Professor Emeritus, Rutgers University






A. Books, monographs and special publications written or edited:

l. Burma/Myanmar-A Self-study Guide to Burma's Geography, peoples and Culture, History, Social Issues, Economics, Politics and Foreign Affairs. Washington, Department of State, 2001.


2. Ed. and Contributor, Political Legacy of Aung San. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1972; revised and enlarged, 1993.


3. Ed. and Contributor, Independent Burma at Forty Years: Six Assessments. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1989.


4. Burmese Politics: The Dilemma of National Unity. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1980.


5. Burma: Military Rule and the Politics of Stagnation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977.


6. Two Papers on Burma. Canberra: Department of Political Science and Social Change, Australian National University, 1986.


7. Ed. and Contributor, The Future of Burma in Perspective: A Symposium. Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1974.


8. Ed. and Contributor, Southeast Asia in World War II: Four Essays. New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1966.



B. Articles in Books, Monographs and Journals:

1. "Prospect for the Democratic Transition in Burma." Legal Issues on Burma Journal. No. 12, August, 2002. Pp. 3-16


2. "Burma and the World: A Decade of Foreign Policy Under the State Law and Order Restoration Council," Robert Taylor (ed) Burma: Political Economy Under Military Rule. London: Hurst & Co. 2001, pp. 119-136.


3. "Some Thoughts on Burma-Thai Relations," Legal Issues on Burma Journal. No. 6, Sept. 2000, pp. 1-15.


4. "Burma's Struggle for Democracy: The Army Against the People." R.J. May & Viberto Selochan (eds), The Military and Democracy in Asia and the Pacific. Bathurst: Crawford House Publishing, 1998. pp. 69-87.


5. "The Evolution and Salience of Burma's National Culture," R. Rotberg (ed) Burma: Prospects for a Democratic Future. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. pp. 11-32.


6. "East Asia: A Year of Uneven Progress," New York: Freedom House, Freedom in the World: 1997-1998. 1998. pp. 44-54.


7. "The Idea of Freedom in Burma and the Political Thought of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi," David Kelly and Anthony Reid (eds), Asian Freedoms: The Idea of Freedom in East and Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 187-203. [revised, shortened and retitled, "The Idea of Freedom in Burma" Richardo Blaug and John Schwarzmantel, Democracy: A Reader. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000. pp. 430-434. Published originally in a shortened form in Pacific Affairs, Summer 1996.]


8. "Fifty Years of Failure in Burma," Michael Brown & Sumit Ganguily (eds) Government, Politics and Ethnic Relations in Asia and the Pacific. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1997. pp. 167-196.


9. "The Civil War, The Minorities and Burma's New Politics." Peter Carey (ed), Burma: The Challenge of Change in a Divided Society. New York, St. Martin's Press, 1997. pp. 129-156.


10. "Federalism as a Solution in the Ethnic Problem in Burma." Gunther Bachler (ed) Federalism Against Ethnicity. Zurich, Verlag Rugger, 1997. pp. 261-268.


11. "Burma's Uneven Struggle," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1996. pp. 88-103.


12. "Change in Burma," Current History, Dec. 1995, 440-443 plus.


13. "Some Concluding Thoughts," Norma Mahmoud (ed) Rethinking Political Development in Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur, University of Malaya Press, 1994. pp. 147-155.


14. "Introduction," Government Printing Office, NCGUB, Marc Weller, (ed) Democracy and Politics in Burma. Thailand, 1993, pp. 1-7.


15. "Burma in International Perspective." Asian Survey. XXVII, 10, (1992) pp. 951-963.


16."Minorities in Burma: Civil War, Peace and a Responsible Role for the International Community." (in German) Birma: Ringen Um Eine Demokratice Und Frieden Mit Den Minderheiten. Frankfort: edp. DOKUMENTATION, 43/91 Oct. 1991, pp. 50-60.


17. "Myanmar (Burma) Six Domestic Challenges in the 1990s." Rohana Mahmood & Hans-Joachim Esderts (eds) Myanmar and the Wider World. Kuala Lumpur, Institute of Strategic and International Studies, (1991) 11-22.


18."Aung San Suu Kyi: Is She Burma's Woman of Destiny?" Asian Survey, XXX, 10, (1990), pp. 1007-1019. [revised and published in Aung San Suu Kyi, Freedom From Fear and Other Writings. London: Penguin, 1991.pp. 267-283.]


19. "Introduction," Bertil Lintner, Outrage: Burma's Struggle for Democracy. Hong Kong: Review Publishing Company Ltd. 1989. pp.5-6.


