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Title: Rohingya: Hate speech, lies and media misinformation - How a vicious media campaign has intensified the pressure on an embattled people.
Date of publication: 16 September 2017
Description/subject: "n The Listening Post this week: behind the Rohingya crisis, a vicious media campaign has steadily intensified the pressure on an embattled people. Plus, the media black hole in Sinai, Egypt. Rohingya: Hate speech, lies and media misinformation The number of majority Muslim Rohingya forced from their homes in Myanmar is now around 400,000. The United Nations says it looks like a "textbook example" of ethnic cleansing. The country's de facto leader - a former winner of the Nobel Peace Prize and darling of the international news media - is being seen in an entirely new light. Aung San Suu Kyi and her government are on the defensive. She has taken to talking about fake news and a "huge iceberg of misinformation". Aung San Suu Kyi's refusal to condemn the violence is a troubling angle for many Western journalists to cover, given the way they have venerated her in the past..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera (Listening Post)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2017
ML > Information services in Burma/Myanmar > Media - control of media in Burma
Human Rights > Discrimination > Race or Ethnicity: Discrimination based on > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations against specific groups > Discrimination against the Rohingya
Communal Violence > Inter-Communal violence and discrimination - Myanmar - incidents and the humanitarian situation


Title: UNION OF MYANMAR ECONOMIC HOLDING LIMITED - 12th annual report of the year 2001-2002
Date of publication: 03 June 2002
Description/subject: 1. Introduction... 2. Objective... 3. Organizing the board of Director... 4. Capital... 5. Calling on the shares... 6. Organization of staffs... 7. Investment... 8. Implementation of businesses... 9. Businesses wholly run by UMEH... 10. Affiliate and joint venture businesses with UMEH... 11. Foreign investment businesses... 12. Financial situation... 13. Annual Financial Report for the fiscal year 2001/2002 ... 14. Future plans... 15. Recommendations... 16. The Auditor General..... The followings are the objectives of the establishing of the UMEH: (a) Welfare of the soldiers, their dependants and families... . (b) Welfare of the veterans, their dependants and families... . (c) To support the public’s welfare... (d) To support the national economic development.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings
Format/size: pdf (254K)
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2017
ML > Economy > Investment in Burma/Myanmar > Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings (UMEH)


Title: Notes on UMEH 2001 - 2002 report
Date of publication: 19 April 2005
Description/subject: "Some of you may have already seen this report, which was obtained and translated from the original Burmese by the Federation of Trade Unions – Burma (FTUB), but for those of you who have not, I advise a very close reading. This report once again shows the absolute and direct dominance of the Burmese military over much of the Burmese economy, and reveals important relationships with foreign investors who have decided to put morals aside, and work hand - in - hand with the junta..."
Author/creator: William K. Roland
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (82K)
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2017
ML > Economy > Investment in Burma/Myanmar > Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings (UMEH)


Title: Results of a Google search for "Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings"
Date of publication: 19 September 2017
Description/subject: 404,000 results (September 2017)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2017
ML > Economy > Investment in Burma/Myanmar > Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings (UMEH)


Title: Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings (UMEH)
Description/subject: Link to a separate OBL sub-category
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2017
ML > Military (Tatmadaw), Military Intelligence, Police etc. > Economic activities of the Myanmar Military


Title: Aung San Suu Kyi's public speech, 19 September 2017
Date of publication: 19 September 2017
Description/subject: "Speech by the State Counsellor on Government's efforts with regard to National Reconciliation and Peace"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (30 minutes)
Alternate URLs: http://edition.cnn.com/2017/09/18/asia/aung-san-suu-kyi-speech-rohingya/index.html
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2017
ML > Aung San Suu Kyi > By Aung San Suu Kyi (Statements, Speeches, Writings, Interviews)


Title: Results of a Google search for Myanmar Economic Corporation
Description/subject: About 787,000 results (September 2017)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2017
ML > Military (Tatmadaw), Military Intelligence, Police etc. > Economic activities of the Myanmar Military


