on the web for any definitive documents, but haven't found them.


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: DarthVader on October 20, 2005, 02:19:52 PM
There is various PDF available over here:

http://www.geocities.com/bobandrepont/apollopdf.htm

Scroll down until you see "Apollo Applications Program (Pre-Skylab)"

 8)


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: DarthVader on October 20, 2005, 03:19:58 PM
I gotta said that a Skylab detailed as much as the new NASSP will be terrific!  8)


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: movieman on October 21, 2005, 08:09:26 AM
Thinking about it, this would obviously invalidate all old saved scenarios, so I guess we'd better leave it for 8.0.


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: movieman on October 27, 2005, 08:07:00 AM
Here's one mission plan: kind of a 'Skylab to Venus'.

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790072165_1979072165.pdf

I'm guessing it would need one of the stretched (or SRB-assisted) Saturn V boosters to get that far.


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: Tschachim on October 28, 2005, 11:10:11 AM
Oh my god, that's weird!  :shock:
What would had happen if they really did that...


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: DarthVader on October 28, 2005, 12:19:13 PM
hmm ... sweet! ... I'd like also to see a Skylab pushed to Moon orbit ... sort of a Moonlab :)


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: movieman on October 28, 2005, 02:58:53 PM
My first thought was what they'd do if the SIVB engine failed after reaching escape velocity but before putting them on the right course to bring them back to Earth. But apparently if they had to abort the SPS has enough fuel to bring it back onto an orbit which would intersect the atmosphere for a re-entry after a fairly short time.


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: movieman on November 07, 2005, 01:16:00 PM
Another interesting one (though not really part of the AAP), with some info about plans to replace the first stage of the Saturn 1b with a solid rocket motor, resulting in something very similar to the 'new' CEV launcher.

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790072544_1979072544.pdf

Couple of others that I've only skimmed through that seem to have some interesting info about alternate Saturn designs:

http://www.ilr.tu-berlin.de/koelle/ILR-Mitteilungen/Archive/ILR351.pdf
http://www.ilr.tu-berlin.de/koelle/ILR-Mitteilungen/Archive/ILR352.pdf

Even weirder one with five solid rockets replacing the first stage:

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19740076081_1974076081.pdf

More, including six-engine SI stage and seven-engine SII stage:

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19650020081_1965020081.pdf


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: movieman on November 21, 2005, 06:08:24 AM
Another unusual use for a LEM.

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076663_1979076663.pdf


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: Coussini on November 21, 2005, 07:10:53 AM
Quote from: movieman
Another unusual use for a LEM.

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076663_1979076663.pdf


Very interresting....  8)

Thanks


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: movieman on November 22, 2005, 01:01:16 PM
Another interesting use for a LEM: painting graffiti on Russian satellites :).

http://www.astronautix.com/craft/apolmcsd.htm


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: Coussini on November 22, 2005, 07:29:01 PM
Enemy manned spacecraft could be harassed in psychological operations

Ouille.... that a real thing here

 :twisted:


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: movieman on November 29, 2005, 05:56:44 PM
A little off-topic, but some plans for reusing and upgrading Skylab with the shuttle:

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790075817_1979075817.pdf


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: Tschachim on November 29, 2005, 08:36:34 PM
Bob Andrepont is back :D, and he did a extra page for the Apollo Applications Program: http://www.geocities.com/bobandrepont/aappdf.htm

Cheers
Tschachim


Title: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: Graham2001 on April 10, 2006, 09:42:12 AM
Also off topic but definitely Apollo related is the MIT 'Project Icarus (http://www.thespacereview.com/article/175/1)'.

This is the 1967 asteroid deflection study that would have seen six 100MT tipped Saturn V's launched against the asteroid Icarus.

The article I've linked to also has a diagram showing the appearance of the 'Icarus' Saturn V's


Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
Post by: DrLaufbahn on June 28, 2006, 02:33:34 AM
Another interesting one (though not really part of the AAP), with some info about plans to replace the first stage of the Saturn 1b with a solid rocket motor, resulting in something very similar to the 'new' CEV launcher.

My own favorite series of advanced Saturn concepts is that in which the first stage was modified to drop its outer four engines after 70% of the fuel had been burned, just like the old Atlas.  That stage, called the S-ID, could all by itself carry 50,000 lb to orbit:

    http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/saturnvb.htm: Saturn V-B = S-ID: 50,000 to LEO
    http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/saturnvc.htm: Saturn V-C = S-ID + S-IVB: 180,000 to LEO
    http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/saturnvd.htm: Saturn V-D = Optional SRBs + S-ID + S-II + S-IVB
    [/list]

    The Saturn V-B could have replaced the Saturn IB.  By reducing the number of rocket models needed, costs would have been lowered.  And the 4 engines dropped from the S-ID might have been recoverable.

    A Centaur stage could have been added to any of the configurations for high-energy missions beyond the moon.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: Zachstar on July 14, 2006, 01:03:32 PM
    What kinds of modifications need to be made to the model in order to make a Sat V-B?


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: movieman on July 14, 2006, 01:20:43 PM
    Well, the engines and support structure would have to be a seperate mesh. I'd guess that's about all.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: Zachstar on July 14, 2006, 01:34:05 PM
    Anyone have plans to do the mods?

    I think this is a wonderful way to add content to the package.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: Swatch on July 17, 2006, 09:56:49 AM
    I'd have to dig into my Saturn V blueprints and see if it's even possible to "design" a thrust structure that could do that with the exhisting SI-C.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Zachstar on September 02, 2006, 10:58:24 PM
    Any chance of it ending up in V7?


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: movieman on December 02, 2006, 09:25:11 PM
    I've added most of this stuff to the 'Future Expansion' page on the wiki and put in a few other odds and ends I came across as well. So if we ever get the CSM and LEM finished there'll be plenty of other stuff to work on :).


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on February 06, 2007, 08:57:44 AM
    I was looking through Bob's site and found a couple of things that might make interesting addons:

    1. A North American report on a Logistics version of the Apollo CSM.

    http://tinyurl.com/3y33ty

    2. The Apollo Applications Program Quarterly Status Report One, which includes the mission profile for Skylab as it was originally planned.

    http://tinyurl.com/3du6kw


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: movieman on February 06, 2007, 03:34:32 PM
    Thanks... you should add those to the wiki...


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: movieman on February 07, 2007, 02:31:48 PM
    For some reason when I try to reply to your PM I get an error:

    Quote
    PM could not be sent to 'Graham2001' due to the max. PM limit.

    Don't know if maybe you have too many in your mailbox here?

    Anyway, you can just register a new account on the wiki and then edit anything. I'm not sure whether anonymous editing is allowed there.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Tschachim on February 08, 2007, 05:47:40 AM
    I'm not sure whether anonymous editing is allowed there.

