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CIA Statistics on Burma for 1998


Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand 

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E 

Map references: Southeast Asia 

total: 678,500 sq km 
land: 657,740 sq km 
water: 20,760 sq km 

Area?comparative: slightly smaller than Texas 

Land boundaries: 
total: 5,876 km 
border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km 

Coastline: 1,930 km 

Maritime claims: 
contiguous zone: 24 nm 
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin 
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm 
territorial sea: 12 nm 

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
monsoon, June to September); less cloudy,
scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter
(northeast monsoon, December to April) 

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands 

Elevation extremes: 
lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m 
highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m 

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious
stones, natural gas 

Land use: 
arable land: 15% 
permanent crops: 1% 
permanent pastures: 1% 
forests and woodland: 49% 
other: 34% (1993 est.) 

Irrigated land: 10,680 sq km (1993 est.) 

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to
September); periodic droughts 

Environment?current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of air,
soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water
treatment contribute to disease 

Environment?international agreements: 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements 

Geography?note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping


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Population: 47,305,319 (July 1998 est.) 

Age structure: 
0-14 years: 36% (male 8,798,474; female 8,461,791) 
15-64 years: 59% (male 14,052,386; female 14,019,244) 
65 years and over: 5% (male 888,773; female 1,084,651) (July 1998 est.) 

Population growth rate: 1.65% (1998 est.) 

Birth rate: 28.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.) 

Death rate: 12.51 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.) 

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.) 

Sex ratio: 
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female 
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (1998 est.) 

Infant mortality rate: 78.35 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.) 

Life expectancy at birth: 
total population: 54.51 years 
male: 53.03 years 
female: 56.08 years (1998 est.) 

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1998 est.) 

noun: Burmese (singular and plural) 
adjective: Burmese 

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%,
Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5% 

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2% 

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages 

definition: age 15 and over can read and write 
total population: 83.1% 
male: 88.7% 
female: 77.7% (1995 est.) 


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Country name: 
conventional long form: Union of Burma 
conventional short form: Burma 
local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the
Burmese as Union of Myanmar) 
local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw 
former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma 

Data code: BM 

Government type: military regime 

National capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon) 

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular?yin) and 7
states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State,
Ayeyarwady*, Bago*, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*,
Mandalay*, Mon State, Rakhine State, Sagaing*,
Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon* 

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK) 

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948) 

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
national convention started on 9 January 1993 to
draft a new constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have
been approved 

Legal system: does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal 

Executive branch: 
chief of state: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and
Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April
1992); note?the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of
head of government: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and
Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since
23 April 1992); note?the prime minister is both the chief of state and
head of government 
cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta, so
named 15 November 1997, which initially
assumed power 18 September 1988 under the name State Law and Order
Restoration Council; the SPDC oversees the
elections: none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation of
the former prime minister 

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485
seats; members elected by popular vote to

serve four-year terms) 
elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened 
election results: percent of vote by party?NA%; seats by party?NLD 396,
NUP 10, other 79 

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in
place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the
judiciary is not independent of the executive 

Political parties and leaders: Union Solidarity and Development
Association (USDA, proregime), THAN AUNG, general
secretary; National Unity Party (NUP, proregime), THA KYAW; National
League for Democracy (NLD), AUNG SHWE,
chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary; and eight minor legal

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Coalition Government of
the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by Dr.
SEIN WIN?consists of individuals legitimately elected to the People's
Assembly but not recognized by the military regime;
the group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in December
1990 to form a parallel government; Kachin
Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen National
Union (KNU); several Shan factions; All Burma
Student Democratic Front (ABSDF) 

International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,

Diplomatic representation in the US: 
chief of mission: Ambassador TIN WINN 
chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044, 9045 
FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046 
consulate(s) general: New York 

Diplomatic representation from the US: 
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kent M.
embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521) 
mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546 
telephone: [95] (1) 282055, 282181 (operator assistance required) 
FAX: [95] (1) 280409 

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars
encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent
the 14 administrative divisions 


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Economy?overview: Burma has a mixed economy with private activity
dominant in agriculture, light industry, and
transport, and with substantial state-controlled activity, mainly in
energy, heavy industry, and the rice trade. Government
policy in the last nine years, 1989-97, has aimed at revitalizing the
economy after three decades of tight central planning.
Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign investment has
been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and
efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises.
Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly
understated because of the volume of black-market trade. A major ongoing
problem is the failure to achieve monetary and
fiscal stability. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich
resources furnish the potential for substantial
long-term increases in income, exports, and living standards. 