Title: The Tax Amendment Act (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 17/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 26 July 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (154K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Rohingya identity and the limits to history
Date of publication: 17 September 2017
Description/subject: "Public discussions around Rohingya people currently fleeing violence in Rakhine state, Myanmar, have often involved arguments about history. While critical historical analysis is useful in offering insights into conflicts, History—if treated as a single, knowable past—is not. This is especially true when dealing with ethnicity. Whatever the past was, no amount of historical research can justify the current violence against Rohingya people..."
Author/creator: Jonathan Saha
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > History > Arakanese/Rakhine/Rohingya history
Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma: general studies and articles


Title: Collected laws of 2013 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2013
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (11MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2013
Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw), 2013


Title: Myanmar Anti-Corruption Law - 3rd amendment (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law 18/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 31 July 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (37K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Myanmar Stamp Act (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law 19/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 01 August 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (137K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Petrochemicals Act (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law 20/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 04 August 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (224K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Age of Marriage Act (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 21/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 04 August 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (34K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Dam Law (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law 22/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 08 August 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (253K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Guardianship Law (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law 23/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 15 August 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (76K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Myanmar Divorce Law (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law 24/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 15 August 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (159K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Christian Marriage Act (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law 25/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 18 August 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (152K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Communications Law (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw 26/2017) - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 29 August 2017
Description/subject: Provisional English title
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (29K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2017 (NLD Parliament)


Title: Guterres: 'Pressure needed to stop Myanmar carnage' (video clip)
Date of publication: September 2017
Description/subject: "Myanmar's de facto leader Aung San Suu Kyi has "a last chance" to halt an army offensive that has forced hundreds of thousands of the mainly Muslim Rohingya to flee abroad, the UN head has said. Antonio Guterres told the BBC's Hardtalk programme that unless she acted now, "the tragedy will be absolutely horrible". The full interview with Antonio Gutteres will be broadcast on BBC World News on Monday, 18 September at 03:30, 08:30; 14:30 and 19:30 (all times GMT)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC - Hardtalk (clip)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017
ML > Refugees > Burmese refugees in Bangladesh


Title: How Social Media Spurred Myanmar's Latest Violence
Date of publication: 12 September 2017
Description/subject: "... the many smaller noticeboards that have sprung up with increasingly frequency across the country. These are written in Burmese only, often use the colourful Buddhist flag as a background - and declare that particular village or township to be "Muslim Free." As part of IWPR's two-year anti-hate speech project in Myanmar that ran until this July, we documented and reported the increasing incidence of these signs. Many of them further clarified that "Muslim Free" meant that Muslims were not allowed to stay the night, nor own any property there. Some went up at riverboat stations, denying Muslims access. We asked the authorities if they knew who had put these signs up, and why they weren't being removed. We never got a satisfactory answer. IWPR also found photos of these signs on Facebook, being shared and applauded by users who urged their own communities to take note and follow suit. Incendiary comments and ethnic slurs were typical. Muslims were described as dogs and vermin who had no place in the country and were threatening the state's very existence..."
Author/creator: Alan Davis
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR) via Refworld
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017
ML > Communal Violence > Inter-Communal violence and discrimination - Myanmar - General articles and analysis


Title: Xinhua (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Description/subject: "The Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: " /ˌʃɪnˈhwɑː/[1]) is the official press agency of the People's Republic of China. Xinhua is the biggest and most influential media organization in China. Xinhua is a ministry-level institution subordinate to the Chinese central government. Its president is a member of the Central Committee of China's Communist Party..."
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Xinhua News Agency
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017
RR > News - International sources


Title: Suu Kyi has ‘a last chance’ to stop army offensive in Rohingya crisis: UN
Date of publication: 17 September 2017
Description/subject: "UN chief Antonio Guterres says Myanmar’s de-facto head of state Aung San Suu Kyi has ‘a last chance’ to stop the military crackdown on Rakhine state and ease the Rohingya crisis, the BBC reports. "If she does not reverse the situation now, then I think the tragedy will be absolutely horrible, and unfortunately then I don't see how this can be reversed in the future," the UN secretary general said during an interview with BBC’s HARDtalk programme. Guterres reiterated that the Rohingyas should be allowed to return to Myanmar. UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad al-Hussein has called the situation a ‘textbook example of ethnic cleansing’..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Observer Online Desk
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017
ML > Refugees > Burmese refugees in Bangladesh


