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Hypertext Rhetoric: Studies for an Online Literary Text Theory

- Dr. Fee-Alexandra Haase
Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung, South Korea

The word rhetoric is a derivative from the Greek expression shown here for the scientific discipline of the theory of speech. So rhetoric in this early classical meaning in ancient literature is an art with a theoretical background for speech (rhetorica utens et docens) and its rules. Important for a speech is the material (materia) that is structured in the words (verba) of the speech to illustrate things (res). This basic idea of understanding the connection between sign systems, text systems and their interpretation in words as well as the ancient theory of oral genders and literary genres is still useful today as a theoretical background for communication processes in modern media communication. HTML-based information processes and e-mail exchange in web environments are good examples. This article focuses on the theoretical influence of the ancient model of rhetoric in traditional texts and Internet hypertexts. Both traditional speech and communication in the Internet environment refer to traditional literary genres theoretically analyzed in rhetoric and literary science. According to these models, this paper describes genres of hypertext literature and present schemata for textual configuration of media. The classical ancient rhetoric system uses a five-step speech schema. The objective of this article will demonstrate how this concept is still in use for the configuration of hypertexts. 

Because artificial languages are used for the realization of communication rhetoric in media communication, it is necessary for both the programming languages and the applications of their users. [1] This network requires a system of hierarchies and topographic organization relating to the rules of linguistics and rhetoric. This network is not related to one hierarchy but several rule systems. On the other hand we find an organization of hypertexts in maintexts and subtexts related to each other by links. Diane Greco (1996) cites about the need for an academic hypertext analysis: "Thus hypertext arguably provides a material instantiation of what had been previously only ephemeral analysis, an artifact rather than an academic theory divorced from the material and social conditions of textual production.“ [2]

It is necessary to commence with the classical ancient rhetoric system to see the steps of ubiquitous text production. According to Aristotle the three genders (genera) of speech are deliberative, forensic, and epideictic. [3] Cicero notices in Orator (VI, 20) that three genders of speech all in all exist (´Tria sunt omnino genera dicendi´). [4] The syntagmatic parts of a speech are inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, und pronuntiatio. In De Inventione (I, 9) Cicero gives the following definitions of the parts of rhetoric text production:

Quare materia quidem nobis rhetoricae videtur artis ea, quam Aristoteli visam esse diximus; partes autem eae, quas plerique dixerunt, inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, pronuntiatio.

I n v e n t i o est excogitatio rerum verarum aut veri similium, quae causam probabilem reddant;

d i s p o s i t i o EST rerum inventarum in ordinem distributio;

e l o c u t i o EST idoneorum verborum [et sententiarum] ad inventionem accommodatio;

m e m o r i a est firma animi rerum ac verborum ad inventionem perceptio;

p r o n u n t i a t i o EST ex rerum et verborum dignitate vocis et corporis moderatio.

A text written in HTML appearing on a monitor screen to be read is an object of rhetorical analysis and construction. In this disposition (dispositio) the material (materia) is organized in a schema of parts, e.g., tags as orders for the edition of the text according to rules of HTML. The exordium (introduction), narration (narratio), and a short description (propositio), or argumentation (argumentatio), are followed by the improvement of the described occurrence (probatio). The defense of objections (refugatio) and the ending of the speech (peroratio) are the next steps. The theme of the speech is discussed in the edited text version. Therefore the propositio is the statement of the theme and often contains a division (partitio or divisio) of the proposition.

Aristotle introduced the idea of three parts for a speech. The arrangement of the dispositio is the action that structures the parts of a speech. The dispositio is also the arrangement of the edited text in a strategic order. Dispositio is the arrangement of ideas. Following Quintilian (Institutio oratoria, III, 3) the dispositio is necessary for a long speech: "Ac si EST brevis et una conclusione finitus, nihil fortasse ultra desideret: at oratio longior plura exigit. Non enim tantum refert quid et quo modo dicamus, sed etiam quo loco: opus ergo EST et dispositione.“ In the idea of the three styles (low style, medium style and high style) the concept of the three genera is used. The brevitas is one of the stylistic ideas of rhetoric speech. Ancient rhetoric knows three kinds of speech: genus iudiciale for an occurrence in the courtyard, genus deliberativum for political speech of a subject in future times, and the genus demonstrativum for things that happen in present time. In the first case the aim is to defend or to accuse a person; in the second case the persuasion of an convention is practised; in the third case a person judges about arts.