    Yes, anonymous editing is allowed (except for the main page), only few vandalism so far. :)

    Cheers
    Tschachim


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on March 16, 2007, 08:34:49 PM
    I've located the Apollo Applications Program Condensed Summary (http://tinyurl.com/262nrs), which was written in 1966, it's a very tenative study, but, it does have some information on spacecraft configuration and page 6 of the PDF has a list of the planned AAP missions, looks like Earth Orbit missions used numbers in the 2XX series and Lunar Missions used numbers in the 5XX series.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: movieman on March 16, 2007, 10:06:30 PM
    Normally 2xx was used for Saturn 1b flights and 5xx for Saturn V, so that would make sense.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on March 17, 2007, 09:56:04 AM
    Normally 2xx was used for Saturn 1b flights and 5xx for Saturn V, so that would make sense.

    Thanks for clearing that item up, I'm going to retype the list into a form that can be added to the Wiki (I hope).


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on March 25, 2007, 11:37:34 PM
    I think that I've managed to track down a good start-point for anyone whose working on the Block III Apollo CSMs, as far as I've managed to discover this wasn't a replace the CSMs with batteries design.

    NASA seems to have been looking at increasing endurance, the North American document I've linked to a couple of posts above referrs to the Block III as 'Phase II', I'm currently trying to summarise the changes.

    In the meantime I've found a 1968 document that lists the changes that were going to be made to the Block II CSMs for use with AAP.

    (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790072844_1979072844.pdf (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790072844_1979072844.pdf))

    The two documents together give some idea of what the Block IIIs were going to be like.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: DrLaufbahn on March 26, 2007, 04:31:28 AM
    This is a great idea and sounds very cool!  :)
    Just because I'm still an Apollo newbie: What were the proposed Apollo Applications Program missions, except Skylab (and ASTP?)?
    I already heard about a MOL orbital station, but this was planned by the Air Force?

    Cheers
    Tschachim

    As mentioned by others, MOL was an Air Force progam and not part of AAP.

    If you happen to have access to it, the January issue of Spaceflight magazine has an article on plans for AAP as of 1966.  It includes planned missions for for Saturn IBs through AS-228 and for Saturn Vs through SA-525.  If anybody's interested, I could post these in detail.

    Several of the Saturn-V-based missions would have involved two-launch lunar missions.  The first launch would carry the usual 3-man crew to lunar orbit.  This crew, however, would not land.  Rather, it would study the moon from orbit and dispatch an automated "LM shelter" to the surface.  The second launch would carry a second crew on the usual Apollo landing profile.  Two of this crew would take their LM, the "LM taxi" down to the lunar surface nearn near the LM shelter.  They would then power down the taxi and move into the shelter for two weeks, before returning to the taxi to begin the trip home.

    There would also be lunar orbital missions in which the LM would be used as a laboratory module.

    Saturn-V-boosted missions to synchronous Earth orbit were also planned, although these strike me as largely a waste of resources.

    There is also an interesting book out by David Shayler called Apollo: Lost and Forgotten Missions.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: Graham2001 on March 26, 2007, 09:58:51 AM
    [As mentioned by others, MOL was an Air Force progam and not part of AAP.

    If you happen to have access to it, the January issue of Spaceflight magazine has an article on plans for AAP as of 1966.  It includes planned missions for for Saturn IBs through AS-228 and for Saturn Vs through SA-525.  If anybody's interested, I could post these in detail.

    I'd be interested in seeing them, if only for comparision with the NAA list which covers the SA209-224 and SA507-525 missions.

    Quote
    Several of the Saturn-V-based missions would have involved two-launch lunar missions.  The first launch would carry the usual 3-man crew to lunar orbit.  This crew, however, would not land.  Rather, it would study the moon from orbit and dispatch an automated "LM shelter" to the surface.  The second launch would carry a second crew on the usual Apollo landing profile.  Two of this crew would take their LM, the "LM taxi" down to the lunar surface nearn near the LM shelter.  They would then power down the taxi and move into the shelter for two weeks, before returning to the taxi to begin the trip home.

    It wasn't the only concept, in 1965 Goodyear submitted a report to NASA on an inflatable surface shelter for lunar operations. It was designed to be attached to the sides of the descent module. After landing the crew would assemble/inflate it and spend the mission in a shirt-sleeve environment between EVAs.

    Using a standard LM the stay time was 8 days before departure, with an LM Truck or other logistics craft this could be increased to over two weeks.

    (See http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19670024377_1967024377.pdf (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19670024377_1967024377.pdf) for all the details.)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: orbiterfan on March 26, 2007, 10:08:50 AM
    As mentioned by others, MOL was an Air Force progam and not part of AAP.
    Not only that. MOL was Gemini-based, not Apollo-based. MOL was designed to be launched on a Titan IIIM ELV from Vandenberg AFB.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: DrLaufbahn on March 27, 2007, 07:30:32 AM
    If you happen to have access to it, the January issue of Spaceflight magazine has an article on plans for AAP as of 1966.  It includes planned missions for for Saturn IBs through AS-228 and for Saturn Vs through SA-525.  If anybody's interested, I could post these in detail.

    I'd be interested in seeing them, if only for comparision with the NAA list which covers the SA209-224 and SA507-525 missions.

    Here are the Saturn IB missions.  I'll post the Saturn V missions another time.


    Vehicle    Orbit*     Duration  S/C         Focus**  Mission
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    SA-209    LEO        14 days  CSM          SO&T     Manned operations with wet workshop
         210                             LM Lab                      Autonomous rendezvous with SA-209 workshop

         211    LEO        28         CSM           SO&T     Longer version of SA-209/210
         212                             LM Lab                      Autonomous rendezvous with SA-211 workshop

         213    HILEO     14         LM Lab       SO&T
         214                             CSM                         Rendezvous with LM Lab of SA-213

         215    LEO        36         LM Lab       SO&T     Longer version of SA-209/210 with resupply by SA-217
         216                             CSM                         Test communication with SA-513 in GSO
         217                             CSM

         218    HILEO     45         LM Lab       SO&T     Longer version of SA-213/214
         219                             XCSM

         220    LEO        45         LM Lab       SO&T     LM taxi, launched 3 wks after others, would rendezvous with CSM.
         221                             XCSM                       2 crew xfer to taxi, simulate landing and dormancy.  Re-activate
         222                             LM Taxi                    14 days later and simulate lunar ascent.

         223    LEO        90         LM Lab       A&SA     Solar observation.  SA-225 launched later to re-supply but would
         224                             XCSM                       first rendezvous with LM taxi (SA-222) to inspect it after 6 months
         225                             XCSM                       in space.

         226    LEO        45         LM Lab       RS&SO   Like SA223/224/225 but focused on remote sensing.  SA-228 to
         227                             XCSM                                "simulate space station assembly."
         228                             XCSM
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    *HILEO = highly-inclined LEO.
    **SO=space operations, T = technology, A = astronomy, SA = space applications, RS = remote sensing.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: DrLaufbahn on March 27, 2007, 12:08:52 PM
    I'll post the Saturn V missions another time.



    Vehicle    Orbit*     Duration  S/C                           Focus**  Mission
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    SA-506    LS                           CSM/LM                    LE           (Apollo) First manned lunar landing.

          507    HEO        14 days   CSM/LM Lab             SO&T      Synoptic weather observations.  Deployment of LM Lab for later use.

          508    LS                           CSM/LM                    LE            (Apollo) lunar landing.
       
          509    HEO        14            CSM/LM                    A             Solar astronomy.  Also rendezvous and inspect LM launched on AS-507.
     