20. "Civil War and Rebellion in Burma," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, XXI, 1, (1990) 114-135.


21. "Ethnic Protest in Burma: Its Causes and Solutions. Rajeshwari Ghose (ed) Protest Movements in South and Southeast Asia. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian studies, 1987. Pp. 81-84.


22. "From a Political to an Administrative State, 1948-1988. Whatever Happened to Democracy?" in Josef Silverstein (ed) Independent Burma at Forty Years. op.cit, pp. 7-18.


23. "National Unity in Burma: Is it Possible? Kusuma Snitwongse & Sukhumbhand Paribatra, Durable Stability in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast East Asian Studies, 1986. Pp. 75-95.


24. "Burma in 1985: A Nation on Hold." Southeast Asian Affairs. 1986. pp. 55-67.


25. "The Other Side of Burma's Struggle for Independence," Pacific Affairs, Spring, LVIII, 1, 1985. Pp. 98-108.


26. "Burma Through the Prism of Western Literature." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, XVI, 1985. pp. 129-140.


27. "Burma: a Time for Decision. Current History, 497, (1984) Pp.442-445.


28. "The Military and Foreign Policy in Burma and Indonesia." Asian Survey, XXII, 3, 1982. 278-291.


29. "Burma in 1981: The Changing of the Guardians Begins." Asian Survey, XXII, 2, 1982, pp. 180-190.


30. "Burma in 1980: an Uncertain Balance Sheet." Asian Survey, XXI, 2, 212-222.


31. "Minority Problems in Burma Since 1962." F.K. Lehman (ed) Military Rule in Burma Since 1962. Singapore: Maruzen Asia, 1981, pp. 51-58.


32. "U Thant's Place in History." Asia Supplement No. 3, Spring, 1977. pp. 1-16.


33. "Students in Southeast Asian Politics, Pacific Affairs, 1976, vol 49, pp. 189-212.


34. "Change or the Same: the New Constitution of Burma in Action. Spectrum, 1974, III, 1, 51-57. [revised and republished under the new title, "From Soldiers to Civilians: The New Constitution in Action." Josef Silverstein (ed) The Future of Burma in Perspective (op .cit.) pp. 80-92.]


35. "Burma," R.M. Smith (ed.) Southeast Asia: Documents, Political Development and Change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974. pp. 87- 163.


36. "Forward," Albert D. Moscotti, Burma Policy and the Nationalist Movement in Burma, 1917-1937. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, l974, pp. vii-x.


37. "Introduction," Ma Mya Sein, The Administration of Burma. Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press, 1973, pp. vii-xv.


38. "Forward," Lau and Lee, New Directions in the International Relations of Southeast Asia. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1973. 2 vols. pp. v- x.


39. "The Federal Dilemma in Burma," John T. MacAllister Jr. (ed) Southeast Asia: the Politics of National Integration. New York: Random House, 1973, pp. 432-449. Article reprinted from Far Eastern Survey, XXVIII, 7 1959.


40. "A New Vehicle on Burma's Road to Socialism," Asia, No. 29, Spring 1973.


41. "Burma: Ne Win's Revolution Considered," S.N. Eisenstadt, Political Sociology, New York: Basic Books, 1971. pp, 609-613. reprinted from Asian Survey, 1966. VI, 2.


42. "Burmese Students in a Changing Society, Seymour M. Lipset and Philip G. Altbachs (eds) Students in Revolt. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1969. pp. 334-347. Reprinted from Daedalus, No 97, I, 1968. Also reprinted in Philip G. Altbach (ed) The Student Revolution. Bombay: Lalvani Publishing House, 1970.


43. "Burmese and Malaysian Student Politics: A Preliminary Comparative Inquiry." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 1970, I, l, 3-22.


44. "Political Dialogue in Burma: A New Turn on the Road to Socialism," Asian Survey, 1970, X, 2, pp. 133-142.


45. "The Burmese Socialist Program Party: A One-Plus Party System." Journal of Southeast Asian History, VIII, 1967, pp.8-18.


46. "Military Rule in Burma," Current History, No. 52, 1967, pp. 41-47.


47. "Problems in Burma: Economic, Political and Diplomatic." Asian Survey, VII,2, 1967, pp. 117-125.


48. "The Importance of the Japanese Occupation in Southeast Asia to the Political Scientist.," Josef Silverstein (ed) Southeast Asia in World War II, op.cit. pp. 1-12.


49. "The Minami Organ: A Bridgehead in Burmese-Japanese Relations," United Asia, Sept-Oct. 1965, pp. 361-366.


