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Author Topic: Apollo Applications Project  (Read 58874 times)
Graham2001
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« Reply #75 on: June 19, 2010, 08:19:07 AM »

A very interesting post-Apollo 1 study into giving the Apollo astronauts parachutes in the event of launch problems...

Evaluation of the use of personnel parachutes on Apollo (30pgs 1mb)
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Graham2001
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« Reply #76 on: July 01, 2010, 09:54:19 AM »

Several documents related to engine development for the Apollo program.

1. A brief document dealing with a 100lb thruster planned for use on the S-IVb, LM & C/SM

See: Trip report: C-1 engine presentation Thiokol Chemical Corporation, Denville, N. J., 25 January 1966 (1pg, 72kb) (See also Thiokol C-1 Radiamic Engine (Illustration))

2. A report from Bell which seems to be about a related project, though the design being considered was scaleable from 5lb to 1000lb of thrust, it was tested with 100lb of thrust and under simulated Apollo mission conditions. Both documents are large (100mb +) (See attached illustration)

See:

Experimental auxiliary rocket engine, part I Final report (407 pg, 190mb)

&

Experimental auxiliary rocket engine, part II Final report (187pb, 139mb)




* BellEARE.png (432.48 KB, 763x574 - viewed 523 times.)
« Last Edit: July 01, 2010, 06:55:15 PM by Graham2001 » Logged

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Graham2001
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« Reply #77 on: July 26, 2010, 12:58:09 PM »

Located a document which discusses using Apollo CSMs & Saturn Ib/Vs in the testing of the Mars Excursion Module (MEM) for the never flown 1982 Manned Mars Missions.

The test program envisaged using Saturn 1bs in the same role as the Little Joe II.

Saturn Vs both in standard three stage and INT-21 two stage configuration would have been used for the following in-space testing missions:

1. 200 Day Unmanned Orbital Re-Entry and Landing Test (INT-21) (Equivalent to Apollo 5)

MEM is launched unmanned and after a 200 day 'soak' re-enters to land at White Sands.

2. 10 Day Manned Orbital Re-Entry and Landing Test (INT-21)

MEM/CSM placed into orbit, after 10 days two of the CSM crew return to Earth (White Sands) in the MEM while the remaining crewman returns in the CM.

3. 200 Day Manned Orbital Propulsion Test (INT-21/Saturn 1b) (Equivalent to Apollo 9)

MEM/CSM placed into orbit, after checking out the MEM systems the CSM returns to Earth. After a 200 day 'soak' a Saturn Ib launches a fresh crew to rendezvous with the MEM. This crew tests out both the descent and ascent engines before abandoning the MEM in orbit.

4. Manned Lunar Landing/Ascent (2 Saturn Vs)

The MEM and a propulsion module (J-2 based?) are launched unmanned towards the moon and placed into a suitable orbit. Once the MEM is in orbit an Apollo CSM is launched to rendezvous in lunar orbit. The crew transfer to the MEM and land on the lunar surface spending several days(?) on the lunar surface before using the MEM ascent stage to rejoin the CSM in orbit for the flight back to Earth.

See: Definition of Experimental Tests for a Manned Mars Excursion Module, Vol. 4, Briefing (204pg 5.4mb)
« Last Edit: July 26, 2010, 01:03:33 PM by Graham2001 » Logged

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Graham2001
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« Reply #78 on: July 30, 2010, 08:01:26 PM »

A completely different Apollo to Venus architecture based on replacing the LM with a 'Mission Module'. Trans-Venus injection was to be carried out using the SPS plus a gravity slingshot. There is enough detail in the report to suggest that this one could be set up fairly quickly.



See: Preliminary mission study of a single-launch manned Venus flyby with extended Apollo hardware
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Graham2001
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« Reply #79 on: November 14, 2010, 08:57:31 AM »

I've located some further documentation dealing with North American/Rockwell's plans for the Block III (AAP) CSMs. This looks to be a major engineering document with several different options for modifications to enable extended missions.

Some of the supporting documentation looks interesting, once I've checked it out I'll link it here.