          510    LS                           CSM/LM                    LE            (Apollo) lunar landing: first J mission.

          511    LPO                         CSM/LM                   LE            Survey potential landing sites.
     
          512    LS                            CSM/LM                   LE            (Apollo) lunar landing: last Apollo mission as such.

          513    GSO        14            CSM/LM Lab             SA           Comms. expts. with SA-215/216/217.  Deploy LM Lab for later rendezvous.

          514     LS                          CSM/LM                     LE           Demonstrate pin-point landing, near site of SA-512, final std. Apollo mission.

          515     LPO                        CSM/LM                    LE           Repeat of SA-511.

          516     Unassigned

          517     GSO        45            CSM/LM Lab             A             Deploy LM lab for subsequent use.

          518     GSO        14            XCSM/LM Lab          SA           Redezvous with and use LM from SA-513

          519     LLO           8            XCSM/LM Shelter    LE            Deliver LM shelter for SA-520.
          520     LS            21           XCSM/LM Taxi         LE            Land near LM shelter.

          521     Unassigned

          522                    35            XCSM/LM Lab          LE            Survey potential landing sites from lunar orbit.

          523                    45            XCSM/LM Lab           A            Rendezvous with and re-use LM lab from SA-517.

          524     LLO           8            XCSM/LM Shelter     LE           Repeat of SA-519/520
          525     LS            21           XCSS/LM Taxi
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    *HEO = high Earth orbit, LLO = low lunar orbit, LPO = lunar polar orbit, LS = lunar surface, GSO  = geosynchronous orbit.
    **A = astronomy, LE = lunar exploration, SA = space applications, SO = space operations, T = technology.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Lunar_Lander on March 29, 2007, 07:11:46 AM
    Hello,

    just some questions to my understanding:

    What kind of CSM were the Skylab CSMs? They had long endurance batteries (140 days), that I know for sure. But did they still have fuel cells? Why were the CMs painted white? And to explain my first question: could you call the Skylab CSMs already to be Block III? Or were they something like Block 2.5?

    Cheers,
    Lunar_Lander


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: DrLaufbahn on March 30, 2007, 08:02:03 AM
    I don't know about fuel cells vs. batteries or the color, but my read of Lost and Forgotten Missions is that the proper Block III was intended for four mission profiles:
    • Solo CSM in polar Earth orbit for up to 45 days.  Increasing RCS capacity would be an issue.
    • Solo CSM on a 45-day mission in GSO.  Electricity and thermal control would have been the major technical issues.
    • LM taxi missions to the Moon.
    • 34-day lunar polar orbit missions.

    None of these missions ever materialized, and I don't believe that a formal Block III CSM was ever produced either.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on March 30, 2007, 11:44:13 AM
    I think I've run up a little more information on just what the 'Block III' changes were going to be.

    It's another North American study. This time into an extended lunar orbital mission. This was one of those missions which was going to use some form of Lunar shelter. Duration was three months (90 days).

    Volume 2 & Volume 3 are online at NTRS. Volume 2 (http://tinyurl.com/23a3nr) is a series of appendixes linked to the vehicle changes which are covered in detail in the offline Volume 1. Volume 3 (http://tinyurl.com/yvj6bx) is the series summary document.

    Looks like the ELOR CSMs were going to be powered by SNAP-27 RTGs with one fuel cell only.

    See here (http://i113.photobucket.com/albums/n213/Bloodwyche/NASA%20Images/BlockIIICSM.png) for a list of the planned changes to the C/SM.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on June 29, 2007, 08:12:42 AM
    Found another Apollo Applications Mission that might be worth developing. It should be relatively straightforward as like the 'Apollo To Venus Phase A' mission its another Apollo 7 variant.

    It seems that Goodyear was working on a Passive communications satellite and the plan was to launch this aboard a Saturn Ib. The Apollo would then transpose and dock with a cannister carrying the uninflated satellite. Once the cannister had been moved a safe distance the CSM would undock and along with cameras mounted on the S-IVb watch the satellite inflate.

    After this would done the crew of the CSM would carry out several tests of the sateillite along with ground stations before carrying out EVAs to retrieve cameras mounted on the S-IVb and the Satellite. After this was done the CSM would carry out re-entry.

    For the details download:

    http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19670081410_1967081410.pdf

    A 2mb pdf file.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 01, 2007, 12:42:09 PM
    I've found another Apollo based orbital test mission. This one was one of three 'Large Space Structure' test missions created by Convair at NASA's request, it's the only one online at present and deals with using a Saturn V/CSM to put a 100ft Parabolic Receiving/Transmitting antenna into a synchronous orbit.

    The Apollo crew would then put the antenna through a series of calibration tests before returning to Earth. The antenna would then be tested unmanned for a period of about five years from the date of launch.

    See: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680020068_1968020068.pdf


    (Warning 56mb file)

    Edit:Corrected url link


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Coussini on July 01, 2007, 05:30:33 PM
    I've found another Apollo based orbital test mission. This one was one of three 'Large Space Structure' test missions created by Convair at NASA's request, it's the only one online at present and deals with using a Saturn V/CSM to put a 100ft Parabolic Receiving/Transmitting antenna into a synchronous orbit.

    The Apollo crew would then put the antenna through a series of calibration tests before returning to Earth. The antenna would then be tested unmanned for a period of about five years from the date of launch.

    See: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680020068_19680020068.pdf

    (Warning 56mb file)

    I have 404 Page not found for this link. Sorry!


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 01, 2007, 07:10:23 PM
    I've found another Apollo based orbital test mission. This one was one of three 'Large Space Structure' test missions created by Convair at NASA's request, it's the only one online at present and deals with using a Saturn V/CSM to put a 100ft Parabolic Receiving/Transmitting antenna into a synchronous orbit.

    The Apollo crew would then put the antenna through a series of calibration tests before returning to Earth. The antenna would then be tested unmanned for a period of about five years from the date of launch.

    See: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680020068_19680020068.pdf

    (Warning 56mb file)

    I have 404 Page not found for this link. Sorry!


    Fixed I think, I've done the same for the wiki as well. If anyone has any further problems please let me know.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 04, 2007, 06:11:58 AM
    I just stumbled across another AAP mission that was intended to test space based equipment. In this case Perkins-Elmer, the people later responsible for Hubble's blurry vision wanted to test out the use of lasers for interplanetary communication.

    They planned to mount a laser/telescope assembly to an Apollo (either CSM or LM) and then use it to transmit signals from a synchronus orbit.

    See: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19660025881_1966025881.pdf

    (12mb file).

    I also found a rather interesting document entitled "Study of an evolutionary interim earth orbit program", which contains a proposal to launch not merely Skylab I but Skylab II-V as a means of 'filling the gap' between the end of the lunar landing missions and the first launch of the Space Shuttle.

    Each station was to to try out different power supplies (solar, RTG) and to carry a different fit of instruments to the first Skylab.

    See: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19730015118_1973015118.pdf

    (4mb file)

    (05/07/07). I've added a couple of links to the 'Future Expansions' wiki page reference section. First is a US Army Saturn B1 based lunar exploration program from 1960 (file is 100mb). The second is an earlier report into dock launching SRB fitted Saturn IBs, which includes plans for the barges used to transport the SRB first stages to the launch site (file is 1.6mb).