Memory (memoria) in classical theory is another part of the production of speech. Ancient rhetoric literature used this part as one of the officia oratoris for the memory of the things (res) a speaker will mention in his/her speech. The memory is the part of a speech necessary for remembering a speech held after the configuration of the invention, disposition and pronunctation. For a sytematic use of memory a construction by topics is useful. Things that will be remembered are organized in a ´virtual´ form with abstracts to which they belong by meaning, by tradition or by a gender system. These terms can be applicated as tools for the description of text- and hypertext models.

Classification of text can be made by the following features:

1.                    Classification of literary genders

2.                    Classification of rhetorical genders

3.                    Classification of text genders 

Both literary gender and rhetorical gender classifications are related to the traditional literary theory. The text genre analysis shows us if the text is a traditionally written one you find in a book or a text in HTML. The ethic implementation of ancient rhetoric has a 'renaissance.’ The action (actio) of speech performance is the part that demonstrates the speech before an audience. Ethical value on the part of the orator is a fact necessary for a successful speech. Traditionally since Seneca, the artes liberales represent the arts a free man who is allowed to practise them. Grammar, dialectic, and rhetoric are as arts of the trivium, the main disciplines for literary work. In Aristotle´s philosophy, rhetoric is the art of making meanings in opposition to philosophy´s interest in finding truth. Persuasion is the aim of rhetoric and dialectic speech before an audience. More than the ethical quality as the target of persuasion the formal style is mentioned by the classical authors of rhetorical literature. Ancient Roman rhetoric uses the term aptum for the harmony between the parts of a speech and between the speech and the rhetorical situation when the rhetor talks to the audience. Ethical competence is one consideration for the person talking in front of an audience. The idea of an ars bene dicendi includes both the configuation of a speech according to correct technical instructions and the ethical authority of the speaker. The knowledge of other arts is a prime factor for the qualification of an orator. In ancient times the pathetic style with an affective discription of an impressive occurrence, and the ethical value for a description of beautiful and delightful happenings, are used for a speech. Cicero presents the idea of an orator perfectus connecting his/her rhetorical ability, knowledge and ethical qualities. Quintilian is a teacher of rhetoric using also this idea of ethical and pragmatic dualism for a good orator. [5] Traditional ideas of ancient rhetoric like the idea of vir bonus, have their equivalent in the conception of the use of internet resourses in modern universities. The University of South Australia mentions for its Electronic newsgroup COMMA that the use of netiquette is necessary for the participating persons: 

Remember that all staff and students have access to these messages. Do not use COMMA to carry on private conversations, and please exercise the usual standards of 'netiquette' you would use with all e-mailing: that is, adopt a cool, calm, professional approach, with no personal attacks or comments, and nothing else you may be ashamed of in future for having posted. [6]

Janice R. Walker (1997) mentions in Reinventing Rhetoric: The Classical Canon in the Computer that the five parts of rhetoric are key terms for written and oral documents in media of the 20th century:

The five parts of the classical canon -- Invention, Arrangement, Memory, Delivery, and Style--have been subjects of debate throughout the history of rhetoric, as we moved from an oral “technology" to a written one, and from a written to a print one. […] Now, as we again begin learning to write in a new medium, passing on the torch from orality to literacy to "computeracy" (or post-literacy, or to whatever we may ultimately be headed for), we must reconsider our definitions of rhetoric and look at how we will extend these terms to the new medium of electronic "writing." […] The five parts of the classical canon--Invention, Arrangement, Memory, Delivery, and Style--are one way we might begin thinking about how to apply rhetorical concepts to writing in the twenty-first century and beyond. After all, literacy has undergone many changes in the past--from orality, to writing, to print--and it will likely undergo many more, in ways we cannot even now imagine. The shift to the paperless classroom will not happen overnight, of course, but whether we like it or not, we need to think about how computers and computer writing will impact the future of rhetoric, of composition and composition classes, and of literacy itself. [7]