Title: How Myanmar's Buddhists view Rohingya crisis (video)
Date of publication: September 2017
Description/subject: + 2 more videos
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017
ML > Refugees > Burmese refugees in Bangladesh


Title: Refworld Myanmar pages
Description/subject: Several thousand reports.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refworld (UNHCR)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017
ML > Refugees > Refugees from Burma: general reports


Title: Ethnic Cleansing
Description/subject: "Ethnic cleansing is the systematic deliberate removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous. The forces applied may be various forms of forced migration (deportation, population transfer), intimidation, as well as mass murder and genocidal rape. Ethnic cleansing is usually accompanied with the efforts to remove physical and cultural evidence of the targeted group in the territory through the destruction of homes, social centers, farms, and infrastructure, and by the desecration of monuments, cemeteries, and places of worship. Initially used by the perpetrators during the Yugoslav Wars and cited in this context as a euphemism akin to that of Nazi Germany's "Final Solution", by the 1990s the term gained widespread acceptance due to journalism and the media's heightened use of the term in its generic meaning..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017
ML > Communal Violence > Inter-Communal violence and discrimination - global
Communal Violence > Inter-Communal violence and discrimination - Myanmar - General articles and analysis


Title: Google site-specific results for "Myanmar" on ntu.edu.sg
Description/subject: 5540 results, September 2017
Language: English
Source/publisher: Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 September 2017
RR > Burma/Myanmar material on academic websites > Nanyang Technological University, Singapore > Nanyang Technological University, Singapore


Title: Results for a Google site-specific search on rsis.edu.sg
Description/subject: About 2,170 results (September 2017)
Language: English
Source/publisher: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 September 2017
RR > Burma/Myanmar material on academic websites > Nanyang Technological University, Singapore > S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies


Title: "Xinhua" (English)
Description/subject: Google site-specific search results for "Myanmar" on xinhuanet.com/english/...About 77,400 results (September 2017)
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Xinhua"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/
Date of entry/update: 16 September 2017
RR > News - International sources


Title: Rohingya refugees overwhelm aid groups in Bangladesh
Date of publication: 15 September 2017
Description/subject: "...Almost 400,000 Rohingya refugees have surged into Bangladesh from Myanmar’s Rakhine State over the last three weeks. They come on foot, plodding for days through underbrush and dirt trails; they arrive by boat, risking the monsoon season waves along the coast, or the currents of the Naf River, which divides the two countries along Bangladesh’s southern edge.Aid groups say the influx has exhausted relief supplies and pushed existing refugee camps – filled by earlier waves of Rohingya refugees – to the breaking point. With no space left in the camps, refugees are spreading out on roadsides, or spontaneously forming new settlements in open spaces. “It’s beyond overcrowded,” says Vivian Tan, a spokeswoman for the UN’s refugee agency, UNHCR. “A few days ago, we thought it was at saturation point. Since then, more people have arrived. And they’re still coming.” For mile after mile, refugees line the roads around the overflowing camps. Some sit on old rice bags, filled with what belongings they managed to bring with them. Luckier ones carry a solar panel, or a chicken. Others carry their elderly relatives on their backs. For now, the Rohingya are safe in Bangladesh – but they have nowhere to go..."
Author/creator: Verena Hölzl
Language: English
Source/publisher: Irin
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2017
ML > Administration and administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by date (latest first)


Title: Rohingya exodus puts pressure back on UN rights probe
Date of publication: 13 September 2017
Description/subject: "Rohingya exodus puts pressure back on UN rights probe While the international community mulls action, deep-rooted Buddhist distrust of aid groups grows in Rakhine State... An unfolding humanitarian emergency along the Myanmar-Bangladesh border is intensifying pressure on the UN to take action, with fears that an unprecedented exodus of Rohingya refugees fleeing a military clampdown in Myanmar’s Rakhine State could amount to ethnic cleansing. A long-delayed UN fact-finding mission to Myanmar is renewing attempts to investigate allegations of serious rights violations, while the UN Security Council is set to hold a meeting on the crisis today after a request from Britain. Since 25 August, more than 370,000 Rohingya refugees have surged over the conflict-torn Myanmar border into crowded refugee camps in Bangladesh, bringing stories of razed villages, executions, and forced expulsions. The violence has underscored the urgency of the UN probe. The fact-finding mission was mandated in March by the Human Rights Council to investigate allegations of severe rights violations, particularly in Rakhine State, where the Buddhist majority has badly strained relations with international agencies and aid groups. “We are working day and night to send a team as soon as it is practically possible to establish the facts,” Marzuki Darusman, an Indonesian lawyer who chairs the three-member team, told IRIN in a statement. "The fact-finding mission is very concerned about the reports coming out on recent developments.”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Irin
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2017
ML > Administration and administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by date (latest first)


