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Title: Media suppression imperils Myanmar reform
Date of publication: 18 August 2014
Description/subject: "...News is a big part of the average Myanmar citizen's daily life. Over 300 newspapers and journals feed the country's seemingly insatiable appetite for news. Yet despite recent progress in press freedoms, the country's media landscape remains delicate, with previous reforms now dangling by a thread. In July, the jailing on national security charges of five Unity Journal journalists, including the paper's chief executive, sparked an international uproar. They each received a hefty 10-year sentence for violating the 1923 State Secrets Act for publishing a report exposing an alleged secret chemical weapons factory. Fifty local journalists who protested their incarceration have since faced freedom of assembly-related charges. This followed the very public deportation of an Australian journalist working for the once exiled anti-government Democratic Voice of Burma. A group of journalists at the Bi Mon Te Nay news journal are being held in pre-trial detention and face criminal charges that carry potential prison terms for publishing an activist group statement that said opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi had formed an interim government. They were initially charged with violating the more severe 1950 Emergency Act..."
Author/creator: Elliot Brennan
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Human Rights > Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Right to /Censorship > Freedom of opinion and expression: - the situation in Burma/Myanmar - reports, analyses, recommendations


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Friday 22 August, 2014
Date of publication: 22 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Friday 22 August, 2014
Date of publication: 22 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (9.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Friday 22 August, 2014
Date of publication: 22 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (7.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: Ludu Daw Amar: A Burmese Writer of Conviction and Courage
Date of publication: 07 November 2009
Description/subject: "Daw Amar—born November 29, 1915, Mandalay, Burma; died April 7, 2008, Mandalay, Burma... Ludu (‘The People’) Daw Amar a revered and eminent Burmese author died in Mandalay, Burma at the age of 92. She was respected throughout the country by people from all walks of life, not only for her writings but also for her courageous stand on literary, political and cultural causes..."
Author/creator: Myint Zan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Legal Studies Forum, Vol. 33, pp. 397-401, 2009
Format/size: pdf (111K)
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Society and Culture > Literature > Burmese scholars and literary figures -- texts, reviews, profiles, obituaries, articles, papers, bibliographies etc.


Title: Misremembrance of an Uprising (Review of "The 1988 Uprising in Burma" by Dr Maung Maung)
Date of publication: 06 November 2009
Description/subject: Review of "The 1988 Uprising in Burma" by Dr Maung Maung (Foreword by Franklin Mark Osanka), Monograph 49/Yale Southeast Asia Studies...."...Dr Maung Maung's memoirs of the 1988 Burmese uprising "misremembers"; oft times it falsifies, misrepresents, distorts, obfuscates, whitewashes and can in its best light be described as an "apologia"in a fully uncomplimentary sense. Hence the author's "memory" hinders rather than helps the cause for human rights as far as the struggle is concerned. Nevertheless, from a consequentialist viewpoint, it is hoped that the publication of the book will help some people who were involved in, affected by or take a genuine and concerned interest in the events of 1988 in Burma- to rise from their "forgetfulness" and also to help properly freshen their memory. In this review, the reviewer has attempted to highlight some of the misremembrances of the author with the hope that a small step can be taken towards refreshing and articulating the "memory" of those who were and are affected by the 1988 uprising in Burma..."
Author/creator: Myint Zan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Newcastle Law Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 101-119, 2000
Format/size: pdf (178K)
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > History > Historical periods > SLORC period (1988-1997) > Events of 1988


Title: Position of Power and Notions of Empowerment: Comparing the Views of Lee Kuan Yew and Aung San Suu Kyi on Human Rights and Democratic Governance
Date of publication: 1997
Description/subject: "This essay compares the human rights views of two Asians who in their own ways have been influential not only on their own fellow countrypersons but whose influence extend beyond their national borders. It is submitted that both Lee Kuan Yew1, a Singaporean and Aung San Suu Kyi, a Burmese, have made their impact internationally And I further submit that their influence and impact are at least partly due to their ideas though of course, in the case of Lee Kuan Yew his influence is perhaps primarily due to Lee's role in the "miraculous transformation in Singapore's economy while maintaining tight political control over the country ... [resulting in] Singapore's per capita GNP [being] now higher than that of its erstwhile colonizer Great Britain". The comparison of Aung San Suu Kyi's and Lee's views on human rights and democracy should be of some relevance and interest in the light of increasingly substantial contemporary literature on democratisation and international law..."
Author/creator: Myint Zan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Newcastle Law Review, Vol. 2, pp. 49-69, 1997
Format/size: pdf (186K
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/Myintzan-Suu-LKY.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Aung San Suu Kyi > About Aung San Suu Kyi
Human Rights > Various Rights > Discussion on "Asian Values"


Title: China, Myanmar: stop that train
Date of publication: 14 August 2014
Description/subject: "Since reports about the cancellation of a proposed US$20 billion railway line connecting China's southern Yunnan province with Myanmar's Rakhine western coast emerged in late July, conflicting accounts about the 1,200 kilometer project's status have raised new questions about the neighboring countries' commercial relations. The controversy erupted with a local news report quoting Myint Wai, director of Myanmar's Ministry of Rail Transportation, saying that the project had been "cancelled" after over three years of inaction on a 2011 agreement. A DPA report furthered the story by quoting an anonymous Myanmar government official saying the Kyaukpyu-Kunming railway was popularly perceived as having "more disadvantages than advantages" and was cancelled in line with the "people's desires". Yang Houlan, China's Ambassador to Myanmar, contradicted that report, saying China had not abandoned the project. The state mouthpiece China Daily underscored that official line, reporting that an "unidentified Myanmar economic official" said that the project only needs "continued coordination". The China Railway Engineering Corporation (CREC), the original Chinese investor in the project, meanwhile has been reluctant to respond to the conflicting reports... the railway is of strategic importance to China: it had been regarded as a key component of China's Trans-Asia railway network and a critical element for developing a southwest strategic corridor to the Indian Ocean, a route for crucial imports that bypassed the congested Malacca Strait and hotly contested South China Sea... cancellation of the multi-billion dollar railway project would indicate a further deterioration of Sino-Myanmar ties, despite Beijing's sustained bid to portray the relationship as strong and healthy..."
Author/creator: Yun Sun
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Economy > Burma's economic relations with various countries > Burma's economic relations with China


Title: Travelling back home
Date of publication: 21 August 2014
Description/subject: "Busarin Lertchavalitsakul charts Shan migrants’ experiences of ID card procurement and their mixed fortunes travelling between Thailand and Burma." ...Substantial article; contains information about the process of obtaining Burmese identity documents.
Author/creator: Busarin Lertchavalitsaku
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Migration > Migration from Burma > Migration from Burma: mixed and general articles and reports


Title: Of pragmatism and politics
Date of publication: 14 August 2014
Description/subject: "China’s rise means the US will turn a blind eye to Burma’s limited democracy, writes Gareth Robinson... The recent upholding of constitutional rules preventing Aung San Suu Kyi from running in Burma’s 2015 presidential elections has prompted some strong criticism from Western governments. However, it is unlikely to damage America’s resolve to continue engaging with the country for one reason in particular; China’s rising power in the region. In a recent article for The Irrawaddy, journalist and long-time Burma hand Bertil Lintner argued that Western governments may be more interested in re-establishing defence ties with Burma’s military, the Tatmadaw, than with pursuing political and human rights issues. It is an argument supported by the State Department’s muted response to Aung San Suu Kyi’s continued barring from presidential elections. Although the department did issue a statement calling for constitutional reforms to be adopted, there was no threat of introducing new sanctions or of downgrading diplomatic ties. The US’s continuing support for the Burmese hybrid civilian-military government is a clear sign that Washington’s concern over China’s growing regional presence is of greater importance than democratic reform. In the past China has exerted a great deal of influence over Burma. After much of the world abandoned the country due to the annulment of democratic elections in 1990, China continued to provide significant economic and military aid to keep Burma afloat. This wasn’t resisted by the US because it did not perceive strong strategic interests in the country after the end of the Cold War. Since the opening of Burma to external economic and political input after the 2010 national elections, China has lost its exclusive access to the country. Now, Burma may become a rook in America’s attempts to mediate Chinese expansion...Given the time and attention, Burma could become one of America’s middle power partners in Asia. But this may cost the US its commitment to seeing the country become a fully functional and effective democracy..."
Author/creator: Gareth Robinson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Foreign Relations > China-Burma-US relations