In The Rhetoric of Hypertext an extended rhetoric for hyperspace is presented by George L. Dillon (2002): "Few authors have considered the need for an extended rhetoric in hyperspace. The question here is how hyperbook authors will use the new structural components at their disposal to create an effective presentation. Landow's "The Rhetoric of Hypermedia" stands as a formative article." [8] The first rhetoric rules for a successful communication were made in 4th century by Corax and Tisias in Italy. For forensic speeches in front of a court these rules were necessary as assistance for an accused person who had to defend him/herself. Because of this oral use, the ancient theory was made for spoken words. Literary or semiliterate rhetorical speech structures (e.g. e-mailing in web surrounding) occur later in the history of rhetorical applications. Rhetorical aspects of the written word are found in ancient Greek language, too. The classical trias of speech genres consists of genus iudicale for law affairs, genus demonstrativum for public affairs, and the genus laudativum for the arts. In Greece sophists began to teach rhetoric in Athens and other cities during the second part of 4th century B.C.. Rhetoric, law, politics, grammar, logic and ethics were their subjects. A strong influence for later rhetoric handbooks was the Aristotelian model. Aristotle described a number of topics (topoi) for discovering ideas and the search for arguments. These topics for a way of analyzing, evaluating, and extending virtually any subject (res) constitute a heuristic method of systematic inquiry. [9]

According to the ancient model rhetoric is ubiquitous. Why do contemporary reseachers see a difference between traditionally written texts and hypertexts? Walton (2002) cites the differences between writing for the web and using a Hypertext rhetoric and traditional linear text reading: 

Hypertext makes new demands on both readers and writers. Although individual 'blocks' of text in hypertext can be read in a linear fashion, hypertext should be written to facilitate non-linear navigation. While you should certainly be writing journalistic style introductory paragraphs and designing tables of contents or overview pages, you should never assume that readers have encountered these pages. Rather than relying on the usual (linear) textual rhetorical markers of sequence, the design of your site should assist navigation and development of coherence by clearly indicating:

              1. The purpose, main sections and subsections of the site;

              2. The current location of the reader in the site.

Web Constraints and Possibilities

The web offers unique constraints and possibilities to writers. The major constraint for web writing is the somewhat fickle scanning behavior of most web readers. A major possibility of the web as medium is the vast universe of discourse which is potentially related to your hypertext through linking. [10] Alysson Troffer (2002) suggests the idea of a typical rhetoric of Internet texts in her thesis Writing Effectively Online: How to Compose Hypertext with her demand “Hypertext Requires Its Own Rhetoric“: "Many have argued that hypertext is a communication medium that requires its own rhetoric. According to Karen Schriver (1997), the conventions of such a rhetoric are currently under construction. As a result, document designers are "groping through the design space and inventing as we go". [11] For the Internet use of rhetoric, Gideon O. Burton (1999) notices that the world wide web offers services that are related to the aim of teaching (docere): "The world wide web provides a unique environment for discovering, organizing, teaching, and publishing academic information. These conventionally separated activities can be pursued simultaneously on a website due to the flexibility of this nascent medium, creating both opportunities and pitfalls. [12]

Rhetoric has been recognized as the art of good speech (ars bene dicendi) since antiquity and the terminology of this art written in handbooks is still in use. This terminology of rhetoric includes the ancient Greek words which were added and translated into Latin vocabulary. The Latin  rhetorical vocabulary was used until the 18th century in Europe. Since the beginning of the enlightenment in Europe rhetorical terminology became part of western national languages. The syntagmatic parts like creation (inventio), disposition (dispositio), style of speech (elocutio), memory (memoria), and delivery (pronuntiatio) are still in use and can be transferred to any literary construction process on the Internet: In this creation the first ideas are collected as topics. The creation uses a method to search for topics (loci a persona and loci a re). The disposition of a speech is the part in which the order of the speech is made. Rhetoric handbooks developed formulas for argumentative structures of debates (topoi, loci) derived from the dialectic art as examples for the disposition (taxis; dispositio) and expression (lexis, elocutio). [13] Greek sophistic scholars developed a system of rhetoric. Aristotle analyzed rhetoric as a phenomenon which is a part of dialectic scholarship. Peripatetic and stoic scholarship improved rhetoric theory. The Greek pathe became affectus, ethe became mores. The basic aims of rhetoric are moving (movere), teaching (docere), and joy (delectare). Part of the style (elocutio) are elements like word figures, figures of sentences, and thought figures, tropes like metonymia, synekdoche, hyperbel, and metaphora. According to Lausberg’s handbook (1990) they are parts of the decoration of a speech (ornatus). [14]

