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Industry
See also Foreign Investment

  • Extractive industries

    • Extractive industries - general

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Publications on "Extractive industries"
      Description/subject: Study "Human Rights Impact Assessment on the Tampakan Copper-Gold Project" (pdf, 4,4 MB) The Zug-based group Glencore-Xstrata is showing insufficient respect for the rights of the affected population with its plans to exploit one of the world’s biggest open-pit mines in the Philippines. Because the project threatens the livelihood of tens of thousands of people, tensions are rising and the first deaths have occurred. That is shown by a study commissioned by the Swiss Lenten Fund, MISEREOR and Bread for All. Read more... Position paper "Mining in developing countries – challenges and approaches" (2011) Only available in German (pdf, 4,3 MB) and Spanish (pdf, 960 KB) Concluding document "Extractive Industries (Mining and Hydrocarbons), the issue of non-renewable natural resources in Latin America and the Mission of the Church" (pdf, 110 KB) International Conference of CELAM and MISEREOR, Lima, July 14-16, 2011 This document is available in Spanish (pdf, 125 KB), French (pdf, 130 KB) and German (pdf, 140 KB)... Film "Brazil’s "radiant" future – uranium mining in Caetité" Caetité, Brazil, hosts the uranium mine of Brazilian company INB. It is here that the fuel for Brazil’s nuclear programme is extracted. Two nuclear power plants are already feeding into the grid, and a third is under construction with German assistance. Further nuclear plants are planned for the near future. Yet the mining operations have severe impacts on the people living around the mine, and INB fails to inform them about the hazards. Father Osvaldino Barboso is working for change – for more awareness and transparency, for clean water, and for the protection of human health.... A film on Father Osvaldino’s work, produced with support from MISEREOR. View film in Portuguese View film in German...
      Source/publisher: Misereor
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 25 March 2014


    • Mining

      • Minerals and Mining - General

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Myanmar: Extractives in Ten Minutes : No. 1
        Date of publication: September 2012
        Description/subject: FIVE FEATURES: China; Sanctions; Extractives mix; Political dynamics; Ethnic overlay...FIVE UNANSWERED QUESTIONS: Is Myanmar ready for EITI? What if the Burmese want more electricity? Could narco-dollars be recycled in a new investment wave? Is there a plan B? How could investment policy reform impact artisanal mining?...FIVE MAJOR PLAYERS: Aung San Suu Kyi; President Thein Sein; Myanmar Armed Forces; Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE); China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)...KEY LINKS: .• Arakan Oil Watch • Shwe Gas Movement • The Irrawaddy • Mizzima News • Democratic Voice of Burma • BurmaNet News ....ABOUT OPENOIL.....A snapshot guide to the rapidly developing extractive industries of Myanmar. The attached two-pager is designed as a quick read, covering five major features of the industry, posing five unanswered questions, and profiling the five biggest players in the sector. The "Ten Minutes" guide is the first in a planned series on Myanmar; OpenOil is currently developing similar snapshots of extractive industries in other countries such as Mongolia.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Open Oil
        Format/size: pdf (315K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 September 2012


        Title: Burma mine protest (Google search results)
        Description/subject: About 23,400,000 results (15 December 2012)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Various sources via Google
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2012


        Title: Mines and Comminities Burma page
        Description/subject: 295 results, December 2012
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Mines and Comminities
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2012


        Title: Mines and Communities Website
        Description/subject: The Mines and Communities Website ("MAC") was initiated by members of the Minewatch Asia-Pacific London support group. Its main aim is to ensure easy access to materials published by the group, as well as partner organisations and individuals. We want to make information on mining impacts, projects, and the corporate sector more widely available. Above all, we hope to empower mining-affected communities, so that they can better fight against damaging proposals and practices. The website is supported by: JATAM (Mining Advocacy Network, Indonesia), Mines, Minerals and People (India), Minewatch Asia Pacific Project (Philippines), Partizans (People against Rio Tinto Zinc and Its Subsidiaries, UK), Philippine Indigenous Peoples Links (UK), the Society of St. Columban (UK) and Third World Network Ghana. These organisations are also represented on the editorial group which will submit and monitor new information and contacts on which this website can build......See the Country page for several dozen articles and reports on mining in Burma. MAC is one of the homes of "Grave Diggers: A Report on Mining in Burma" by Roger Moody.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Mines and Communities
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Mines And Communities website - Google search results for "Burma"
        Description/subject: 264 results from 2001 for "Burma", December 2012
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Mines And Communities
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 May 2012


        Title: Ministry of Mines
        Description/subject: Situated in South East Asia Peninsula, covering an area of 676578 sq km, Myanmar is endowed with rich mineral resources in which mining of precious minerals date as for back as second century BC. Myanmar Rubies, Sapphires and Jade are admired around the world. Silver Lead and Zinc were extracted since 15 century AD and Myanmar stood as one of the leading exporters of tin and tungsten in the world market during 1930's. "Ministry of Mines is responsible for Formulation of Mining Policy, Exploration and Extraction of Minerals and Gems. Department of Mines is responsible for Mining Policy Formulation, Granting of Mineral Permits and Coordination of Mining Sector. Mining Enterprise No. 3 is responsible for production of Coal. Department of Geological Surveys and Mineral Exploration is responsible for exploration of Coal Deposits."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Mines
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


        Individual Documents

        Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: Kyauk Kyi Township, July 2012
        Date of publication: 05 September 2012
        Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in July 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Nyaunglebin District, during July 2012. It describes the Norwegian government's plans for a development project in Kheh Der village tract, which is to support the villagers with their livelihood needs. In addition, the legislator of Kyauk Kyi Township, U Nyan Shwe, reported that he was going to undertake a stone-mining development project in the township, which led the Burmese government to order a company, U Paing, to go and test the stone in Maw Day village on July 1st, 2012. U Paing had left the area by the 8th of July due to safety concerns after a landmine explosion occurred in the near vicinity. Also described are villagers' fears to do with such projects, particularly in regards to environmental damage that could result from mining.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (263K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b74.html
        Date of entry/update: 05 November 2012


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma
        Date of publication: August 2012
        Description/subject: "In 2010, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. During 2010, Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes over their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. For many years, these countries had attempted to negotiate and delimit their claims in the disputed area. In December 2009, Bangladesh and Burma accepted the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for the settlement of the dispute concerning their maritime boundary delimitation. Although accepting ITLOS jurisdiction, the countries had not agreed on a bilateral solution regarding the delimitation principle to be used, and negotiations continued between the countries. ITLOS is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that has jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Law of the Sea. UNCLOS establishes a legal framework to regulate ocean space and its resources and uses. In meetings held in January 2010, Bangladesh and Burma agreed to delimit the area by combining the equidistance and equity demarcation principles. In October, Burma and India reached an informal understanding to cooperate with each other on the settlement of their maritime dispute with Bangladesh (Durham University, 2010; International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2010; Priyo.com, 2010)..."
        Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
        Format/size: pdf (193K)
        Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


        Title: Myanmar considers the EITI
        Date of publication: 13 July 2012
        Description/subject: "U Soe Thane, Minister of Industry...during the Myanmar Forum in Singapore...announced that “in time, we plan to introduce and practice Extractive Industries Transparency Initiatives (EITI)”. As part of its broader reform efforts, the government of Myanmar is now exploring the benefits of EITI implementation. “We are preparing to be a signatory to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative to ensure that there is maximum transparency in these sectors and try to make sure the benefits go to the vast majority of the people and not to a small group”, said President Thein Sein..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://eiti.org/
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


        Title: Obama Administration declares Burma open to U.S. mining investment
        Date of publication: 18 May 2012
        Description/subject: U.S. mining and exploration companies can now officially join their Australian, Canadian, Chinese, European, French, Thai and Korean counterparts in the rush to develop Burma's mineral riches. RENO (MINEWEB) -
        Author/creator: Dorothy Kosich
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Mineweb
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


        Title: US greenlights investment by energy, mining, banking firms
        Date of publication: 17 May 2012
        Description/subject: "...Clinton said Washington would issue a general license to permit U.S. investments across Myanmar's economy, and U.S. energy, mining and financial service companies were all now free to look for opportunities in the nation formerly known as Burma..."
        Author/creator: Andrew Quinn and Paul Eckert
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Reuters
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


        Title: Japan's Itochu joins the charge of the mining brigade in to Burma
        Date of publication: 04 May 2012
        Description/subject: "It is reported in the Japanese press today that Itochu Corp has begun a feasibility study in the country to isolate specialty metals including tungsten and molybdenum. This follows approaches by Japanese officials last year trying to get a deal with Burma for access to rare earths, the elements vital to Japanese industry’s high tech and hybrid car programs. South Korea has also been lobbying the Burmese over rare earths. Chinese companies have also been eyeing projects in the country. In 2008, China National Petroleum Corp signed a 30-year gas agreement covering production from three blocks in the Bay of Bengal. But this is only the beginning. The country will be a big target because it has bountiful resources in close proximity to resource-hungry India and China..."
        Author/creator: Robin Bromby
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Australian"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: Burma bans mining on four major rivers
        Date of publication: 30 March 2012
        Description/subject: (Mizzima) – Burma has banned mining of mineral resources along the country's four major river courses or near the river banks in a bid to preserve the natural environment, according to an order of the Ministry of Mines made public Thursday.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Mizzima
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 31 March 2012