    (08/07/07). I think I've run down all of the 'Apollo Era' 1961-1976 moonbase plans available through the NTRS, rather than add them directly to the future expansion page I'm going to put them on a separate page. I've also found something else for the Saturn INT-21 to launch when it's been coded, NASA had General Electric do a study of a Nuclear(or Solar)-Ion propelled Lunar Logistics Vehicle, I've added both the final and later summary reports to the wiki.

    Later: One of the three lunar base reports I found turned out to not be Apollo based but rather Space Shuttle based, so that one will not be added to the wiki. Work on the wiki page covering the other two continues apace...

    (13/07/07). I've added a couple of planned one man Lunar Flying Vehicles to the wiki, one's designed by Bell and the other by North American/Rockwell, like the Lunar Escape system derived vehicle they were intended to use the LM descent stage fuel for propulsion.

    (16/07/07). I've added a couple of more references, one is a 1962 paper on 'Apollo Launch Systems' which is the first thing I've found describing the Earth-Orbit rendezvous approach to the Apollo missions, the second is a summary of the studies into direct landing an Apollo CSM on the moon.

    (18/07/07). This is going to be my final add-on to the wiki until I've sorted out just how to re-organize the 'Future Expansions' section, but it's an interesting little item. North American/Rockwell did a study on recycling used CMs so they could be used as orbital labs for AAP missions. The study also covers the posibility of re-conditioning the CMs so they could be flown again on later missions...

    (20/07/07). I know that I said the previous item was going to be the last item before I re-organized the 'Future Expansions' section, but Astronautix finally made scans of the 'Project Horizon' files available and so it's been added to the list.

    (07/10/07). A few months back I posted links to the second (http://tinyurl.com/23a3nr)(15mb) and third (http://tinyurl.com/yvj6bx)(6mb) volumes of a report dealing with for want of a better term 'Block V' CSMs intended for long term lunar missions. Volume One, the technical report is now online at the NTRS, its about 15mb in size. (http://tinyurl.com/2yk87r)

    (12/10/07). Future expansion has been re-organized and I've added a new Saturn Ib variant to the wiki. It's another attempt to boost the payload, this time by adding a Centaur rocket as a third stage.

    (18/10/07). While not really Apollo Applications, I've added some documents on the Little Joe II test progam to the wiki including the manufacturers report and a proposal to test the LEM using this rocket to put the vehicle into a suborbital trajectory.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on April 17, 2008, 11:43:15 AM
    The MIMOSA Study

    A series of documents has started to appear on the NTRS dealing with a study carried out by Lockheed into the post-Apollo mission plans.

    I'm going to put links to the documents in this post as they appear. It could prove to be a useful way to generate 'what-ifs'.

    1. Trip Report: MIMOSA Study (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790075273_1979075273.pdf)(533kb)

    2. Study of Mission Modes and System Analysis for Lunar Exploration: MIMOSA Summary Digest (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19720067245_1972067245.pdf)(1.5mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on June 03, 2008, 08:36:53 AM
    The NTRS had a major update between 28th of May-30th of May, which included a fairly large number of Apollo related documents including a few AAP experiments.

    One of these is what amounts to a 'Skylab for Chimps'. NASA's long term post-Apollo plans envisaged long duration voyages and to test the effects of long periods of weightlessness it was proposed to place two monkeys in orbit for a year to see just what would happen to them.

    Almost all the documentation for this project is online and it should be possible to model the spacecraft (which was to be launched by a Saturn 1b) at a very high level of detail.

    See:

    Orbiting experiment for study of extended weightlessness. Volume 1 - Summary (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680005148_1968005148.pdf) (2.8mb)

    Volumes 3-6 (Northrop version) & a Final Report (for the Lockheed version) are also available online and have been linked to the wiki.

    Volume 6 of the Northrop OPS report and the Lockheed 'Final Report' contain a lot of information on the AAP version of Skylab as well as a number of pictures of the 'AAP Cluster' in various configurations.

    I've also added a 'Moonbases' section to 'Future Expansion' this covers various NASA moonbase plans drawn up during the 1964-1972 time period.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 10, 2008, 10:42:09 PM
    Found an interesting little possible addon for the Saturn V amongst the patents on the NTRS. NASA seems to have looked at a 'common mission stage' concept as a possible Lunar Logistics vehicle.


    See also: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19710008255_1971008255.pdf



    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: movieman on July 11, 2008, 10:24:18 AM
    I found a couple of documents last night referring to 'Mars twilight' (?) as an Apollo-derived Mars flyby mission for the 70s/80s using three modified SIVB stages (named, oddly, SIVC :)) to launch the mission from Earth orbit, but didn't have time to search for that term on ntrs... there might be more about it there.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 11, 2008, 12:11:19 PM
    Ah, yes, the evocative 'Mars Twilight Flyby' mission. I've found a few documents on that, mostly dealing with the unmanned probes they were going to carry to Mars.

    I did find (& add to the wiki) a single document dealing with a Boeing designed space station that was to be used to test mission hardware.
     
    (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19700018358_1970018358.pdf)

    However at the moment it seems to be easier to run up mission planning information rather than hardware details. I've seen occasional mentions of the S-IVc stage but nothing that gives any idea of just what was being considered.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Program
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 13, 2008, 01:38:06 AM
    Another unusual use for a LEM.

    http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076663_1979076663.pdf

    Volume Two is now available both on the wiki and here.

    http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076664_1979076664.pdf

    I've edited the 'Project Able' entry in the Wiki to include the orbital parameters.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 24, 2008, 07:17:40 AM
    I've not added this to the Wiki yet but I've discovered an embarrasment of riches in terms of possible AAP missions.

    Last year I found a document that was part of a Convair study into a mission in which a 30m (100ft) parabolic antenna would be placed into a synchronus orbit and tested by the crew of a manned CSM.

    It was part of a similar study into large space construction using the Saturn V as the launch vehicle. Two other files from that report are online at the NTRS and I've finally got round to looking at them.

    One dealt with a test flight similar to the one in the linked document. The other was a look at various concepts that did not make the final cut.

    The concepts covered ranged from radio astronomy to meteor detection. One example is shown in the attached picture, which shows a S-IVb orbital workshop fitted with flexible solar panels.

    See:
    http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680020065_1968020065.pdf (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680020065_1968020065.pdf) 30mb


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on August 07, 2008, 07:55:35 AM
    I've found two very interesting AAP related documents on the NTRS.

    1. The mission profile for AAP1/AAP2, the original two-launch version of Skylab, this one might be achievable with NASSP 7.0 provided LC-37 is sorted out.

    http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19740072775_1974072775.pdf (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19740072775_1974072775.pdf)

    2. The second is a report into payload integration for various AAP missions which includes details on planned orbits.

    http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680014256_1968014256.pdf (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680014256_1968014256.pdf)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on September 06, 2008, 08:28:03 PM
    While trying to run down documents on the NERVA series of nuclear rockets I found a lot of material dealing with the SNAP program, the small nuclear powerplant program that supplied the RTGs used during the Apollo program.