The elements of rhetoric can be found in the edited surface structure of a text written in HTML. How should the HTML text itself be classified? The language of a computer-based program has the rhetorical ability to ’influence’ the appearance of the edited texts by orders and rules that finally appear on the surface as edited plain text for the audience. Aristotle mentions in his Rhetoric (section 1391b) the different ends of speech and rules: "Now, since each kind of Rhetoric, as was said, has its own special end, and in regard to all of them we have gathered popular opinions and premises whence men derive their proofs in deliberative, epideictic, and judicial speeches, and, further, we have determined the special rules according to which it is possible to make our speeches ethical, it only remains to discuss the topics common to the three kinds of rhetoric.“ Aristotle notices also in his Nicomachean Ethics (1181a, Book 10) the similarity between science and rhetoric: "In fact they are absolutely ignorant of the very nature of the science and of the subjects with which it deals; otherwise they would not class it as identical with, or even inferior to, the art of rhetoric.“ Aristotle defines rhetoric in his Rhetoric (1355 b) as the faculty of discovering the possible means of persuasion in reference to any subject. Cicero cites Aristotle as an authority for genres in De Inventione (I, 7) that can be changed into each other by the art of the orator (oratoris ars) and the ability (facultas) of using the material (materia). The genus iudicale is used for accusations, defenses, and petitions. The ability to structure a text in modern media according to a certain gender like the genus iudicale is both a feature of rhetorical and hypertextual actions of the text production.   

Now we can look at the rhetorical parts used in classical theories for a traditionally written linear text. In the rhetorical model the paradigmatic parts for a speech are  beginning (exordium) narration (narratio), division (divisio), confirmation (confirmatio), and conclusion (conclusio). The elements of rhetoric were first introduced by the unknown author of the Rhetorica ad Herennium. The opening of the speech includes the greeting and some words addressed directly towards the audience. After this auditorem benevolo formula, the person holding the speech introduces the audience into the main theme of his/her speech. The narration (narratio) is the part of the speech in which an affair, the state of the affair, and the basic facts are demonstrated in a description. After the narration the argumentation presents arguments ordered in a topic system. Argumentation (argumentatio) is a part of a speech and the main instrument for the success of persuasion.

The arguments (argumenti) are considered to be placed and can be found in a certain place (topos or locus). If a person uses such topoi/loci he/she has the ability to find the arguments for persuasive speech. This topic method has been one of the most efficient disciplines in rhetorical literature since antiquity. The repetition is the part of a speech where the most important parts of the argumentation are told again. The conclusion is the last part in which the person talking presents his/her results of the argument. The vocabulary of Latin rhetoric for these steps was influenced by Greek rhetoric. Greek rhetoric was introduced in the 2d century to Rome when Greek messengers delivered their speeches in front of the senate. At the beginning of the first century the Greek philosopher Philo of Larissa and the orator Molo were in Rome where the young Cicero heard them. Latin rhetoric evolved from the fact that Greek terms were translated into Latin. His later rhetorical writings like De oratore, Brutus, and Orator are descriptions of an orator as a personality of science and knowledge. This ideal of a literary and philosophic orator is later used in Roman literature like in the books of Quintilian and Tacitus. These elementary terms of rhetorical speech can also be used for a spoken and written speech. These key terms con be used as tools for application and description of a specific language, e.g., in a poem analyzing how this text wants to persuade. Just like HTML terms, they are meta elements for written texts being responsible for the effects of a text part to which they are related.