Title: Myanmar, ASEAN, and the China Challenge
Date of publication: 07 August 2014
Description/subject: As this year’s ASEAN Chair, Myanmar will face pressure from the pro- and anti-China camps...As Myanmar gears up to host this weekend’s ASEAN Regional Forum, it may find that its role is both a blessing and a curse. While Myanmar welcomes its chance in the spotlight as ASEAN Chair, that role is increasingly difficult to play. Maritime disputes in the South China Sea threaten to turn each ASEAN meeting into a tug of war between anti- and pro-China forces...Myanmar’s role as ASEAN Chair is a huge diplomatic headache. The ASEAN Chair wields enormous influence over ASEAN meetings, and there’s a lot of pressure for the host nation to fall in line with either the anti-China or pro-China camps. In 2010, for example, Vietnam made the South China Sea disputes a major issue in regional summits (much to China’s dismay). By contrast, in 2012, Cambodia scuttled talks rather than allow the maritime disputes to dominate the agenda. This pressure is multiplied for Myanmar. On the one hand, the country is making concerted efforts to improve its relations with other ASEAN members, and with the West, which adds pressure not to sideline the South China Sea disputes. On the other hand, China remains incredibly important to Myanmar, especially economically—China remains Myanmar’s largest trading partner and largest source of foreign direct investment. An anti-China ASEAN summit could have huge economic and political ramifications for Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Shannon Tiezzi
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Foreign Relations > ASEAN-Burma relations


Title: The Strategic Importance of Myanmar for India
Date of publication: 12 August 2014
Description/subject: "...If India is to become an assertive regional player in Asia, it has to work toward developing policies that would improve and strengthen it domestically, which will encourage more confidence in its ability to lead the region and be an important global player. Competition with China should also be considered and taken seriously. China’s growing influence in the region would lead to a more one-sided dynamic in the region. China has asserted itself through its soft power as well as through its trade and economic relations with Myanmar by taking up large infrastructure projects in the country. India on the other hand needs to use its soft power more effectively, and at the same time strengthen itself domestically and regionally. There are several advantages that India has over China with regard to Myanmar. One is the democratic process, which results in different governments at the center and states through free and fair elections. There is also the respect for institutions that are strong enough to hold the country together. Finally, cooperation in different multilateral forums such as ASEAN and BIMSTEC strengthen the relationship between the two countries. Apart from these reasons, India has sent a clear signal that while economic ties are important, it is keen to build a holistic relationship and is prepared to assist in institution building in Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Sridhar Ramaswamy & Tridivesh Singh Maini
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Foreign Relations > India-Burma relations
Foreign Relations > China-Burma-India relations


Title: The New Thailand-Myanmar Axis
Date of publication: 29 July 2014
Description/subject: "With China’s backing, post-coup Thailand and Myanmar– ASEAN’s quasi-democracies– are moving closer together...The Thai military staged a coup on May 22, claiming to restore peace and order after months of protests against the elected government of Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra. In reality, it was a military scheme to take control of politics ahead of an uncertain royal succession. In the process, it destroyed democratic institutions and violated the people’s human rights. Immediately after the coup, an army of Western countries voiced their concern about the disappearance of democratic space. Subsequently, they imposed “soft sanctions,” with the United States suspending its financial support for the Thai military and the European Union freezing all cooperation with the kingdom. Amid international sanctions, the Thai junta has found some comfort in the warm embrace of China. Shortly after the coup, photos surfaced of Army Chief, General Prayuth Chan-ocha– who’s also serving as the interim prime minister– shaking hands with Chinese business owners, demonstrating the Thai tactic of employing China to counterbalance Western sanctions. But China is not Thailand’s only friend in its time of need. On July 4, Myanmar Supreme Commander Senior General Min Aung Hlaing paid a visit to Bangkok, making him the first leader from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to meet the Thai junta after the coup. He held a cozy discussion with Prayuth, purportedly to strengthen ties between Thailand and Myanmar. Disturbingly, Min Aung Hlaing praised the Thai junta for “doing the right thing” in seizing power. He also compared his country’s experience during the political upheaval that took place in Yangon in 1988, when the tatmadaw, or Myanmar’s army, launched deadly crackdowns against pro-democracy activists..."
Author/creator: Pavin Chachavalpongpun
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Foreign Relations > Thailand-Burma relations


Title: Myanmar: A new dawn (video)
Date of publication: 21 August 2014
Description/subject: As Myanmar emerges slowly from five decades of dictatorship, will it ever catch up with its more prosperous neighbours?...After almost half a century of authoritarian rule, Myanmar (or Burma) is gradually coming in from the cold, dark years of repression and dictatorship giving way to new industries and culture – driven by both, the growing interest of foreign investors and the gradual softening of political criticism and sanctions from the US, Europe and others...However, ... there still is a clear divide between those benefiting from the new world, and those struggling to survive in old Burma. Prosperity – or anything approaching it – is still a long way off. Most of Myanmar's 60 million people have yet to experience the full benefits of that growing freedom and the country – though rich in natural resources - remains one of most deprived in the world...Thanks to a wide range of newspapers now available the population is becoming better informed but on a practical level although some adventurous entrepreneurs are prepared to take a risk on new start-ups and business ventures, most people do not even have the money to fund their child's education..."
Author/creator: Sally Sara, Vivien Altman and ABC
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera (People & Power)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Social studies > Social studies of Burma


Title: "Burma Digest" (archive)
Description/subject: April 2013 is the latest archive of "Burma Digest" I have found on Archive.org
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Digest" via Archive.org
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
RR > Archives > "Burma Digest"


Title: Myanmar's long road to peace
Date of publication: 02 March 2014
Description/subject: "Despite a ceasefire signed in 2011, clashes continue between ethnic Shan rebels and government troops....Like many other armed ethnic groups, the SSA-S signed a ceasefire after Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian government in 2011. Deadly clashes between SSA-S forces and the Myanmar military, however, continue despite the agreement. Accordingly, Myanmar's government is pushing the country's armed ethnic groups to sign a new nationwide ceasefire this year..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014
ML > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma (cultural, political) > Single Groups > Shan (cultural, political, historical) > Shan (cultural, historical, political) articles
Internal armed conflict > Internal armed conflict in Burma > Conflict in particular States > Armed conflict in Shan State > Armed conflict in Shan State - general articles


Title: Non-Burman groups - Sources and Further Reading
Description/subject: Useful list, with a General section followed by links for the different non-Burman peoples.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma: general studies and articles


Title: U.S. Waives Sanctions on Myanmar Timber
Date of publication: 14 August 2014
Description/subject: "...Civil society groups are split over a decision by the U.S. government to waive sanctions on Myanmar’s timber sector for one year. The decision, which went into effect late last month, is being hailed by some as an opportunity for community-led and sustainability initiatives to take root in Myanmar, where lucrative forestry revenues have long been firmly controlled by the military and national elites. The European Union, too, is currently working to normalise its relations with the Myanmarese timber sector. “The concern is that the system that is gaining traction with the international timber industry is to bypass any national systemic forestry reform process.” -- Kevin Woods of Forest Trends Yet others are warning that Washington has taken the decision too soon, before domestic conditions in Myanmar are able to support such a change..."
Author/creator: Carey L. Biron
Language: English
Source/publisher: Inter Press Service (IPS)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Forests and forest peoples (being reconstructed) > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the forests of Burma/Myanmar > Timber trade


