Internally Displaced Persons



Damaging social change is going on in Burma due to the break-up of the village; families often send young males Rangoon in order to avoid military, forced labour, etc.


SLORC’s policy of social and political control over the people has forced many people to flee. This is nothing new and has been going on since the Ne Win Era, affecting millions of Burma’s citizens, with 2 million being displaced in the past six years alone. Sometimes they can find other villages or towns to hide in, where SLORC troops do not abuse the people as much; other times they find peace and sanctuary in the Liberated Areas among ethnic resistance groups. Still others are mercilessly dumped in other villages and told to survive there. The choice of becoming a refugee in one’s own country or abroad has little difference.


Most of the oppressed people do not want to leave Burma, but are forced to by constant harassment of ethnics, by the deprivation of any human rights, by the inability to sustain a livelihood due to the extortion of troops, by the destruction of their homes by SLORC for “infrastructure” projects or merely to drive the villagers away. The military to isolate and to ensure that insurgency groups do not have any support among the people. This lack of stability, for homes and welfare of common people, aims at strengthening SLORC to maintain control over the people and to consolidate power in the ethnic areas.




The SLORC apparatus in Arakan State is continuing their master plan of exterminating the Muslim community. On 11th November 1994, the authorities assisted by police and army encircled some Muslim villages under Mrohaung Township and called the heads of family to a place to inform them that the government had decided to acquire the landed properties and as such the villagers were required to pack their belongings within a short time. Not knowing what to do at the sudden short notice, the Muslim villagers started crying and packing whatever they could while their paddy and other cultivated land full of vegetables as well as cattle heads had remained where they were. Within a few hours, the local authorities brought some small country boats and ordered the villagers to board the boats. Ultimately, all such people from different villages were gathered at a certain place from where the Muslim villagers including women and children have been brought to Maungdaw via Buthidaung.


The villages recently evicted were from Kawalong village-tract inside Mrohaung Township which is a large ancient village-tract consisting of five villages with as many as 5,000 Rohingyas. Another village known as Mahamyatmuni Village, Kyauktaw Township, has reportedly 160 Muslim household families who were also brought down to Maungdaw Township. With a view not to draw the attention of passers-by and those staff members of the UN agencies operating in Arakan, the transportation of evicted people has usually been done at odd hours and upon arrival the evicted people were hurriedly distributed to different Muslim villages. In some cases, the authorities separated the children from their parents and sent them to distant villages as per their distribution plan creating pathetic situation there.


Since the start of eviction in November 1994 as many as 34 truck-loads of Muslim villagers from interior Arakan have been brought down to Maungdaw Township through different routes and they have since been distributed to Muslim villages in north Maungdaw with instructions to manage food and shelter for the internal refugees. It is estimated that about 3,400 Rohingyas were brought so far and there is no arrangement from the government side for their relief and rehabilitation.


Although there has been growing discontent among the Muslim of Maungdaw and Buthidaung over the heinous acts of the ruling SLORC, they have been watching the event silently because of helplessness and for fear of brutal wrath from the Na Sa Ka (Frontier Administration).




A Muslim village by the name of Fezipara which is located in the heart of Maungdaw Township with a population of approximately 3,000 has been under orders of eviction. The order was served verbally in the second week of October 1994 by the local administrative officials saying that the land was necessary for the development of the town.


It may be noted that the local authorities have since long used some tactics to harass the Muslims and at times squeezed money to undo concocted traps laid against the Muslim. In this particular case, it seems that the government is trying to evict the Muslims only because it is a part of a demuslimisation plan by the government and not solely because the authorities desperately need the land for the development of the town reasoned.




Because of SLORC troops' arbitrary accusation, arbitrary arrests and extra-judicial execution, more than 100 villagers, including women and children, from 30 villages in Kyauk Tagar, Shwe Kyin and Kyauk Kyi townships dare not live in their villages anymore and are taking refuge in the jungle, creating more of Burma's internally displaced persons. As they are in the jungles, many of the former villagers suffer from malaria and all faced with a constant shortage of food since their crops and traditional methods of gathering food have been disrupted.


[see also under “Forced Labour”, “Refugees”, “Forced Relocation” and “Eye-witness Accounts”, interview 1,7, 10, 33, 37-38, 41, 44-456, 58-59, 61, 66-67, 73, 79, 93, 100-105, 108-111, 114-115, 128]


List of Incidents


From 7 to 10 January, a villager from Sa Daw Kho Village, Taungoo District, was shot which caused him wounds. 8 cows, 3 pigs, 10 hens belong to the villagers in Si Daw Khao, Bu Sar Khee, Tha Kwee Soe, Saw Mu Dae, Thway Baw Dae villages were killed and 72 tins of rice was looted. Loss estimated at current prices is 464,000 Ks in cash. 15 huts located at different places were also reduced to ashes. [source: KNU]


On 9 January, IB 24 under the command of TOC 331 of LID 33, commanded by Maj Thaung Win entered Lay Kay Village, Thaton District. The troops burnt down houses belong to Toe Par Thwe, Kyaw Bu, Kor Ler, Por Ther Khin, Maung Nyunt Tin, Ti Kyaw Ko, Tee Ler Ner, Maung Kim and Naw Muh. They slaughtered an ox belonging to Ma Chaw, two oxen belonging to Tha Du Mo, an ox belonging to Maw Kwai, a cow belonging to Mor Than, one cow belonging to Maung Kyi Kot, and a buffalo belonging to Maung Nyunt Tin. [source: ABSDF/KNU]


On 11 January , SLORC troops from IB 739 and 234 looted various belongings from the local people in Pa Lay Sar Village, Taungoo District. Loss of the villagers estimated at 47,670 Ks in cash at current prices.