    They were also working on small nuclear reactors (see attached picture) for spacecraft powerplants, one proposed use was to power a TV satellite that would have been launched into orbit using a Saturn V.

    http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19670019843_1967019843.pdf



    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on September 09, 2008, 07:44:31 AM
    Updated the wiki slightly, there is now a 'Lunar Mobility Aid' section and I've added the details on the original design of the LRV (then called the LSSM). Currently looking into that they referred to as a 'Rover' back in 1966.

    Also found some interesting material on LLV payloads, but I'm going to wait until I've more information. Further updates to the Wiki will follow over the next few days.


    Edit:Also looking into several NASA Post-Apollo studies, MIMOSA, MOBEV, ELS & SMSELE which seem to contain some very interesting hardware.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on October 10, 2008, 10:24:47 AM
    Something very interesting appeared on the NTRS with the most recent update. A 1963 study of using the LM as a platform for lunar orbital mapping. Simulation of the I-Mission (Apollo 21) is one step closer to reality.

    See: Study of LEM for Lunar Orbital Reconnaissance (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19740074816_1974074816.pdf)(10mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 08, 2008, 10:44:17 AM
    A study from 1965 dealing with the Apollo Extension Project. In this case keeping an Apollo continuously in orbit. Also deals with some Saturn I & V variants.

    Planned target orbit. 120nm High, 83.5º inclination, retrograde.

    See: Apollo Extension Systems for Continuous Earth Orbital Missions (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069405_1975069405.pdf) (7mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 12, 2008, 08:07:01 PM
    Found a Technical Summary document for the Apollo Extension program (which later became AAP). Aside from four reference missions, Earth Polar Orbit, Earth Equatorial Synchonus, Lunar Polar Orbit, Lunar 20 day mission. Discussion is made of the modifications to the Block II CSM to bring it up to AES standard.

    Block III may now be possible, the document contains pictures showing differences between the Block II CSM and the Block III CSM. See the attached diagram showing the location of the RCS Quads.

    See: Preliminary Definition Phase Apollo Extension System: Final Report, Technical Summary (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076641_1979076641.pdf)

    Edit: I've completed a search of the NTRS for any other online documents dealing with the AES in the form covered in the above document and I've found three more. First is a outline of the pre-AES test flights that would be done using Block II Apollo's fitted with an experiment pallet in Bay 1. The other two are a subsystems analysis document & plans to enable Apollo spacecraft to carry out touchdowns on land.

    See:

    Preliminary Definition Phase Apollo Extension System: Final Report, Phase I Experiments Integration Program Analysis (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076721_1979076721.pdf)

    Preliminary Definition Phase Apollo Extension System: Final Report,  Subsystems Summary (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076806_1979076806.pdf)

    Preliminary Definition Phase Apollo Extension System: Final Report, Land Landing System Program Analysis (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076636_1979076636.pdf)

    Edit:Located a 1964 document covering planned Apollo Earth Orbital missions from the Apollo X period (1964) includes a mission to recover Syncom III and bring it back to Earth as well as a mission to visit the Echo II satellite.

    See: Extended Apollo Systems Utilization Study: Final Report, Addendum I, Volume 2, Part 1, NASA Flights (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790077941_1979077941.pdf)

    The sadly offline Part 2 covered 'Blue Apollo' missions that would have been carried out to fulfil USAF experimental objectives.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 20, 2008, 09:02:26 PM
    Found a whole series of 'Trade Studies' relating to Apollo Application Program Mission 1a. This was unrelated to the OWS missions (1,2,3,3a & 4).

    LV was a Saturn 1b carrying a CSM and a 'rack' of remote sensing equipment in place of the LM.

    Appears to be enough information available to model the mission.

    See:

    1. Technical Data AAP Mission 1a, 60 Day Study (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680015103_1968015103.pdf)

    2. Compilation of trade studies, engineering analyses and other reports prepared during AAP mission 1A 60-day study, part 1 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680015107_1968015107.pdf)

    3. Compilation of trade studies, engineering analyses and other reports prepared during AAP mission 1A 60-day study, part 2 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680015108_1968015108.pdf)

    4. Compilation of trade studies, engineering analyses and other reports prepared during AAP mission 1A 60-day study, part 3 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680015106_1968015106.pdf)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on January 10, 2009, 09:38:32 AM
    The final remaining volumes of the Convair study into the use of a Saturn Ib/V into putting large space structures into orbit are online at the NTRS.

    The first of these is the program summary document, the second looks into using a Saturn 1b to place an X-ray telescope into a 480km (260 nautical mile) orbit. Apollo CSM's would have been used to resupply/maintain the telescope once in orbit.

    1. Large space structure experiments for AAP. Volume 1 - Summary Final report, 15 Sep. 1966 - 15 Sep. 1967  (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680020064_1968020064.pdf) (79MB)

    2. Large space structure experiments for AAP. Volume 4 - Focusing X-ray telescope a large space structure for X-ray astronomy Final report, 15 Sep. 1966 - 15 Sep. 1967  (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680020067_1968020067.pdf)(34mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on January 31, 2009, 06:58:39 AM
    Find below a document dealing with the original version of the Apollo Telescope Mount. The one that was going to be mounted to the CSM rather than the LM. It appears to be the final report on that particular variant.

    Contents include a full description of the proposed instrumentation, the deployment mechanism, the layout & location of the controls within the Command Module (see attached pictures) & development options.

    See: ATM Study Program, Final Report, 1966 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19770081341_1977081341.pdf)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on February 10, 2009, 11:30:50 AM
    Not a document, but a weblog, Beyond Apollo (http://beyondapollo.blogspot.com/) was created by David Portree. It covers various Apollo and Post-Apollo schemes.

    One of the more spectacular is Destination Mankind (http://beyondapollo.blogspot.com/2009/01/destination-mankind-1972.html), an Apollo based mission to the geosynchronous orbit which would have seen a CSM and Payload Module (a modified LM?) visit a three points in space above the Earth over a period of about 12 days during 1976.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Tschachim on February 10, 2009, 01:30:38 PM
    Not a document, but a weblog, Beyond Apollo (http://beyondapollo.blogspot.com/) was created by David Portree.

    Interesting blog, thanks for pointing that out!  :)

    Cheers
    Tschachim


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on February 12, 2009, 06:41:56 AM
    Not a document, but a weblog, Beyond Apollo (http://beyondapollo.blogspot.com/) was created by David Portree.

    Interesting blog, thanks for pointing that out!  :)

    Cheers
    Tschachim

    It is, In addition to the item I linked directly to above, there is a Apollo to Venus (http://beyondapollo.blogspot.com/2009/02/single-launch-piloted-venus-flyby-1967.html) completely different to the one currently under construction & a discussion of a 'beer & pretzels' plan to send Apollo 17 to the lunar farside (http://beyondapollo.blogspot.com/2009/02/apollo-17-to-tsiolkovskii-1971.html).


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on March 08, 2009, 08:33:41 PM
    Found an AAP mission plan (or at least notes on it). Seems Pegasus III was fitted out as a Long Duration Exposure Facility & the plan was to use an AAP flight to pick up the samples.