Title: Interview: Tirana Hassan, Amnesty International
Date of publication: 12 September 2017
Description/subject: Emma Alberici speaks to Amnesty International's crisis response director Tirana Hassan about the ongoing violence against Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar and Australia's response to the attacks.
Author/creator: Emma Alberici (interviewer), Tirana Hassan (interviewee)
Language: English
Source/publisher: ABC News
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (6 minutes)
Alternate URLs: http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2016/s4733301.htm
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2017
ML > Administration and administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by date (latest first)


Title: Myanmar: Scorched-earth campaign fuels ethnic cleansing of Rohingya from Rakhine State
Date of publication: 14 September 2017
Description/subject: "More than 80 sites set ablaze in orchestrated campaign since 25 August... More than 370,000 Rohingya fled across border in less than three weeks... Testimonies show attacks were planned, deliberate and systematic... Amnesty International can reveal new evidence pointing to a mass-scale scorched-earth campaign across northern Rakhine State, where Myanmar security forces and vigilante mobs are burning down entire Rohingya villages and shooting people at random as they try to flee. The organization’s analysis of active fire-detection data, satellite imagery, photographs and videos from the ground, as well as interviews with dozens of eyewitnesses in Myanmar and across the border in Bangladesh, shows how an orchestrated campaign of systematic burnings has targeted Rohingya villages across northern Rakhine State for almost three weeks. “The evidence is irrefutable – the Myanmar security forces are setting northern Rakhine State ablaze in a targeted campaign to push the Rohingya people out of Myanmar. Make no mistake: this is ethnic cleansing,” said Tirana Hassan, Amnesty International’s Crisis Response Director..." Additional articles and images
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: NOTE TO EDITORS:
Satellite imagery and maps showing the extent of burnings inside Rakhine State are available for download at: https://app.box.com/s/y126upmuuityz1weygmqom0z7sdi7but

Still images illustrating fleeing Rohingya and the growing humanitarian crisis across the border in Bangladesh are available for download at: https://app.box.com/s/c8g2ox6oy1pkrlevs590pw9enjdpsl74

Public Document
****************************************
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2017
ML > Administration and administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by date (latest first)
Refugees > Burmese refugees in Bangladesh
Human Rights > Discrimination > Race or Ethnicity: Discrimination based on > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations against specific groups > Discrimination against the Rohingya
Internal Displacement/Forced Migration > Burma: Internal displacement/forced migration of individual ethnic groups > Internal displacement/forced migration of Rohingyas


Title: How Myanmar’s ‘national races’ trumped citizenship
Date of publication: 01 May 2017
Description/subject: "‘National races’ or taingyintha is among the pre-eminent political ideas in Myanmar today. It has animated brutal conflict over who or what is ‘Rohingya’ as well as communal violence that human rights researchers and advocates have variously characterised as a crime against humanity, ethnic cleansing and genocide. Although more scholars are struggling to make sense of how and why the ‘Rohingya problem’ appears to be so intractable, little explicit attention has been paid to how the conflict over Rohingya identity specifically, and contemporary politics in Myanmar generally, is contingent on the idea of national races. How did the idea of taingyintha become politically salient? How has it grown, developed and changed?..."
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 September 2017
ML > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma: general studies and articles


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1988 - Pyithu Hluttaw (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1988
Description/subject: The Pyithu Hluttaw issued laws etc. until September 1988 when the SLORC took power
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 13 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations of 1988 - Pyithu Hluttaw,