        Title: GEOMYANMAR 2012
        Date of publication: March 2012
        Description/subject: First International Conference on Regional Geology, Stratigraphy and Tectonics of Myanmar and neighbouring countries and Economic Geology (petroleum and mineral resources) of Myanmar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Myanmar Geosciences Society (MGS)
        Format/size: pdf (1.12MB)
        Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2009
        Date of publication: 2010
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "Burma’s mineral production for 2010 will most likely be dependent on the performance of neighboring economies, as well as on the global mineral commodity markets. The decrease in production in much of the mineral sector during 2009 might be linked to the general slowdown in business brought about by the global economic crisis. The gemstone industry was affected by decreased demand resulting in part from the importation ban imposed by the JADE Act. High operational costs have forced mines to halt operations or face closing the mining facilities altogether. Based on the circumstances surrounding the gemstone sector during 2009, it is likely that the demand for and production of Burmese gemstones will remain unchanged in 2010. A lthough global markets for many mineral commodities reflected a decrease in demand, copper production in Burma for 2010 is expected to increase when the Monywa copper project resumes operations. A similar situation is expected for the nickel industry once the Tagaung Taung Mine is commissioned in 2011. In 2010, oil and gas exploration activities are expected to continue to increase, mainly as a result of the many exploration projects that started in 2008 and 2009. Further exploration for oil and gas in new areas of the Bay of Bengal will be highly dependent on the resolution that Bangladesh, Burma, and India reach regarding the delimitation of their respective maritime boundaries. Meanwhile, business ties between Burma and China are likely to strengthen as a result of the agreements and projects that the two countries have committed to in the oil and gas sector, such as the construction of the oil and gas pipeline that will connect the two countries."
        Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (170K), xls
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2009/myb3-2009-bm.xls
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2008
        Date of publication: 2009
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "For the past several years, the production of most mineral commodities has decreased exponentially in Burma owing mainly to the withdrawal of mining companies from the country. Burma’s mineral production in 2009 will likely be further affected by the significant decline in late 2008 of world market prices and world demand for mineral commodities. As a result of the agreement signed by ME-3 and CNMC, Burma’s nickel production is expected to increase after 2011 when the Tagaung Taung Mine is commissioned."
        Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (276K), xls
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2008/myb3-2008-bm.xls
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2007
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line... OUTLOOK: "During 2007, the mineral production of Burma decreased significantly following a similar decrease in 2006. Mineral production is expected to continue to decrease in 2008 as well. Copper production was to remain at a reduced level as a result of Ivanhoe Mine’s assets in the Monywa Copper Project being transferred to an independent third party for sale."
        Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (265K), xls
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2007/myb3-2007-bm.xls
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: Turning Treasure Into Tears - Mining, Dams and Deforestation in Shwegyin Township, Pegu Division, Burma
        Date of publication: 20 February 2007
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report describes how human rights and environmental abuses continue to be a serious problem in eastern Pegu division, Burma – specifi cally, in Shwegyin township of Nyaunglebin District. The heavy militarization of the region, the indiscriminate granting of mining and logging concessions, and the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam have led to forced labor, land confi scation, extortion, forced relocation, and the destruction of the natural environment. The human consequences of these practices, many of which violate customary and conventional international law, have been social unrest, increased fi nancial hardship, and great personal suffering for the victims of human rights abuses. By contrast, the SPDC and its business partners have benefi ted greatly from this exploitation. The businessmen, through their contacts, have been able to rapidly expand their operations to exploit the township’s gold and timber resources. The SPDC, for its part, is getting rich off the fees and labor exacted from the villagers. Its dam project will forever change the geography of the area, at great personal cost to the villagers, but it will give the regime more electricity and water to irrigate its agro-business projects. Karen villagers in the area previously panned for gold and sold it to supplement their incomes from their fi elds and plantations. They have also long been involved in small-scale logging of the forests. In 1997, the SPDC and businessmen began to industrialize the exploitation of gold deposits and forests in the area. Businessmen from central Burma eventually arrived and in collusion with the Burmese Army gained mining concessions and began to force people off of their land. Villagers in the area continue to lose their land, and with it their ability to provide for themselves. The Army abuses local villagers, confi scates their land, and continues to extort their money. Commodity prices continue to rise, compounding the diffi culties of daily survival. Large numbers of migrant workers have moved into the area to work the mining concessions and log the forests. This has created a complicated tension between the Karen and these migrants. While the migrant workers are merely trying to earn enough money to feed their families, they are doing so on the Karen’s ancestral land and through the exploitation of local resources. Most of the migrant workers are Burman, which increases ethnic tensions in an area where Burmans often represent the SPDC and the Army and are already seen as sneaky and oppressive by the local Karen. These forms of exploitation increased since the announcement of the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam in 2000, which is expected to be completed in late 2006. The SPDC has enabled the mining and logging companies to extract as much as they can before the area upstream of the dam is fl ooded. This situation has intensifi ed and increased human rights violations against villagers in the area. The militarization of the region, as elsewhere, has resulted in forced labor, extortion of money, goods, and building materials, and forced relocation by the Army. In addition to these direct human rights violations, the mining and dam construction have also resulted in grave environmental degradation of the area. The mining process has resulted in toxic runoff that has damaged or destroyed fi elds and plantations downstream. The dam, once completed, will submerge fi elds, plantations, villages, and forests. In addition, the dam will be used to irrigate rubber plantations jointly owned by the SPDC and private business interests. The Burmese Army has also made moves to secure the area in the mountains to the east of the Shwegyin River. This has led to relocations and the forced displacement of thousands of Karen villagers living in the mountains. Once the Army has secured the area, the mining and logging companies will surely follow..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
        Format/size: pdf (632K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 March 2007


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2006
        Date of publication: 2007
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "During 2006, the mineral industry of Burma underwent a significant setback in production, which would be noticeable in early 2007. The copper industry was to be particularly affected given Ivanhoe’s decision to sell its Monywa Copper Project assets, which were transferred to an independent third party while awaiting the sale. Natural gas exploration activities in Burma are expected to continue to increase during 2007, mainly as a result of the many exploration projects that were started and the discoveries that were made in 2005 and 2006."
        Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (114K), xls
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2006/myb3-2006-bm.xls
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2005
        Date of publication: 2006
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "By 2006, trade between Burma and India is expected to increase as a result of the MOU signed in 2004. Production in the mining sector will likely follow the trend of recent years in which the mining sector was dominated by the copper, natural gas, and petroleum industries. Natural gas exploration activities in Burma are expected to continue to increase during 2006 mainly as the result of the many exploration projects and discoveries that were started in 2005. In 2006, the Indo-Korean consortium that holds interests in offshore natural gas Blocks A1 and A3 plans to start appraisal wells in Block A1 and to begin an exploration drilling program in Block A3 (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Videsh Ltd., 2005§). Expansion and development plans in the S&K Mine is expected to increase annual copper production capacities within the next few years. In the meantime, a decline in copper production is expected during 2006 owing to decreased copper grades encountered in the Sabetaung deposit in 2005."
        Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (120K), xls
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2005/bmmyb05.xls
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2004
        Date of publication: 2005
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line... OUTLOOK: "Burma’s economy is expected to grow in 2005 and 2006 at a rate of 6% and 5%, respectively, on the basis of GDP at purchasing power parity. By 2006, trade between Burma and India is expected to increase by 134% following an MOU signed in 2004. Production in the mining sector will likely follow the trend in recent years and continue to be dominated by the copper, natural gas, and petroleum industries. Exploration activity in Burma will have a tendency to continue to increase mainly as the result of the many exploration projects that started in 2004; these included two gold deposits, Modi Taung and Set Ga Done, and the developments that involve natural gas and petroleum, both onshore and offshore. Preliminary exploration that shows high-grade discoveries of nickel and zinc could also open Burma’s doors to new markets within the next few years. Burma could become a leading mineral producer in Asia if ongoing explorations are proven to be feasible and profitable to develop. Expansion and development plans in the S&K Mine and the Lepadaung deposit will increase annual copper production capacities within the next 4 years. The S&K Mine is expected to achieve production of from 50,000 to 80,000 t/yr, and Letpadaung, to reach copper production of from 125,000 to 150,000 t/yr. In addition, the discovery of a potentially significant high-grade copper zone in the Sabetaung area could increase the production of copper even more and transform the Monywa Copper Project into the leading SX-EW copper producer in Asia. The development of interregional gas pipelines, increases in natural gas consumption in Asia and the Pacific region, and the discovery of new gasfields in Burma are circumstances that will place Burma as a key producer in the region. Also, recent gas discoveries in Burma could increase gas exports to Thailand, which is Burma’s main natural gas importer."
        Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (115K), xls
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2004/bmmyb04.xls
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: Mining, Gender, and the Environment in Burma
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: "...Women’s groups and environmental groups have much to gain by collaborating with one another on mining in Burma. To this end, this article offers additional background information that will be of interest to groups concerned with either women’s rights or the environment. Each section summarizes areas where these respective issues overlap..." "...I found this report to be particularly useful for the information and insights it provides into artisanal mining in Burma, especially the more recent developments in the Hukanwng valley in Kachin State that Alan Rabinowitz came across in his travels in the area. There are some tantalizing references to the Northern Star Co in Myitkyina which apparently controls all mining operations in the state. Also very useful for the discussion of the various extractive methods used in artisanal mining and in particular the "cooking" process (referred to as "dohtar" in Burmese), used to extract small amounts of copper from mining residue and which the report describes as a a "less technologically sophisticated version of the copper solvent extraction and electrowinning pilot plant built by Ivanhoe in Monywa". This article is very well researched. There are also updates in the same Earthrights report to the proposed pipeline to India from the offshore gas field in near Sittway and to continuing use of forced labour in the Yadana pipeline corridor in northern Tenasserim ..." - Eric Snider... Extractive Industries in Burma: Mining in Comparative Context; Challenges to Studying Mining in Burma; International Women and Mining Conference; Case study: The Gendered Impacts of Gold Mining Operations in Kachin State, Burma; Key Health and Safety Issues for Burmese Women; Recommendations and Areas for Future Research.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International
        Format/size: pdf (66K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/burmareports/mining_gender_and_the_environment_in_burma_3.html
        Date of entry/update: 05 December 2004


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2003
        Date of publication: 2004
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 2003, Burma’s gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was estimated to be $73 billion (International Monetary Fund, 2004§). Burma’s economy is based primarily on agriculture, including fisheries, forestry, and livestock, which accounts for nearly 54% of the GDP. The country’s mineral resources include antimony, coal, copper, gemstones, lead, limestone, marble, natural gas, petroleum, precious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Burma’s export market totaled about $2.6 billion during 2003 and included natural gas (23.3%), forest products (14.8%), garments (14.4%), beans (about 11.7%), marine products (6.8%), and other products (27%). Imports totaled about $2.4 billion and included machinery and transport equipment (20.2%), refined mineral oil (12.3%), base metals and manufactures (9.4%), fabrics (about 8.8%), plastic (4.6%), and other products (44.7) (U.S. Department of State, 2004). In 2003, Burma hosted the second annual meeting of the Joint Economic Quadrangle Committee in the capital city of Yangon. The meeting, which was attended by representatives of Burma’s Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry and the counterpart organizations from China, Laos and Thailand, supported increased trade and investment in Burma from the neighboring countries of the Mekong region (Cambodia, China, Laos and Thailand). Thailand, which was the third leading investor in Burma, invested $1.29 billion in Burma in 2002, and China, about $64 million. Burma’s 2002 border trade with China was valued at $276 million, which was an increase of 35% compared with that of 2001. Trade with Thailand totaled $170 million in 2002 (Myint, 2003). Major events in early 2003 that disrupted Burma’s economy included a major banking crisis that shut down 20 private banks in the country, followed by a Japanese freeze on new bilateral economic aid. The decline in foreign investment that had taken place since 1999 continued owing to an unfriendly business climate, political pressure from Western consumers and shareholders, and the effect of U.S. economic sanctions on the country’s economy (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2004; U.S. Department of State, 2004).
        Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (148K), xls
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2003/bmmyb03.pdf
        http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2003/bmmyb03.xls
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


        Title: Capitalizing on Conflict: How Logging and Mining Contribute to Environmental Destruction in Burma.
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: "'Capitalizing on Conflict' presents information illustrating how trade in timber, gems, and gold is financing violent conflict, including widespread and gross human rights abuses, in Burma. Although trade in these “conflict goods” accounts for a small percentage of the total global trade, it severely compromises human security and undermines socio-economic development, not only in Burma, but throughout the region. Ironically, cease-fire agreements signed between the late 1980s and early 1990s have dramatically expanded the area where businesses operate. While many observers have have drawn attention to the political ramifications of these ceasefires, little attention has been focused on the economic ramifications. These ceasefires, used strategically by the military regime to end fighting in some areas and foment intra-ethnic conflict in others and weaken the unity of opposition groups, have had a net effect of increasing violence in some areas. Capitalizing on Conflict focuses on two zones where logging and mining are both widespread and the damage from these activities is severe... Both case studies highlight the dilemmas cease-fire arrangements often pose for the local communities, which frequently find themselves caught between powerful and conflicting military and business interests. The information provides insights into the conditions that compel local communities to participate in the unsustainable exploitation of their own local resources, even though they know they are destroying the very ecosystems they depend upon to maintain their way of life. The other alternative — to stand aside and let outsiders do it and then be left with nothing — is equally unpalatable..." Table of Contents: Map of Burma; Map of Logging and Mining Areas; Executive Summary; Recommendations; Part I: Context; General Background on Cease-fires; Conflict Trade and Burma; Part II: Logging Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Papun Districut (Karen State); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Part III: Mining Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Mogok (Mandalay Division); Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Conclusion.
        Author/creator: Ken MacLean
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI), Karen Environnmental & Social Action Network (KESAN)
        Format/size: pdf (939K)
        Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2002
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) for Burma grew by 5.5%, which was about one-half the growth achieved in 2001 (10.5% revised) (International Monetary Fund, 2003§). Flooding during 2002 and agricultural shortages of, for example, fertilizers and pesticides affected the agricultural output, which accounted for more than 40% of the country’s GDP, thus causing a significant decrease in GDP when compared with that of 2001 (Asian Development Bank, 2003§). In 2002, the mining sector represented only 0.8% of the GDP; in 2001, it had represented 2%. The decrease was principally a consequence of a decline in foreign investment for exploration and mining projects (Than Htay, 2002). Price inflation dropped to below 4% in 2001 after an economic slowdown during fiscal year 2000, but it increased rapidly, and by the end of December 2002, inflation had risen to 56.8%. The main reason for the high rate of inflation was the increase in salaries of public sector employees, which was financed by the Central Bank (Asian Development Bank, 2003). According to the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (DGSME), which reports to the Ministry of Mines of Burma, only four foreign exploration companies remained in Burma and invested $217,0003 during fiscal years 2001 and 2002. In general, mineral production in 2002 was lower than that of 2001.
        Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (149K), xls
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2002/bmmyb02.pdf
        http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2002/bmmyb02.xls
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2001
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (DGSME) under the Ministry of Mines, the output share of the mining sector by the state-owned mining enterprises decreased to 5.5% in 2001 from 11.6% in 1998, and the output share by the privately owned companies increased to 93.4% in 2001 from 85.8% in 1998. In 2001, only one gold mine (the Kyaukpahtoe), three nonferrous metals mines (the Bawdwin, the Bawsaing, and the Yadanatheingi), and two coal mines (the Kalewa and the Namma) were still operated by the state-owned mining enterprises; and only one foreign mining company had committed to invest $6.12 million in 2001 compared with $18.5 million committed by three foreign mining companies in 2000. Of the four active foreign exploration companies in 2000, only two were active in 2001. As a result of decreased exploration and development, export earnings from the mining sector dropped in 2001.
        Author/creator: John C. Wu
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pf (147K)
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2001/bmmyb01.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2000
        Date of publication: 2001
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Government’s provisional statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed 1.7% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product (GDP), which was estimated to be $14.2 billion in fiscal year 1999-2000. The country’s GDP was estimated to have grown by 10.9%, and the mining sector, 29.5% in fiscal year 1999-2000. In July, the Deputy Minister of the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, however, revealed that the official data for economic growth had been grossly and deliberately exaggerated. A report that was published by the Asian Development Bank in May also pointed out that Myanmar’s economic growth had slowed down for the third consecutive year since 1996. In fiscal year 1999-2000, Myanmar's total exports were estimated to be $1,132 million, of which export earnings from base metals adn ores were $20.7 million. Myanmar's total exports were estimated to be $2,539 million, of which base metals and babricated products were $275 millions. In the same fiscal year, the state-owned companies produced only 5.6% o the total output of the mining sector; the privately owned companies, 92.8% and the cooperatives, 1.6%. According to the latest available data, the mining industry's work force was about 121,000 in fiscal year 1997-98, which accounted for 0.66% of Myanmar's total employment.
        Author/creator: John C. Wu
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (132K)
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2000/9306000.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