    See:

    1. Panel retrieval from Pegasus satellite (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790074823_1979074823.pdf)

    2.Notes on the experiment: Retrieval of coupons from Pegasus III (flight experiment T019) (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790072954_1979072954.pdf)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on March 27, 2009, 08:17:26 AM
    The documentation for Project Able, the scheme to use modified LMs to light up the night in SE Asia makes several references to using an Optical Guidance system as a star tracker for the LMs automatic pilot system.

    A document describing an optical guidance system has gone up on the NTRS. It was intended for AAP, but I'm not sure if the same system as the one mentioned.

    One warning though, whoever prepared this one screwed up. The appendices are shown first, the report proper does not begin until page 159 of the PDF.

    See: Optical Guidance System (OGS) for Rendezvous & Docking, 1969 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19700006511_1970006511.pdf) (10.8mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on April 10, 2009, 12:39:51 PM
    Latest additions to the NTRS included one and a half volumes of a General Electric report into possible Apollo missions, covers Earth & Lunar orbit missions. Scan quality is very high, file sizes are therefore large.

    See:

    1. Alternate apollo mission descriptions. Volume 1: Summary (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069383_1975069383.pdf) (25mb)

    2. Alternate Apollo mission descriptions. Volume 2: Detailed technical report, book 1 (Earth Orbit Missions) (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19760065844_1976065844.pdf) (258mb)

    The full report is four volumes in size, hopefully the rest of it will be available shortly.

    Already working on a scenario based on this which injects a CSM into a 370km high orbit inclined 96.5º to the equator.

    Anyone know how to set up a yaw change during launch?


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 19, 2009, 11:19:31 AM
    I've added another planned AAP mission series to the wiki. The builders of the Orbiting Solar Observatory series of satellites proposed that AAP missions be sent up to study in-flight refurbishment.

    Three missions would have been sent up approximately one year apart, starting out with an Apollo 12 style retrieval of components and finishing with a refurbishment of systems and instrumentation.

    As they were planning to use standard Block II CSMs and Saturn Ibs, this one could be a doable mission series once Apollo 7 is up and running.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 15, 2009, 10:26:47 AM
    Found three Grumman documents from 1965 dealing with LEM variants for Earth Orbital AAP missions including 10 Department of Defence missions that seem to be connected with the Manned Orbital Laboratory.

    The online documentation covers the civilian side of things and has some interesting hints as to what the DOD flights would have been about.

    1. Apollo extension system earth orbit mission study. volume 1 - General engineering studies Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076661_1979076661.pdf) (10.6mb)

    2. Apollo extension system earth orbit mission study. Volume 2 - Flight mission and configuration description for NASA experiment groupings Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790077157_1979077157.pdf) (22.4mb)

    3.  Apollo extension system earth orbit mission study. Volume 5, addendum 1 Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790076674_1979076674.pdf) (3.964mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on May 27, 2010, 07:09:33 PM
    I've located a trio of documents related to a proposal to replace some of the LM batteries with a 'suitcase' solar array for extended surface missions.

    1. "Suitcase" Solar Array for LM Payload & staytime extensions (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790073456_1979073456.pdf)(500kb)

    2. Feasibility study, 30 watts per pound rollup solar array Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680027146_1968027146.pdf)(31.1mb)

    3. Fabrication feasibility study of a 30 watt/ pound rollup solar array Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680027158_1968027158.pdf)(42.5mb)

    A fourth document related to his proposal "LM Modificaton for extended lunar staytime" is not onlne at present.


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on May 28, 2010, 12:09:46 PM
    I've found a document on power options for the Skylab CSMs that could be useful for planning the Block III CSMs.

    Alternate Electrical Power and Oxygen Storage Systems for the Skylab CSM (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790072621_1979072621.pdf)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on June 19, 2010, 08:19:07 AM
    A very interesting post-Apollo 1 study into giving the Apollo astronauts parachutes in the event of launch problems...

    Evaluation of the use of personnel parachutes on Apollo (http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750064601) (30pgs 1mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 01, 2010, 09:54:19 AM
    Several documents related to engine development for the Apollo program.

    1. A brief document dealing with a 100lb thruster planned for use on the S-IVb, LM & C/SM

    See: Trip report: C-1 engine presentation Thiokol Chemical Corporation, Denville, N. J., 25 January 1966 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790075757_1979075757.pdf) (1pg, 72kb) (See also Thiokol C-1 Radiamic Engine (http://www.rocketrelics.com/liquid_propulsion.htm) (Illustration (http://www.rocketrelics.com/c1_radiamic.jpg)))

    2. A report from Bell which seems to be about a related project, though the design being considered was scaleable from 5lb to 1000lb of thrust, it was tested with 100lb of thrust and under simulated Apollo mission conditions. Both documents are large (100mb +) (See attached illustration)

    See:

    Experimental auxiliary rocket engine, part I Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19660021108_1966021108.pdf) (407 pg, 190mb)

    &

    Experimental auxiliary rocket engine, part II Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19660021109_1966021109.pdf) (187pb, 139mb)




    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 26, 2010, 12:58:09 PM
    Located a document which discusses using Apollo CSMs & Saturn Ib/Vs in the testing of the Mars Excursion Module (MEM) for the never flown 1982 Manned Mars Missions.

    The test program envisaged using Saturn 1bs in the same role as the Little Joe II.

    Saturn Vs both in standard three stage and INT-21 two stage configuration would have been used for the following in-space testing missions:

    1. 200 Day Unmanned Orbital Re-Entry and Landing Test (INT-21) (Equivalent to Apollo 5)

    MEM is launched unmanned and after a 200 day 'soak' re-enters to land at White Sands.

    2. 10 Day Manned Orbital Re-Entry and Landing Test (INT-21)

    MEM/CSM placed into orbit, after 10 days two of the CSM crew return to Earth (White Sands) in the MEM while the remaining crewman returns in the CM.

    3. 200 Day Manned Orbital Propulsion Test (INT-21/Saturn 1b) (Equivalent to Apollo 9)

    MEM/CSM placed into orbit, after checking out the MEM systems the CSM returns to Earth. After a 200 day 'soak' a Saturn Ib launches a fresh crew to rendezvous with the MEM. This crew tests out both the descent and ascent engines before abandoning the MEM in orbit.

    4. Manned Lunar Landing/Ascent (2 Saturn Vs)

    The MEM and a propulsion module (J-2 based?) are launched unmanned towards the moon and placed into a suitable orbit. Once the MEM is in orbit an Apollo CSM is launched to rendezvous in lunar orbit. The crew transfer to the MEM and land on the lunar surface spending several days(?) on the lunar surface before using the MEM ascent stage to rejoin the CSM in orbit for the flight back to Earth.

    See: Definition of Experimental Tests for a Manned Mars Excursion Module, Vol. 4, Briefing (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680006254_1968006254.pdf) (204pg 5.4mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 30, 2010, 08:01:26 PM
    A completely different Apollo to Venus architecture based on replacing the LM with a 'Mission Module'. Trans-Venus injection was to be carried out using the SPS plus a gravity slingshot. There is enough detail in the report to suggest that this one could be set up fairly quickly.

