Language use and policy in a linguistically
fragmented refugee community

R Sproat

November, 2004



Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of
Applied Linguistics in the Division of Linguistics and Psychology, Macquarie University.


Table of contents
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/ch0_frontstuff_5407-ocr.pdf (168K)
List of tables v
List of figures vii
Acknowledgements viii
Note on terminology ix
Acronyms and abbreviations xii
Map: Burma, showing Karenni state xiii
Abstract xv

Chapter 1: Burma and Karenni: nation-building and language
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/ch1_background_5407.pdf (493K)
1 Introduction 1
2 Linguistic unification in Burma 4
3 Karenni state, ethnicity and languages 9
4 Refugees, camps and Burmese political organisations 14
5 Opposition language policy 17
6 Language policy of the Karenni National Progressive Party 19
7 Karenni orthography 21

Chapter 2: Language use in a Karenni refugee camp
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/ch2_research_5129.pdf (718K)
1 Research questions 26
2 Participants 26
3 Methodology 28
4 Length of study, hours of observation and number of interviews 32
5 Data collection: procedures and reliability 34
6 Results 37

Schools 37
Meetings 43
Places of worship 45
Shops 48
Clinics 49

Chapter 3: Discussion 53
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/ch3_discussion_5128.pdf (693K)

Conclusion 67


Appendices

1.Karenni independence 71
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/appendix1_KarenniIndependence_5129.pdf (398K)


2.The Karenni school system 75
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/appendix2_KarenniSchoolSys_5129.pdf (399K)


3.Data collection issues and procedures 79
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/appendix3_dataCollectionIssues_5129.pdf (542K)
1. Observation versus self-reported data 79
2. Approach to sampling 81
3.Data collection by community members 82


4 Quality of the data: an analysis of inter-observer reliability 85
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/appendix4_qualityOfData_5129.pdf (704K)

1. Rationale 85
2. Data available for investigating inter-observer reliability 89
3. Time slices and chunks 91
4. Critical and non-critical observation categories 94
5. Small and empty comparison datasets 94
6. The correlations 97
7. Exclusion of observer b's data 108
8. Inter-observer reliability at shops and clinics 108
9.Further questions about clinic exit interviews 112


5.Forms used in the study 115
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/appendix5a_forms_5129.pdf (620K)

Burmese forms 135
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/appendix5b_Burmeseforms_5129.pdf (1.3MB)



Bibliography 143
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Bibliography_5129.pdf (414K)