Key term concepts for the rhetoric model or artificial languages like HTML change historically. In the middle ages late commentaries of Cicero´s De inventione, made in Isidor of Sevilla’s book Etymologiae, were used as encyclopedic information media. Alcuin introduced with his Disputatio de Rhetorica et Virtutibus the tradition of ancient literature. A totally new partition for the parts of speech is made by Donatus in the 4th century in his book Ars grammatica [15] : 

de partibus orationis

de nomine

de pronomine

de verbo

de adverbio

de participio

de coniunctione

de praepositione

de interiectione

de barbarismo

de soloecismo

de ceteris vitiis

de metaplasmo

de schematibus

de tropis

de partibus orationis ars minor

de nomine

de pronomine

de verbo

de adverbio

de participio

de coniunctione

de praepositione

de interiectione

Alcuin’s contribution is an example for rhetoric theory used as a model for grammatical syntax of a structured text. We experience this method of grammatical use when we  look at the structure of hypertext by analyzing elements of the grammatical syntax of hypertexts. Tags placed in a traditionally written text are responsible for the appearance of the edited version. Such rhetorical influence can appear in politic public relation works, advertising, journalism, and information systems. New media and hypermedia information have rhetorical aims. Multimedia concepts use diverse tools of media for  rhetorical effects. In the use of hypertextual links, rhetoric is an efficient method being a key to the understanding of a text in combination with images. Invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery in the context of HTML, with reference to ancient texts, are important parts for communication in new media. Following the five parts of a speech e actions concerning hypertexts represent of the partes rhetoricae. The relation between e-mail and traditional mail is one example, according to the idea that hypertexts and the text in hypertext surroundings are classified as representatives of one literary genre. One paradigmatic example for this genre system is the literary genre ‚letter’. Today we find hand books for business letters as well as examples for letters of different types for traditional media next to collections for specific hypertextual applications. All these documents can also appear in hypertext system surrounding. Another example is ghostwriting as one of the popular features of rhetoric online writing, where the name of an author is unknown to the readers. This universal use of rhetoric is possible because of the historical tradition of rhetoric as an ubiquitous ability. These different kinds of literary genres still have the same features when appearing as text on the Internet or as a traditionally written text. The final outcome of a speech is the result of its parts and construction in spoken and in written words.

Now we will consider the languages that generate HTML texts. In written and spoken language expressions exist which can be classified by their time of use. One part of these expressions is called `archaism`  referring to the Greek word archaios for old. Another part is called `neologism` following the Greek word neos for new. Neologisms and archaisms are expansions of a language concerned with their lexicalic and semantic value. Classifications of terms or expressions of this kind we can find in natural and technical languages. In technical languages, expressions of different states of a language exists. The programming languages that generate the surface text are divided into different `dialects` that may generate the same surface text. An example is the Extensible Markup Language (XML) being a part of SGML. The aim of XML is the possibility to receive, send and edit SGML in the Internet like HTML. XML was designed for an easy implementation and collaboration with both SGML and HTML Both in artificial and technical languages, there is a common linear syntax for their elements.

Finally, we shall compare the structures of traditionally written texts and hypertexts to discuss the question of literary genres in web surroundings. A traditional text can be changed into a hypertext by typical hypertextual processes described by the following rhetorical meta terms:  

basic text >>------------------------------------------------>> hypertext


receiving data

editing data

data transfer


dividing and connecting data


stylistic constructions of data


HTML orders for edition


construction of links

construction of paths


construction data,

sending or copy data,

final editing of the HTML version

Figure 1. (above) Rhetorical steps in hypertextual process

Inversions of texts in both directions from traditionally written text to HTML text are possible. We can classify archaic and new types of documents depending on the time of appearance of the text. Classification of hypertexts can be made by analyzing the following text features:

Text constitution:

1. Rhetorical elements

2. Literary gender

3. Organization of the text according to steps of the rhetoric model

Text relation to hypertext environment:

1.                     Classification as main text or subtext (syntactic structure)

2.                     Hierarchy of documents


The specific appearance of texts and hypertexts on the surface structures is determined by a certain group of key terms as orders for the text edition. A reference between both types of languages is given by the orders and rules of each language to influence the text.