Title: Archive of Network Myanmar's section on Rohingya and Muslim issues
Description/subject: A very useful compendium of contemporary and historical material on the Rohingya. Material up to October 2016
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar via Archive.org
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/
Date of entry/update: 12 September 2017
ML > Administration and administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by date (latest first)
History > Arakanese/Rakhine/Rohingya history


Title: Myanmar’s bargaining power rises along the Belt and Road
Date of publication: 11 September 2017
Description/subject: "... The Myanmar Times Monday, 11 September 2017 | Myanmar Edition The Myanmar Times You are here Home » Business » Myanmar’s bargaining power rises along the Belt and Road Myanmar’s bargaining power rises along the Belt and Road Thompson Chau 11 Sep 2017 Daw Aung San Suu Kyi meets Chinese President Xi Jinping. Photo: EPA Daw Aung San Suu Kyi meets Chinese President Xi Jinping. Photo: EPA AS Hong Kong’s second Belt and Road Summit started today in the city The Myanmar Times asked two experts from The Economist Intelligence Unit and Lau China Institute at King's College, London for their input regarding the dynamics of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and China in relation to Myanmar and ASEAN. Much of the focus on China’s grand scheme in Myanmar has surrounded the development of the proposed Kyaukphyu Special Economic Zone (SEZ) and deep-sea port in Rakhine State. However, the BRI has a much broader implication on Myanmar both economically and politically. Back in 2014, Professor Kerry Brown, professor of Chinese Studies and director of the Lau China Institute at King's College, London, wrote that China can no longer reign supreme in many ASEAN member states, despite its economic muscle. “Chinese investment and trade are all welcome [in Cambodia], but the days of Beijing supremacy are long over," he wrote in an article. “A similar pattern can be seen in Vietnam, Myanmar, the Philippines and Laos. The era of stark choices between friends and enemies fostered by the Cold War has left a region with blurred allegiances and almost constantly changing loyalties,” he argued, adding that “China can search for leverage in vain in this new context, but it knows than even endless amounts of trade, aid, and financial largesse don’t buy much any longer.” Myanmar's trump card These days, Nay Pyi Taw has more options beyond Beijing. “Myanmar occupies a unique position. It has travelled in the last few years from being a relatively dependent partner of China because of its diplomatic and economic isolation to one which, because of reforms and changes in the country, now has a much more diverse group of relations. “This has allowed it more autonomy and a less severe form of China-centric links. It's newly evolving relations with the US and the EU mean it simply has, very suddenly, more options,” he said. Still, China’s leverage over some ethnic armed groups in Myanmar can be seen as a political “trump card” over Nay Pyi Taw. The ethnic peace process is a top priority for State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the participation of those ethnic armed groups is essential for the peace process..."
Author/creator: Thompson Chau
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 September 2017
ML > Foreign Relations > China-Burma relations


Title: Myanmar laws of 2011 - collection - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: Laws adopted between 29 September and 2 December 2011
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw), 2011
Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2011


Title: The Battle for Myanmar’s Buddhist spirit (video)
Date of publication: 08 September 2017
Description/subject: Followed by several other videos on similar lines "In Myanmar, different groups of Buddhist monks are battling with how to deal with the country’s minority Muslim population. While some advocate peace, others, such as the extremist Ma Ba Tha, are stoking up hatred and violence. The Guardian visited Myanmar to investigate how the monks’ actions are threatening to destabilise the country’s newly established democracy"
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Guardian"
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2017
ML > Communal Violence > Inter-Communal violence and discrimination - Myanmar - General articles and analysis