        Title: Grave Diggers: A report on Mining in Burma
        Date of publication: 14 February 2000
        Description/subject: A report on mining in Burma. The problems mining is bringing to the Burmese people, and the multinational companies involved in it. Includes an analysis of the SLORC 1994 Mining Law.... 'Grave Diggers, authored by world renowned mining environmental activist Roger Moody, was the first major review of mining in Burma since the country's military regime opened the door to foreign mining investment in 1994. Singled out for special attention in this report is the stake taken up by Canadian mining promoter Robert Friedland, whose Ivanhoe Mines has redeveloped a major copper mine in the Monywa area in joint venture enterprise with Burma's military regime. There are several useful appendices with first hand reports from mining sites throughout the country. A series of maps shows the location of the exploration concessions taken up almost exclusively by foreign companies in the rounds of bidding that took place in the nineties.
        Author/creator: Roger Moody
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Various groups
        Format/size: pdf (1.4MB) html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/grave-diggers-report-mining-burma
        http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/miningwatch.ca/files/Grave_Diggers.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1999
        Date of publication: 2000
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to Government statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.6% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product, which was estimated to be $14.2 billion in fiscal year 1998/99. In fiscal year 1998/99, the state-owned companies produced only 10.8% of the total output of the mining sector; the privately owned companies, 88.2%; and the cooperatives, 1%. As a result of substantial private domestic and foreign investment, the output of the mining sector registered an overall growth rate of 17% despite a significant decline in mine output of the state-owned enterprises owing to the lack of spare parts caused by the foreign exchange shortage and other factors. In fiscal year 1998/99, Myanmar’s total exports were estimated to be $1,134 million, of which export earnings from base metals and ores were only $2.5 million. Myanmar’s exports of gemstones were estimated to be $20 million. Exports of major mineral commodities included ores and concentrates of chromium, manganese, tin, tungsten, and zinc; refined metal of copper, lead, silver and tin; and crude and polished precious and semiprecious stones. Myanmar’s total imports were estimated to be $2,480 million, of which 11.6% was base metals and fabricated products; 2.3%, cement; 0.9%, fertilizer materials; and 0.7%, chemical elements and compounds. Additionally, Myanmar imported about 5 million barrels (Mbbl) of crude petroleum and 3.6 Mbbl of refined petroleum products, such as diesel fuel, with a total cost of more than $162 million. Most of Myanmar’s mineral trade was with Asian and European countries. The total number of employees in the mining industry declined from 132,00 in 1998 to 121,00 in 1999, which accounted for about 0.66% of Myanmar's total employment.
        Author/creator: John C. Wu
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (118K)
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1999/9306099.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1998
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 1998, most mineral production remained at low level owing to the lack of spare parts, outdated technology, and declining ore grades. Myanmar became a producer of refined copper in 1998 with the help of foreign capital and technology. According to Government statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.3% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product. Of the total output of the mining sector, 52% was produced by the state-owned companies; 47%, by privately owned companies; and 1%, by cooperatives (Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, 1997). Mineral commodities exports accounted for about 6% of the total export earnings and mineral commodities imports accounted for about 22% of total imports. Exports of major mineral commodities included ores and concentrates of chromium, copper, manganese, tin, tungsten, and zinc; refined metal of copper, lead, and silver; and crude and polished precious and semiprecious stones. Imports of mineral commodities included cement, refined petroleum products, base metals, and steel mill products. Most of Myanmar’s mineral trade was with Asian and European countries. Mineral trade with the United States was small and limited to imports of various chemical compounds and exports of gemstones to the United States. Myanmar’s exports of gemstones earned about $23 million in 1998.
        Author/creator: John C. Wu
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (35K)
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1998/9306098.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1997
        Date of publication: 1998
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 1997, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.7% to Myanmar's gross domestic product. Exports of mineral commodities accounted for about 5% of the total export earnings and imports of mineral commodities accounted for about 20% of total imports. In 1997, imports of refined petroleum products, cement,and steel mill product were higher than those of 1996 because of a stonger demand for these mineral commodities. The total number of employees in the mining industry was about 120,000, accounting for about 0.8% of Myanmar's total employment.
        Author/creator: John C. Wu
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (32 kb)
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1997/9306097.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1996
        Date of publication: 1997
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. Exports of mineral commodities accounted for about 5.4% of the total export earnings, which are estimated at $867 million in 1996. Imports of mineral commodities for about 18% of total imports, which were estimated at $1.5 billion in 1996. The copper ore production averaged about 8,000 metric tons (t) per day and the mill produced about 24,000t of copper concentrate in 1996. State-owned companies, 40% by the privately owned companies, and 1% by the so-called cooperatives in 1996. The total number of employees in the mining industry was about 116,000, accounting for about 0.7% of Burma's total employment in 1996.
        Author/creator: John C. Wu
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (38K)
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1996/9306096.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1995
        Date of publication: 1996
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Developement, the total work force in the mining sector was about 105,000, accounting for 0.61% of Burma's labor force in 1995. The total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers prices, was estimated at $141 million, or about 1.3% of Burma's gross domestic product, which was estimated at $10.8 billion in 1995.
        Author/creator: John C. Wu
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
        Format/size: pdf (36K)
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1995/9306095.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1994
        Date of publication: June 1995
        Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. This important document features how Burma expanded its mining industry for both trading and domestic use. The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC),which is now known as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), enacted the Myanmar Mining Law replacing all the existing regulations - The Upper Myanmar Ruby Regulation of 1887, the Mines acts of 1923, and the Union of Myanmar Mines and Mineral Acts of 1961. According to an estimate by the Ministry of Mines, the total work force in the mining sector was about 83,000 of which about 21, 000 were in metallic mining. The total output of the mining sector, in million capacity was rated at 40,000 metric tons per year (mt/a), compared with the designed capacity of 65,000 mt/a. Copper ore was mined from an open pit mine at Sabetaung deposit in the western bank of Chindwin River, about 11 km west of Monywa in Salingyi Township, Sagaing Division. According to the No.1 Mining Enterprise, the metal content of copper and gold in copper concentrate was about 19.2% and 1.5 grams per metric ton (g/mt), respectively. Most exports of copper concentrate went to Japan in 1994. According to Japanese trade statistics, Japan imported from Burma 24,768 metric tons (mt) of copper concentrate, valued at $6.2 million in 1994.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Geological Survey
        Format/size: pdf (35K)
        Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1998/9306098.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1993
        Date of publication: 1994
        Description/subject: This edition of the Minerals Yearbook records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry including Burma’s mineral industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, Area Reports contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. The reports also incorporate location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section. According to the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, the estimated employment in the mining sector was 83,000 in fiscal year 1993 or about 0.5 % of Burma's estimated total employment of 16.5 million. The total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers' prices, was estimated at $120 millio&3 or 1.2% of Burma's gross domestic product (GDP) (the total value of net output and services), which was estimated at $10 billion for fiscal year 1993. Of the total output of the mining sector, about 73 % was produced by the State-owned enterprises, 26 % by the private enterprises, and 1 % by cooperatives. 14 Minerals production in Burma had been declining since the 1960's. In 1989, the Government adopted an open-door policy and a liberal foreign investment law to encourage participation of foreign mining companies in exploration and development of Burma's mineral resources. According to the Burmese Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration, since 1988 no substantial foreign capital had been invested in the Burmese mining industry, especially in the non-fuel minerals sector. According to a local press report, 75 direct foreign investments were made in Burma with a total value of $956.3 million since the Government began implementing the new investment law in 1988. Of this total, only nine investments were in the mining sector. Burma's mining industry suffered a steady decline because no new mines were developed while many of the old mines were left to deteriorate without the much needed renovation in the past years. However, because of increased contribution by the private sector, production of gemstones, gold, jade, tin, and tungsten reportedly showed some improvements in fiscal year 1993. Burma's mineral trade involved mainly exporting jade, gems, and some amounts of copper concentrate, chromates, manganese ores, tin and tungsten concentrates, and importing some amounts of ferrous and nonferrous metals and an increasing amount of crude petroleum.
        Author/creator: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, VIII (1993)
        Format/size: pdf (185K)
        Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
        Date of entry/update: 08 September 2005


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1992
        Date of publication: 1993
        Description/subject: This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry including Burma’s Mineral industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, Minerals Yearbook International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, this volume has been presented as six reports: Mineral Industries of the Middle East, Mineral Industries of Africa, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, Mineral Industries of Latin America and Canada, Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia, and Minerals in the World Economy. The total work force of the mining sector was estimated at 83,000 or about 0.5% of Burma's labor force in 1992. According to the Burmese Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, the total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers' prices, was valued at $76 million' or 0.89 % of Burma's gross domestic product (the total value of net output and services), which was valued at $8.5 billion for fiscal year 1992. Of the total output of the mining sector, about 73% was produced by the State-owned enterprises, 26% by the private enterprises, and 1% by cooperatives. In fiscal year 1992, export earnings from jade and gems alone amounted to about $23.5 million and accounted for more than 60% of Burma's minerals exports. Additionally, a considerable amount of high-quality jade and gems reportedly are smuggled annually to China and Thailand. Exports of copper concentrate in 1992 were estimated at $3.5 million and accounted for 10% of total minerals exports.
        Author/creator: John C. Wu
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, V III (1992)
        Format/size: pdf (203K)
        Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2005


        Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1991
        Date of publication: 1992
        Description/subject: This report on the performance of the mining industry of Burma forms part of the worldwide minerals review in the 1991 edition of Minerals Yearbook of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. This useful report includes information about surveying, mapping, exploration, mineral exports and imports and the operations of mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. Most of Burma's foreign trade is conducted on a barter basis and valued on an inflated currency exchange rate. In September 1991, the black-market exchange rate was Kyat 100 to US$ 1. This compares with an official average rate of Kyat 6.25 to US$1 in 1991. Based on this rate, total exports were valued at $421 million and imports at $649 million, a net trade deficit of $228 million in 1991. Burma is an agrarian-based economy, and naturally its principal exports are agricultural products. The value of base metals and ores exported totaled only $4.2 million in 1991. The most valuable mineral shipment is gemstones, which either are exported officially or are smuggled out of the country. Value data for these exports are not available. Imports are comprised of consumer and capital goods that are not manufactured locally.
        Author/creator: Pui-Kwan Tse
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asian and the Pacific, VIII (1991), p 60-68
        Format/size: pdf (313K)
        Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
        Date of entry/update: 10 September 2005


      • Coal mining

        Individual Documents

        Title: SAVE MONG KOK FROM COAL
        Date of publication: July 2011
        Description/subject: "Only 40 kms north of the Thai border in the mountains of eastern Shan State, Thai investors are poised to begin mining and burning large reserves of coal at Mong Kok. Ihis project — which will ravage a pristine valley and poison the Kok River, impacting countless Shan and northern Thai communities downstream - must be stopped immediately. The Italian-Thai Power Company has entered into agreements with the Burmese military regime to develop an open-pit coal mine and power plant at Mong Kok in eastern Shan State, to export both coal and power to Thailand. Home to over a thousand Shan, Lahu and Akha farmers, Mong Kok lies in a conflict zone, where troops of the Burmese junta clash regularly with ethnic resistance forces, and commit systematic abuses against the local peoples. The regime has poured troops into the area to secure the mining site. Villagers have been forced to sell their farmlands for a pittance, and are being forced into a resettlement site directly adjacent to the mining area. Many have fled to the Thai border. Conducted in secrecy and with armed intimidation, this project blatantly contradicts any standards of responsible investment. But if Thai investors think the project's impacts are going to stay safely outside their borders, they should think again. Hundreds of coal trucks a day and huge new power pylons will be blighting the scenic Chiang Rai landscape, while the mine and power plant will be flushing poisons into the Kok River - harming an ecosystem that sustains countless communities downstream in Thailand, and threatening the lucrative tourist trade along with it..."
        Author/creator: Hark Mong Kok
        Language: English, Shan, Burmese, Thai
        Source/publisher: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/save_mong_kok_from_coal_eng.pdf-red.pdf
        Format/size: pdf (English - OBL version-2.6MB, original, 3.12MB; Shan - OBL version, 2.8MB, original, 3.34MB; Burmese - OBL version, 2.8MB, original, 3.37MB; Thai, OBL version, 2.7MB, original, 3.29MB
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/save_mong_kok_from_coal_shan.pdf-red.pdf
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/save_mong_kok_from_coal_burmese.pdf-red.pdf
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/save_mong_kok_from_coal_thai.pdf-red.pdf
        http://shansapawa.org/images/stories/publication/save_mong_kok_from_coal_eng.pdf
        http://shansapawa.org/images/stories/publication/save_mong_kok_from_coal_shan.pdf
        http://shansapawa.org/images/stories/publication/save_mong_kok_from_coal_burmese.pdf
        http://shansapawa.org/images/stories/publication/save_mong_kok_from_coal_thai.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 11 August 2011


        Title: Poison Clouds: Lessons from Burma’s largest coal project at Tigyit
        Date of publication: January 2011
        Description/subject: Summary: "• Although Burma is rich in energy resources, the ruling military regime exports those resources, leaving people with chronic energy shortages. The exploitation of natural resources, including through mining, has caused severe environmental and social impacts on local communities as companies that invest in these projects have no accountability to affected communities. • There are over 16 large-scale coal deposits in Burma, with total coal resources of over 270 Million tons (Mt). Tigyit is Burma’s biggest open pit coal mine, producing nearly 2,000 tons of coal every day. • The Tigyit coal mine and coal-fi red power plant are located just 13 miles from Burma’s famous Inle Lake, a heritage site of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Water polluted by the mine and waste from the power plant fl ow into the Lake via the Balu Creek but no study of the impact of the project on the Lake has been made public. • Coal from the mine is transported to Burma’s only operating coal-fi red power plant in Tigyit. The plant uses 640,000 tons of coal per year to produce 600 Gigawatts of power with a capacity of 120 Megawatts. 100-150 tons of toxic fl y ash waste is generated per day. The majority of power from the plant is slated for use at an iron mining factory that will be operated by Russian and Italian companies. • Implementation of the mine and power plant began in 2002 by the China National Heavy Machinery Corporation (CHMC) and the Burmese companies Eden Group and Shan Yoma Nagar. • Two nearby villages of Lai Khar and Taung Pola were forced to relocate for the project and over 500 acres of farmlands have been confi scated. Farming families facing eviction and loss of lands are going hungry and have turned to cutting down trees to sell for fi rewood or migrated in order to survive. Explosions from the mine have destroyed local pagodas. • Air and water pollution is threatening the agriculture and health of nearly 12,000 people that live within a fi ve mile radius of the project who may eventually have to move out. Currently 50% of the local population is suffering from skin rashes. • The Pa-Oh Youth Organization and Kyoju Action Network have been monitoring the project since February 2010 and urges the companies and government to suspend operations pending full environment, social and health impact assessments. The organization also urges local communities not to sign documents without understanding them and to oppose corruption and exploitation which harms the communities’ livelihoods and natural resources."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Pa-Oh Youth Organization (PYO), The Kyoju Action Network (KAN)
        Format/size: pdf (2.3MB - English; 2.2MB - Burmese; 2.3MB - Thai))
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/PoisonClouds(bu).pdf (Burmese)
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/PoisonClouds(th).pdf (Thai)
        Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


      • Gems
        including jade and jadeite

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Gems and Burma (political and technical articles)
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Individual Documents

        Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: Kyauk Kyi Township, July 2012
        Date of publication: 05 September 2012
        Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in July 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Nyaunglebin District, during July 2012. It describes the Norwegian government's plans for a development project in Kheh Der village tract, which is to support the villagers with their livelihood needs. In addition, the legislator of Kyauk Kyi Township, U Nyan Shwe, reported that he was going to undertake a stone-mining development project in the township, which led the Burmese government to order a company, U Paing, to go and test the stone in Maw Day village on July 1st, 2012. U Paing had left the area by the 8th of July due to safety concerns after a landmine explosion occurred in the near vicinity. Also described are villagers' fears to do with such projects, particularly in regards to environmental damage that could result from mining.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (263K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b74.html
        Date of entry/update: 05 November 2012


        Title: Blood Jade - Burmese Gemstones and the Beijing Games
        Date of publication: 04 August 2008
        Description/subject: "...Burmese jadeite is a global business predicated on human suffering and the absence of the rule of law, and is controlled with an iron grip by Burma’s military regime. The regime led by Senior General Than Shwe grew in notoriety in September 2007 when it violently suppressed peaceful protests led by Buddhist clergy in Burma. The regime’s status as an international pariah was further cemented when it obstructed humanitarian aid to 2.4 million people affected by Nargis, a class four cyclone that hit the Irrawaddy delta region on May 3, 2008, killing 150,000. Burma’s regime has effectively consolidated military control over the entire gems industry, including jadeite, by eliminating small and independent companies from mining and forcing all sales to go through national auctions held by official government ministries in Rangoon. Gems are now Burma’s third largest export and provide the regime with an important source of foreign currency1. Much of this cash comes from China, which has recently seen a dramatic rise in demand for Burmese jadeite due to its overall economic growth. On March 27, 2007, the Beijing Organizing Committee of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG) announced that the design for the medals of the Beijing Games included jade from China’s Qinghai province2. BOCOG has publicly stated that their officially licensed products are being made with Qinghai jade (or nephrite), not jadeite from Burma. However, many if not most of the jade products on the general market are from the abuse-ridden jadeite industry in Burma and profit Burma’s brutal military regime. The showcasing of jade on the world stage will further escalate the growth in demand3. Jadeite production comes at significant costs to the human rights and environmental security of the people living in Kachin state. Land confiscation and forced relocation are commonplace and improper mining practices lead to frequent landslides, floods, and other environmental damage. Conditions in the mines are deplorable, with frequent accidents and base wages less than US$1 per day. An environment of impunity and violence has been created by the military regime and its corporate partners, who inflict beatings on and even kill locals who are caught collecting stones cast off as trash by the mining companies. Mining company bosses and local authorities are complicit in a thriving local trade in drugs, which – when coupled with a substantial sex industry – has led to a generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic that has spilled over the border into China. While Burmese jadeite is only one part of China’s vast economic relationship to Burma’s military rulers, it is an industry on which individuals can have a direct and substantial impact, if they make conscientious decisions not to buy what can justifiably be called “blood” jade... The authors of this report call on individuals – global consumers, visitors to China, Olympic spectators, and Olympic athletes – to boycott the sale of Burma’s blood jade. The Beijing Organizing Committee of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG) and the government of the People’s Republic of China should take immediate action to curb the global trade in blood jade, beginning by ending their promotion of jade products from Burma..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: 8808 For Burma & All Kachin Students and Youth Union
        Format/size: pdf (1.2MB - OBL version; 1.5MB - original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.kdng.org/images/stories/publication/BloodJade.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 04 July 2010


        Title: Burma’s Gem Trade and Human Rights Abuses
        Date of publication: July 2008
        Description/subject: Burma’s Gem Trade and Human Rights Abuses Updated July 2008 Burma produces a variety of gems but is most famous for its rubies and jade. The vast majority of high-quality rubies on the world market originate from Burma. Burmese rubies are renowned for their dark “pigeon’s blood” color, which makes them more valuable than rubies produced elsewhere. According to industry estimates, Burma accounts for more than 90 percent of the global trade by value. Burma also dominates as the top producer of jadeite, the most expensive form of jade. Burma is especially well known for “imperial jade,” a gem-quality jade that is valued highly for its deep green hue. In addition, Burma produces and exports a variety of other precious and semi-precious stones, including sapphires and spinel. The color and quality of gems from Burma make them attractive for use in jewelry sold around the world, but the beauty of Burmese gems is marred by their association with serious human rights abuses. A growing number of governments, ethically-minded businesses, and civil society groups are working to curtail the international trade in Burmese gems through targeted sanctions and boycott campaigns. There are signs that these efforts are having an effect.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 07 August 2008


        Title: Mineralientatlas - Mogok
        Date of publication: 07 December 2007
        Description/subject: Arten, Geschichte, Geologie von Mineralien in Mogok (Sagaing Division);types, history, geology of minerals in Mogok (Sagaing Division)
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Mineralienatlas-Lexikon
        Date of entry/update: 10 May 2008


        Title: Rot wie Blut - Edelsteine aus Burma finanzieren diktatorisches Regime
        Date of publication: November 2007
        Description/subject: Burma verfügt über das weltweit größte Vorkommen von Rubinen. Unter unmenschlichen Bedingungen abgebaut, fließen die Erlöse direkt in die Taschen des diktatorischen Regimes, egal ob offiziell exportiert oder illegal gehandelt. Boykott von Rubinen; Kimberley-Prozess; Boykott of Rubins, Kimberley-Process
        Author/creator: Jolien Schure
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Fatal Transactions - Eine europäische Kampagne zur Rohstoffgerechtigkeit
        Format/size: pdf (402.75 KB)
        Date of entry/update: 09 June 2010


