Gathering Strength


Women from
Burma on their Rights


Brenda Belak

Images Asia

 

January 2002

 

[Because of the large size of this book, it has been placed online by individual chapter.

Click on the URLs below]

 

 

PUBLISHING DETAILS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PDF (40K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS01a.pdf

 

 

ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS & OTHER TERMS

NOTES ON THE GOVERNMENT TEXTS

MAP OF BURMA

COUNTRY BACKGROUND

WHAT'S IN A NAME?

PDF (141K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS02a.pdf

 

 

INTRODUCTION & ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

PDF (38K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS03.introduction-and-acknowledgements.pdf

 

 

IMAGES ASIA'S CEDAW PROJECT METHODOLOGY

THE AIM OF THIS REPORT 11

THE INTERVIEW PROCESS 11

OBSTACLES ENCOUNTERED DURING RESEARCH 13

DATA ANALYSIS 14

OTHER PROJECT AIMS 17

PDF (447k)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS04a.pdf

 

 

THE CEDAW & THE GOVERNMENT'S OBLIGATIONS

THE CEDAW & THE INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S RIGHTS MOVEMENT 18

STRUCTURE OF THE CEDAW 19

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS 22

CEDAW MONITORING MECHANISMS 22

THE SPDC AT THE 22ND SESSION OF THE CEDAW 23

PDF (185k)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS05.government-obligations.pdf

 

 

MEETINGS & MACHINERY: THE GOVERNMENT'S COMMITMENT TO THE CEDAW

OVERVIEW 27

THE BURMESE WAY TO EQUALITY  27

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 31

PDF (146K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS06.government-commitment.pdf

 

 

SOCIAL ROLES & GENDER STEREOTYPES

OVERVIEW 33

RELIGION & GENDER DISCRIMINATION  34

PRESERVERS OF CULTURE 38

FAMILY ROLES 41

SOCIAL RELATIONS & BEHAVIOURAL NORMS 45

RESTRICTIONS 51

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 54

PDF (450K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS07.social-roles.pdf

 

 

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

OVERVIEW 57

WOMEN IN WAR 58

RELOCATION & DISPLACEMENT 60

SEXUAL VIOLENCE & ARMED CONFLICT 61

SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN AREAS OF MILITARY OCCUPATION 64

SEXUAL VIOLENCE ACROSS BORDERS: REFUGEES & MIGRANTS 66

SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE COMMUNITY 71

REPORTING & PUNISHMENT OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE 73

FORCED MARRIAGE 76

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 78

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN RELOCATION & REFUGE 80

GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 82

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 83

PDF (745K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS08.violence-against-women.pdf

 

 

WOMEN'S HEALTH

OVERVIEW 87

GOVERNMENT HEALTH SPENDING 88

POLICY, LAW & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATING TO WOMEN'S HEALTH 90

EDUCATION ABOUT WOMEN'S HEALTH ISSUES 91

ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE 92

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH 96

MATERNAL HEALTH 114

WOMEN & HIV/AIDS 120

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 125

PDF (954K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS09.women's-health.pdf



EDUCATION FOR WOMEN & GIRLS

OVERVIEW 130

WOMEN & ILLITERACY 131

CURRENT SCHOOL ATTENDANCE & DROP OUT 133

BARRIERS TO EDUCATION 134

DISCRIMINATION IN GIRLS' SCHOOLING 140

INCENTIVES & OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION 144

VOCATIONAL TRAINING 148

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 148

PDF (507K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS10.education.pdf

 

 

THE ECONOMY & WOMEN'S LABOUR

OVERVIEW 152

THE ECONOMY 153

DECISION-MAKING & THE FAMILY INCOME 157

CULTURAL STEREOTYPES REGARDING WORK 158

RURAL WOMEN 162

FORCED LABOUR 167

EDUCATION & WORK OPPORTUNITIES 172

WOMEN IN THE PAID LABOUR FORCE 174

THE CIVIL SERVICE 174

THE INFORMAL SECTOR 178

THE PRIVATE SECTOR 180

LACK OF INFORMAL & PRIVATE SECTOR REGULATION 184

THE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY 186

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 189

PDF (979K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS11.economy-and-labour.pdf

 

 

MIGRATION & TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN & GIRLS

OVERVIEW 194

RESTRICTION ON WOMEN'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT 195

REGIONAL MIGRATION 200

TRAFFICKING 205

SEX WORK 210

DEPORTATION 215

ACTIONS TO COMBAT TRAFFICKING 218

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 222

PDF (567K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS12.migration-and-trafficking.pdf

 

 

WOMEN & THE LAW

OVERVIEW 226

FOUNDATIONS OF THE LAW IN BURMA 227

LAWS RELATING SPECIFICALLY TO WOMEN 231

THE PRACTICE OF THE LAW 234

WOMEN & FAMILY LAW 238

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 247

PDF (467K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS13.law.pdf

 

 

WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS

OVERVIEW 251

RESTRICTIONS ON POLITICAL FREEDOM 253

INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION 256

NATIONAL PARTICIPATION 258

LOCAL PARTICIPATION 265

WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN OPPOSITION MOVEMENTS 267

CONSEQUENCES OF POLITICAL ACTIVITY 279

WOMEN'S POLITICAL ACTIVITIES IN EXILE 286

WOMEN IN BURMA'S POLITICAL FUTURE 290

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 292

PDF (825K)
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS14.participation-in-politics.pdf

 

 

CONCLUSION

PDF (55K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS15.conclusion.pdf

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PDF (71K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS16.bibliography.pdf

 

 

ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE

PDF (11K)

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GS17.organizational-profile.pdf