Title: ROHINGYA BRIEFING REPORT
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: "The controversy surrounding Myanmar’s Rohingya people is evident in conflicting stories about the ethnic group’s origin. The Burmese government and Burmese historians argue that the Rohingya are actually Bengali Muslims, refusing to recognize the term “Rohingya.” They claim that the Rohingya migrated to Rakhine state in Myanmar from Bengal during and after the British colonial era of 1824-1948. However, most experts outside of Myanmar agree that the Rohingya have been living in Rakhine state since at least the 15th century, and possibly as early as the 7th century. Claims that the Rohingya are recent immigrants from Bangladesh are simply untrue. WHO ARE THE ROHINGYA? While the government has played a significant role in the oppression of the Rohingya, it has not been without the help of Burmese citizens. There is widespread dislike and even hatred toward the Rohingya in Myanmar. The Burmese government has ingrained this disdain into it’s citizens, using dislike for the Rohingya as a way to mobilize support. Leading up to November 2015 elections, President Thein Sein has pointed to the passage of numerous discriminatory laws as evidence that he is a strong leader and should be elected for another term. His campaign is fueled, at least in part, by anti-Muslim rhetoric. The Rohingya are a stateless people, hated in their own country and forced to live in appalling living conditions. 1. For the sake of clarity, the term “Myanmar” will be used throughout the report except when referring to the country before 1989, when it’s name was still “Burma.” There are between 800,000 and 1,100,000 Rohingya in Myanmar today, 80% of whom live in Rakhine state. The Rohingya primarily reside in the two northern townships in Rakhine state--Maungdaw and Buthidaung--along the border with Bangladesh. Rakhine Buddhists are the major population group residing in Rakhine state. Tensions leading to violence between these two groups is a regular occurrence..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Equal Rights Trust
Format/size: pdf (867K-reduced version; 3.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/Rohingya%20Briefing%20Report.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2017
ML > Administration and administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by date (latest first)


Title: The Rakhine State Danger to Myanmar's Transition
Date of publication: 08 September 2017
Description/subject: "The violence since 25 August that has driven 270,000 Rohingya civilians over Myanmar’s border into Bangladesh is not just causing a humanitarian catastrophe. It is also driving up the risks that the country’s five-year-old transition from military rule will stumble, that Rohingya communities will be radicalised, and that regional stability will be weakened... Since 2012, the International Crisis Group repeatedly has warned that, if left unresolved, Rakhine State’s volatile dynamics pose a major risk to Myanmar’s transition. If dealt with primarily through a heavy-handed, indiscriminate security response, rather than in the framework of a political strategy, the dangers were clearly set to become far worse. The events of recent weeks are not just causing enormous suffering to civilians, but bring Myanmar precipitously close to just such an unraveling of much that has been achieved since the end of military rule. The 25 August attacks on Myanmar security forces by the militant group Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), also known as Harakah al-Yaqin, which the government has designated a terrorist group, undoubtedly were intended as a provocation. Neither these attacks nor the reported killing of non-Rohingya civilians, at least some of which are undoubtedly the work of the group, are excusable, no matter what political agenda they claim to represent. Any government has the responsibility to defend itself and the people living in the country. At the same time, such government security responses need to be proportionate and not target civilians..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG) Statement 8 September 2017
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2017
ML > Administration and administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by date (latest first)


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1958 (Burmese and English)
Date of publication: 1958
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
Source/publisher: Parliament of the Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations, 1958


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1959 (Burmese and English)
Date of publication: 1959
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
Source/publisher: Parliament of the Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (11MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations, 1959


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1960 (Burmese and English)
Date of publication: 1960
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
Source/publisher: Parliament of the Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (6.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations, 1960


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1961 (Burmese and English)
Date of publication: 1961
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
Source/publisher: Parliament of the Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (8.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations, 1961


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1974 (Burmese)
Date of publication: 1974
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (10MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations, 1974


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1975 (Burmese)
Date of publication: 1975
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (5.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1975


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1976 (Burmese)
Date of publication: 1976
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (8.0MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1976


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1977 (Burmese)
Date of publication: 1977
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (6.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1977


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1978 (Burmese)
Date of publication: 1978
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1978


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1979 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1979
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1979


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1980 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1980
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (2.0MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1980


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1981 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1981
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1981


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1982 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1982
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1982


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1983 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1983
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (2.0MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1983


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1984 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1984
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1984


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1985 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1585
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1985


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1986 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1586
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1986


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1987 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1987
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (1.0MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations 1987


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1988 - Pyithu Hluttaw (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1988
Description/subject: Decrees, laws etc. after September 1988 were issued by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1988 - State Law and Order Restoration Council (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1988
Description/subject: Laws etc. before September 1988 were issued by the Pyithu Hluttaw
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations of 1988 (State Law and Order Restoration Council)