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Thursday 21 August, 2014
Date of publication: 21 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Thursday 21 August, 2014
Date of publication: 21 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (8.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Thursday 21 August, 2014
Date of publication: 21 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: A COMPARISON OF THE FIRST AND FIFTIETH YEAR OF INDEPENDENT BURMA'S LAW REPORTS
Date of publication: 2004
Description/subject: "This article compares the annual Law Reports of the first year of Burmese independence in 1948 with those published in the fiftieth year of Burmese independence (1998). In making the comparison, the author highlights the fundamental changes that occurred in the structure and composition of the highest courts in Burma, along with relevant background and factors effecting these changes. There was a movement away from the predominant use of English in 1948 towards judgments exclusively in Burmese in the 1998 Law Reports. Burma's neighbours, who shared a common law legal heritage, did not follow this trend after their independence. This shift, combined with Burma's isolation from the rest of the world, makes analysis of Burmese case law from the past three and a half decades very difficult for anyone not proficient in the Burmese language. This article tries to fill the lacunae as far as the Law Report from the fiftieth year of Burma's independence is concerned."
Author/creator: Myint Zan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Victoria University of Wellington Law Review (Vol. 35, Issue 2)
Format/size: pdf (255K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > The practice of law in Burma/Myanmar > The courts
Law and Constitution > Legal sources and literature > Burmese legal history
Law and Constitution > The practice of law in Burma/Myanmar > Burma/Myanmar Law Reports


Title: Woe Unto Ye Lawyers: Three Royal Orders Concerning Pleaders in Early Seventeenth-Century Burma*
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: "This Article is a discussion of three Royal Orders of King Anauk Hpet Lun of Burma (Ava as it was then also known) in the early seventeenth century. All of the three royal orders dealt with issues regulating (and reprimanding) shay-nay (pleaders/lawyers). In fact the three Royal Orders concerning pleaders were issued on a single day: 23 June 1607 AD. The Royal Orders were proclaimed by King Anauk Phet Lun who was the second king of the Nyaung Yan dynasty, which lasted from 1597 to 1754. The “source” where these Royal Orders were found by this author is from the first volume of the ten-volume The Royal Orders of Burma AD 1598-1885 compiled and translated by Dr. Than Tun, Emeritus Professor of History at Mandalay University, Burma..."
Author/creator: Myint Zan
Language: English
Source/publisher: THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF LEGAL HISTORY Vol. XLIV
Format/size: pdf (285K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > Legal sources and literature > Burmese legal history


Title: Burma and the Road Forward: Lessons from Next Door and Possible Avenues Towards Constitutional and Democratic Development
Date of publication: 25 July 2013
Description/subject: "The chapter of authoritarian rule may finally be ending in Burma’s complicated narrative. The Burmese government has taken visible steps towards democratic reform. Despite reports of military control and intimidation at the polls,the country transitioned to civilian rule in 20103 after fifty years of control by a military junta. The government also released the country’s preeminent democratic leader and icon, Aung San Suu Kyi, who has been on house arrest sporadically since 1989. Rapid political reforms soon followed. The ability to reconcile Burma’s political history and transition to a democracy will be a challenging one. A successful transformation requires more than legal formalism; legal formalism cannot work without the development of a civil society. However, legal formalism, as Suu Kyi has urged, ensures a rule of law that will allow Burmese citizens, including minority groups, to protect themselves from their government’s historical abuse of power. This Comment discusses how the expansion of legal rights for individuals and minorities is the direct way for Burma to secure a democratic future..."
Author/creator: Connie Ng
Language: English
Source/publisher: Santa Clara Law Review (Vol 53, No. 1)
Format/size: pdf (198K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Dialogue/reform/transition - from military to civilian rule? > Dialogue/reform/transition - analyses and statements
Law and Constitution > Rule of Law (international and Burma/Myanmar-specific)


Title: U Kyaw Lin v. Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 20 September 1978
Description/subject: "...The charges against the appellant U Kyaw Lin in regards to the U Thant funeral incident are that he was in violation of Penal Code section 143 to the extent that the defendants defied an order of the Rangoon Municipality in gathering with the common object of jointly upsetting law and order as participants in an unlawful assembly; in violation of Penal Code section 447 as this crowd invaded and occupied the Rangoon University campus and Convocation Hall without relevant authorization and starting in the schoolrooms of the buildings held meetings and conducted a host of activities; and, in violation of Penal Code sections 124(A)/149 as some students and some members of the monkhood gave anti-government speeches at the Convocation Hall and site of the former student union building, and printed and distributed seditious pamphlets. 3 It emerged from the testimonies of prosecution witnesses that in regards to the U Thant funeral matter the appellant U Kyaw Lin from the beginning on 5-12-1974 acted as advisor to the Funeral Central Committee; and, that among writings to excite sedition wrote a letter in English to be sent to the United Nations. Nor has there been refutation of these charges. It was submitted [by the defendant] that the court could assign guilt however it pleased; and, that the police inquiry was illegal and on top of it, no firm evidence was presented..."
Author/creator: Central Court bench, comprising of U Hla Maung, Chairman; U Aye Maung and U Thant Sin, Members, (trans. Nick Cheesman)
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Burma Law Reports, 1978
Format/size: pdf (204K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > The practice of law in Burma/Myanmar > Burma/Myanmar Law Reports


Title: Union of Myanmar v. U Ye Naung and Another
Date of publication: 08 April 1991
Description/subject: "...in finally acquitting the two defendants Ye Naung and Myint Oo (a.k.a.) Mya Oo of all charges the Supreme Court found that, “There is not any evidence against defendants Ye Naung and Myint Oo apart from their statement before Defence Services Intelligence. While it is correct that Defence Services Intelligence unit personnel are persons authorized to uncover and arrest criminal offenders and confessions made before them are admissible as evidence in Military Courts under Defence Services Rule 22(2)(3)(4), it is apparent that they are not admissible as evidence in 1991 The Union of Myanmar v. U Ye Naung & Another civilian courts under the Evidence Act, section 24”; thus the defendants finally acquitted on the basis of the finding on the Evidence Act, section 24, the Office of the Attorney General moved that in its understanding the finding does not correspond with the law for the Chief Justice with the Full Bench of the Supreme Court to undertake to re-examine the said finding in accordance with the Procedures for the Hearing of Special Appeals, paragraph 17, giving rise to this Special Appeal..."
Author/creator: Supreme Court bench, comprising of U Aung Toe, Chairman; U Aye Ohn, U Kyaw Tint, U Myo Htun Linn and U Kyaw Win, Members, (trans. Nick Cheesman)
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Myanmar Law Reports, 1991
Format/size: pdf (409K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > The practice of law in Burma/Myanmar > Burma/Myanmar Law Reports


Title: “Intention” (English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 31 December 1970
Description/subject: "...In making state policy a success by issuing rulings with the quality of justice, the Special Criminal Courts’ Appeal Court is a leading body. Significantly, in order to fulfill its leadership duties the Appeal Court’s chairman and members include members of the Revolutionary Council and cabinet ministers. There can be no persons more familiar with state policy than those persons involved in formulating policy. There can be no persons with more practical understanding of how the power of law also can be used to make policy a success than those persons. Indeed, in traditional Burmese justice too, when the ministers involved both in the making of law and management of state affairs, under the leadership of the king and crown prince, together heard and ruled on appeals they issued verdicts with the quality of justice and which made state policy a success. In the villages and townships likewise, respected learned persons who emerged from among the people were assigned to adjudicate on tribunals. Thus, the judiciary was not independent of the people..."
Author/creator: Dr. Maung Maung, Chief Justice, Chief Court; Member, Special Criminal Courts’ Appeal Court (trans. Nick Cheesman)
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: pecial Criminal Courts’ Appeal Court Rulings (1965–70), 1971
Format/size: pdf (299K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > The practice of law in Burma/Myanmar > Burma/Myanmar Law Reports