On 15 January, SLORC troops from IB 24 killed one goat, 4 pigs and looted rice from every house in Talai Kayin Village, Thaton District.


On 20 January, SLORC troops from Coy 3 of IB 240 raided Norng Sarng Village in Mong Young Parish in Hsenwi Township, and burnt down approximately 300 four-gallon tins of paddy owned by Ai Kham Lu. Damages are estimated at 63,000 Ks. Moreover, soldiers also sequestrated a buffalo of the victim, worth 13,500 Ks. [source: SHRF]


On 20 January, Coy 5 of IB 69 led by Maj Myint Kyi returned to Na Moop Village. They opened fire in an attempt to make the villagers afraid of them and when the villagers fled the SLORC troops robbed the property of the people. The following losses were suffered for a total of 150,850 Ks; Pu Loi Sarng Yern (126,500 Ks), Awk Tsarng Kham (19,000 Ks), Ea Luen (2,050 Ks) and Sarng Yee (3,300 Ks). [source: SHRF]


On 21 January, SLORC IB 39 reached Shah Lo Village, Taungoo Township, and stole property of Mahn Sun worth 700,000 Ks. SLORC troops then burned down his house.


On 23 January, IB 73, under Southern Command, came to Kyauk Tan and Hsaw Wah Der villages in Nyaunglebin Township and ordered the villagers to leave the village immediately. The soldiers then burned down all their homes, and they were not allowed to return to their fields to harvest their rice. [source: ABSDF/KNU]


On 23 January, a military column from SLORC IB 39 robbed all the property and gold belonging to a trader named Mhan Son from Shar Lo Village in Taungoo District and burned down his house. The loss is estimated at 700,000 Ks in cash at current prices.


On 2 February, 1st Column of IB 30, led by Maj Yee Aye, burned down 10 farms of the villagers in Blar Poe Htar Village, Shwe Kyin Township, Pegu Division.


On 19 February, SLORC troops from IB 84 led by Coy Comdr Nyo Soe Moe, under the command of LID 99, shot a buffalo belong to Saw Than Nyunt of Talai Kayin Village in Thaton District. SLORC troops also razed the victim's sugar cane mill and another house belong to San Myint Par.


On 21 February No 5th Column of IB 32 led by Capt My Lwin Theta Lwin entered Taree Hta Gaun Village, Kya In Seik Gyi Township, Karen State, and razed houses of 4 villagers to the ground: Moo Pu Kyaw lost his rice barn, 120 tins of paddy, betel nut crop, and cash and belongings worth an estimated 300,000 Ks; U Talay Heh lost his rice barn, 160 tins of paddy, stored betel nut and pepper, 15,000 Ks cash and 200,000 Ks worth of belongings, and 2 pepper plantations were also burned; Ah Pu lost 80 tins of paddy and belongings worth over 37,000 Ks; and Naw Paw Ser lost her rice barn, 260 tins of paddy, betel nut crop and over 500,000 Ks worth of belongings.


On 26 February, military column 1 & 2 from SLORC IB 61 burned down one house in Ma U Yar Village in Ye township, Mon State and robbed properties estimated at 1,000,000 Ks at current prices, including 400,000 Ks in cash and 7 tickles of gold.


SLORC troops from IB 26, 39, 48 and 73, under the Southern Command, forcibly confiscated land and farms of local peasants and branded them as an area belonging to the military. In 1992, an estimated 200 acres of farming land of the peasants in Chan Si, Lan Khwe, Zee Phyu Gone, Pyin Kan of Nyaunglebin District, Pegu Division, were confiscated. In 1994, SLORC intends to extend the area to 700 acres. Peasants were forced to plough in that this confiscated land and then were demanded to pay taxes for working the land. Moreover, peasants were also forced to collect timber and bamboo for the troops. Each household in Shar Si Bo Parish was levied 2 sacks of rice by SLORC troops.


On 28 February, Lt Sein Win of SLORC IB 79 ordered the people of Thayaw Mae Village, Thaton District, to vacate the village immediately. Their houses were then destroyed by the soldiers. On 3 March, all people in Kyat Chay Kat Village were also ordered to vacate their village immediately and had their houses destroyed by soldiers of IB 79.