        Title: Burmas Minderheiten leiden unter Raubbau an Edelsteinen und Gold - Kritik am Schweigen deutscher Juweliere
        Date of publication: 15 October 2007
        Description/subject: Allein der Handel mit Rubinen und anderen Edelsteinen habe der staatlichen Firma "Myanmar Gems Enterprise" nach offiziellen Angaben zwischen April 2006 und März 2007 Einnahmen in Höhe von 297 Millionen US-Dollars verschafft. Dreimal im Jahr lade Myanmar ausländische Händler zu Edelstein-Auktionen ein. Bei der letzten Versteigerung im März 2007 seien Steine im Wert von 185 Millionen US-Dollars umgesetzt worden. Damit sei die Ausfuhr von Edelsteinen neben dem Handel mit Teak-Holz sowie mit Erdöl und Erdgas, der bedeutendste Devisenbringer des Landes. Gemstones
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: Capitalizing on Conflict: How Logging and Mining Contribute to Environmental Destruction in Burma.
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: "'Capitalizing on Conflict' presents information illustrating how trade in timber, gems, and gold is financing violent conflict, including widespread and gross human rights abuses, in Burma. Although trade in these “conflict goods” accounts for a small percentage of the total global trade, it severely compromises human security and undermines socio-economic development, not only in Burma, but throughout the region. Ironically, cease-fire agreements signed between the late 1980s and early 1990s have dramatically expanded the area where businesses operate. While many observers have have drawn attention to the political ramifications of these ceasefires, little attention has been focused on the economic ramifications. These ceasefires, used strategically by the military regime to end fighting in some areas and foment intra-ethnic conflict in others and weaken the unity of opposition groups, have had a net effect of increasing violence in some areas. Capitalizing on Conflict focuses on two zones where logging and mining are both widespread and the damage from these activities is severe... Both case studies highlight the dilemmas cease-fire arrangements often pose for the local communities, which frequently find themselves caught between powerful and conflicting military and business interests. The information provides insights into the conditions that compel local communities to participate in the unsustainable exploitation of their own local resources, even though they know they are destroying the very ecosystems they depend upon to maintain their way of life. The other alternative — to stand aside and let outsiders do it and then be left with nothing — is equally unpalatable..." Table of Contents: Map of Burma; Map of Logging and Mining Areas; Executive Summary; Recommendations; Part I: Context; General Background on Cease-fires; Conflict Trade and Burma; Part II: Logging Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Papun Districut (Karen State); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Part III: Mining Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Mogok (Mandalay Division); Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Conclusion.
        Author/creator: Ken MacLean
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI), Karen Environnmental & Social Action Network (KESAN)
        Format/size: pdf (939K)
        Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


        Title: Life: Between Hell and the Stone of Heaven
        Date of publication: 11 November 2001
        Description/subject: "More than a million miners desperately excavate the bedrock of a remote valley hidden in the shadows of the Himalayas. They are in search of just one thing - jadeite, the most valuable gemstone in the world. But with wages paid in pure heroin and HIV rampant, the miners are paying an even higher price. Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark travel to the death camps of Burma...Hpakant is Burma's black heart, drawing hundreds of thousands of people in with false hopes and pumping them out again, infected and broken. Thousands never leave the mines, but those who make it back to their communities take with them their addiction and a disease provincial doctors are not equipped to diagnose or treat. The UN and WHO have now declared the pits a disaster zone, but the military regime still refuses to let any international aid in..." jade
        Author/creator: Adrian Levy & Cathy Scott-Clark
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Observer (London)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Metal mining

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Burma mine protest (Google search results)
        Description/subject: About 23,400,000 results (15 December 2012)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Various sources via Google
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2012


        Individual Documents

        Title: Shan Farmers Say Gold Mining Is Wrecking Their Land
        Date of publication: 16 July 2014
        Description/subject: "Farmers from eastern Shan State’s Tachileik Township have called for an immediate end to gold mining operations in the area, which they say are seriously polluting water sources and causing other environmental damage. The ethnic Shan villagers from Na Hai Long, Weng Manaw and Ganna villages in Talay sub-township said that more than 300 acres of farmland can no longer be cultivated due to waste produced by gold-mining companies. A group of the farmers traveled to the Shan State capital of Taunggyi to give a press conference organized by the Shan Farmers’ Network on Wednesday..."
        Author/creator: Nyein Nyein
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


        Title: BURMA/MYANMAR: Activist sentenced to eleven years' jail for opposing army copper mine
        Date of publication: 12 August 2013
        Description/subject: "...The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) has previously issued a statement on the ongoing targeting and arrests of activists and farmers opposed to the expansion of an army-backed copper mining operation in the Letpadaung Hills of Sagaing Region (AHRC-STM-108-2013). In this appeal we bring you the full details of the numerous charges brought against one of those activists, Ko Aung Soe, who was arrested with two other persons for working with farmers organising against the mining operation. Aung Soe has now been sentenced to eleven-and-a-half years in jail in patently unfair trials that closely resemble those of the decades of military rule in Burma..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 12 August 2013


        Title: Mergui-Tavoy Photo Set: Dam, logging and mining operations negatively impact communities in K'Ser Doh Township, January to April 2012
        Date of publication: 16 July 2013
        Description/subject: "This photo set includes 49 still photographs selected from images taken by a KHRG community member between January and April 2012. They were taken in K'Ser Doh Township, Mergui-Tavoy District, and show images of a dam project in A'Nyah Pyah, logging in A'Nya Pyah, U Yay Kyee and Htee Ler Klay villages and mining operations in Hkay Ta Hpoo that have caused a variety of problems for the villagers in the in the areas, such as loss of land from flooding and water pollution. The mining company prevented villagers from protecting themselves from further damage from the chemical flows when they sought to drain a contaminated stream. This photo set was originally published in the appendix of KHRG's thematic report, Losing Ground: Land confiscation and collective action in eastern Myanmar..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (633K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b46.html
        Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


        Title: Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, March 2012 to March 2013
        Date of publication: 16 July 2013
        Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in May 2013 by a community member describing events occurring in Papun District mostly between March 2012 and March 2013, and also provides details on abuses since 2006. The report specifically describes incidents of forced labour, theft, logging, land confiscation and gold mining. The situation update describes military activity from August 2012 to January 2013, specifically Tatmadaw soldiers from Infantry Battalion (IB) #96 ordering villagers to make thatch shingles and cut bamboo. Moreover, soldiers stole villagers' thatch shingles, bamboo canes and livestock. It also describes logging undertaken by wealthy villagers with the permission of the Karen National Union (KNU) and contains updated information concerning land confiscation by Tatmadaw Border Guard Force (BGF) Battalions #1013 and #1014. The update also reports on gold mining initiatives led by the Democratic Karen Benevolent Army (DKBA) that started in 2010. At that time, civilians were ordered to work for the DKBA, and their lands, rivers and plantations were damaged as a result of mining operations. The report also notes economic changes that accompanied mining. In previous years villagers could pan gold from the river and sell it as a hedge against food insecurity. Now, however, options are limited because they must acquire written permission to pan in the river. This situation update also documents villager responses to abuses, and notes that an estimated 10 percent of area villagers favour corporate gold mining, while 90 percent oppose the efforts..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (292K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b45.html
        Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


        Title: Thaton Photo Set: Gold mining in Bilin Township, January 2013
        Date of publication: 28 June 2013
        Description/subject: "This photo set includes 18 still photographs selected from images taken by a community member from Bilin Township, Thaton District in January 2013. These photographs depict gold mining in Baw Paw Hta village and show village lands that were bought by the Mya Poo Company and subsequently damaged because of mining."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (317K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b38.html
        Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


        Title: Dooplaya Situation Update: Kya In Seik Kyi Township, September 2012
        Date of publication: 07 June 2013
        Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in September 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Dooplaya District, during September 2012. Specifically detailed is the situation and location of armed groups (Tatmadaw, DKBA and BGF); the villagers’ situation and opinions of the KNLA; and development projects in the area. This report also contains information about Tatmadaw practices such as the killing of villager’s livestock without permission or compensation; forcing villagers to be guides; and use of villagers’ tractors; villagers were however, given payment for this. The report also describes villagers’ difficulties associated with the payment of government-required motorbike licenses, as well as difficulties regarding the education system. The lack of healthcare in local villages is described, as well as the ailments that villagers suffer from. Further, this report includes information about antimony mining projects in the area carried out by companies such as San Mya Yadana Company and Thu Wana Myay Zi Lwar That Tuh Too Paw Yay owned by Hkin Zaw. Antimony mining is reported to have been going on for four years and the presence of mining companies is reported to have led to food price increases in the area. The community member describes how large mining companies have contributed water pipes and money to a village school. The biggest mining project in the region led by Hkin Maung is discussed and it is reported that mining companies working in the area have permission from the KNU and pay taxes to the KNU. This report and others, was published in March 2013 in Appendix 1: Raw Data Testimony of KHRG’s thematic report: Losing Ground: Land Conflicts and collective action in eastern Myanmar.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (135K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b32.html
        Date of entry/update: 27 July 2013


        Title: Mining, Plantations Affect Livelihoods of Kachin Villagers, NGO Says
        Date of publication: 28 May 2013
        Description/subject: "Unregulated gold mining, agro-industrial farming and hydropower development in Kachin State is affecting thousands of villagers, who are suffering from environmental destruction and a loss of farmland, a Kachin rights group warned. The People’s Foundation for Development, a NGO based in the Kachin state capital Myitkyina, launched a report in Rangoon on Monday that documented ten cases in which local villagers lost their land and livelihoods to large-scale investment projects and rampant gold mining. The group said that in recent years about 3,500 people had been forcibly evicted to make way for the suspended Myistone hydropower dam and for for the Yuzana Corporation’s massive cassava and sugarcane plantations in the remote Hukaung (also Hukawng) Valley. Since 2006, Yuzana, with the cooperation of local authorities, has been granted 81,000 hectares (200,000 acres) of land in the region. Much of it was reportedly confiscated from hundreds of Kachin families, while the firm allegedly also cleared large parts of a tiger reserve in the valley..."
        Author/creator: Lawi Weng
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 May 2013


        Title: BURMA: Criminalization of rights defenders and impunity for police
        Date of publication: 29 April 2013
        Description/subject: The Asian Human Rights Commission condemns in the strongest terms the announcement of the commander of the Sagaing Region Police Force, Myanmar, that the police will arrest and charge eight human rights defenders whom it blames for inciting protests against the army-backed copper mine project at the Letpadaung Hills, in Monywa. The commission also condemns the latest round of needless police violence against demonstrators there.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
        Format/size: html (45K)
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2013


        Title: BURMA: Lawyers' report on Letpadaung released in English
        Date of publication: 10 April 2013
        Description/subject: "(Hong Kong, April 10, 2013) A Burma-based lawyers group has released its findings on the Letpadaung land struggle in English. The 39-page illustrated report was submitted by the Lawyers Network (Myanmar) and the Justice Trust in February to the government's investigation commission into events at Letpadaung, recounts the land struggle and subsequent crackdown on protestors. The Asian Human Rights Commission said that the report offered further evidence to support arguments that the mining operation ought to be halted, and criminal actions brought against police and other officials responsible for orders to disperse protestors through the use of incendiary weapons. "It is alarming that despite having such evidence available to it, not only did the investigation commission endorse the continuation of the mining project, but also said literally nothing about the criminal responsibility of the police and other authorities involved in the brutal attack on peaceful demonstrators," Bijo Francis, acting executive director of the Hong Kong-based regional rights group, said. .."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
        Format/size: html (49K)
        Date of entry/update: 11 April 2013


        Title: BURMA: Two sharply contrasting reports on the struggle for land at Letpadaung
        Date of publication: 03 April 2013
        Description/subject: "The Asian Human Rights Commission has since mid-2012 closely followed, documented and reported on the struggle of farmers in the Letpadaung Hills of central Burma against the expansion of a copper mining operation under a military-owned holding company and a partner company from China. After repeatedly being refused permission to demonstrate against the operation under the terms of the country's new antidemocratic public demonstration law, the farmers began public protests, which were met with a range of repressive measures, culminating in the night time attack on encamped protestors last November. The attack received international media coverage because the police fired white phosphorous into the protest camps causing extensive burns to protestors, the majority of them monks who had joined villagers in resistance to the mine project. In recent months two reports have been issued, in Burmese, on the struggle against the mine. The reports make interesting reading because they represent very different perspectives and understandings of the issues for the affected villagers in Letpadaung. One is the official report of an investigative commission headed by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, published in the 12 March 2013 edition of the state newspaper. The other is an unofficial report by the 88 Students Generation group and the Lawyers Network, Upper Burma, issued before the official report, on 21 January 2013. Whereas the latter report represents a genuine effort to identify the causes for the opposition to the mine and speak to the human rights questions concerned with events in Letpadaung of 2012, the former is little more than an exercise in playing at politics, and an attempt to sidestep and obfuscate the questions of human rights involved through the use of "information" that conceals more than it reveals..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
        Format/size: html (54K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 April 2013