50. "Politics and Railroads in Burma and India," Journal of Southeast Asian History,V, 1964; reprinted from the Journal of the Burma Research Society, XLV. 1962. pp. 78-89.


51. "Burma, G. McT. Kahin, (ed) Governments and Politics of Southeast Asia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1959; revised and enlarged, 1964. pp. 75- 179.


52. "First Steps on the Burma Road to Socialism," Asian Survey, IV, 1964. pp. 716-722.


53. " From Democracy to Dictatorship in Burma," Current History. No. 46, Feb. 1964 pp. 83-88.


54. "Politics in the Shan State: The Question of Secession from the Union of Burma., Journal of Asian Studies, XVIII, (Nov.1958) pp. 43-57.


55. "Parties, Politics and the National Election in Burma." Far Eastern Survey, XXV, 12, 1956, pp. 177-184.


56. "Transportation in Burma During the Japanese Occupation. Journal of the Burma Research Society, XXXIX, 1956, pp. 1-17.





with Julian Wohl, University of Toledo.


1. "The Burmese University Student: An Approach to Personality and Subculture," Public Opinion Quarterly, XXX, 2, 1966, pp. 237-248.


2. "University Students and Politics in Burma," Pacific Affairs, XXX111, 1, 1964, pp. 50-65.


with Lynn Silverstein


1."David Marshall and Jewish Emigration from China. China Quarterly, 75, Sept.1978, pp. 647-654.





1. Burma, Academic American Encyclopedia, 1965.


2. Burma, Encyclopaedia Americana, 1991, 1990.


3. Burma, Collier's Yearbook, 1990, 1989, 1988.


4. Southeast Asia, Political Handbook of the World, 1979.


5. Laos, Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th Ed. 1974.


6.. The Vietnam War, Junior Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1972.


7. Burma, The Far East and Australasia. 1972 and onward through 1991 with annual updates.





1. "Its Time To Begin a True Dialogue in Burma," Bangkok Post, March 10, 1994 (hereafter cited as BP).


2. "Some Thoughts About the Political Changes in Burma, BP, Feb. 1994.


3. "For the Minorities: A Reckoning." International Herald Tribune, Dec. 23, 1993.(hereafter cited as IHT)


4. "U.S. Could Pressure SLORC to Change." The Nation (Bangkok), Aug. 10, 1993.(hereafter cited as TN).


5. "Reshaping the Battle of Burma." IHT, Aug. 25, 1992.


6. "Recognizing Burma's Democrats." Asian Wall Street Journal, Aug. 24, 1992. (hereafter cited as AWSJ)


7. "The Burmese junta Tried Cosmetics," IHT, May 18, 1992.


8. "Burma: 30 years Under an Iron Fist," IHT. March 28, 1992.


9. "Die Achillesferse Der Diktatur ist die Internationale Anerkennung," Frankfurter Rundschau. Oct. 24, 1991.


10. "The Outside World Can help Burmese to Break Free," IHT, Oct. 18, 1991.


11. "Lies, Damn Lies and Burma's Junta," AWSJ, May 27, 1991.


12. "Take up the Cause of a Free Burma," IHT, July 19, 1991.


13. "Burma: Deny Legitimacy to the Discredited Junta," IHT. May 27(?), 1991.


14. "New Burmese Unity rekindles hope for Democracy," Asia Wall Street Journal Weekly. Feb. 11, 1991.(hereafter cited as AWSJW).


15. "Change may be Coming to Burma," IHT. Feb. 7, 1991.


16. "The People of Burma Wait Impatiently for Change," World and I, Vol 10, Oct.1990. 112-118.


17. "The Burmese People have Spoken, But Does the Military Hear? IHT, June 7 1990.


18. "Don"t Be Fooled by Burma's Election." IHT, May 15, 1990.


19. "The Shadows in Burma Aren't from Democracy, IHT January 26, 1990.


20. "Burma: a Year after Crackdown; Hope Remains Dim," IHT, September 18, 1990.


21. "Burma: U.S. Policy Hasn't Worked." IHT, June 8, 1989.


22. "Burma's Army Won't be Written Out of the Script," IHT, Oct. 8-9, 1988.


23. "Amid Unrest, Burma's Economic Policy Shift Goes Unnoticed," AWSJW, Sept. 5, 1988.


24. "Foreign Mediation Could Help End Burma's Civil War, Far Eastern Economic Review, May 19, 1988, pp. 28-29.


25. "Clouds of Unrest Darken Over Burma," AWSJW, May 9, 1988.


26. "Is Burma Serious About Reform? AWSJW. Oct. 12, 1987.