Title: “This moment” (English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 01 June 1960
Description/subject: "It was past midnight of December 1, 1958, around the strike of one. […] The beam from a flashlight shining into the mosquito net accompanied by the sound of shoes woke my sleeping wife and me. “Maung… get up… I think it’s the police. They’ve come right into the bedroom.” “Huh… really?” I said, rolling from bed to outside of the net and coming face to face with Special Branch Inspector Ko Aung Hpe, holding the flashlight, and U Ba Thaung, at the head of the bedstead......In this manner on December 2, 1958 I arrived at the Insein Prison Annexe. From there, starting with Insein Central Prison I arrived at Prome Prison, Thayet Prison, and then the unforgettable Coco Island Prison. […] My life is now simply the life of a section 5 detainee who cannot count the days to his release. Even people who have committed serious crimes like murder, armed robbery and rape can count the days to their release on their fingers. But how can I count? Now I doubt the expression “a moment”. The term “a moment” that I and you the reader use is a moment with a time limit. However, “that moment” of which the police officers speak has no limit. “That moment” is a moment without end or beginning. This moment that has lasted one year, five months and 12 days has for me been a lifetime..."
Author/creator: Maung Chit Yi (trans. Nick Cheesman)
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Section five from Coco Island
Format/size: pdf (648K-reduced version; 5.9MB-original - higher resolution for Burmese text)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs19/%93This_moment%94-en+bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Human Rights > Detentions, Trials, Independence of the Judiciary > Detentions, unfair trials, Independence of the judiciary: political prisoners and other violations in Burma


Title: Karenni Profile
Description/subject: "Like many ethnic classifications in Burma, ‘Karenni’ is a collective term constructed during the colonial era that does not represent a single ethnic group. Karenni, sometimes also known as the Red Karen (so-called because it was a favoured colour in traditional clothing) or Kayah, actually refers to a Karen grouping which includes a number of ethnic groups that speak related Tibeto-Burman languages such as Kekhu, Bre, Kayah, Yangtalai, Geba, Zayein and Paku. Their exact numbers are difficult to assert because of the absence of reliable statistics: one plausible estimate is that they may number some 250,000 people. In Kayah State where many Karenni are concentrated, sandwiched between Shan State to the north-west and Karen State to the south-west, the Karenni represented some 56 per cent of the state population of about 259,000 in the official census of 1983 (which is deemed unreliable by many observers). There is also a sizeable Kayah-speaking population in Shan State. It is generally thought that most Karennis are Christians, though a large percentage of the population is Buddhist. ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Administrative areas > Karenni (Kayah) State


Title: Chin Profile
Description/subject: The Chin are of Sino-Tibetan origin and inhabit a mountain chain which roughly covers western Burma through to Mizoram in north-east India (where they are related to the Mizos, Kuki and others) and small parts of Bangladesh. They are not a single group, but are in fact composed of a number of ethnic groups such as the Asho, Cho, Khumi, Kuki, Laimi, Lushai and Zomi, each with their language belonging to the Tibeto-Burman language branch. A mountain people by tradition, though this has been changing, perhaps 80 per cent of the Chin are Christians, while most of the remaining population are mainly Buddhists or animists, and according to some, a very small Jewish sect..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Administrative areas > Chin State


Title: Kachin Profile
Description/subject: "The Kachin encompass a number of ethnic groups speaking almost a dozen distinct languages belonging to the Tibeto-Burman linguistic family who inhabit the same region in the northern part of Burma on the border with China, mainly in Kachin State. Strictly speaking, these languages are not necessarily closely related, and the term Kachin at times is used to refer specifically to the largest of the groups (the Kachin or Jingpho/Jinghpaw) or to the whole grouping of Tibeto-Burman speaking minorities in the region, which include the Maru, Lisu, Lashu, etc. The exact Kachin population is unknown due to the absence of reliable census in Burma for more than 60 years. Most estimates suggest there may in the vicinity of 1 million Kachin in the country. The Kachin, as well as the Chin, are one of Burma’s largest Christian minorities: though once again difficult to assess, it is generally thought that between two-thirds and 90 per cent of Kachin are Christians, with others following animist practices of Buddhists..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Administrative areas > Kachin State


Title: Karen Profile
Description/subject: "The term ‘Karen’ actually refers to a number of ethnic groups with Tibetan-Central Asian origins who speak 12 related but mutually unintelligible languages (‘Karenic languages’) that are part of the Tibeto-Burman group of the Sino-Tibetan family. Around 85 per cent of Karen belong either to the S’ghaw language branch, and are mostly Christian and animist living in the hills, or the Pwo section and are mostly Buddhists. The vast majority of Karen are Buddhists (probably over two-thirds), although large numbers converted to Christianity during British rule and are thought to constitute about 30 per cent among the Karen. The group encompasses a great variety of ethnic groups, such as the Karenni, Padaung (also known by some as ‘long-necks’ because of the brass coils worn by women that appear to result in the elongation of their necks), Bghai, Brek, etc. There are no reliable population figures available regarding their total numbers in Burma: a US State Department estimate for 2007 suggests there may be over 3.2 million living in the eastern border region of the country, especially in Karen State, Tenasserim Division, eastern Pegu Division, Mon State and the Irrawaddy Division..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Administrative areas > Karen (Kayin) State


Title: Mon Profile
Description/subject: "While some Mon groups contend that there are between 4 million and 8 million in Burma, 2007 estimates from sources such as the US State Department are much lower, being in the vicinity of 2 per cent of the country’s total population, or just below 1 million. The latter estimates appear much too low though, perhaps because they may refer to speakers of Mon, whereas higher estimates may be of those who have Mon ancestry. Most ethnic Mon live in or near Mon State, wedged between Thailand to its east and the Andaman Sea coastline to its west. Mon is a Monic language from the Mon-Khmer group of Austro-Asiatic languages, though many also use the Burmese language and are literate only in Burmese. The vast majority of Mon are Theravada Buddhists, with some elements of animist practices..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Administrative areas > Mon State


Title: Muslim, Rohingya Profile
Description/subject: "Muslims in Burma, most of whom are Sunni, constitute at least 4 per cent of the country’s entire population (CIA World Factbook, 2006), with the largest concentration in the north of Rakhine State (also known as Arakan), especially around Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathedaung, Akyab and Kyauktaw. There are a number of distinct Muslim communities in Burma, not all of which share the same cultural or ethnic background. While the country’s largest Muslim population resides in Rakhine State (also known as Arakan), it is actually made up of two distinct groups: those whose ancestors appear to be long established, going back hundreds and hundreds of years, and others whose ancestors arrived more recently during the British colonial period (from 1824 until 1948). The majority of Muslims in Rakhine State refer to themselves as ‘Rohingya’: their language (Rohingya) is derived from the Bengali language and is similar to the Chittagonian dialect spoken in nearby Chittagong, in Bangladesh. There is some dispute as to whether the Rohingya are indigenous to the region or are more ‘recent’, being in the main the descendants of those who arrived in Rakhine State during the British colonial administration. A second group of Muslims in the Rakhine State does not consider themselves as Rohingya, as they speak Rakhine which is closely related to the Burmese language, claim their ancestors have lived in the state for many centuries, and tend to share similar customs to the Rakhine Buddhists. They identify themselves ‘Arakanese Muslims’, ‘Burmese Muslims’ or simply ‘Muslims’..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc.


Title: Shan Profile
Description/subject: "Most ethnic Shan live in the Shan State, though there are also pockets in other parts of Burma such as in Kachin State. Most of them are Theravada Buddhists, with some elements of animist practices, and speak a language which is part of the Tai-Kadai language family, and closely related to Thai and Lao. As there are no reliable population figures for Burma since the Second World War, the size of the Shan minority is a matter of some uncertainty, though most outside sources appear to agree that the Shan are probably the country’s largest minority (Ethnologue [www.ethnologue.com] estimates 3.2 million in 2001; the US State Department gave an estimate of over 4 million in 2007). The term Shan itself is however problematic, at least as it is used by Burma authorities, since they include under this term 33 ethnic groups that are in fact quite distinct and to a large degree unrelated except for close geographic proximity..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Administrative areas > Shan State


Title: Remember Rohingya
Description/subject: Various articles, photos videos, profiles, campaigns etc. on the Rohingya. Unfortunately, the material is not precisely dated.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Restless Beings
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014
ML > Human Rights > Discrimination > Race or Ethnicity: Discrimination based on > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations against specific groups > Discrimination against the Rohingya
Administrative areas > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc.