    (http://nassp.sourceforge.net/wiki/Image:AAPVenus02.png)

    See: Preliminary mission study of a single-launch manned Venus flyby with extended Apollo hardware (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19740079915_1974079915.pdf)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 14, 2010, 08:57:31 AM
    I've located some further documentation dealing with North American/Rockwell's plans for the Block III (AAP) CSMs. This looks to be a major engineering document with several different options for modifications to enable extended missions.

    Some of the supporting documentation looks interesting, once I've checked it out I'll link it here.

    See:    Apollo applications program engineering tasks (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069430_1975069430.pdf)(440 pg 12.6mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 14, 2010, 07:04:36 PM
    I've found an early (1965) document on Apollo/Apollo extension which includes a mission list. (K Missions are the Dual-Apollo long duration missions)

    Manned Lunar Exploration (1965)

    Apollo G, Sinus Medii
    Apollo H-1, Mare Tranquillitatus
    Apollo I-1 10º lunar orbit.
    Apollo H-2, TBD from I-1 data
    Apollo J-1, Hyginus Rille
    Apollo I-2 30-40º lunar orbit
    Apollo J-2, Aphonsus
    Apollo I-3, Lunar Polar Orbit
    Apollo J-3, SW Archimedes
    Apollo J-4, North of Crater Kant
    Apollo I-4, Lunar Polar Orbit
    Apollo J-5, location on farside.
    Apollo I-5/K-1 10º inclination lunar orbit/SW Copernicus.

    See:    Manned lunar orbital missions, volume 1, 2nd edition (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19690070865_1969070865.pdf) (93pg 3.3mb)

    I've also found some more documents on the development of the C-1 engine that was considered as a replacement for the Block II RCS thrusters.

    See:

    1. C-1 engine program - Phase 2 development, bipropellant valve improvement program (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680013512_1968013512.pdf) (114pg 41mb)

    2. C-1 engine program - Propellant valve qualification, volume 2, book 2 Final report  (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680013503_1968013503.pdf) (230pg 13mb)

    3. C-1 engine program - Qualifications test report for bipropellant and quadredundant valves, volume 2 - Appendices Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680013559_1968013559.pdf) (364pg 128mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 18, 2010, 06:50:56 PM
    I have located a Martin-Marietta study into a modification to the SPS fuel tanks designed to reduce the amount of RCS useage needed to ensure free flow of fuel into the engine. I'm not sure if it was actually implemented in an Apollo spacecraft or even if it can be implemented in software, but I make it available for anyone willing to take up the challenge. The document also contains one of the great acronyms, Martin-Marietta had to write some custom software to simulate some of the effects of the tank changes, they called it SMASHIN (Surface Markers Added to Some Hydrodynamic Iterative Nefariousness)

    See: Advanced Propellant Management System for Spacecraft Propulsion Systems, Phase II - Detail Design (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19690028790_1969028790.pdf) (14.6mb).

    Located something else from 1967, dealing with the pressurization system for the SPS. After downloading the two documents I found they were identical. I've therefore removed one of the links, the information is quite interesting. I've completed the research, this seems to be the proposed modification for the Block IIIs that would have been used for extended lunar missions, as the simulations covered mission lengths of up to 90 days.

    See: Lightweight pressurization system for the Apollo service propulsion system Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680002117_1968002117.pdf) (300pg 67.2mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 21, 2010, 11:25:03 AM
    It seems that after losing out to NASA in the 'Man on the Moon' stakes the US Army was given the task of seeing if their M-274 'Mule' (Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Military_M274_Truck,_Platform,_Utility_1/2_Ton,_4X4)) could be adapted as an LRV for use on AAP lunar missions.


    See:

    1. Vehicle lunarization study, US Army M-274 'Mule' vehicle. Volume 2, part 1: Technical discussion (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19730061716_1973061716.pdf)

    2. Vehicle lunarization study, US Army M-274 'Mule' vehicle. Volume 2, part 2: Appendix (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19730061773_1973061773.pdf)



    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 22, 2010, 07:09:03 PM
    I've located two reports on modifying the Apollo CSM for the '68 version of Skylab, there are some interesting variants discussed including a CSM with the SPS removed and replaced with four RCS thrusters (See attached picture).

    See:

    1. AAP CSM modification program study (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19730061071_1973061071.pdf) (359pg 9mb)

    2. A review of the block 2 CM/SM modifications required for AAP (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790072844_1979072844.pdf) (15pg 560kb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on December 03, 2010, 04:19:08 AM
    There is a thread over at NASA Spaceflight discussing the Lunar Mapping & Survey System, turns out it was not an in house NASA design, they were thinking of sending a Keyhole-7 (KH7) spy-sat to the Moon with the CSM replacing the Agena.

    Secret Apollo missions were planned and hardware manufactured (http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=23429.15)

    See also the following articles at the Space Review:

    Black Apollo: Part 1 (29/11/2010) (http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1734/1)

    Black Apollo: Part 2 (06/12/2010) (http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1737/1)

    The second article is especially useful as it has several artists impressions of the spacecraft as it might have appeared in service (Example (http://www.thespacereview.com/archive/1737aa.jpg))


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on December 10, 2010, 09:04:28 AM
    I've located the 1965 Grumman report into the various LM modifications planned for the post-Apollo missions. The report is incomplete, appears to be there for modeling purposes. The "Design Analysis Summary" documents  have copies of the control panel diagrams for all the manned variants, I've attached the control layouts below.

    1.Apollo extension systems - lunar excursion module. Volume 2, phase B: Preliminary definition studies summary (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750068342_1975068342.pdf)

    2. Apollo extension systems - lunar excursion module. Volume 3: Phase 1 laboratory design analysis summary (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069568_1975069568.pdf)

    3. Apollo extension systems: Lunar excursion module. Volume 5: Shelter design analysis summary (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069406_1975069406.pdf)

    4. Apollo extension systems - lunar excursion module. Volume 6, phase B: Taxi design analysis summary (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750068345_1975068345.pdf)

    5. Apollo extension systems; lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 7: Truck design analysis summary (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069824_1975069824.pdf)

    6. Apollo extension systems; lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 8, phase 1: Laboratory master end item specification (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069408_1975069408.pdf)

    7. Apollo extension systems; lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 9, phase 2: Laboratory master end item specification (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069418_1975069418.pdf)

    8. Apollo extension systems: Lunar excursion module. Volume 10: Shelter master end item specification (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069222_1975069222.pdf)

    9. Apollo extension systems; lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 11: Taxi master end item specification (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750069225_1975069225.pdf)

    10. Apollo extension systems: Lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 16: Prelaunch and mission operations (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19760065921_1976065921.pdf)

    11. Apollo extension systems - lunar excursion module. Volume 26, phase B: Management plan (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750068343_1975068343.pdf)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on February 04, 2011, 09:41:35 AM
    Located two Apollo Applications related documents dealing with the use of relay satellites for Lunar farside missions

    1. Lunar Far Side Communications Coverage and Visibility Analysis for Satellite Relay Systems Technical Report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19700014992_1970014992.pdf) (48pg, 1.76mb)

    2. Lunar Far Side Communications Analysis for Satellite Relay Systems (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19700016173_1970016173.pdf) (147pg 6.0mb)



    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on April 20, 2011, 08:36:04 PM
    I've stumbled across a report by Goodyear dealing with the creation of an expandable nozzle extension for the J-2 engine. Work was carried out as part of a program to lead to an early version of the J-2X.