27. "Facts and Fiction of Burma's Economy," AWSJW, Apr. 20, 1987.


28. "U.S. Dirties its Hands in Burma's Wars." AWSJW, Aug. 11, 1988.


29. "An Opportunity for Peace in Burma," AWSJW, May 27, 1988.


30. "Looking Past opium in Burma's Battles," AWSJ, Nov. 20, 1984. Reprinted in Wall Street Journal, August 6, 1984. Reprinted in AWSJW, Aug. 13, 1984.


31. "Burmese Politics: Tremors at the Top." AWSJ May 7, 1984. Reprinted in AWSJW, May 11, l984.






1.Asian Institute Foundation, Bangkok, Institute for Policy Research and Information and Resource Center, Singapore, "Constructive Engagement in Asia: Economic and Political Dimensions." Aug. 20-23, 1997, Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel, Bangkok. Presented paper: Constructive Engagement with Burma: Has it Worked in the Past? Will it Work in the Future?


2.International Convention for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma, Speaker's Hall, Constitution Club, Rafi Marg, New Delhi, January 4- 6, 1996. I read a paper on Constitutional Issues in Burma.


3. World Peace Foundation, "Conference on the Political and Economic Reconstruction of Burma," Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. December 5-7, 1996. I read a paper entitled, The Evolution and Salience of Burma's National Political Culture.


4.Institute of Strategic and International Studies, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Feb. 14, 1996. Lecture to guests of the Institute. Burma: Play the Waiting Game.


5. Graduate Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Toronto and Canadian Friends of Burma, "Symposium on Politics and Economy of Burma Today." Feb. 17-18, 1995, University College, Croft Chapter House, University of Toronto. I read a paper, The 1994 UN Resolution on Burma: What the Secretary General Can Do.


6. Asian Studies Group, Canadian Friends of Burma, Ottawa, Tairex Exploration Ltd. Calgary and Religious Studies Dept. University of Calgary, "Burma Into the 21st Century," April 1, 1995. University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. I gave the keynote address: Burma Into the 21st Century.


7. Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung and the National Council of the Union of Burma, International Seminar on the Future Federal Constitution of Burma." Bayview Park Hotel, Manila, Philippines, Oct. 23-28, 1995.

I gave a paper on Draft of the Federal Constitution of the Democratic Alliance of Burma.


8. The Australian-Burma Council and the Research Institute for Asia and Pacific. University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.. Seminar on "Burma's Democracy Movement ," July 8, 1994. I gave keynote address, The Political Situation in Burma Today.


9. Humanities Resource Center, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Conference on "Idea of freedom in Asia." July 4-6, 1994. I read paper, The Idea of Freedom in Burma and the Political Thought of Aung San Suu Kyi.


10. U.S. Department of State, Meridian International Center, Washington. "Conference on Narcotics in Burma," September 17, 1993. I read a paper. Building on Brang Seng's Kachin Independence Army Initiative.


11 Carter Center, Atlanta, GA. "Conference on Resolving Intra-national Conflicts." Feb. 17-19, 1993. I was the commentator on the Burma paper.


12. University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada. Conference on "The Political Economy of Southeast Asian Foreign Policy in the 'New World Order." Oct. 29- Nov.2, 1992. I read a paper: Burmese Foreign Policy.


13. U.S. Defense Intelligence College, Ninth Annual Conference on "Ethnic Conflict: Challenges to U.S. Security? June 22-24, 1992. I read paper, Ethnic Conflict in Southeast Asia.


14. Friedrich-Neumann-Stiftung, International Conference on "Constitution Drafting for the future Union of Burma. Chiang Mai, Thailand, June 10-19, 1992. I lead discussion and offered a country report at the outset of the conference.


15. Working Group for Indigenous Peoples and X Minus Y Conference. "Toward a Democratic and Sustainable Burma." Amsterdam, Holland, May 30-31, 1992. I read paper, Burma in an International Perspective.


16. Carter Center, Atlanta, GA, Conference on Resolving Intranational Conflict, Jan. 15-17, 1992. I read a paper, Burma: An Action Paper.


17. St. Anthony's College, Oxford University, Conference on Burma (Myanmar): Challenges and Opportunities for the 1990s. Dec. 13-15, 1991. I read paper; Civil War, the Minorities and the New Politics of Burma.


18. Strategic and Security Studies, University of Kabangsaan, Malaysia Workshop on Rethinking Political Development in Southeast Asia. Kota Kinabalu, East Malaysia, May 10-13, 1991. I critiqued paper on Burma and summed up at the end of the conference.