GDP: purchasing power parity?$55.7 billion (1997 est.) 

GDP?real growth rate: 6% (1997 est.) 

GDP?per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,190 (1997 est.) 

GDP?composition by sector: 
agriculture: 61% 
industry: 10% 
services: 29% (1996 est.) 

Inflation rate?consumer price index: 30%-40% (1997 est.) 

Labor force: 
total: 18.8 million (FY95/96 est.) 
by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%,
government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.) 

Unemployment rate: NA% 

revenues: $7.9 billion 
expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7
billion (FY96/97) 

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and
wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction
materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer 

Industrial production growth rate: 9.2% (FY95/96 est.) 

Electricity?capacity: 1.212 million kW (1995) 

Electricity?production: 4.1 billion kWh (FY95/96 est.) 

Electricity?consumption per capita: 79 kWh (1995) 

Agriculture?products: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;

total value: $693 million (1996) 
commodities: pulses and beans, teak, rice, rubber, hardwood 
partners: Singapore, China, Indonesia, India, Thailand 

total value: $1.4 billion (1996) 
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction materials,
food products, consumer goods 
partners: Japan, Singapore, China, Thailand, Malaysia 

Debt?external: $5.3 billion (FY94/95 est.) 

Economic aid: 
recipient: ODA, $61 million (1993) 

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas 

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1?6.3941 (January 1998) 6.2418 (1997),
5.9176 (1996), 5.6670 (1995), 5.9749
(1994), 6.1570 (1993); unofficial?310-350 (1998) 

Fiscal year: 1 April?31 March 


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Telephones: 122,195 (1993 est.) 

Telephone system: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity
service for business and government; international
service is good 
domestic: NA 
international: satellite earth station?1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) 

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1985 est.) 
note: radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas 

Radios: NA 

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1988 est.) 

Televisions: 88,000 (1992 est.) 


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total: 3,569 km 
narrow gauge: 3,569 km 1.000-m gauge (1995) 

total: 28,200 km 
paved: 3,440 km 
unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.) 

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels 

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km 

Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina,
Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy 

Merchant marine: 
total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 561,786 GRT/742,450 DWT 
ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 18, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil
tanker 3, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 1,
vehicle carrier 2 
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries:
Japan owns 2 ships, US 3 (1997 est.) 

Airports: 80 (1997 est.) 

Airports?with paved runways: 
total: 24 
over 3,047 m: 3 
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (1997 est.) 

Airports?with unpaved runways: 
total: 56 
over 3,047 m: 1 
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 
914 to 1,523 m: 19 
under 914 m: 32 (1997 est.) 

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.) 


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Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force 

Military manpower?military age: 18 years of age 

Military manpower?availability: 
males age 15-49: 12,208,916 
females age 15-49: 11,983,225 (1998 est.) 
note: both sexes liable for military service 

Military manpower?fit for military service: 
males: 6,523,797 
females: 6,387,291 (1998 est.) 

Military manpower?reaching military age annually: 
males: 488,818 
females: 469,850 (1998 est.) 

Military expenditures?dollar figure: $380 million (FY96/97 est.) 

Military expenditures?percent of GDP: NA% 

                                                   Transnational Issues

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Disputes?international: none 

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (cultivation in
1997?155,150 hectares, a 5% decline from 1996;
potential production?2,365 metric tons, an 8% drop from 1996) and a
minor producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade; surrender of drug warlord KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996
was hailed by Rangoon as a major
counternarcotics success, but lack of serious government commitment and
resources continue to hinder the overall antidrug
effort; growing role in the production of methamphetamines for regional

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