Hypertexts consisting of: Hyperlanguage
related to:
Traditional texts consisting of: Texts

Figure 2. Relation between text and hypertext  

Like an object and the mimetic representation of this object, text and hypertext are related to each other. Texts and hypertexts on the Internet are structured in different ways. The surface medium of traditionally written texts is the paper of a book. A surface medium of hypertext is the WWW. Hypertexts containing their generating HTML language orders are different from traditional texts that in most cases do not show any orders for text edition. In other words: Edition on the Internet is to realize a text first written as traditional text in a specific version for the Internet


Level of first text      Text                          Original text

                                       Medium of the original text (e.g. hypertext, book)

Level of new text        Text                          Version realized by hypertext language

Figure 3. Schema of the inversion of texts

Linear texts are original documents to be transferred on the Internet In the Internet area, e-mails or webpages are typical representatives of these versions of literature that can be classified as a representative unit of an HTML version of a main literary genre. Their non-linear structure is a typical feature of hypertext generated by

                                       a) the connection of documents

                                    b) the connection of hypertext language with the document

                                       c) the connection of different media and character types

A hypertext language like XML or HTML is responsible for the literary type of a document. In other words: Texts in hypertext surrounding represent a version of literate and oral genres (genera). There are two main types or versions of literature that can be divided by the rhetorical analysis of the text :

Main genre


Literary hypertext-literature version   Non-literary hypertext-literature version

       (type: e-mail )                   (type: written letter)

Figure 4.  Versions of literary genders

Hypertext and new media enlarge the traditional rhetorical genre system by the use of new media for text production. Internet search engines use traditional methods, like key term screening for the analyses of large text corpora. Functions changing the generated texts are destruction, addition, mailing and copying of a message. E-mailing is an offered service on the Internet that makes a successful communication in the tradition of writing and sending ´real´ letters. The main genre `letter` is one example for the appearance of different versions of text documents. The basic structure for the message is a traditionally written text inside of a text document file. The typical structures of hypertext are determined by a pool of realized data rules. The classical canon of rhetoric is in texts of hypertext surroundings for the construction of text to be generated by hypertextual operations. In a communication based on e-mail, the use of letters refers to the use of written rhetoric as in non-hypertextual media. The ancient model of rhetoric can describe the actions and  literary genders in hypertexts in rhetoric terminology. One important fact concerning hypertext literacy is the relation between ‚real’ hypertext structure of HTML and the text on the surface structure appearing as plain text, compatible to traditional languages and their grammar. The specific linguistic quality of hypertexts is the relation of an entity both to traditional rhetoric and typical hypertext features.   


Alcuin of York (2002). Ars grammatica. Online edited at:

Aaron, M. (1993). Human communication. Communications of the ACM. 36. 4. 100-109.

Bennet, B. S. (1999). Origins in rhetoric in ancient Greece.

Bonell, E. (1834). Lexicon Quintilianeum. Leipzig: Vogel .

Bonsieppe, G. (1966). Visual-verbal rhetoric. Dot Zero. 2. 37-38.

Burton, G. O. (1999). The rhetoric of a rhetoric website. Inquiry, pedagogy, and scholarship. JIME.

Cicero, M. T.: The orator. Online edited at:

Dillon, G. L. (2002). The rhetoric of hypertext. The electronic Labyrinth. JIME.

Greco, D. (1996). Why is literary theory important for hypertext? Program in the history and social study of science and technology. Hypertext ‚96. the seventh ACM conference on hypertext. NY: ACM. 85-86.

Jamieson, G H. (1985). Communication and Persuasion. London: Croom Helm.

Lausberg, H. (1990). Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik. Eine Grundlegung der Literaturwissenschaft. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Lebrave, J.-L. (1994). Hypertextes - Mémoires – Ecriture. Genesis. Paris. 5. 9-24.

Lebrave, J.-L. (1994). L'hypertexte et l'avant-texte. Sentieri della creazione, tracce, traiettorie, modelli. Les sebties da la creation, traces, trajectoires, modeles. A cura di Maria Teresa Giaveri a Almuth Gresillon. Reggio Emilia: edizione diabasis. 171-190.

