Conflict and Displacement in Karenni: 
The Need for Considered Responses 

Authors: Vicky Bamforth, Steven Lanjouw, Graham Mortimer
Source/publisher: Burma Ethnic Research Group (BERG)
Date of publication: May 2000

This document is in 3 separate pdf files:

FILE 1 (Cover and Contents): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-1.pdf  (472K)

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FILE 2 (pages 1-47):  http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-2.pdf
  (782K) 

pg 1: Preface
pg 3: Acronyms
pg 5: Executive Summary
pg 10: Maps 

1. OVERVIEW pg 11
pg 11: 1.1 Boundaries 1.2 Climate
Pg 12 1.3 Physical Features
pg 13: 1.4 Population
pg 15: 1.5 Ethnic Groups in Karenni 
pg 20: 1.6 Gender Roles in Karenni; 1.7 Agriculture, Land Distribution and Patterns of Recourse
pg 23: 1.8 Resources 
pg 25: 1.9 Water; 1.10 Communication, Trade and Transport

2. CONFLICT IN KARENNI pg 27
pg 27: 2.1 A History of Conflict  2.1.1 The Pre-Colonial Period 
pg 28: 2.1.2 The Colonial Period  
pg 30: 2.1.3 Independence in Burma and the Outbreak of Civil War in the Karenni States 
pg 32: 2.2 State and Non-State Actors including Armed Groups and Political Parties
pg 33: 2.2.1 The Role of the Tatmadaw 
pg 34: 2.2.2 The Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) 
pg 35: 2.2.3 The Karenni National People’s Liberation Front (KNPLF); 2.2.4 The Shan State Nationalities Liberation Organisation (SSNLO)
pg 36: 2.2.5 The Kayan New Land Party (KNLP);  2.2.6 The NDF and CPB Alliances and their Impact in Karenni
pg 37:  2.3 War in the Villages
pg 39: 2.4 The Formation of Splinter Groups in the 1990s; 2.5 The Economics of War
pg 41: 2.5.1 The Relationship between Financing the War and Exploitation of Natural Resources
pg 42: 2.6 The Course of the War 
pg 45: 2.7 Cease-fires 45

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FILE 3 (pages 48-128):  http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-3.pdf (1300K)

3. CONFLICT INDUCED DISPLACEMENTS IN KARENNI
pg 48: 3.1 Defining Population Movements 48; 3.2 Conflict Induced Displacement 
pg 50: 3.3 Displacement in 1996 
pg 51: 3.4 Displacements by Township 
pg 55: 3.5 Relocation Policy; 3.6 Services in Relocation Sites 
pg 59: 3.7 Smaller Relocation Sites and so-called ‘Gathering Villages’ 
pg 60: 3.8 Displacement into Shan State 
pg 61: 3.9 Displacement as a Passing Phenomenon 
pg 62: 3.10 Displacement, Resettlement and Transition 
pg 63: 3.11 Women outside Relocation Sites 

4. OTHER FORMS OF DISPLACEMENT 
pg 64: 4.1 Development Induced Displacement 
pg 67:  4.1.1 Displacements in Loikaw City 
pg 69: 4.1.2 Confiscation of Land by the Tatmadaw  
4.2 Displacement as a Result of Resource Scarcity 
pg 70: 4.2.1 Food Scarcity 
pg 71: 4.2.2 Water Shortages
pg 73: 4.3 Voluntary Migrations

5. HEALTH AND EDUCTION NEEDS AND RESPONSES, p75
pg 76: 5.1 Health Policy; 5.2 Health Services 
pg 81: 5.3 Health Status of the Population 
|pg 82: 5.3.1 Communicable Diseases 
pg 84: 5.3.2 Nutrition
pg 85: 5.3.3 Reproductive and Women’s Health; 5.3.4 Landmine Casualties 
pg 86: 5.3.5 Iodine Deficiency and Goitre; 5.3.6 Vitamin A Deficiency;  5.3.7 Water and Sanitation 
pg 87: 5.4 Responses to Health Needs;  5.5 Education Policy; 
pg 88: 5.6 Educational Services and Coverage; 
pg 88: 5.6.1 Traditional Attitudes to Education 
pg 89: 5.6.2 Educational Services in Karenni 
pg 94 5.7 Responses to Educational Needs 
pg 94; 5.7.1 Responses from the Thai-Burma border;  5.7.2 Responses by International Humanitarian Agencies from Inside Burma


6. CONCLUSIONS pg 96

APPENDICES pg 101
pg 102: Appendix 1, A Comparison of Populations in Relocation Sites in Karenni 
pg 103: Appendix 2, Refugee Arrivals at the Thai Border 
pg 105: Appendix 3, Displacements by Township 
pg 128: Appendix 4, Examples of Population Movements during the Displacement, Resettlement and Transition Period