        Title: Report of the Investigation Commission for Letpadaung Copper Mining Project
        Date of publication: 12 March 2013
        Description/subject: စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒသၾကီး မံုရြာခရိုင္၊ ဆားလင္းၾကီးျမိဳ႕နယ္ လက္ပန္ေတာင္းေတာင္ ေၾကးနီစီမံကိန္း စံုစမ္းစစ္ေဆးေရး ေကာ္မရွင္၏ အျပီးသတ္အစီရင္ခံစာ ... နိဒါန္း ၁။ ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ႏိုဝင္ဘာလ ၂၃ ရက္တြင္ က်င္းပေသာ ျပည္သူ႕လႊတ္ေတာ္ အစည္းအေဝး၌တင္သြင္းခဲ့သည့္ အေရးၾကီးအဆိုတြင္ စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒ သၾကီး မံုရြာခရိုင္ ဆားလင္းၾကီးျမိဳ႕နယ္ လက္ပန္ေတာင္းေတာင္ ေၾကးနီစီမံကိန္းႏွင့္ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ ေၾကးနီမိုင္းလုပ္ငန္း ဆက္လက္ေဆာင္ရြက္ခြင့္ျပဳရန္ သင့္မသင့္ စံုစမ္းစစ္ေဆးေရး ေကာ္မရွင္ကို ျပည္ေထာင္စုသမၼတျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္၊ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္သမၼတရံုးမွ အမိန္႕ေၾကာ္ျငာစာအမွတ္ (၉၅/၂၀၁၂) အရ ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇင္ဘာလ ၃ ရက္ေန႕တြင္ ဥကၠ႒အပါအဝင္ အဖြဲ႕ဝင္ ၁၆ ဦးျဖင့္ ဖြဲ႕စည္းေပးခဲ့ပါသည္။ ၂။ စံုစမ္းစစ္ေဆးေရးေကာ္မရွင္အဖြဲ႕ဝင္မ်ားသည္ စီမံကိန္းႏွင့္ပတ္သက္၍ ေက်းရြာလူထု ခံစားေနရသည့္ ျပည္သူ႕အသံမ်ားအပါအဝင္ စီမံကိန္းႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္သည့္ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကို စံုစမ္းျပီး သံုးသပ္ခ်က္ႏွင့္တကြ တင္ျပႏိုင္ရန္ အဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား ဖြဲ႕စည္းေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ့ပါသည္။
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Letpadaung Investigation Commission via Burma Partnership
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 24 March 2013


        Title: Submission of Evidence to Myanmar Government’s Letpadaung Investigation Commission (full text - English)
        Date of publication: 14 February 2013
        Description/subject: Submission of evidence by Lawyers Network and Justice Trust to the Letpadaung Investigation Commission...(Submitted 28 January, 2013, re-submitted with exhibits 5 February, 2013)...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The evidence submitted in this report covers two main issues: 1) the circumstances and validity of contracts signed by local villagers in April 2011 to allow their farmlands to be used by a copper mining joint venture between Wanbao, a Chinese military-owned company, and U Paing, a Burmese military-owned company, and 2) the circumstances and validity of the police action used to disperse peaceful protesters at the copper mine site during the early morning hours of 29 November, 2013. This submission presents relevant laws and facts concerning the Letpadaung case; it does not draw legal conclusions or make specific policy recommendations. The evidence indicates that local government authorities, acting on behalf of the joint venture companies, used fraudulent means to coerce villagers to sign contracts against their will, and then refused to allow villagers and monks to exercise their constitutional right to peaceful assembly and protest. The evidence also indicates that police used military-issue white-phosphorus (WP) grenades (misleadingly termed smoke bombs) combined with water cannons to destroy the protest camps and injure well over 100 monks with severe, deep chemical burns. White phosphorus spontaneously ignites in air to produce burning phosphorous pentoxide particles and, when combined with water, super-heated phosphoric acid..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Lawyers Network and Justice Trust via AHRC
        Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.humanrights.asia/news/press-releases/AHRC-PRL-007-2013
        http://justice-trust.org/wp-content/uploads/Letpadaungreportforpublicrelease.pdf (slightly different text)
        Date of entry/update: 11 April 2013


        Title: Lost Paradise - Damaging Impact of Mawchi TIn Mines in Burma's Karenni State
        Date of publication: 11 December 2012
        Description/subject: This report documents the increased militarization around the Mawchi mines, as well as the different social and environmental impacts they have had on the local community...... 1. Introduction... 2. Ancestral lands and water sources to be lost from extension of Mawchi mines... 3. Tin production for export and domestic use... 4. Villagers suffer impacts of Heinda tin mine in Tenasserim... 5. Background history of Mawchi tin mine... 6. Timeline of Mawchi mines... 7. Relations between tin mining companies... 8. Military security for Mawchi mine... 9. Social impacts of tin mining: 9/1 . Health problems caused by tin mining; 9/2 . Pollution from mining waste; 9/3. Drinking water problems; 9/4. Health problems downstream from the mines; 9/5. Living conditions and safety of mine workers; 9/6 . Gender disparity... 10 . An old woman from the Mawchi area recounts her experience... 11 . Environmental impacts of tin mining: 11/1 . Deforestation; 11/2 . Landslides... 12 . Who benefits from tin mining?... 13. Conclusion and recommendations.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Molo Women Mining Watch Network
        Format/size: pdf (490K-OBL version; 757K-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://karenniwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/LostParadise-MawchiMining-English-.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 17 December 2012


        Title: Progress stops at the Myanmar elite's door
        Date of publication: 04 December 2012
        Description/subject: "Freedom of speech will struggle to flourish in Myanmar as its economic interests are dominated by powerful neighbours...The protesters were given five minutes to leave. Police surrounded their camp close to the Letpadaung copper mine in northern Myanmar in the early hours of Thursday, armed with loudspeakers, water cannons and warnings of attack. First came the water, the force of which swept away dozens of flimsy structures used to shelter hundreds of Myanmarese angered at the damage wrought over more than a decade by the country's largest copper mine. What came next however struck fear into the heart of Myanmar's nascent environmental movement. Plumes of fire lit up the night sky as police and riot control units shot incendiary bombs into the clusters of tents. "They fired 10 rounds; five at a time," one protester told the Democratic Voice of Burma. "And the sparks that landed on people's clothing couldn't be shaken off; they burst into flames when they attempted to do so." Images that emerged following the crackdown showed hospital wards filled with burn victims - men, women and Buddhist monks. "I'd prefer to be dead now than suffering [from the burns] - the pain is too unbearable," a monk said. The brutality of the incident conjures memories of September 2007, when hundreds of pro-democracy protesters were shot dead by Myanmar troops. That crackdown was congruent with the reputation of the military junta that ruled Myanmar at the time. But 18 months into its experiment with democracy and wildly contradicting the progressive rhetoric of President Thein Sein, the attack last week has left many questioning the earnestness of the reforms. Moreover, the involvement of police, who operate under the auspices of the president, has cast a shadow over a leader preparing to accept a number of top peace awards. The Letpadaung incident goes beyond a simple bid to stifle dissent. While environmental damage and grievances over the confiscation of 7,800 acres of land were the key focus of the resistance to the mine, in the government's eye, these protests marked the intersection at which three hugely sensitive issues meet: The public's ability to exercise freedom of speech, China's influence over Myanmar and vested military interests in the country's natural resources. Put together, they indicate that at the core of government, there still exists the same fear over the standing of the elite that fuelled abuses by Myanmar's former rulers. Days into the protests, Aung Min, one of President Thein Sein's top cabinet members, was caught on camera saying that the mine would stay open because, "We are afraid of China"..."
        Author/creator: Francis Wade
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: AL Jazeera
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


        Title: Ceremony to receive Ovada from senior monks in Monywa held
        Date of publication: 02 December 2012
        Description/subject: "...The ceremony was opened with the recitation of Namo Tasa three times. Next, Commander of Sagaing Region Police Force Police Col San Yu supplicated the matters regarding the ongoing situations stemming from Latpadaungtaung copper mine project in Salingyi Township of Monywa District and religious matters. Please accept my apology. We are very disheartened by injuries of monks in the crackdown of boycott camps in Latpadaungtaung project in Salingyi Township..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
        Format/size: pdf (85K)
        Date of entry/update: 02 December 2012


        Title: Asia-Pacific Riot police break up Myanmar copper protest (video)
        Date of publication: 29 November 2012
        Description/subject: Security forces used a water cannon and other weapons to end the three-month protest, injuring 10 monks, two critically. Riot police fired water cannons and tear gas to break up a three-month protest against a vast copper mining project run by Myanmar's powerful military and its partner, a subsidiary of a Chinese arms manufacturer.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
        Format/size: Adobe Flash
        Date of entry/update: 29 November 2012


        Title: BURMA Monywa Copper Mining Protest Resumes
        Date of publication: 20 November 2012
        Description/subject: "More than 1,000 people demanding the closure of a copper mining project in the Letpadaung mountain range, Sagaing Division, held yet another demonstration in front of the company’s headquarters in Monywa’s Salingyi Township. Protesters have been disrupting project work since Sunday by linking arms and blocking the path of trucks and vehicles at the construction site while security officials looked on. Local residents and environmental activists have taken up two separate positions—a large gathering in front of the Myanmar-Wanbao Mining Company office on the Monywa-Pathein Road, and a smaller event at the Lelti Sayadaw Buddhist Building near Kyawyar Village, around five miles away from the protester’s main camp..."
        Author/creator: "The Irawaddy"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Nyein Nyein
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 20 November 2012


        Title: Blood and Gold: Inside Burma's Hidden War (video)
        Date of publication: 04 October 2012
        Description/subject: Deep in the wilds of northern Myanmar's Kachin state a brutal civil war has intensified over the past year between government forces and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). People & Power sent filmmakers Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza to Myanmar (formerly Burma) to investigate why the conflict rages on, despite the political reforms in the south that have impressed Western governments and investors now lining up to stake their claim in the resource-rich Asian nation.
        Author/creator: Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza
        Language: English, Burmese, Kachin, (English subtitles
        Source/publisher: People & Power (Al Jazeera)
        Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes), html
        Date of entry/update: 08 October 2012