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Wednesday 20 August, 2014
Date of publication: 20 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Wednesday 20 August, 2014
Date of publication: 20 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (7MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Wednesday 20 August, 2014
Date of publication: 20 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (7.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: Where there is no Doctor - part 1 (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 23 July 2014
Description/subject: "This handbook has been written primarily for those who live far from medical centers, in places where there is no doctor. But even where there are doctors, people can and should take the lead in their own health care. So this book is for everyone who cares. It has been written in the belief that: 1. Health care is not only everyone’s right, but everyone’s responsibility... 2. Informed self-care should be the main goal of any health program or activity... 3. Ordinary people provided with clear, simple information can prevent and treat most common health problems in their own homes—earlier, cheaper, and often better than can doctors... 4. Medical knowledge should not be the guarded secret of a select few, but should be freely shared by everyone... 5. People with little formal education can be trusted as much as those with a lot. And they are just as smart... 6. Basic health care should not be delivered, but encouraged..... Clearly, a part of informed self-care is knowing one’s own limits. Therefore guidelines are included not only for what to do, but for when to seek help. The book points out those cases when it is important to see or get advice from a health worker or doctor. But because doctors or health workers are not always nearby, the book also suggests what to do in the meantime—even for very serious problems..."....N.B. the date of 23 July 2014 is presumably the date of the translation. The date of the original English was, I believe, 2011 - OBL Librarian
Author/creator: David Werner; with Carol Thuman and Jane Maxwell
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides via UNICEF
Format/size: pdf (4.8MB-reduced version; 11.9MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.unicef.org/myanmar/Where_there_is_no_doctor_Part_1.pdf
http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/?book=download_where_there_is_no_doctor#tabs-downloads
http://en.hesperian.org/hhg/Healthwiki
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
ML > Health > Online health resources


Title: Where there is no Doctor - part 2 (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 23 July 2014
Description/subject: "This handbook has been written primarily for those who live far from medical centers, in places where there is no doctor. But even where there are doctors, people can and should take the lead in their own health care. So this book is for everyone who cares. It has been written in the belief that: 1. Health care is not only everyone’s right, but everyone’s responsibility... 2. Informed self-care should be the main goal of any health program or activity... 3. Ordinary people provided with clear, simple information can prevent and treat most common health problems in their own homes—earlier, cheaper, and often better than can doctors... 4. Medical knowledge should not be the guarded secret of a select few, but should be freely shared by everyone... 5. People with little formal education can be trusted as much as those with a lot. And they are just as smart... 6. Basic health care should not be delivered, but encouraged..... Clearly, a part of informed self-care is knowing one’s own limits. Therefore guidelines are included not only for what to do, but for when to seek help. The book points out those cases when it is important to see or get advice from a health worker or doctor. But because doctors or health workers are not always nearby, the book also suggests what to do in the meantime—even for very serious problems..."....N.B. the date of 23 July 2014 is presumably the date of the translation. The date of the original English was, I believe, 2011 - OBL Librarian.
Author/creator: David Werner; with Carol Thuman and Jane Maxwell
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides via UNICEF
Format/size: pdf (3.9MB-reduced version; 7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.unicef.org/myanmar/Where_there_is_no_doctor_Part_2_inside_text.pdf
http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/?book=download_where_there_is_no_doctor#tabs-downloads
http://en.hesperian.org/hhg/Healthwiki
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
ML > Health > Online health resources


Title: Reproductive Health (various studies)
Description/subject: "Women in Myanmar's ethnic border and underserved central regions face enormous risks in having children. In eastern Myanmar the vast majority are anemic and deliver their babies without trained assistance or access to emergency obstetric services. Nearly 1% of pregnancies result in maternal death, mostly from bleeding after delivery or infection — one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world. Community Partners International's focus on training, technical support and resources for local organizations has achieved community-based delivery of antenatal care, family planning and emergency obstetric services to 135,000 women and men who would otherwise have gone without. In addition to implementing life-saving health initiatives, our local partners — with technical support and in-depth mentoring from CPI — have conducted the only peer-reviewed surveys in these largely inaccessible regions... For reproductive health-related articles and reports, see links at right"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Community Partners International
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
ML > Health > Specific areas of health care > Reproductive Health/Gynaecology, Obstetrics


Title: Malaria & Infectious Disease
Description/subject: "In addition to recording the second most malaria deaths of any country in Southeast Asia, Myanmar is a regional epicenter of spreading resistance to vital anti-malarial drugs. The situation is worst in ethnic areas in the eastern, western and northern border regions, which receive little or no government health services and are inaccessible to large-scale international efforts. These regions are populated with displaced and vulnerable communities and rife with fake anti-malaria drugs, contributing to a growing reservoir of infection and a “perfect storm” of conditions to encourage increasing resistance to key artemisinin-based drugs. With in-depth mentoring and technical support from CPI, our local partners have conducted the only peer-reviewed surveys in this inaccessible region, demonstrating that malaria accounts for nearly half of all deaths, with a disproportionate impact on children and pregnant women: Nearly 15% of children will die before their fifth birthday, one-third from malaria, and malaria is the leading cause of maternal anemia, stillbirth, premature birth and low birth weight.... For malaria-related articles and reports, see links at right"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Community Partners International
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
ML > Health > Threats to Health > Diseases > Communicable (infectious) diseases > Malaria


Title: Health Systems Strengthening
Description/subject: "In Myanmar, one in seven children die before they reach the age of five, and many of these deaths are easily preventable. The challenge is to provide essential basic services to tens of thousands of villagers who have become nearly inaccessible due to civil conflict, displacement, and isolated and rugged jungle terrain. Community Partners International’s Village Health Worker program trains and equips hundreds of local health workers who provide a variety of interventions, ranging from basic hygiene and nutrition education to testing for and treating malaria. In Myanmar, these health workers are often the only source of health care in the community. See links at right for our peer-reviewed publications and reports on the community-based initiatives designed, implemented and managed through partnership Community Partners International to improve the functions of the indiginous health systems in Myanmar, and lead to better health through improvements in access, coverage, quality, and efficiency."..... Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Health: Back Pack Health Worker Team 1998-2009... Mortality rates in eastern Burma (Tropical Medicine & International Health, July 2006)... Multi-Level Partnerships to Promote Health (Global Public Health, April 2008)... Responding to Infectious Diseases (Conflict and Health, March 2008).
Language: English
Source/publisher: Community Partners International
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
ML > Health > Health systems and resources > Backpack medics and other health projects in Eastern Burma


Title: Health and Human Rights
Description/subject: "Many of CPI's local partners serve ethnic communities located in Myanmar's conflict-affected zones that are not adequately served by governmental organizations or large humanitarian agencies — areas that also often suffer from chronic human rights abuses. See links at rights for peer-reviewed articles and reports documenting the connection between systemic abuses and poor health in Myanmar's border regions....Diagnosis Critical (CPI Partners, Oct. 2010)... After the Storm (CPI Partners, March 2009)... Chronic Emergency (CPI partners, Sep. 2006)... Displacement and Disease (Conflict and Health, March 2008)... Health and human rights and political transition (Intl Health & Human Rights, May 2014)... Maternal health and human rights violations (PLoS Medicine, Dec. 2008)... Quantifying associations between human rights violations and health (Epidemiology & Community Health, Sep. 2007)... The Gathering Storm (CPI partners, July 2007)... Community-based Assessment of Human Rights (Conflict and Health, April 2010).
Language: English
Source/publisher: Community Partners International
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
ML > Health > Health systems and resources > Backpack medics and other health projects in Eastern Burma
Health > Threats to Health > Conflict and health, including violations of humanitarian and human rights standards as threats to health