On 24 March, a military column led by Capt Tin Maung Nyunt from SLORC IB 101 reached Kyauk Leik Village in Palaw Township of Tenasserim Division. There were about 40 households in this Karen village. Then 10 minutes of fighting broke out between SLORC troops and KNU forces. When the fighting subsided, 2 houses belong to U Aung Myat and U Kyar Aye, both Karens, located nearby the battlefield,
were razed to the ground by SLORC troops. U Aung Myat and his wife were in the field when their house was on fire. All property inside their house, including 31 baskets of rice in the storeroom, were destroyed. U Kyar Aye, a widower, who lives with his 4 sons and 1 daughter, lost all their property inside the house and an amount of paper money. While the house was on fire, his youngest daughter, 23, was found and arrested by troops. She was released 2 days later only when the village headman gave a certain amount of bribe and a guarantee for her. As the victims were very poor, they cannot afford to reconstruct their houses. The victims had to stay with their relatives in other villagers as SLORC troops threatened and prohibited them from reconstructing their houses. [source: ABSDF]


On 6 April, in Saam San Village, Hsa Nein Parish of Parng Long Township, the combined forces of IB 246, 513 and 515 carried out a pillage and plunder action. 31 households were burnt down and destroyed after troops looted private property, including cattle, resulting in approximately 205,000 Ks worth of damage to personal property, homes and livestock caused by these soldiers. [source: SHRF]


In April the SLORC army confiscated paddy fields without compensation around the Kyawk Sit Pong village, Monywa township, Sagaing Division to set up an artillery corps. Villagers from 20 nearby villages were forced to provide labour for that new military base. 2000 acres were confiscated from farmers of Kyawk Kar and Tha Naung Win villages along the road from Monywa to Kyauk Kar village without compensation for a planned air force base. 5000 acres were confiscated for the construction of the North Western Military Command in the north of the Monywa's road to Ye Oo in the past three years. The entire Kha Wea Kyin village was wiped out for this camp. [source: ABSDF/ABSL/NLD-LA]


In May 1994 SLORC threatened forced eviction of entire Muslim population of 170 households in Nalapara Township, Arakan State.


On 13 May , at 3:00 p.m., SLORC troops from IB 516 under the command of 99 LID burnt down Kung Mong Village,  Nam Sam Township, southern Shan State. 12 houses, which had belonged to Lung Tsing-da, Lung Laing, Lung Eung, Sai Fiya, Lung Sarn Pe, Lung Kung-na, Htun Nyunt, Sai Nyo, Nang Yee, Lung Yong, Sai Marng and Viling, and one hydro-powered rice mill were razed to the ground with detrimental effects to livelihood and well-being of the entire community. [source: SHRF]


At Mat La Daw village in Kyauk Kyi township of Pegu division, there was a market for trading goods between the plains and hill regions, where the traders came to sell rice and take back betel nut and other products. In the latter half of January, SLORC troops forced all 34 shops in this market to close down and drove the shopkeepers to the plains.


On 13 May, a combined military column of SLORC troops from 55 LID, LIB 247 & 248 and IB 518 raided Worng Koong Nue Village, Wong Norng Parish, Mong Nai Township, and torched houses and belongings owned by Thein Ngwe (losses of approximately 262,000 Ks), Loong Yoong (35,000 Ks), Sai Long (12,450 Ks), Nang Yung (19,300 Ks), Loong Tsitda (178,200 Ks), Pi Kann (82,650 Ks), Loong Eung (10,300 Ks), Pi Teeya (31,700 Ks), Nang Ing (8,390 Ks) and Nai Yung (5,450 Ks). [source: SHRF]


On the same day the same troops invaded Worn Yon village in the same parish and took away property from Loong Saling (10,950 Ks), Sitda Nu (5,030 Ks), Loong Khe (6,280 Ks), Pi Ling Nya (4,560 Ks), Loong Thak Swe (900 Ks), Pi Ti (1,175 Ks), Daw Swe (870 Ks), Pa Hkam Ong (3,260 Ks), Pa Hurng (690 Ks), Headman Loong Vi (425 Ks), Daw Kya (6,000 Ks), Pa Tun (2,400 Ks), Nang Swe (1,130 Ks), Korliya (600 Ks), Pa Lu (6,000 Ks) and Sorliya (6,000 Ks). [source: SHRF]


On 5 July SLORC troops from IB 73 and 26 burned down the hut belonged to Saw Baw from Da Kaw Bwa Village, Mone Township and took everything they found there.


On 1 August, SLORC troops burned down the Akha Village of Wan Ya Aye (near Tachilek) and drove out 50-60 families living there after accusing them of supporting the rebels. [source: SHRF]


On 1 August, SLORC Anti-Insurgent Group (AIG) soldiers demanded 5,000 Ks from Hla Aung Ker Village, Thaton District. They said if the village didn't provide the money, they would order the villagers to move out of the village and kill some of them. [source: KYO]


170 households of Muslims were evicted at gunpoint from Minbya Township, Arakan State, on 25 July. They were ordered to pack their belongings and to board six engine-boats. They were taken to Maungdaw Township where they were dumped on the local population with no food, financial assistance or shelter.


On 2 November, more than 60 SLORC troops from IB 62 led by Capt Aye Min reached Kaw Pauk Village, Kyaikmaraw Township, and forced the villagers to abandon the village. Nai Lun (25) was shot in abdomen and seriously wounded as a result. [source: NMSP]