        Title: Grab for white gold - platinum mining in Eastern Shan State (Burmese)
        Date of publication: 08 May 2012
        Description/subject: အစီရင္ခံစာအက်ဥ္းခ်ဳပ္ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ အေရွ႔ပိုင္း တာခ်ီလိတ္ၿမိဳ ၏႔ ေျမာက္ဖက္ ေတာင္တန္းေဒမ်ားတြင္ ေဒသခံမ်ားကို ထိခိုကေ္ စသည့္ ေရႊျဖဴတူးေဖာ္ျခင္းလုပ္ငန္းကို ၂၀၀၇ခုႏွစ္မွ စတင္ခဲ့ကာ ယင္းေၾကာင့္ လားဟူ၊ အာခါႏွင့္ ရွမ္းရြာ ၈ရြာမွာ လူေပါင္း ၂၀၀၀ေက်ာ္ကို ထိခိုက္ေစခဲ့သည္။ ေရႊျဖဴတူးေဖာ္မႈကို ျမန္မာကုမၸဏီမ်ားက ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနၿပီး တရုတ္ႏွင့္ ထုိင္းႏိုင္ငံသို႔ တင္ပို႔လွ်က္ရိွသည္။ တာခ်လီ တိ ၿ္မဳိ ႔ ေျမာကဖ္ က ္ ၁၃ကလီ မို တီ ာအကြာရ ွိအားရဲေခၚ အာခါရြာအနီးတငြ ္ကမု ဏၸ ၅ီ ခကု လပု င္ န္း လပု က္ ငို လ္ ်ွကရ္ သွိ ည။္ ထကို မု ဏၸ မီ ်ားက ရြာသားမ်ားပငို ဆ္ ငို သ္ ည ့္ပစညၥ ္းမ်ားႏငွ ့္ ေျမယာမ်ားက ိုအတင္းအက်ပဖ္ အိ ားေပး၍ ေစ်းႏမိွ ္ေရာင္းခ်ေစသကသဲ့ ႔ ို ေျမယာအခ်ိဳ က႔ ို ေလွ်ာ္ေၾကးမေပးဘဲ အဓမၼသိမး္ ယူ ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ေထာင္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာေသာ စိုက္ပိ်ဳးေျမဧကမ်ားႏွင့္ သစ္ေတာမ်ားကို ကုမၸဏီက သိမ္းယူေနၿပီး အခ်ိဳ႔ေသာေျမယာမ်ားသည္ သတၱဳတြင္းမွ အညစ္အေၾကးမ်ားစြန္႔ပစ္ေသာေၾကာင့္ ပ်ကဆ္ ီးလ်ွကရ္ သွိ ည။္ ရြာသရူ ြာသားမ်ား အသုံးျပဳသည ့္အေ၀းေျပးလမ္းသ ႔ိုသြားေရာကရ္ ာလမ္းမွာလည္း သတဳၱတူးေဖာသ္ ည ့္ ကုန္တင္ကားမ်ား၊ စက္ယႏၱယားႀကီးမ်ား ျဖတ္သန္းသြားျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ပ်က္ဆီးၾကရသည္။ သတဳၱတူးေဖာျ္ခင္းေၾကာင ့္ ရြာသားမ်ား အဓကိ အသုံးျပဳေနေသာ ေရအရင္းအျမစ ္ညစည္ မ္းလ်ွကရ္ ၿွိပီး ေရစီးေၾကာင္းမ်ားလည္း ေျပာင္းလဲကုန္သည္။ ယင္းအေျခအေနမ်ားက ေဒသခံအမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားကို ႀကီးမားေသာ အခက္အခဲမ်ားျဖစ္ေပၚေစသည္။ အေၾကာင္းမွာ ေရရရိွရန္အတြက္ အလြန္ေ၀းကြာေသာခရီးကို ေျခလ်င္ လမ္းေလွ်ာက္သြားရေသာေၾကာင့္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ထို႔အတူ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္ရာလုပ္ငန္းသို႔ အမ်ိဳးသားေရႊ႔ေျပာင္းအလုပ္သမားမ်ား အစုလုိက္အၿပံဳလုိက္ ေရာက္ရိွ လာျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ထိုေနရာတ၀ိုက္တြင္ေနထိုင္သည့္ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား၏ လံုၿခံဳေရးမွာ အႏၱရာယ္ က်ေရာက္ လွ်က္ရိွသည္။ စိုက္ခင္းသို႔ သြားသည့္အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားမွာ လိင္ပိုင္းဆုိင္ရာ ထိပါးေႏွာင့္ယွက္မႈမ်ားကို ႀကံဳေတြ႔ ေနရသည္။ အမ်ိဳးသမီးငယ္မ်ားမွာ သတၱဳတြင္းအလုပ္သမားမ်ား၏ မယားငယ္မ်ားအျဖစ္ သိမ္းယူခံရသကဲ့သို႔ အခ်ိဳ႔ အမ်ိဳးသမီးငယ္မ်ားမွာ ျပည္႔တန္ဆာမ်ား ျဖစ္ၾကရသည္။ သတၱဳတြင္း၀န္ထမ္းမ်ားက ေဒသခံ အမ်ိဳးသမီးငယ္မ်ားကို လူကုန္ကူးရာတြင္ ပါ၀င္ပတ္သက္ေနၾကသည္။ ရြာသ၊ူ ရြာသားမ်ား၏ အခငြ အ့္ ေရးက ိုကာကြယ္ေပးသည ့္ ဥပေဒစိုးမိုးမလႈ ည္း ကင္းမဲ့ေနသည။္ ျမနမ္ ာစစတ္ ပမ္ ွအရာရမွိ ်ားအား လာဘ္ထုိးျခင္းအားျဖင့္ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္သည့္ ကုမၸဏီမ်ားသည္ လူမႈေရးႏွင့္ သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ဆုိင္ရာ စံသတ္မွတ္ခ်က္မ်ားကို လိုက္နာရန္မလိုဘဲ လုပ္ငန္းလုပ္ကိုင္ႏိုင္ၾကသည္။ ထုိ႔ေၾကာင့္ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္သည့္ကုမၸဏီမ်ားႏွင့္ အိမ္နီးခ်င္းႏိုင္ငံမွ ေရႊျဖဴ၀ယ္ယူသူတုိ႔သည္ လူမႈေရးႏွင့္ သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ ထိန္းသိမ္းေရးဆုိင္ရာ တာ၀န္မ်ားကို ေရွာင္ရွားျခင္းျဖင့္ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္ျခင္း လုပ္ငန္းမွ အျမတ္ေငြ မ်ားႏိုင္သမွ် မ်ားမ်ားရေအာင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနၾကသည္။ ထုိ႔ေၾကာင့္ လားဟူ အမ်ိဳးသမီးအဖဲြ႔က ေဒသတြင္းဖံြ႔ၿဖိဳးတုိးတက္မႈကို မျဖစ္ေစဘဲ ဆင္းရဲမဲြေတမႈႏွင့္ သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ ပ်က္ဆီးမႈကိုသာျဖစ္ေစသည့္ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္ျခင္းလုပ္ငန္းကို ခ်က္ခ်င္း ရပ္တန္႔ရန္ ျမန္မာအစိုးရအား ေတာင္းဆုိသည္။
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Lahu Women's Organization
        Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold-PR(bu).pdf (Press Release, Burmese)
        http://www.lahuwomen.org
        http://lahuwomen.org/press-release/lahu-women-demand-end-to-destructive-platinum-mining-in-burmas-s...
        Date of entry/update: 14 May 2012


        Title: Grab for white gold - platinum mining in Eastern Shan State (English)
        Date of publication: 08 May 2012
        Description/subject: Burmese and Chinese companies are pushing aside Akha, Lahu and Shan villagers in eastern Shan State in a grab for platinum (“white gold” in Burmese). Women are facing particular hardship due to the loss of livelihood and the contamination of water sources. The Lahu Women Organization is calling for an immediate halt to these damaging mining operations....Summary Since 2007, destructive platinum mining has been taking place in the hills north of Tachilek, eastern Shan State, impacting about 2,000 people from eight Lahu, Akha and Shan villages. The platinum is being extracted by Burmese mining companies and exported to China and Thailand. Five companies are currently operating around the Akha village of Ah Yeh, 13 kilometers north of Tachilek. They have forced villagers to sell property and land at cheap prices, and confiscated other lands without compensation. Hundreds of acres of farms and forestland have been seized, or destroyed by dumping of mining waste. The villagers’ access road to the main highway has been ruined by the passage of heavy mining trucks and machinery. The main water source for local villagers has been diverted and contaminated by the mining, causing tremendous hardship for local women, who must now walk long distances to do their washing. Women are also facing increased security risks from the influx of migrant male miners into the area. There is regular sexual harassment of women going to their fields. Young women are being taken as minor wives by the miners; some are also becoming sex workers. Mining staff have also been involved in trafficking of local women. There is no rule of law protecting the rights of the local villagers. By paying off the local Burmese military, mining companies are able to carry out operations without adhering to any social or environmental standards. The companies and platinum buyers in neighbouring countries are therefore maximizing profits by avoiding responsibility for the social and environmental costs of the mines. The Lahu Women’s Organisation therefore calls on the Burmese government to put an immediate stop to these destructive mining operations, which are not contributing to local development, but are causing poverty and environmental degradation..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Lahu Women's Organization
        Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://lahuwomen.org/press-release/lahu-women-demand-end-to-destructive-platinum-mining-in-burmas-s...
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold-PR(th).pdf (Pres Release, Thai)
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold-PR(ch).pdf (Press Release, Chinese)
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold-PR(bu).pdf (Press Release, Burmese)
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold(lahu).pdf (full text, Lahu)
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold(bu)-op75mr-red.pdf (full text, Burmese)
        Date of entry/update: 14 May 2012


        Title: Grab for white gold - platinum mining in Eastern Shan State (Lahu)
        Date of publication: 08 May 2012
        Description/subject: Summary: Since 2007, destructive platinum mining has been taking place in the hills north of Tachilek, eastern Shan State, impacting about 2,000 people from eight Lahu, Akha and Shan villages. The platinum is being extracted by Burmese mining companies and exported to China and Thailand. Five companies are currently operating around the Akha village of Ah Yeh, 13 kilometers north of Tachilek. They have forced villagers to sell property and land at cheap prices, and confiscated other lands without compensation. Hundreds of acres of farms and forestland have been seized, or destroyed by dumping of mining waste. The villagers’ access road to the main highway has been ruined by the passage of heavy mining trucks and machinery. The main water source for local villagers has been diverted and contaminated by the mining, causing tremendous hardship for local women, who must now walk long distances to do their washing. Women are also facing increased security risks from the influx of migrant male miners into the area. There is regular sexual harassment of women going to their fields. Young women are being taken as minor wives by the miners; some are also becoming sex workers. Mining staff have also been involved in trafficking of local women. There is no rule of law protecting the rights of the local villagers. By paying off the local Burmese military, mining companies are able to carry out operations without adhering to any social or environmental standards. The companies and platinum buyers in neighbouring countries are therefore maximizing profits by avoiding responsibility for the social and environmental costs of the mines. The Lahu Women’s Organisation therefore calls on the Burmese government to put an immediate stop to these destructive mining operations, which are not contributing to local development, but are causing poverty and environmental degradation.
        Language: Lahu
        Source/publisher: Lahu Women's Organization
        Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://lahuwomen.org/press-release/lahu-women-demand-end-to-destructive-platinum-mining-in-burmas-shan-state'>http://lahuwomen.org/press-release/lahu-women-demand-end-to-destructive-platinum-mining-in-burmas-s...
        http://lahuwomen.org
        Date of entry/update: 14 May 2012


        Title: Pa-Oh youth launch campaign to oppose damaging impacts of Burma’s largest iron mine (text and video)
        Date of publication: 27 October 2010
        Description/subject: "Save our Mountain, Save out Future": Pinpet Iron Mine and Steel Mill plant, near Taunggyi..."The Pa-Oh Youth Organisation (PYO) has produced a video and leaflets showing the destruction already caused by the mining project, due to start next year, including loss of farmlands, pollution of waterways, and abuses committed by the Burmese regime’s troops providing security for the project. Hundreds of copies of the video have already been distributed in the affected areas. Construction of the massive iron factory, jointly funded by Russian state-owned Tyazhpromexport company, is almost complete. 100 villagers are now being ordered out of the project area, among 7,000 people slated for relocation once Pinpet mountain starts being leveled for open pit mining. A further 35,000 villagers will be impacted by pollution of the Thabet Stream, which has been diverted to clean and process the iron ore. Affected communities have appealed to local authorities to stop the land confiscation and forced relocation, but so far to no avail. “There is a news black-out about the Pinpet project in Burma. We want to raise awareness about the damage being caused and support community efforts to oppose the project,” said PYO spokesperson Khun Chan Khe..." To see the video and an update on the project, see http://pyo-org.blogspot.com/ ..... ပအိုဝ်းလူငယ်လှုပ်ရှားတက်ကြွသူများက ရှမ်းပြည်နယ် တောင်ကြီးမြို့နယ်ရှိ မြန်မာပြည်၏ အကြီးဆုံး ပင်းပက် သံသတ္တုမိုင်းမှ ထိခိုက်ဆိုးကျိုးများအား ဆန့်ကျင်ကန့်ကွက်နေသည့် ဒေသခံပြည်သူများ အားဝိုင်းဝန်း ထောက်ခံအားပေးရေးအတွက် ယနေ့ လှုပ်ရှားမှုကို ကျင်းပပြုလုပ်ခြင်း ဖြစ်ပါသည်။ လှုပ်ရှားမှုနှင့်ပတ်သက်၍သတ္တုမိုင်း စီမံကိန်းကြောင့် ထိခိုက်ဖျက်ဆီးခံရမှုများကို ဗွီဒီယို၊ လက်ကမ်းစာစောင်များ အား မှတ်တမ်းတင်ထုတ်ဝေသည်။ ထိခိုက်ဖျက်ဆီးခံရမှုတွင် စီမံကိန်းလုံခြုံရေးကြောင့် ဒေသခံအာဏာပိုင်များက ကျူးလွန်ခဲ့သည့် လူ့အခွင့်အရေး ချိုးဖောက်ခံရမှုများ၊ ဒေသခံပြည်သူများမှ လယ်ယာမြေများ လက်လွတ်ဆုံးရှုံးရမှု၊ ရေထုညစ်ညမ်းမှုများ ကြုံတွေ့နေရပါသည်။ ထို့သို့ ထိခိုက် နစ်နာခဲ့ရသည့် ဒေသခံပြည်သူများပုံရိပ်ကို ပအိုဝ်းလူငယ် အစည်းအရုံးမှ ဓါတ်ပုံဗွီဒီယိုမှတ်တမ်း အနေဖြင့် ဖြန့်ဖြူး ထုတ်ဝေပါသည်။
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Pa_Oh Youth Organization (PYO)
        Format/size: Adobe Flash; pdf (4K)
        Alternate URLs: http://pyo-org.blogspot.com/
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Pa-Oh-Pinpet_mine.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