Title: Trauma Care
Description/subject: "There are no doctors or hospitals for eastern Myanmar’s displaced civilians, many of them living in recently active conflict zones, in a region with one of the highest rates of landmine injuries in the world. To address basic and critical emergency health needs, our partner organization, the Karen Department of Health and Welfare (KDHW), developed a mobile medical system uniquely adapted to the region: A network of tiny clinics now dot eastern Myanmar, with local health workers carrying supplies on their backs, walking for weeks through remote jungles to get medical training and reach patients. Community Partners International trains and equips these Trauma Management Program health workers. See links at right for peer-reviewed publications on our community-based initiatives to address trauma and other critical health needs in Myanmar.".....Best Practices Guidelines on Surgical Response in Disasters and Humanitarian Emergencies...Surgery in Humanitarian Settings (Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, December 2011)... Trauma Care in Conflict Zones (Human Resources for Health, March 2009)... Trauma and Mental Health in eastern Myanmar (Conflict & Health July 2013).
Language: English
Source/publisher: Community Partners International
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
ML > Health > Threats to Health > Trauma > Trauma care


Title: A Book for Midwives
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: "...Midwives need accurate information to help them protect the health and well-being of women, babies, and families. They need strategies to fight poverty and the unequal treatment of women, and for working together and with other health workers towards health for all. We revised A Book for Midwives with these needs in mind. In this edition of A Book for Midwives, you will find: * information needed to care for women and their babies during pregnancy, labor, birth, and in the weeks following birth, because this is the primary work of most midwives. * skills for protecting a woman’s reproductive health throughout her life, because a woman’s health needs are important whether or not she is having a baby, and because a woman’s health when she is not pregnant affects how healthy and safe her pregnancies and births will be. * safe, effective methods from both traditional midwifery and modern, Western-based medicine, because good health care in labor and birth uses the best from both Western medicine and the traditions of midwifery. discussion of the ways that poverty and the denial of women’s needs affect women’s health, and how midwives can work to improve these conditions, because changing these conditions can make a lasting improvement in health. * suggestions for how midwives can and must work with each other, with other health workers, and with the larger community, because working together strengthens everyone’s knowledge and makes action to improve women’s health more effective..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014
ML > Health > Specific areas of health care > Reproductive Health/Gynaecology, Obstetrics


Title: Contact Lists of Humanitarian Partners in MYANMAR (and other Myanmar lists)
Date of publication: 25 July 2014
Description/subject: Excel file listing individual offices of organisations involved in humanitarian work in Burma/Myanmar. Some organisations have several offices (total 733). The organizations are categorised as: national NGOs (about 180), international NGOs/CBOs (88), embassies (15), international organisations, (2 - World Bank and IOM), UN (21), donors (12), Red Cross/Red Crescent (1), [research] institutions (1), companies (1), local companbies (2) and faith-based organisations (1)...The list has the Organization Name, Acronym, Organization Type, Sector Head/Field office, State/Region "Location (Town / Village) in which office is located", Address, Telephone, Fax, email, website...Myanmar Government departments are not listed here...The referring page lists office locations by State, Region & Township and UN offices on a map.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
Format/size: Excel (1.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://themimu.info/contacts
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2014
ML > Humanitarian Assistance to Burma/Myanmar > Humanitarian assistance > Humanitarian assistance to Burma -- contact lists and mixed content


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Tuesday 19 August, 2014
Date of publication: 19 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Tuesday 19 August, 2014
Date of publication: 19 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (6.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Tuesday 19 August, 2014
Date of publication: 19 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: NGO Law Monitor: Myanmar (Burma)
Date of publication: 02 August 2014
Description/subject: Introduction | At a Glance | Key Indicators | International Rankings | Legal Snapshot | Legal Analysis | Reports | News and Additional Resources Last updated: 2 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: The International Center for Not-for-Profit Law
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2014
ML > Humanitarian Assistance to Burma/Myanmar > Humanitarian assistance > Humanitarian assistance in Burma/Myanmar -- guidelines, regulations etc.


Title: Audio-Visual Library of International Law
Description/subject: "...A virtual training and research centre in international law... THE HISTORIC ARCHIVES provides a unique resource for the teaching, studying and researching significant legal instrument on international law. Each entry is devoted to a particular instrument and contains an introduction to the instrument prepared by an eminent international law scholar or practitioner with special expertise on the subject, information on its procedural history and related documents, as well as the text and status of the instrument. It is accompanied by audiovisual materials, as available, relating to the negotiation and adoption of the instrument at meetings or diplomatic conferences.... THE LECTURE SERIES contains a permanent collection of lectures of enduring value on virtually every subject of international law given by leading international law scholars and practitioners from different regions, legal systems, cultures and sectors of the legal profession... THE RESEARCH LIBRARY provides an extensive online library of international law materials, including treaties, jurisprudence, documents, legal publications, research guides and selected scholarly writings, as well as international law training materials...."
Language: English (Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html, pdf, audio, video etc.
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > International Law > The theory and practice of international law


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Monday 18 August, 2014
Date of publication: 18 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (8.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Monday 18 August, 2014
Date of publication: 18 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (7.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: Myanmar's Courts and the Sounds Money Makes
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "The public transcript on corruption in Myanmar’s judicial system does not aim primarily to address practices identified as corrupt, but to affirm an elite self-portrait in which the dominant group appears innately superior to its subordinates. Its model of probity is a judicial officer who follows orders as required, who pretends to subscribe to the values of official propaganda, and who successfully maintains the appearance of being free from practices identified as corrupt. In exchange for going along with the public transcript, the elite grants conditional concessions to the interests of subordinates. Subordinates interpret and accommodate these concessions through the language and practices of the hidden transcript. The hidden transcript sustains its public counterpart to the extent that legal professionals find it in their interest to give the appearance of compliance, but the hidden transcript also inverts and undermines much of the public transcript, even as it seemingly accommodates it, and underneath it prickles with rancour at the hypocrisy of senior officials who preach virtue as they practice vice..."
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar's Transition: Openings, Obstacles and Opportunities, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Singapore, pp. 231-248
Format/size: pdf (339K)
Alternate URLs: https://anu-au.academia.edu/NickCheesman
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > The practice of law in Burma/Myanmar > The courts


Title: How an Authoritarian Regime in Burma Used Special Courts to Defeat Judicial Independence
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: "Why do authoritarian rulers establish special courts? One view is that they do so to insulate the judiciary from politically oriented cases and allow it contin- ued, albeit limited, independence. In this article I present a contrary case study of an authoritarian regime in Burma that used special courts not to insulate the judiciary but to defeat it. Through comparison to other Asian cases I suggest that the Burmese regime’s composition and character better explain its strategy than does extant judicial authority or formal ideology. The regime consisted of war fighters for whom the courts were enemy territory. But absent popular support, the regime’s leaders could not embark immedi- ately on a radical project for legal change that might compromise their hold on power. Consequently, they used special courts and other strategies to defeat judicial independence incrementally, until they could displace the professional judiciary and bring the courts fully under executive control..."
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Law & Society Review, Volume 45, Number 4 (2011)
Format/size: pdf (156K)
Alternate URLs: https://anu-au.academia.edu/NickCheesman
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > The practice of law in Burma/Myanmar > The courts