    Investigation of Extendable Nozzle Concepts (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19730011573_1973011573.pdf)(19mb 122pg)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on May 02, 2011, 10:31:34 AM
    Some more studies on modifications that would have been made to the RCS if they had kept building Apollo spacecraft.

    Apollo RCS Positive Expulsion Tankage Product Improvement Program. Task A: Evolution of Apollo-Type Positive Expulsion Propellant Tankage Final Report, Jul. 1967 - Sep. 1969 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19700004492_1970004492.pdf) (8.2mb 195 pages)

    Apollo RCS Positive Expulsion Tankage Product Improvement Program. Task B - Long Term Compatibility Testing Final Report, Jul. 1967 - Sep. 1969 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19700018921_1970018921.pdf) (39.2mb 91 pages)

    Apollo RCS Positive Expulsion Tankage Product Improvement Program. Solution of command module and service module bladder repositioning problems. Task E -  Final report, Jul. 1967 - Sep. 1969 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19710007326_1971007326.pdf) (26.8mb 51 pages)

    Apollo RCS Positive Expulsion Tankage Product Improvement Program. Task F - Integration and verification of solutions. Final report, Jul. 1967 - Sep. 1969 (http://) (4.1mb  41 pages).


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on May 23, 2011, 06:54:36 AM
    Documentation into a lightweight couch design for possible use with Apollo CSMs.

    Development of a lightweight, unidirectional net type couch system for the Apollo or follow-on projects, phase 1 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19720062954_1972062954.pdf) (22.2mb 124 pages)

    Unidirectional lightweight energy absorbing net couch restraint system for use in Apollo or follow-on projects, phase 1 and 2 Final material report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680007157_1968007157.pdf) (4.5mb 58 pages)

    The development of a unidirectional lightweight energy absorbing net couch-restraint system for use in the Apollo or follow-on projects Final report, Oct. 1964 - Aug. 1966 (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680006714_1968006714.pdf) (5.7mb 187 pages)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on May 28, 2011, 08:16:23 AM
    Equipment for AAP Lunar Missions (Dual Apollo)

    Lunar geophysical surface and subsurface probes for Apollo applications program. Final Report. Volume I - Detailed technical report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19670009582_1967009582.pdf) (32.6mb 442 pages)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 14, 2011, 11:28:37 AM
    Dual-Mode (Manned/Unmanned) LRV for Post-Apollo missions. The Bendix Proposal.

    Dual-mode Manned/Automated Lunar Roving Vehicle Design Definition Study (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19740077559_1974077559.pdf) (486pg 18mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on July 21, 2011, 11:55:11 AM
    Another Dual-Mode (Manned/Unmanned) LRV for Post-Apollo missions. Courtesy of one of NASAs system engineering courses.

    Manned/Unmanned Lunar Explorer (MULE) (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19710005036_1971005036.pdf) (556pg 30mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on August 12, 2011, 09:37:27 AM
    The Space Suit planned for Apollo 17, 18, 19 & 20.

    Advanced Extravehicular Space (AES) suit. Final report  (http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710001702) (369pg 94mb)

    I've just finished reading the report and have extracted the Apollo 17-20 crew assignments as of the 17th of August 1970.

    Apollo 17

    Prime
    *. Conrad
    *. Duke
    *. Eisele

    Backup
    *. Brand
    *. Cooper
    *. Cernan


    Apollo 18

    Prime
    *. Gordon
    *. Engle
    *. Young

    Backup
    *. Roosa
    *. McCandle
    *. Lind


    Apollo 19

    Prime
    *. Haise
    *. Mitchell
    *. Lovell

    Backup
    *. Carr
    *. Pogue
    *. Swigert


    Apollo 20

    Prime
    *. Schweickart
    *. Evans
    *. Bean

    Backup
    *. Schmitt
    *. Weitz
    *. Engle


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 17, 2011, 08:13:51 AM
    Proposal for using a laser mounted in the CSM SIM bay to guide Automated LMs to their landing sites. No hardware described.

    Laser guided lunar landing (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19790072788_1979072788.pdf)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on December 13, 2011, 08:16:42 AM
    Convair proposal to fit a 15ft Parabolic antenna to the Wet-Lab version of Skylab, looks like it might be simple to implement when/if we get round to Skylab.

    Large erectable antenna for space application, Final report (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19700016452_1970016452.pdf)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on April 11, 2012, 05:54:18 AM
    Solar Power system for early long term lunar missions.

    Study To Establish Criteria For A Solar Cell Array For Use As A Primary Power Source For A Lunar-Based Water Electrolysis System (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19680026528_1968026528.pdf) (48mb)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on November 15, 2013, 08:29:32 AM
    I cannot remember if this was linked earlier, but this might make an interesting addon.

    Quote
    In keeping with the lunar mission nomenclature proposed in Bellcomm’s January 1968 Lunar Exploration Program Plan, Yates designated the mission Lunar Landing Mission-3 (LLM-3). An “early Apollo” mission, LLM-3 would include a 35-hour stay on the moon, three three-hour moonwalks by two astronauts, and surface exploration on foot no farther than one kilometer from the LM.

    ...

    Yates selected as his LLM-3 landing site an area photographed by the Lunar Orbiter III spacecraft between February and October 1967. Located at 36° west, 3° south, it lay in Oceanus Procellarum directly south of the prominent ray crater Kepler. Specifically, he aimed the LLM-3 LM at a half-kilometer-wide mare ridge (image at top of post) with a fresh, 200-meter-wide crater on top.

    http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/11/mission-to-a-mare-ridge-1968/ (http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/11/mission-to-a-mare-ridge-1968/)


    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on September 20, 2014, 04:48:41 AM
    It has been a long time since I last posted. However some very interesting documentation has come to light about the Lunar Mapping & Survey System courtesy of the NRO:

    Project UPWARD (1964 - 1967)

    http://www.nro.gov/foia/declass/UPWARD.html (http://www.nro.gov/foia/declass/UPWARD.html)

    There are also four articles (to date) on the Space Review website covering the program

    Space Review: Black Apollo (29/11/10)

    http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1734/1 (http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1734/1)

    Space Review: Apollo: secrets and whispers (06/12/10)

    http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1737/1 (http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1737/1)

    Space Review: Out of the black (11/06/12)

    http://www.thespacereview.com/article/2100/1 (http://www.thespacereview.com/article/2100/1)

    Space Review: Project UPWARD: hauling the NRO’s GAMBIT to the Moon (15/09/2014)

    http://thespacereview.com/article/2596/1 (http://thespacereview.com/article/2596/1)

    From the last article is an artists impression of the earliest version of the UPWARD installation, this might be easily implementable as an alternative to the existing SIM bay:

    (http://thespacereview.com/archive/2596b1.jpg)



    Title: Re: Apollo Applications Project
    Post by: Graham2001 on February 04, 2015, 12:27:49 PM
    Video showing the testing of Saturn I Booster Parawing (Paraglider) Recovery System.



    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLXrdAQsbuo (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLXrdAQsbuo)