[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index ][Thread Index ]

BurmaNet News: November 4, 1995

Received: (from strider) by igc4.igc.apc.org (8.6.12/Revision: 1.16 ) id IAA25575; Sun, 5 Nov 1995 08:34:01 -0800
Date: Sun, 5 Nov 1995 08:34:01 -0800

Status: R

Doug what's going on with the account?!

------------------------ BurmaNet ------------------------
"Appropriate Information Technologies, Practical Strategies"

The BurmaNet News: September 4, 1995
Issue #270

Noted in Passing:

The unrestricted competition has also led to all out brawls 
between competing tour companies at the airport and a rise in 
unscrupulous business tactics such as taxi drivers delaying their 
arrival to the train station until the last train to Mandalay has 
departed and then offering their services as tour guides.


Produced with the support of the Burma Information Group (B.I.G)
and the Research Department of the ABSDF {MTZ}  

The BurmaNet News is an electronic newspaper covering Burma.
Articles from newspapers, magazines, newsletters, the wire
services and the Internet as well as original material are published.               

The BurmaNet News is e-mailed directly to subscribers and is
also distributed via the soc.culture.burma and seasia-l
mailing lists and is also available via the reg.burma
conference on the APC networks. For a free subscription to
the BurmaNet News, send an e-mail message to: majordomo@xxxxxxxxxxx   
In the body of the message, type "subscribe burmanet-l"
(without quotation marks) Letters to the editor, comments or
contributions of articles should be sent to the editor at: strider@xxxxxxxxxxx

Information about Burma is available via the WorldWideWeb at:

FreeBurmaWWW http://sunsite.unc.edu/freeburma/freeburma.html
[including back issues of the BurmaNet News as .txt files]
BurmaWeb:  http://www.uio.no/tormodl

Burma fonts: http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~lka/burmese-fonts/moe.html

Ethnologue Database(Myanmar):


 gopher csf.colorado.edu.

Look under the International Political Economy section, then
select Geographic Archive, then Asia, then Burma. 

BurmaNet regularly receives enquiries on a number of different 
topics related to Burma. If you have questions on any of the 
following subjects, please direct email to the following volunteer 
coordinators, who will either answer your question or try to put you 
in contact with someone who can:

Arakan/Rohingya/Burma     volunteer needed 
Bangladesh Border	
Campus activism: 	zni@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Boycott campaigns: [Pepsi]   wcsbeau@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx     
Buddhism:                    Buddhist Relief Mission:  brelief@xxxxxxx
Chin history/culture:        plilian@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Fonts:                  		tom@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx
History of Burma:            zni@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Kachin history/culture:      74750.1267@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx 
Karen history/culture: 	Karen Historical Society: 102113.2571@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Mon history/culture:         [volunteer needed]
Naga history/culture: 	Wungram Shishak:  z954001@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Burma-India border            [volunteer needed]
Pali literature:            	 "Palmleaf":  c/o burmanet@xxxxxxxxxxx
Shan history/culture:        [volunteer needed]
Shareholder activism:       simon_billenness@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx   
Tourism campaigns:      	bagp@xxxxxxxxxx     "Attn. S.Sutcliffe"   
World Wide Web:              FreeBurma@xxxxxxxxx
Volunteering:           	christin@xxxxxxxxxx  

[Feel free to suggest more areas of coverage]


November 1, 1995


Land Area (1,000 km2 ) 1992			      = 658
Forest and Woodland (as % of land area) 1992 	      =	49.3
Arable Land (as % of land area) 1992		      =	15.3
Irrigated Land (as % of land area) 1992		      =	9.9
Deforestation (1,000 ha per year) 1989		      =	677
Annual rate of Deforestation (%) 1989		      =	2.1
Production of Fuel Wood and Charcoal 
                      (1,000 m3 per year) 1992	      =	18,632
Internal renewable water resources per capita 
                      (1,000 m3 per year) 1992	      =	24.8
Annual fresh water withdrawls per capita (m3) 1989    =	101

Production as % of national energy reserves (Natural Gas) 1991	      =0.4
Commercial Energy Production average annual growth rate 
                                               (%) 1992		      = -1
Commercial Energy Consumption average annual growth rate
                                               (%) 1992		      = -1
Commercial Energy Use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) 1992	      = 42
Commercial Energy Imports ( as % of merchandise exports) 1992	      =  9

Estimated Population (millions) 1992		      =	43.7
                                		2000		      =	51.5
Annual Population growth rate (%) 1992-2000	      =	2.1
Crude Birth rate (1992)				      =	32.5
Crude Death rate (1992)				      =	11.1
Total Fertility rate (1992)			     	      =	4.2

Defence expenditure - U.S $ millions - (1985 prices) 1992     =	269
Military expenditure (as % of combined education 
                      and health expenditure ) 1991	      =	222
Imports of conventional weapons 
                     (1990 prices) U.S $ millions (1992)      =	48
Total Armed Forces (Thousands) 1992			      =	286.0

Total external debt - U.S $ billions (1992)	      =	5.3

Social Investment: Public expenditure 
                   on Education (as % 0f GNP) 1990	      =	1.9
Employment: Womens share of adult labour force 
                   (age 15 and above) 1994		      =	36

            Percentage of labour force in Agriculture (1992)  =	79
                                       in Industry (1992)     =	 7
                                       in Services (1992)     =	14

Pupil-teacher ratio (primary) 1990			      =	35
Secondary technical enrolment (as % of total secondary) 1991  =	1.2
Education (as % of GNP) 1990				      =	1.9
Primary & Secondary Education (as % of all levels) 1990	      =	86
Higher Education (as % of all levels) 1990		      =	13

Tuberculosis (%) 1993			              = 80
Measles (%) 1993				      =	71
AIDS cases (per 100,000 people) 1993		      =	0.3
Malaria cases (per 100,000 people) 1993		      =	330
Population per Doctor (1991)			      =	12,500
Pregnant women age 15-49 with Anaemia (%) 1991	      =	60

Daily Newspaper (copies per 100 people) 1992		      =	1
Gender-related development: Share of earned income (%) 
                                            Female	      =	30
                                            Male	      =	70
			    Life expetancy (years) 1992
                                            Female	      =	59.3
                                            Male	      =	56

Myanmar is Low Human development (HDI below 0.500) and Low Income (GNP 
per capita $ 695 and below) country.


November 3, 1995

Dear Friends:

ISBDA has just received new  video tapes, alias "Burma's Democracy Struggle
and Our Future Prospect, vol. #9, #10, #11, and  #12."
The tapes were recorded during September to October and distributed by the
NLD HQ to its members. Video tape (#12) covers Thadingyut Traditional
Ceremony organized by University Student Union to pay respect to senior
political activists in Burma.  The tapes #9--#12 are serial video documents
of public speeches and discussions in Burmese by the NLD leaders headed by
Daw  Aung San Suu Kyi, based on the  questions by the people gathered every
weekends in front of  Daw Suu's resident.

People who interested in sharing these tapes must send return address  to
ISBDA, 202-601 Chohai 3-chome, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan 480-11 with enclosed 
check or international MO payable to Htay H. Kyi.

_OnlY FoR YoU:_

Those friends who have reputation of sharing previous video & audio sets
are suggested to send an email mentioning that he or she has just mailed
the payment so that we can process for shipping the new volumes without
confirming the payment.   

copying + handling fees ==>

Burma's Democracy Struggle and Our Future Prospect, vol. #9, #10, #11. #12:
 ===========(new set -a)===============   US$ 60.0 per set.

Burma's Democracy Struggle and Our Future Prospect, vol. #6, #7, #8:
 ===========(previous set)===============   US$ 35.0 per set.

Five Audio Tapes (C60s):
===========(previous set)===============   US$ 25.0 per set.

Burma's Democracy Struggle and Our Future Prospect, vol. 5:
 ===========(previous sei)===============   US$ 15.0 per copy.

August 11 Press Briefing Audio Tape (C60):
===========(previous set)===============   US$ 10.0 per copy.

Burma's Democracy Struggle and Our Future Prospect, vol. 3 and 4:
 ===========(previous set)===============   US$ 25.0 per set.

Burma's Democracy Struggle and Our Future Prospect, vol. 1 and 2: 
 ============(previous set) ==========   US$ 25.0 per set.

Please clearly mention the tape volume numbers in your order and
we will immediately air-mailed  after receiving your payment. 

All video tapes are recorded by home video camera system on NTSC VHS format.



November 3, 1995
>From information.general@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Thanks to Blair Dye, AU Interloans, for this information: 


The subscriber tally is presented again here, with all the correct country names.


country	        abbreviation               total
USA		 - 		256	
Thailand		th		 50
Australia	au		 41
United Kingdom    uk		 12
Japan		 jp		 10
Canada		ca		 10
Norway		no		  8
France		fr		  4
Singapore	sg		  3
India		in		  3
Netherlands	nl		  3
Germany		de		  3
Denmark	dk		  3
Malaysia	my		  3
New Zealand	nz		  2
Belgium		be		  1
Finland		fi		  1
Zaire		za		  1
Slovenia		si		  1
Switzerland	ch		  1
Sweden      	se		  1
Austria		at		  1
Iceland		is		  1
			       total: 419


country	        abbreviation               total
USA		 - 		 45	
Thailand		th		  3
Australia	au		  8
United Kingdom    uk		  1
Japan		 jp		  3
Canada		ca		  4
France		fr		  1
Netherlands	nl		  1
Germany		de		  1
Denmark	dk		  1
New Zealand	nz		  1
Hong Kong	hk		  1
Austria		at		  1
Croatia		cr		  1
			    Total:  72


October 31, 1995

AMSTERDAM 02/22/95 - Seven Burmese Sailors onboard the Stainless Tanker are
stuck in Delfzijl, a small chemical-harbour in the north of The Netherlands.
ADRIATIC TANKERS, their Greek shipping company, has not paid their salaries.
The boat will shortly be sold at an auction to pay for the return air-fare
of the sailors as well as their salaries.

The seven sailors are being helped by the local church and some trade-union
members. The boat still has oil so the heating is still working which the
crew will need as temparatures are falling below zero soon.
Another six Burmese sailors are stuck onboard their ship in Rouen, northern
France. Since this ship has no electricty nor oil to run the heating, a plee
for legal and financial support has reached the international Burma-support

Last week the seven sailors appeared in a one-hour television show at a
regional televisionnetwork and articles appeared in the regional press.
ADRIATIC TANKERS (AT) owns 116 ships which makes it a very big company to
European standards. AT has not paid salaries worldwide to an amount of five
million US dollars.

Two other Burmese were recently sent home on to Burma after spending months
in Dordrecht. A quarter of their wages was paid, as well as their air-fare.
As soon as the rest of the salary is secured it will be transferred to the
companies Burma office. Involved Trade-union workers are concerned thismoney
will never reach the sailors, something they learend from past experiences.
A total of 56 Burmese sailors were this year stuck in the same manner in The
Netherlands. If the necessary amount of money is secured, the Burmese are
sent back home.
Two sailors onboard the OCEAN BREEZER, also owned by AT, who were suffering
from the cold, threathened to set fire to the furniture. They were
transferred to the STAINLESS COMMANDER in DElfzijl, where there still is oil.
One repatriated Burmese sailor was able to return home only after
negotiations for several hours by Trade Union officials at the international
airport SCHIPHOL, since his passport had expired. Stranded sailors are
usually granted a three-month visa in the Netherlands.

These sailors can probably be contacted through us, our e-mail adress is
visit these sights:


November 3, 1995  By Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe

Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe sees the latest turmoil afflicting the nationalist 
movement in Shan state as just one more result of its position as a 
political chessboard for Cold War games, imperial power plays and Burman 

In January 1995, a group of Shans met in New York city and 
subsequently issued the "New York Declaration" which reiterated 
the right of the Shan to freedom, identity, human rights and 
pledged to work with other democracy groups and activists to 
restore democracy.

They also expressed the willingness to explore with the Burman, 
Mon, Karen, and others the possibility of co-existence under one 
flag. The New York Declaration was welcomed by all groups in Shan 
State and also the Mong Tai Army (MTA). In the light of the fact 
that the MTA had declared Shan independence a few months earlier, 
its acceptance of the declaration was significant.

The political impact of the Shan New York Declaration was further 
boosted when the Burmese junta leader Lt Gen Khin Nyunt publici-
zed the activities of overseas Shan in a speech to a national 
conference of teachers.

It seemed that the Shans had finally got their act together, and 
were set to become a constructive dynamic force in the remarking 
of a new future for all the people and nations of Burma.

However, a few months later, the convoluted pattern of Shan 
politics reasserted itself. Ganyod, the rising politico-military 
star of the MTA broke away and began cease-fire talks with the 
Burmese junta, known as the State Law and Order Restoration 
Council (Slorc).

The reason given by him was that the MTA was dominated by Chinese 
elements and that its leader Khun Sa was not a bonafide nationa-
list. He also accused Khun Sa of co-operating with the Burman 
military in order to protect his opium-heroin trade and, in a 
Machiavellan way, to internationally discredit the Shan national movement.

Obviously, Ganyod's defection and subsequent action, besides 
being quite native, do not jibe with his nationalist stance and words. 
>From the standpoint of logic, it is irrational. However, in terms of the 
dynamics of convoluted Shan politics, it does make perfect sense.

Mass defection is not new. In the mid-1960s, about two-thirds of 
Shan rebel strength, their leaders tempted by the prospect of trade 
and profit, embraced Ne Win's Ka Kwe Ye (homeguard) programme 
(an arrangement similar to Khin Nyunt's cease-fire agreement).

Moreover, Shan politics (and its logic) do not travel in a 
straight line mainly because such is the politics of nations that 
have somehow landed on the "wrong side of history."

Like the more celebrated Kurds, Basques, and sons of Punjab, the 
Shans (Dai) or the land they inhabit got left out when Europeans 
began to remark the world in the 19th century, in accordance with 
their notion of neat boundaries that distinguished one "nation-
state" from another.

The outcome of western nation-making has been the forced inclu-
sions of many nations under one flag and attempts by new "owners" 
of new "nation-states" to deny with state terror and brutality 
the "nation-ness" of other nations.

The Dai, ruled for centuries by their princes, were part of the 
upland Shan-Lao political system, consisting of principalities 
which paid tribute (often simultaneously) to whichever neigh-
bouring "kingdom" displayed interest in them.

The Shan-Lao system was broken up by the Europeans and incorpo-
rated into what have become Vietnam, Siam (Thailand), Laos, Burma 
and Yunnan (China)_ an arrangement in line with the European 
sense of inter-state order (underpinned, of course, by the impe-
ratives and expediencies of economic rationally, i.e. considera-
tion of trade, profit, and wealth-making).

It was thus, the Dai of the present day Shan State became under 
British tutelage, part of colonial Burma, and later, by virtue of 
the Panglong Agreement (1947), part of the Union of Burma.

What is note worthy is the economic significance of Shanland; it 
connects the economy of the Irrawaddy plains with the upland 
regions of China (Yunnan), North Thailand, and Laos which inci-
dentally, were regions that figured largely in the US-Kuomintang 
"secret" war against Mao's China from the 1950s to the mid 1970s.

This war was financed by a crop for which the Shan soil and 
climate proved ideal, opium _ the raw material of a global 
billion dollars industry. The economic importance of Shan State 
was further boosted when it became the "soft under-belly" so to 
speak, of Burma's socialist economy.

Shan or Dai nationalism began as all nationalism does - through 
contacts with the externally imposed construction of reality 
expressed in terms of "the national", i.e. national history, 
national culture, national state, national right, and the adho-
minen notions of human dignity and human rights as refined and 
advanced by the West.

Reinforcing Shan nationalism were the atrocities committed by 
Burma soldiers, dispatched ostensibly to "defend the Union", but 
who pillaged, raped, killed and brutalised with impunity (and 
without morality or compassion, although they are strangely 
enough, Buddhists). Such actions represented, to the Shans, a 
Burman racist policy to destroy them completely, to cleanse them 
from history.

It is from the Shan experience with the world of "nation-states" 
as victims, that were as the Noom Seuk-harn (Young Warriors), 
Shan State Independence Army (SSIA), Shan State Army (SSA), Shan 
United Army (SUA), and the MTA, to name some.

The tragedy for the Shans was that their homeland was the "soft-
underbelly" politically of Mao's China, and economically of Ne 
Win's socialist economy.

As such, Shanland became a commercial-political chessboard for 
actors with interests other than Shan nationalism who, in turn, 
were linked to the world of the powerful (i.e. communist "revolu-
tionaries" such as Mao, his wife, and his portage, Lin Piao, 
anti-Communist warriors, intellectual cowboys, anti-narcotics 
Rambos of many flags; the police military-security big-man" of 
various governments, and transnational Chinese tycoons and gangsters).

They all did well (career-wise or in terms of money), while Shan 
armies fought year after year, and gained, in return, only repu-
tations as drug armies. In time, narcotics, instead of policy, become the 
"reality" that defined Shan State for those on the outside looking in.

For those inside, Ganyod, for example (and thousands of young 
Shans), reality was risking their lives fighting under, or for, Khun Sa, 
a leader whose political credibility in the world outside was zero.

Added to their frustration, was the presence of Chinese "old-timers" 
and strategists, who filled their own pockets and as well, the belly of 
the army. They dictated who the enemies of the day were, and had, 
within the MTA, a substantial say in deciding who was to be trusted 
or distrusted, promoted, demoted, executed or allowed to prosper.