Title: Reading between the lines of criminalized assembly in Myanmar
Date of publication: 10 December 2011
Description/subject: "All public assemblies that power holders have not themselves organized or endorsed pose them some kind of political challenge. In a democratic system, unauthorized public assemblies are part of the political process. The ruling group is obliged to accommodate such assemblies and not resort to needlessly coercive methods in dealing with them. The political symbolism of an authoritarian system, by contrast, carries with it, as James Scott has written, an implicit assumption that subordinates gather only when they are authorized to do so from above.1 Where subordinates defy this assumption, they threaten the political order, and risk juridical sanction. The British authoritarian regime in its Asian colonies assigned public assembly an inherently criminal quality. A full chapter of the Indian Penal Code, which it brought with it to Burma, sets out offences against public tranquillity and their punishments. The terms used in the code evoke the innate criminality of unauthorized gatherings: “criminal force”, “rioting”, “affray”. The colonial-era police and courts read between these lines so as to enable liberal use of violence. Police and magistrates responded to unauthorized assembly under cover of the empire’s criminal codes with lathi charges and rifle fire. When they failed to keep things under control, behind them came the army. And so, a template was set for what historian Mary Callahan has described as the “coercion-intensive” state in Burma.2 1 James C. Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1990) 61. 2 Mary P. Callahan, "State Formation in the Shadow of the Raj: Violence, Warfare and Politics in Colonial Burma," Southeast Asian Studies 39.4 (2002): 521. 2 But the colonial template has, as the years have passed, become less and less familiar. Whereas the coercive parts of the criminal juridical apparatus in Burma, now officially Myanmar, have expanded in size and strength under successive military or military-established governments, the authority of the courts has greatly diminished. Whereas the criminal codes have remained in force, the manner of their application has changed markedly. And meanwhile, other ill-defined elements that were not part of the original template have also entered the mix. In this paper, I briefly explore the shifting character of the containment and criminalizing of unauthorized assembly in Myanmar through a case study of the juridical and extrajuridical response to large-scale protests in 2007. I argue that the criminalizing of unauthorized assembly and its participants was, compared to earlier periods, highly ambiguous, because the juridical and extrajuridical elements of the response were throughout purposefully intervowen. The ambiguity was, I think, paradigmatic of how power has in recent years been exercised through the criminal juridical system of Myanmar, such that today we can only talk of the juridical and extrajudicial in the singular, as a composite of practices rather than two contrasting sets of practices..."
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman
Language: English
Source/publisher: “Southeast Asia: Between the Lines”, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan, 9-10 December 2011
Format/size: pdf (616K)
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > Civil and political issues > Association and Assembly > Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to association and assembly (commentaries)


Title: The Incongruous Return of Habeas Corpus to Myanmar
Date of publication: 25 August 2010
Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "Where the role of the courts is to assist in a state programme, rather than check executive power, policy directives can be implemented through the judiciary in the same way as through the administrative bureaucracy. By contrast, systems like those in Sri Lanka or Nepal may be defective and compromised but judges in them do still adjudicate more according to the terms of law than according to the dictates of executive officers. Ironically, a corrupted policy-implementing judicial system like that in Myanmar can be mistaken for an efficient system in contrast to its functionally separate counterparts, because its efficiency derives from the carrying out of orders and urgency to make money through the exercise of authority, not from integrity or professionalism of the sort that courts in other countries struggle to achieve, however imperfectly and half-heartedly. This is the real incongruity of habeas corpus as an element in the 2008 Constitution of Myanmar. Habeas corpus is premised on the idea that courts have the power to compel soldiers, police and other officials to follow their orders. In Myanmar, where the judiciary is a proxy for the executive, judges have this power only where they have the approval and backing of higher executive authorities. Whereas in certain authoritarian settings the courts have retained nominal legal power over other parts of government but have been unable or unwilling to exercise it at certain times because of extenuating circumstances, in Myanmar the problem is much more basic. Myanmar’s courts don’t have effective authority over other parts of government at all. Their capacity to review the activities of state agencies and agents is limited to what the executive permits them. Under these circumstances, not only is the reintroducing of habeas corpus a figment but so too is any constitutional commitment to protect the individual, because all such legal commitments are delimited by higher administrative imperatives. Only where legal and administrative objectives coincide can the former prevail. The incongruity of habeas corpus in the new constitution percolates throughout the charter’s contents, and through the extant state institutions that will be responsible for establishing new institutions in accordance with its terms following general elections. Where the armed forces rather than the judiciary have responsibility to safeguard the constitution and uphold the rule of law, statements of citizens’ rights are perverse. Where the state has subordinated legality to policy and detached policy from any coherent ideology, no amount of technical or procedural rearranging can effect significant change. Because the new constitution is a vague expression that is not binding on its guardian, ultimately it contains no guarantees, whether for a political detainee, an ordinary under-trial accused or anyone else."
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Ruling Myanmar From Cyclone Nargis to National Elections", Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Singapore, pp. 90-111
Format/size: pdf (177K)
Alternate URLs: https://anu-au.academia.edu/NickCheesman
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > Constitutional and parliamentary processes > National and State constitutions, draft constitutions and amendments (commentary)
Law and Constitution > The practice of law in Burma/Myanmar > The courts
Human Rights > Detentions, Trials, Independence of the Judiciary > Detentions, unfair trials, Independence of the judiciary: political prisoners and other violations in Burma


Title: School, State and Sangha in Burma
Date of publication: 01 January 2003
Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This article explores by means of an historical descriptive analysis of schooling in Burma the merits of historical descriptive analysis in comparative education. It demonstrates how control over schooling is likely to relate to state legitimacy. Prior to the nineteenth century, the supervision of teaching in Burma was undertaken not by the state but rather by the monasteries of the Theravada Buddhist order, the Sangha. The monastic schools were widespread and they served as an important legitimising device for both the Sangha and the Buddhist state, which were engaged in a competitive partnership. During the nineteenth century, the British colonial administration demolished the pre-existing socio-political structures that assured the Sangha its authority, and permitted alternative forms of public instruction. The teaching role of the Sangha was diminished, however not destroyed, and it continuously resisted the British intrusion. Following independence, rather than re-invest authority over schooling in the Sangha, the new state instead expanded its mandate over public instruction as a means to inculcate the ‘national idea’. In the present day, schooling is subject to the dictates of an autocratic military regime, and the Sangha has been forced into a subordinate role in support of nationalist objectives, in contrast to its earlier powerful part in structural opposition to the state."
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Comparative Education Volume 39 No. 1 2003
Format/size: pdf (117K)
Alternate URLs: https://anu-au.academia.edu/NickCheesman
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
ML > Education > Education in Burma - general
Education > Monastic education


Title: Seeing ‘Karen’ in the Union of Myanmar
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: "Karen identity is problematic, as peoples known as ‘Karen’ do not share a common language, culture, religion or material characteristics. Most of the research on Karens has been conducted in Thailand, but the dominant ‘pan-Karen’ identity is a product of social and historical forces in Myanmar, where this study is focused. In the main part of this paper, I reveal the subjective criteria that have come to signify pan-Karen identity. My primary source material consists of internal literary discourses. In particular, I have drawn on the historical texts of two British colonial-era authors: T. Thanbyah and Saw Aung Hla. Three signi￿cant concepts appear in their works and subsequent internal discourses on Karen identity: that Karens are oppressed, uneducated and virtuous. In the latter part of the paper, I review contemporary Myanmar government policy on ethnic identity, highlighting the assigned role of ‘Union Spirit’ among all groups in the country towards overcoming super￿cial differences. State policies are designed—among other things—to emphasise a myth of common descent of all ‘national races’; construct a unifying national culture, and concentrate administrative power at the centre. Both Karen identity and the Union of Myanmar are products of the same historical and social conditions. Both appeal to a supposed unity, but in other characteristics differ. State discourses suggest accommodation, but are directed towards social control. Karen identity is born of primordial statements but is manifest in structural opposition to the state. Ultimately, while the state seeks to assimilate all, Karen nationalists aim towards the assimilation of their own and separation from others."
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Ethnicity, Volume 3, Number 2, September 2002
Format/size: pdf (661K)
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
ML > Anthropology > Anthropological literature on ethnicity and identity


Title: Thin Rule of Law or Un-Rule of Law in Myanmar?
Date of publication: 2010
Description/subject: "...In this article I examine the rule-of-law language and practices of the state in Myanmar in terms of the “thin” rule of law, which is sometimes described as “rule by law.” I am not advocating this type of rule of law. Rather, I am interested in how it can be used to explore the sort of authoritarian legality found in Myanmar, and to advance more critical study of Asian governments’ stated commitments to the rule of law..."
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Pacific Affairs: Volume 82, No. 4 Winter 2009/2010
Format/size: pdf (77K)
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > Rule of Law (international and Burma/Myanmar-specific)