Lee, C. (1992). The rhetoric of an on-line document retrieval on system documentation.  ACM Tenth International Conference on Document Retrieval Systems. 25-45.

Quintilianus, M. F. (1972 a. 1975.): Institutio oratoria. Ausbildung des Redners. 12 Bücher. Ed. and transl. by H. Rahn. Vol. I u. II. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Troffer, A. (2000). Writing effectively online: How to compose hypertext.

Tyler, A. (1992). Shaping belief. The role of audience in visual communication. Design Issues. 11. 1. 21-32. 

Walker, J. R. (1997). Reinventing Rhetoric: The Classical Canon in the Computer.

Verjans, S. (2002). Computer semiotics as a basis for integrating different views in human-computer interaction. Esprit Amodeus Project, Document TM/WP10. tm.wp10.html

Walton, M. (2002). Writing for the WWW.

[1] As reseach work for rhe relation between rhetoric and hypertext cf.:

Verjans, S. (2002). Computer semiotics as a basis for integrating different views in human-computer interaction. Esprit Amodeus Project, Document TM/WP10. tm.wp10.html

Aaron, M. (1993). Human communication. Communications of the ACM. 36. 4.. 100-109.

Tyler, A. (1992). Shaping belief. The role of audience in visual communication.  Design Issues. 11. 1. 21-32. 

Lee, C. (1992). The rhetoric of an on-line document retrieval on system documentation.  ACM Tenth International Conference on Document Retrieval Systems. 25-45.

Bonsieppe, G. (1966). Visual-verbal rhetoric. Dot Zero. 2. 37-38.

Jamieson, G H. (1985). Communication and Persuasion. London: Croom Helm. 30-35.

[2] Greco, D. (1996). Why is literary theory important for hypertext? Program in the history and social study of science and technology. Hypertext `96. The seventh ACM conference on hypertext. NY: ACM. 85-86. Online edition:

[3] Cf. Bennett, B. S. (1999): Origins in rhetoric in ancient Greece.
Rhetorical elements were documentated by Lausberg:

Lausberg, H. (1990). Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik. Eine Grundlegung der Literaturwissenschaft. Stuttgart: Steiner

[4] Cicero, M. T. (2002). The orator. Online edited at:

[5] Cf. : Bonell, E. (1834). Lexicon Quintilianeum. Leipzig: Vogel. 190

[7] Walker, J. R. (1997). Reinventing Rhetoric: The Classical Canon in the Computer.

[8] Dillon, G. L. (2002). The rhetoric of hypertext. The electronic Labyrinth.

[9] Cf. for this theme the works of Lebrave: Lebrave, J.-L. (1994). Hypertextes - Mémoires – Ecriture. Genesis. Paris. 5. 9-24.

Lebrave, J.-L. (1994). L'hypertexte et l'avant-texte. Sentieri della creazione, tracce, traiettorie, modelli. Les sebties da la creation, traces, trajectoires, modeles. A cura di Maria Teresa Giaveri a Almuth Gresillon. Reggio Emilia: edizione diabasis. 180.

[10] Walton, M. (2002). Writing for the WWW.

[11] Troffer, A. (2002).Writing effectively online: How to compose hypertext.

[12] Burton, G. O. (1999). The rhetoric of a rhetoric website. Inquiry, pedagogy, and scholarship.

[13] Inventio in the parts of construction of a speech ´ and argumentatio in the partes oratoriae are for Quintilian parts of a topical construction: Cf. Quintilianus, M. F. (1972 and 1975. Institutio oratoria. Ausbildung des Redners. 12 Bücher. Ed. and transl. by H. Rahn. Bd. I u. II. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 5, 10, 20 und 5, 10, 103.

[14] Cf. for the systematic order of the partes oratoriae in ancient literature: Lausberg, H. (1990). Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik. Eine Grundlegung der Literaturwissenschaft. Stuttgart: Steiner. 148-150.

[15] Alcuin of York (2002). Ars grammatica. Online edited at:


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