To be sure, Khun Sa was the supreme warlord, but like all 
leaders, his main occupation was striking a balance between 
components which constituted his power base. The notion that a 
leader leads, that he is supreme, is a relic of a simpler past 
which, nevertheless, continues to colour the perception of 
leadership even in the 21st century.

Ganyod's defection has dealt Khun Sa a painful blow. The Shan 
solution has been to empower the executive, legislative repre-
sentatives, supervisory bodies which hitherto existed only on 

Nonetheless, Khun Sa has still an important role to play since 
the belly is the most important part of any army. His job is none 
other than to lead like a modern leader - i.e. to empower insti-
tutions already in place, activate the institutional channel  of 
power, delegate responsibility, create new leaders, and so forth. 
He will also have to simultaneously placate the Chinese elements 
who hold the purse strings.

Whether or not he is up to the task - a daunting one for anyone - 
remains to be seen. It is doubtful Khun Sa realises what his new 
role is. Most probably he does not.

As for Ganyod, he has, like many "Young Turks" in various armies, 
who shook up the status quo and has, in the process, committed 
political suicide. Having landed in Slorc's pocket, he is un-
likely to be trusted as a leader by the Shans (nor will he be 
trusted as a leader by the Burman military). If he is lucky and 
accomplished he will likely make some money and live comfortably 
the rest of his life - if Slorc is kindly disposed toward him.

Given the convoluted nature of Shan politics (and incidentally, 
Burma's as well), Khun Sa's fall or re-emergence, like the pro-
verbial Phoenix, will not make much of a difference because in 
Shan State, Slorc has achieved neither victory nor won any 
friends. Its "allies," the ex-communist Kokang-Wa armies, the 
Lahu, Palaung, Pa-O, and Kachin forces do not have much respect 
for the Burman military, and given the situation of Shan State as 
a lucrative economic-commercial backdoor to, and from, four 
countries - Burma, China, Laos and Thailand - Shan politics will 
likely remain convoluted and volatile for many, many years to come.

Perhaps there is a moral regarding leadership in the predicaments 
of dictators, big and small - those in the communist world, and 
Ne Win, Bo Mya, Khun Sa, Suchinda, and Suharto. The world is cha-
nging, and brain power rather than "gun power" may be what is 
needed to unify or modernise countries and nations. Khin Nyunt is 
lucky in that he has Aung San Suu Kyi nearby. The sooner he rea-
lises his luck, the better will it be for him and for everyone else in Burma. 

Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe is a son of the late Sao Shwe Thaike, who was 
Burma's first independent president from 1948-52. Sao Shwe 
Thaike, also known as the respected SawBwa of Yawnghwe, died in 
military custody shortly after the coup in 1962 by Gen Ne Win. 
This article was contributed to The Nation. (TN)


AND A HOTEL SHOT                   November 3, 1995

Rangoon is risking a backlash of bad publicity by rushing tourism 
promotion before the country is ready.

As this once isolated nation rushes to complete the final prepa-
rations for "Visit Myanmar Year 1996", doubts have risen as to 
whether the country's undeveloped infrastructure will be able to 
cope with the expected influx of visitors.

If government predictions of a 20 per cent increase in visitors 
next year prove correct, approximately 300,000 tourists will 
descend on the country, prompting concern among some industry 
insiders that shortages of hotel space and suitable transpo-
rtation may affect the viability of the long term market.

Based on already received reservations, large hotels are fore-
casting a 30 per cent increase in guests. Though heartening to 
the hotel industry and government, a to-be-expected increase in 
negative press as people pay overpriced rates for substandard 
rooms could result in a tourism backlash, with one industry source 
quietly putting it, "1988 might have been a more auspicious choice."

Even with an unprecedented boom of hotel construction underway in 
Rangoon, only an additional 1,500 beds will be available for 
1996. The majority will not be fully completed until 1997-98, 
when according to Jurgen Dieter Voss, manager of the Baiyoke 
Kandawgi Hotel, "The real business will start."

The situation upcountry is even less appealing, as one travel 
agent explained, "Except for the Novatel that opens in Mid' 96 
there isn't a hotel in Mandalay that could reach the word 'inter-
national standard'. There is nothing you could start a big tour 
with, there's just nothing there."

As for Burma's much publicised 4,000 kilometres of pristine 
coastline and several hundred tropical islands, as of present 
only three islands are open to tourists, all serviced by one 400-
room hotel.