19. Defense Intelligence College and U.S. Pacific Command Conference on "Changing East-West Relations; Implications for East and Southeast Asia. Honolulu, April 22-24, 1991. I participated in panel on simmering insurgencies.


20. Evangelische Akademie Hofgeismar, Germany. Conference on "Myanmar/Birma: Das Ringen um Demokratie und Frieden mit dem Mindezheiten. March 22-24, 1991. I read paper, The Minorities in Burma: Civil War, Peace and a Responsible Role for the International Community.


21. The Asia Society/Southern California Center, UCLA International Students and Overseas Program and the Burma Forum. UCLA Faculty Center, Feb. 23, 1991. Conference on "Prospects for liberalization, Political Change and Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar." I read paper on The Provisional Government, Civil War and International Involvement, or the Lack of It.


22. The Forum, Institute of Politics, J.F.Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Harvard University Forum on "Why is the World Ignoring Burma?: The Crisis in Amnesty International's Priority Country in 1991." I spoke on The Provisional Government of Burma's Challenge to the Military Dictatorship.


23. Institut Kajian strategik Dan Antarabangsa, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. "International Seminar on Asean and Wider Southeast Asia." July 11-13, 1990. I read paper: Myanmar (Burma's) Six Domestic Challenges in the 1990s.


24. Association for Asian Studies, Chicago Ill. April 7, 1990. I read paper, Aung San Suu Kyi: Is She Burma's Woman of Destiny?


25. Albert Einstein Institution, Boston. "National Conference on Nonviolent Sanctions in Conflict and Defense." Feb. 8-11, 1990. I participated in panel on Strategic Analysis of Nonviolent Struggle.


26. International Institute for Strategic Studies, International Security in Southeast Asia. "Current Problems and Prospects for Resolution." July 3-6, 1989. I critiqued the Burma paper.


27. U.S. Defense Intelligence College and U.S. Pacific Command Conference on "Philippines in a Changing Southeast Asia." Honolulu, Feb.27-Mar. 1, 1989. I read a paper, Insurgency and Revolution in Burma.


28. International Seminar on the Current Situation in Burma. Bonn, Germany, July 22-24, 1988. I read a paper, Burma: July 1988: an Overview.


29. Association for Asian Studies, San Francisco, March 25, 1988. I read a paper: From a Political to an Administrative State: Whatever Happened to Democracy?


30. Aspen International Conference on Burma Studies. Wye Plantation, Maryland, June 23-25, 1986. I was a discussion leader.


31. Conference on Protest Movements in South and Southeast Asia. "Traditional and Modern Idiom of Expression." Centre for Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, Jan. 6-8, 1986. I read a paper, Protest in Burma: Its Causes and Solutions.


32. Conference on Contemporary state in Southeast Asia, Center for Asian Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. April 25-26, 1986. I read a paper, The Military as Modernizer: A Report on the Burmese Experience.


33. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Singapore, "Conference on the View Beyond Armed Instability." Dec. 11-13, 1985. I read a paper, National Unity in Burma: Is it Possible?


34. Mid-Atlantic Association for Asian Studies Annual Meeting, Washington. Oct. 25, 1985. I read a paper, The Fifth Party Congress in Burma.


35. Mid-Atlantic Association for Asian Studies Annual Meeting, Princeton. Nov. 9, 1984. I read a paper on Problems of Political Succession in Burma.


36. Association for Asian Studies, Chicago. April 2-4, 1982. I read a paper: Burma Through the Prism of Western Literature.


37. Netaji Institute of Asian Studies, Calcutta. Jan. 24-26., 1982. Read two papers at its opening. Southeast Asia Today and Southeast Asia between Three Powers, Why not Four?


38. East Asia Institute, Columbia University. Mar. 2, 1982. Read paper: Where is Vietnam in U.S. Policy?


39. University of Connecticut History Department Colloquium. April 30, 1981. Read paper: The Military and Foreign Policy in Burma and Indonesia.


40. Association of Asian Studies, Washington, March 21-23, 1980. Read paper: Minority Problems in Burma Since 1962.


41. Association of Asian Studies, Los Angeles, April 1, l979. Read paper: David Marshall and the Working of the Rendall Constitution.


42. Asia Society Symposium Commemorating the 68th Birthday of U Thant. United Nations, January 21, 1977. Read paper: U Thant's Place in History.


43. Ohio university Center for Southeast Asian Studies, "National Conference on an Emerging Center for World Influence." Athens, Ohio, May 7-8, 1976. Read paper, Burma and Malaysia: Two Approaches to National Integration.


44. International Studies Association, Washington. Feb. 20-23, 1975. Read paper; Students and Politics in Southeast Asia.