See:    Apollo applications program engineering tasks(440 pg 12.6mb)
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Graham2001
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« Reply #80 on: November 14, 2010, 07:04:36 PM »

I've found an early (1965) document on Apollo/Apollo extension which includes a mission list. (K Missions are the Dual-Apollo long duration missions)

Manned Lunar Exploration (1965)

Apollo G, Sinus Medii
Apollo H-1, Mare Tranquillitatus
Apollo I-1 10 lunar orbit.
Apollo H-2, TBD from I-1 data
Apollo J-1, Hyginus Rille
Apollo I-2 30-40 lunar orbit
Apollo J-2, Aphonsus
Apollo I-3, Lunar Polar Orbit
Apollo J-3, SW Archimedes
Apollo J-4, North of Crater Kant
Apollo I-4, Lunar Polar Orbit
Apollo J-5, location on farside.
Apollo I-5/K-1 10 inclination lunar orbit/SW Copernicus.

See:    Manned lunar orbital missions, volume 1, 2nd edition (93pg 3.3mb)

I've also found some more documents on the development of the C-1 engine that was considered as a replacement for the Block II RCS thrusters.

See:

1. C-1 engine program - Phase 2 development, bipropellant valve improvement program (114pg 41mb)

2. C-1 engine program - Propellant valve qualification, volume 2, book 2 Final report (230pg 13mb)

3. C-1 engine program - Qualifications test report for bipropellant and quadredundant valves, volume 2 - Appendices Final report (364pg 128mb)
« Last Edit: November 14, 2010, 07:36:20 PM by Graham2001 » Logged

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Graham2001
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« Reply #81 on: November 18, 2010, 06:50:56 PM »

I have located a Martin-Marietta study into a modification to the SPS fuel tanks designed to reduce the amount of RCS useage needed to ensure free flow of fuel into the engine. I'm not sure if it was actually implemented in an Apollo spacecraft or even if it can be implemented in software, but I make it available for anyone willing to take up the challenge. The document also contains one of the great acronyms, Martin-Marietta had to write some custom software to simulate some of the effects of the tank changes, they called it SMASHIN (Surface Markers Added to Some Hydrodynamic Iterative Nefariousness)

See: Advanced Propellant Management System for Spacecraft Propulsion Systems, Phase II - Detail Design (14.6mb).

Located something else from 1967, dealing with the pressurization system for the SPS. After downloading the two documents I found they were identical. I've therefore removed one of the links, the information is quite interesting. I've completed the research, this seems to be the proposed modification for the Block IIIs that would have been used for extended lunar missions, as the simulations covered mission lengths of up to 90 days.

See: Lightweight pressurization system for the Apollo service propulsion system Final report (300pg 67.2mb)
« Last Edit: November 22, 2010, 09:16:35 AM by Graham2001 » Logged

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Graham2001
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« Reply #82 on: November 21, 2010, 11:25:03 AM »

It seems that after losing out to NASA in the 'Man on the Moon' stakes the US Army was given the task of seeing if their M-274 'Mule' (Wikipedia) could be adapted as an LRV for use on AAP lunar missions.


See:

1. Vehicle lunarization study, US Army M-274 'Mule' vehicle. Volume 2, part 1: Technical discussion

2. Vehicle lunarization study, US Army M-274 'Mule' vehicle. Volume 2, part 2: Appendix

« Last Edit: November 21, 2010, 07:18:23 PM by Graham2001 » Logged

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Graham2001
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« Reply #83 on: November 22, 2010, 07:09:03 PM »

I've located two reports on modifying the Apollo CSM for the '68 version of Skylab, there are some interesting variants discussed including a CSM with the SPS removed and replaced with four RCS thrusters (See attached picture).

See:

1. AAP CSM modification program study (359pg 9mb)

2. A review of the block 2 CM/SM modifications required for AAP (15pg 560kb)


* SM-RCS.png (64.55 KB, 1094x807 - viewed 626 times.)
« Last Edit: November 24, 2010, 07:00:37 PM by Graham2001 » Logged

My lord, I aim a mile beyond the Moon.
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Graham2001
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« Reply #84 on: December 03, 2010, 04:19:08 AM »

There is a thread over at NASA Spaceflight discussing the Lunar Mapping & Survey System, turns out it was not an in house NASA design, they were thinking of sending a Keyhole-7 (KH7) spy-sat to the Moon with the CSM replacing the Agena.

Secret Apollo missions were planned and hardware manufactured

See also the following articles at the Space Review:

Black Apollo: Part 1 (29/11/2010)

Black Apollo: Part 2 (06/12/2010)

The second article is especially useful as it has several artists impressions of the spacecraft as it might have appeared in service (Example)
« Last Edit: December 06, 2010, 10:45:47 AM by Graham2001 » Logged

My lord, I aim a mile beyond the Moon.
Wm Shakespeare, 'Titus Andronicus'
Graham2001
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« Reply #85 on: December 10, 2010, 09:04:28 AM »

I've located the 1965 Grumman report into the various LM modifications planned for the post-Apollo missions. The report is incomplete, appears to be there for modeling purposes. The "Design Analysis Summary" documents  have copies of the control panel diagrams for all the manned variants, I've attached the control layouts below.