Transport may be the biggest obstacle of all. Since the government 
abolished the monopoly held by the state-run Myanmar Tour and Travels 
(MTT) more than 200 small tour agencies have opened up.

The rush to get into business has resulted in a plethora of 
business offering substandard services. Even basic necessities 
such as English-speaking guides and tour vans can be hard to 
find, with most tour operators offering only privately-owned vehicles.

The unrestricted competition has also led to all out brawls 
between competing tour companies at the airport and a rise in 
unscrupulous business tactics such as taxi drivers delaying their 
arrival to the train station until the last train to Mandalay has departed 
and then offering their services as tour guides.

A shortage of internal flights will also have to be taken into 
account if there is a rush of tourists.

Werner Sneft, manager of Diethelm Travel in Rangoon, said he was 
optimistic about the future of tourism in Burma although he added 
the country should move at a slower rate to make the necessary 
development first.

"With the total fights available the most they can carry is 
approximately 22,000 for the peak months of November and 
December, even if they put on an  additional flight we're only 
talking about 60 people at a time."

"Myanmar (Burma) is going to have a very good future in tourism, 
because they have everything here from wonderful islands to 
culture to the Himalayas. People are already talking about going 
skiing then flying to the beach later, this will eventually 
happen but when is anybody's guess." he said.

Though the government has made great strides in trying to upgrade 
the country's infrastructure, critics have point out that in many 
cases the work is being carried out by forced labour.

Rangoon has also invested its limited reserves heavily into 
tourism-related infrastructure in the hope of garnering much 
needed foreign currency. New flight terminals are under 
construction at the major tourist gateways of Rangoon, Mandalay,
and Pagan but all are not due for completion until 1997.

A new train station is being constructed in Mandalay, and though 
a sign depicts it as a "Visit Myanmar 1996" project, it will not 
be complete until 1997, and with the cash-strapped state govern-
ment unable to invest in more  rolling stock, no sleepers are 
available for the 18-hour ride from Rangoon to Mandalay.

Tin Win, manager of the Myanmar Tourism and Travel in Pagan, 
expects a 50 per cent increase in tourism, lifting the amount of 
tourist visiting the area to 200,000 in 1996.

Concerned there is a shortage of  accommodation, he said, "It 
takes time given the present arrangement."

He said he is hoping liberalisation within the banking sector 
will allow foreign banks to loan money for tourism-related 
ventures, enabling tour operators and hotel owners to upgrade 
their facilities.

"We are looking for more foreign investment," he said.

He also said current plans for the opening of the International 
Airport in Pagan to flights from Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai, on 
Thai owned carriers, with visa upon arrival, will take the stress 
out of international flights.

Under a master plan to be submitted to UNESCO for parts of Pagan 
to be listed as a World Heritage site, Zone 3 will be listed as a 
two-part economic zone. The first division, near the 
International Airport will be available to Maynmar nationals 
only, the second, located 9kms south of the ancient city wall, 
will be for foreign investment.

With both areas at present little more than dusty plains it  will 
take between three to five years to develop the sites and with 
present accommodation shortages in the area, it may be several 
years before the area can cope with large-scale tourism.

Than Naing Oo, manager of the Aung Min Galar Hotel which 
overlooks the Shwedagon Pagoda, said his property is expecting a 
50 per cent increase in guests next year and already booked solid 
for the next four months. He has extended his hotel by eight 
rooms to cope with the influx, not only from the publicity 
generated by Visit Myanmar year but by drawing tourists from 
Angkor Wat as well.

"We expect many tourists who would normally go to Cambodia to 
come here instead, due to the problems they are having. Already 
most of our bookings are mainly French," he said. (TN)



RANGOON has sent 400 troop reinforcements and artillery into 
Kayah State opposite Mae Hong Son to prepare for clashes with 
minority groups.

The Karenni National Progressive Party said the reinforcements, 
with large quantities of artillery and small arms ammunition, 
were taking position opposite Khun Yuan and the town districts.

Karenni offers said the Burmese were responding to the loss of 
200 soldiers in clash with rebels in Kayah State over the past 
four months.

It was reported that 4000 Burmese troops have been deployed in 
Kayah, where the Karenni, who have 1200 fighters, have asked for 
help from Khun Sa's MTA, which is also preparing for a winter 

Karenni representatives, meanwhile, were negioting with Rangoon 
for a cease-fire. (BP)