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1989 (Burmese)
Date of publication: 1989
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (13MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council), 1989


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1990 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1990
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (8.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council), 1990


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1991
Date of publication: 1991
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council), 1991


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1992 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ))
Date of publication: 1992
Description/subject: All laws in Burmese. Some English titles.
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (4.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council), 1992


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1993 (SLORC)
Date of publication: 1993
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (5.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council), 1993


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1994 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1994
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (2.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council), 1994


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1995 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1995
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council), 1995


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1996 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1996
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council), 1996


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1997 (SLORC) (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1997
Description/subject: January to March 1997
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council, State Peace and Development Council), 1997


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1997 - SPDC (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1997
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (3.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Law and Order Restoration Council, State Peace and Development Council), 1997


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1998 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1998
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 1998


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1999 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 1999
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 1999


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2000 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2000
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2000


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2001 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2001
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2001


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2002 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2002
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (5MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2002


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2003 (English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2003
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2003


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2004 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2004
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2004


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2005 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2005
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2005


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2006 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2006
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2006


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2007 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2007
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2007


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2008 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2008
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2008


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2009 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2009
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2009


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2010 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2010
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2010


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2011- Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: Laws adopted between 29 September to 2 December
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (25MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (State Peace and Development Council), 2011


Title: Collected laws of 2012 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2012
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (8.9MB-reduced version; 77MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/2012-Pyidaungsu_Hluttaw-Laws-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw), 2012
Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2012


Title: Collected laws of 2014 (Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2014
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Parliament of the Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (12MB-reduced version; 36MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/2014-Pyidaungsu_Hluttaw-Laws-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw), 2014
Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2014


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2015
Date of publication: 2015
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (9.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw), 2015
Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2015


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 2016 (1) (English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2016
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (11MB) 3.5
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw), 2016 (USDP Parliament)
Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2016 (USDP Parliament)


Title: "Coconuts Yangon"
Description/subject: See News and Features...No obvious archive
Language: English
Source/publisher: Coconuts
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2017
RR > News - Burma/Myanmar news sources in English (current sites)


Title: The MIMU - "New Legislations"
Description/subject: Selected laws in English and/or Burmese under these headings: Myanmar Constitution... Local Government... Election Laws and Regulations... Human Rights... Business and Investment... Environment and Natural Resources... Land and Property... Social Protection... Health Care... Education... Transportation... General.
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: MIMU - Myanmar Information Management Unit
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Links to online locations of Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees, bills, regulations etc.


Title: Google search for "North Korea Myanmar"
Description/subject: About 1,810,000 results (September 2017)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2017
ML > Foreign Relations > North Korea (DPRK) -Burma relations


Title: Google search for "north korea myanmar nuclear cooperation"
Description/subject: About 658,000 results (September 2017)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2017
ML > Foreign Relations > North Korea (DPRK) -Burma relations


Title: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION RULES (English)
Date of publication: 05 June 2014
Description/subject: Date: June, 2014... The Republic of the Union of Myanmar Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry... Notification No. 50 / 2014... The 8th Waxing Day of Nayon 1374 M.E. ( 5th June, 2014)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
Subscribe: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/2014-06-05-Environmental_Conservation_Rules-en.pdf
Format/size: pdf (339K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmarthilawa.gov.mm/sites/default/files/Environmental%20Conservation%20Rules%20EN.pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2017
ML > Politics and Government > Burma/Myanmar's Legislature > Parliament > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Union Parliament): - legislation and other proceedings > Pyidaungsu Hluttaw: Laws and bylaws/rules/regulations proposed (bills) and/or adopted in 2014


Title: Myanmar conflict: Aung San Suu Kyi 'must step in' (Yanghee Lee)
Date of publication: 04 September 2017
Description/subject: "The UN's special rapporteur on human rights in Myanmar has criticised the country's de facto leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, for failing to protect the Rohingya Muslim minority. Yanghee Lee said the situation in Rakhine was "really grave" and it was time for Ms Suu Kyi to "step in". Her comments came as the number of Rohingya fleeing to Bangladesh reached 87,000, according to UN estimates....Her sentiments were echoed by Nobel Peace laureate Malala Yousafzai, who said she was waiting to hear from Ms Suu Kyi - who has not commented on the crisis since it erupted..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC News
Format/size: html, Adobe Flash etc
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2017
ML > Human Rights > Discrimination > Race or Ethnicity: Discrimination based on > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations against specific groups > Discrimination against the Rohingya