1.Apollo extension systems - lunar excursion module. Volume 2, phase B: Preliminary definition studies summary

2. Apollo extension systems - lunar excursion module. Volume 3: Phase 1 laboratory design analysis summary

3. Apollo extension systems: Lunar excursion module. Volume 5: Shelter design analysis summary

4. Apollo extension systems - lunar excursion module. Volume 6, phase B: Taxi design analysis summary

5. Apollo extension systems; lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 7: Truck design analysis summary

6. Apollo extension systems; lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 8, phase 1: Laboratory master end item specification

7. Apollo extension systems; lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 9, phase 2: Laboratory master end item specification

8. Apollo extension systems: Lunar excursion module. Volume 10: Shelter master end item specification

9. Apollo extension systems; lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 11: Taxi master end item specification

10. Apollo extension systems: Lunar excursion module, phase B. Volume 16: Prelaunch and mission operations

11. Apollo extension systems - lunar excursion module. Volume 26, phase B: Management plan


* LMTaxiControl.png (209.9 KB, 2396x1216 - viewed 560 times.)

* LMShelterControl.png (143.01 KB, 2371x1218 - viewed 492 times.)

* LMPhase1LabControl.png (193.38 KB, 2439x1215 - viewed 467 times.)

* LMPhase2LabControl.png (165.83 KB, 2383x1199 - viewed 462 times.)
« Last Edit: April 19, 2011, 11:58:56 AM by Graham2001 » Logged

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Graham2001
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« Reply #86 on: February 04, 2011, 09:41:35 AM »

Located two Apollo Applications related documents dealing with the use of relay satellites for Lunar farside missions

1. Lunar Far Side Communications Coverage and Visibility Analysis for Satellite Relay Systems Technical Report (48pg, 1.76mb)

2. Lunar Far Side Communications Analysis for Satellite Relay Systems (147pg 6.0mb)

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Graham2001
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« Reply #87 on: April 20, 2011, 08:36:04 PM »

I've stumbled across a report by Goodyear dealing with the creation of an expandable nozzle extension for the J-2 engine. Work was carried out as part of a program to lead to an early version of the J-2X.

Investigation of Extendable Nozzle Concepts(19mb 122pg)
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Graham2001
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« Reply #88 on: May 02, 2011, 10:31:34 AM »

Some more studies on modifications that would have been made to the RCS if they had kept building Apollo spacecraft.

Apollo RCS Positive Expulsion Tankage Product Improvement Program. Task A: Evolution of Apollo-Type Positive Expulsion Propellant Tankage Final Report, Jul. 1967 - Sep. 1969 (8.2mb 195 pages)

Apollo RCS Positive Expulsion Tankage Product Improvement Program. Task B - Long Term Compatibility Testing Final Report, Jul. 1967 - Sep. 1969 (39.2mb 91 pages)

Apollo RCS Positive Expulsion Tankage Product Improvement Program. Solution of command module and service module bladder repositioning problems. Task E -  Final report, Jul. 1967 - Sep. 1969 (26.8mb 51 pages)

Apollo RCS Positive Expulsion Tankage Product Improvement Program. Task F - Integration and verification of solutions. Final report, Jul. 1967 - Sep. 1969 (4.1mb  41 pages).
« Last Edit: May 23, 2011, 07:02:36 AM by Graham2001 » Logged

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Graham2001
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« Reply #89 on: May 23, 2011, 06:54:36 AM »

Documentation into a lightweight couch design for possible use with Apollo CSMs.

Development of a lightweight, unidirectional net type couch system for the Apollo or follow-on projects, phase 1 (22.2mb 124 pages)

Unidirectional lightweight energy absorbing net couch restraint system for use in Apollo or follow-on projects, phase 1 and 2 Final material report (4.5mb 58 pages)

The development of a unidirectional lightweight energy absorbing net couch-restraint system for use in the Apollo or follow-on projects Final report, Oct. 1964 - Aug. 1966 (5.7mb 187 pages)


* ApolloNetCouch.png (282.44 KB, 1044x804 - viewed 494 times.)

* ApolloNetCouch02.png (196.65 KB, 670x891 - viewed 495 times.)
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