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Monday 18 August, 2014
Date of publication: 18 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law
Description/subject: "The United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law is a free online international law research and training tool. It was created and is maintained by the Codification Division of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs as a part of its mandate under the United Nations Programme of Assistance in the Teaching, Study, Dissemination and Wider Appreciation of International Law..."
Language: English (other languages available)
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > International Law > The theory and practice of international law


Title: BURMA BULLETIN ISSUE 91 - JULY 2014
Date of publication: July 2014
Description/subject: KEY STORY: • Journalists sentenced; • Journalists arrested, restricted; • Crackdown on ... INSIDE BURMA: • Anti-Muslim violence; • Tatmadaw attacks Shan State; • Parliament; • Restrictive campaign rules; • Constitutional campaign ends; • 'Citizenship assessment'... HUMAN RIGHTS: • Yanghee Lee goes to Burma; • Land activists sentenced; • Anti-rape activists convicted; • Child soldiers still recruited; • Minorities under threat... DISPLACEMENT: • Trouble for refugees; • Burmese deported, detained; • Rohingya arrested... ECONOMY: • MCRB transparency report; • Thilawa SEZ phase 2... OTHER BURMA NEWS... REPORTS.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (185K)
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
ML > Activism and Advocacy (groups from Burma, solidarity groups, campaigns, publications) > Online publications by Burma solidarity groups > ALTSEAN-Burma archive


Title: NOT JUST DEFENDING; ADVOCATING FOR LAW IN MYANMAR
Date of publication: June 2014
Description/subject: "...Through research on Myanmar, we argue that in authoritarian settings where legality has drastically declined, the starting point for cause lawyering lies in advocacy for law itself, in advocating for the regular application of law’s rules. Because this characterization is liable to be misunderstood as formalistic, particularly by persons familiar with less authoritarian, more legally coherent settings than the one with which we are here concerned, it deserves some brief comments before we continue...By insisting upon legal formality as a condition of transformative justice, cause lawyers in Myanmar advocate for the inherent value of rules in the courtroom, but also incrementally build a constituency in the wider society. In advocating for faithful application of declared rules, in insisting on formal legality in the public domain, lawyers encourage people to mobilize around law as an idea, essential for making law meaningful in practice. They promote a notion of the legal system as once more an arena in which citizens can set up interests that are not congruent with those of the state; an arena in which cause lawyering is made viable and in which the cause lawyer has a distinctive role to play..." Includes description and discussion of the Kanma land-grab case.....The digitised version may contain errors so the original is included an an Alternate URL.
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman, Kyaw Min San
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wisconsin International Law Journal
Format/size: pdf (226K-digitised version; 1.6MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs19/Cheesman_KMS__Not_just_defending-orig.pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > Legal sources and literature > Legal studies and articles
Law and Constitution > Legal sources and literature > Burmese legal history
Land > Land in Burma > Human activity on land in Burma/Myanmar > Land confiscation for military, "development" and commercial purposes
Land > Land in Burma > Law/policy on land in Burma/Myanmar
Law and Constitution > Administration > Land, property and planning > Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to land, property and planning (commentary)


Title: "Myanmar Alin" Sunday 17 August, 2014
Date of publication: 17 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (4.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" > "Myanmar Alin" 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Sunday 17 August, 2014
Date of publication: 17 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (4.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: Sources of international law
Description/subject: "Sources of international law are the materials and processes out of which the rules and principles regulating the international community are developed. They have been influenced by a range of political and legal theories..."
Language: English (other languages available)
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > International Law > The theory and practice of international law


Title: United Nations: International Law
Description/subject: "This is the International Law page of the United Nations website. Here you will find related UN bodies, thematic areas, UN offices, news, tools ..."
Language: English (other languages available)
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > International Law > The theory and practice of international law


Title: Customary international law
Description/subject: Results of a Google search for "customary international law"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > International Law > The theory and practice of international law


Title: Public international law
Description/subject: Results of a Google search for "public international law"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > International Law > The theory and practice of international law


Title: International law
Description/subject: Results of a Google search for "international law"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > International Law > The theory and practice of international law


Title: United Nations Rule of Law
Description/subject: "...The principle of the rule of law applies at the national and international levels. At the national level, the UN supports a rule of law framework that includes a Constitution or its equivalent, as the highest law of the land; a clear and consistent legal framework, and implementation thereof; strong institutions of justice, governance, security and human rights that are well structured, financed, trained and equipped; transitional justice processes and mechanisms; and a public and civil society that contributes to strengthening the rule of law and holding public officials and institutions accountable. These are the norms, policies, institutions and processes that form the core of a society in which individuals feel safe and secure, where legal protection is provided for rights and entitlements, and disputes are settled peacefully and effective redress is available for harm suffered, and where all who violate the law, including the State itself, are held to account..."
Language: English (other languages available)
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > Rule of Law (international and Burma/Myanmar-specific)


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Monday 4 August, 2014
Date of publication: 04 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Tuesday 5 August, 2014
Date of publication: 05 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (4.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Wednesday 6 August, 2014
Date of publication: 06 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Thursday 7 August, 2014
Date of publication: 07 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Friday 8 August, 2014
Date of publication: 08 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Saturday 9 August, 2014
Date of publication: 09 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Sunday 10 August, 2014
Date of publication: 10 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Monday 11 August, 2014
Date of publication: 11 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (4MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Tuesday 12 August, 2014
Date of publication: 12 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Wednesday 13 August, 2014
Date of publication: 13 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Thursday 14 August, 2014
Date of publication: 14 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Friday 15 August, 2014
Date of publication: 15 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: "The New Light of Myanmar" Saturday 16 August, 2014
Date of publication: 16 August 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The New Light of Myanmar" 2014


Title: REDISCOVERING “LAW” IN MYANMAR: A REVIEW OF SCHOLARSHIP ON THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF MYANMAR
Date of publication: 27 May 2014
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar’s legal system is an understudied area in the academic field of Asian Legal Studies. This article aims to provide a map of legal scholarship in Myanmar that can be built on in the future. It identifies the key issues and arguments that have driven research on law in Myanmar, and the central academics whose oeuvre of publications have sustained the field. It is organized around four broad themes: custom, religion, and the law; public law and governance; corporate law; and the politics of law. It suggests that in order to build the next generation of legal scholarship, future research on Myanmar law must be grounded in its social, political, and historical context. This type of research requires the rediscovery of “law” in Myanmar by engaging with the existing body of social science literature on Burma Studies more generally."
Author/creator: Melissa Crouch
Language: English
Source/publisher: Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal, Vol. 23, No. 3
Format/size: pdf (401K)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
ML > Law and Constitution > Legal sources and literature > Legal studies and articles
Law and Constitution > Legal sources and literature > Burmese legal history


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Tuesday 29 July, 2014
Date of publication: 29 July 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (6MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Wednesday 30 July, 2014
Date of publication: 30 July 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Thursday 31 July, 2014
Date of publication: 31 July 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Friday 1 August, 2014
Date of publication: 01 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (4.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Saturday 2 August, 2014
Date of publication: 02 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Sunday 3 August, 2014
Date of publication: 03 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (4.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Monday 4 July, 2014
Date of publication: 04 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Tuesday 5 August, 2014
Date of publication: 05 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (4.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Wednesday 6 August, 2014
Date of publication: 06 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (5.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Thursday 7 August, 2014
Date of publication: 07 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Friday 8 August, 2014
Date of publication: 08 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (6.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014


Title: "The Mirror" (Kyemon") Saturday 9 August, 2014
Date of publication: 09 August 2014
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2014
RR > News - Media produced by the Government of Burma/Myanmar > Full, original versions of "The New Light of Myanmar", "Kyemon" and "Myanmar Alin" > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") > "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") 2014