Title: Buddhism and State Power in Myanmar
Date of publication: 05 September 2017
Description/subject: "Extreme Buddhist nationalist positions including hate speech and violence are on the rise in Myanmar. Rather than ineffective bans on broad-based groups like the Association for the Protection of Race and Religion (MaBaTha), the government should address underlying causes and reframe the debate on Buddhism’s place in society and politics."....Executive Summary: The August 2017 attacks by al-Yaqin or Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), which the Myanmar government has designated a terrorist organisation, have pushed Rakhine state into renewed crisis. They also are being used by radical Buddhist nationalists in the rest of the country to promote their agenda. While dynamics at play in Rakhine are mostly driven by local fears and grievances, the current crisis has led to a broader spike in anti-Muslim sentiment, raising anew the spectre of communal violence across the country that could imperil the country’s transition. Since the start of the political liberalisation in 2011, Myanmar has been troubled by an upsurge in extreme Buddhist nationalism, anti-Muslim hate speech and deadly communal violence, not only in Rakhine state but across the country. The most prominent nationalist organisation is the Association for the Protection of Race and Religion (commonly referred to by its Burmese-language acronym, MaBaTha), made up of monks, nuns and laypeople. The government has focused considerable effort on curtailing this group and pushing the top Buddhist authority in Myanmar to ban it. Yet these efforts have been largely ineffective at weakening the appeal of nationalist narratives and organisations, and have probably even enhanced them. However uncomfortable it may be, a more nuanced understanding of the sources of social support for MaBaTha, as opposed to simplistic one-dimensional portrayals, is vital if the government and Myanmar’s international partners are to find effective ways to address the challenges posed by radical nationalism and reduce risks of violence..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG) Asia Report N°290
Format/size: pdf (435K-reduced version; 1.74MB-original) , Executive Summary (Burmese) 160MB; html
Alternate URLs: https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/290%20Buddhism%20and%20State%20Power%20in%20Myanmar%20-%20BUR...
https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/290-buddhism-and-state-power-myanmar?utm_s...
https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/290-buddhism-and-state-power-in-myanmar.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2017
ML > Communal Violence > Inter-Communal violence and discrimination - Myanmar - General articles and analysis
Society and Culture > Religion > Buddhism > Buddhism and Society > Burmese Buddhism and Society


Title: Collected Burmese Laws of 1955 (Burmese)
Date of publication: 1955
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
Source/publisher: Parliament of the Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (5.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations, 1955


Title: Collected Burmese Laws of 1956 (Burmese and English)
Date of publication: 1956
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
Source/publisher: Parliament of the Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (7.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations, 1956


Title: Collected Burmese laws of 1957 (Burmese and English)
Date of publication: 1957
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
Source/publisher: Parliament of the Union of Burma
Format/size: pdf (5.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2017
ML > Law and Constitution > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations by date > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations from 1946 > Burma/Myanmar laws, decrees and regulations, 1957


Title: Analysis: China Backs Myanmar at UN Security Council
Date of publication: 01 September 2017
Description/subject: Topics: Conflict, Development, Foreign Relations, Rakhine State, Rohingya...China resisted stronger involvement by the UN council in addressing Myanmar’s crisis. In March, China, together with Russia, blocked a brief UNSC statement when the 15-member body met to discuss the situation in Rakhine state...hina continues to provide diplomatic protection to Myanmar as some Western nations press the government and military on the Rakhine issue. More than ever, China has remained a key ally to the government and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi—who’s support in the West is now lukewarm at best. China’s motives in backing Myanmar are said to include a desire to expand its foothold in Myanmar and acting to limit Western influence spreading among its neighbors. As a major investor in Myanmar, China is looking for a seaport in Kyaukphyu, Rakhine State, on the Bay of Bengal—the country clearly has strategic interest in the Indian Ocean..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 September 2017
ML > Foreign Relations > China-Burma relations