        Title: Save our Mountain Save our Future -- an update from Burma’s largest iron mine
        Date of publication: October 2010
        Description/subject: Pinpet Mountain under imminent threat as iron project speeds ahead.... "Excavation of Burma’s second largest iron deposit located in southern Shan State is imminent as bulldozers begin preparatory clearing on the iconic Pinpet Mountain, home to 7,000 people. The 300 residents in Pang Ngo village are in immediate danger from falling rocks and landslides as machines uproot trees, clear brush and remove top soil on the west side of the mountain. Farm fi elds at the foot of the mountain may be covered with toxic waste soils once the excavation starts as ore samples at the site have tested high for arsenic content. Construction activities at the secretive iron factory compound are also racing ahead. Underground bunkers are now complete and a massive new crushing facility (see inside) now towers above the compound walls. Surveys for uranium conducted on the mountain in the past continue to fuel persistent concerns that this project is linked to Burma’s nuclear plans. Meanwhile according to authorities the forced relocation of nearby villages will begin after the military regime’s sham elections, beginning with the extraction of a community graveyard in December. Land confi scation continues unabated. Local villagers are calling to stop the project, protect the mountain and save the main waterway for the entire Hopone valley from toxic pollution before it’s too late..." This briefing is an update of PYO’s report, "Robbing the Future published in June 2009".
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Pa-Oh Youth Organization (PYO)
        Format/size: pdf (2.2MB - English; 2.2MB - Burmese)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Pinpet_Updated_Broucher(bu).pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 February 2011


        Title: Robbing the Future - Russian-backed Mining Project Threatens Pa-O Communities in Shan State, Burma
        Date of publication: June 2009
        Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The transformation of Mount Pinpet, or "Pine Tree Mountain," in Burma's war-torn Shan State, for the excavation and refinement of the country's second largest iron ore deposit is changing the very nature of life there, and if not stopped could permanently destroy the home of more than 7,000 primarily ethnic Pa-O residents. Since 2004 Russian and Burmese companies have been preparing to develop the deposit and are currently building an iron processing plant and a cement factory on a total of 11,000 acres of lands. An Italian company is also believed to be involved in the project. Although there has been a ceasefire in the area since 1991, the military ruling Burma has established three sizeable battalion camps and two military universities in or around the nearby towns of Taunggyi and Hopone. Fighting has flared up south of the project site and has led to recent torture and killing of villagers by the Burma Army. Twenty-five villages, a total of 7,000 people, could be permanently displaced from their homes and farmlands by the projects. A further 35,000 people rely on the watershed of the Thabet Stream in the valley east of the mountain. Fifty people have already been forced to move and were not adequately compensated. The confiscation of vital farmlands has begun, leaving over 100 families without the primary source of their livelihood and sustenance. Travel restrictions have closed down a major road and prohibited villagers from collecting firewood, food, and shelter materials on the mountain. The entire mountain of Pinpet will be excavated for this project, irrevocably changing the landscape and environment of the area. Pollution from mine tailings and erosion of mine heaps threaten the main water source of Hopone Valley. Ancient pagodas have been cracked and may be demolished altogether by explosions to prepare construction sites and begin excavation. Local communities have not been informed or consulted about project plans and complaints to authorities about the confiscation of lands and lack of compensation have not been addressed. No assessments of the projects have been made public and mining authorities are pushing ahead by using the force of armed local military to relocate families, confiscate lands, restrict movements, and intimidate communities. The lack of information is compounded by persistent speculation that the mining operation is in fact being set up to exploit and refine uranium, not only iron ore and limestone. These fears are fueled by Burma's announcement in 2007 that Russia is to build a nuclear reactor in the country. The companies responsible for these projects should stop all activity and first conduct thorough and transparent assessments of the projects' environmental and social impacts; adequate compensation should be provided for those who have already lost their homes and lands; to assuage fears, all nuclear and uranium mining plans should be made public; and, such projects should not be conducted under the force of military power. The Pa-O Youth Organization stands with its community to protect livelihoods, land ownership, and cultural heritage, and calls on regional and international actors to inspect the Pinpet projects and use their influence to ensure respect for the rights of affected communities."
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Pa-O Youth Organization (PYO)
        Format/size: pdf (English, 3.5MB; Burmese 4.1MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Robbing_the_Future(bu).pdf
        Date of entry/update: 02 July 2009


        Title: Turning Treasure Into Tears - Mining, Dams and Deforestation in Shwegyin Township, Pegu Division, Burma
        Date of publication: 20 February 2007
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report describes how human rights and environmental abuses continue to be a serious problem in eastern Pegu division, Burma – specifi cally, in Shwegyin township of Nyaunglebin District. The heavy militarization of the region, the indiscriminate granting of mining and logging concessions, and the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam have led to forced labor, land confi scation, extortion, forced relocation, and the destruction of the natural environment. The human consequences of these practices, many of which violate customary and conventional international law, have been social unrest, increased fi nancial hardship, and great personal suffering for the victims of human rights abuses. By contrast, the SPDC and its business partners have benefi ted greatly from this exploitation. The businessmen, through their contacts, have been able to rapidly expand their operations to exploit the township’s gold and timber resources. The SPDC, for its part, is getting rich off the fees and labor exacted from the villagers. Its dam project will forever change the geography of the area, at great personal cost to the villagers, but it will give the regime more electricity and water to irrigate its agro-business projects. Karen villagers in the area previously panned for gold and sold it to supplement their incomes from their fi elds and plantations. They have also long been involved in small-scale logging of the forests. In 1997, the SPDC and businessmen began to industrialize the exploitation of gold deposits and forests in the area. Businessmen from central Burma eventually arrived and in collusion with the Burmese Army gained mining concessions and began to force people off of their land. Villagers in the area continue to lose their land, and with it their ability to provide for themselves. The Army abuses local villagers, confi scates their land, and continues to extort their money. Commodity prices continue to rise, compounding the diffi culties of daily survival. Large numbers of migrant workers have moved into the area to work the mining concessions and log the forests. This has created a complicated tension between the Karen and these migrants. While the migrant workers are merely trying to earn enough money to feed their families, they are doing so on the Karen’s ancestral land and through the exploitation of local resources. Most of the migrant workers are Burman, which increases ethnic tensions in an area where Burmans often represent the SPDC and the Army and are already seen as sneaky and oppressive by the local Karen. These forms of exploitation increased since the announcement of the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam in 2000, which is expected to be completed in late 2006. The SPDC has enabled the mining and logging companies to extract as much as they can before the area upstream of the dam is fl ooded. This situation has intensifi ed and increased human rights violations against villagers in the area. The militarization of the region, as elsewhere, has resulted in forced labor, extortion of money, goods, and building materials, and forced relocation by the Army. In addition to these direct human rights violations, the mining and dam construction have also resulted in grave environmental degradation of the area. The mining process has resulted in toxic runoff that has damaged or destroyed fi elds and plantations downstream. The dam, once completed, will submerge fi elds, plantations, villages, and forests. In addition, the dam will be used to irrigate rubber plantations jointly owned by the SPDC and private business interests. The Burmese Army has also made moves to secure the area in the mountains to the east of the Shwegyin River. This has led to relocations and the forced displacement of thousands of Karen villagers living in the mountains. Once the Army has secured the area, the mining and logging companies will surely follow..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
        Format/size: pdf (632K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 March 2007


        Title: Valley of Darkness - gold mining and militarization in Burma's Hugawng valley
        Date of publication: 09 January 2007
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The remote and environmentally rich Hugawng valley in Burma's northern Kachin State has been internationally recognized as one of the world's hotspots of biodiversity. Indeed, the military junta ruling Burma, together with the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society, is establishing the world's largest tiger reserve in the valley. However, the conditions of the people living there have not received attention. This report by local researchers reveals the untold story of how the junta's militarization and self-serving expansion of the gold mining industry have devastated communities and ravaged the valley's forests and waterways. The Hugawng valley was largely untouched by Burma's military regime until the mid-1990s. After a ceasefire between the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) and the junta in 1994, local residents had high hopes that peace would foster economic development and improved living conditions. However, under the junta's increased control, the rich resources of Hugawng valley have turned out to be a curse. Despite the ceasefire, the junta has expanded its military infrastructure throughout Kachin State, increasing its presence from 26 battalions in 1994 to 41 in 2006. This expansion has been mirrored in Hugawng valley, where the number of military outposts has doubled; in the main town of Danai, public and private buildings have been seized and one third of the surrounding farmland confiscated. Some of the land and buildings were used to house military units, while others were sold to business interests for military profit. In order to expand and ensure its control over gold mining revenues, the regime offered up 18% of the entire Kachin State for mining concessions in 2002. This transformed gold mining from independent gold panning to a large-scale mechanized industry controlled by the concession holders. In Hugawng valley concessions were sold to 8 selected companies and the number of main gold mining sites increased from 14 in 1994 to 31 sites in 2006. The number of active hydraulic and pit mines had exploded to approximately 100 by the end of 2006. The regime's Ministry of Mines collects signing fees for the concessions as well as 35% - 50% tax on annual profits. Additional payments are rendered to the military's top commander for the region, various township and local authorities as well as the Minister of Mines personally. The junta has announced occasional bans on gold mining in Kachin State but as this report shows, these bans are temporary and selective, in effect used to maintain the junta's grip on mining revenues. While the regime, called the State Peace and Development Council or SPDC, has consolidated political and financial control of the valley, it has not enforced its own existing (and very limited) environmental and health regulations on gold mining operations. This lack of regulation has resulted in deforestation, the destruction of river banks, and altering of river flows. Miners have been severely injured or killed by unsafe working practices and the lack of adequate health services. The environmental and health effects of mercury contamination have yet to be monitored and analyzed. The most dramatic effects of this gold mining boom, however, have been on the social conditions of the local people. The influx of transient populations, together with harsh working conditions, a lack of education opportunities and poverty have led to the expansion of the drug, sex, and gambling industries in Hugawng valley. In one mining area it was estimated that 80% of inhabitants are addicted to opium and approximately 30% of miners use heroin and methamphetamines. Intravenous drug use and the sex industry have increased the spread of HIV/AIDS. Far from alleviating these social ills, local SPDC authorities collect fees from these illicit industries and even diminish efforts to curb them. The SPDC continually boasts about how the people of Kachin State are benefiting from its border area development program. The case of Hugawng valley illustrates, however, the fundamental lack of local benefit from or participation in the development process. The SPDC is pursuing its interests of military expansion and revenue generation at the expense of social and environmental sustainability This report documents local people speaking out about this destructive and unsustainable development. Such bravery should be encouraged and supported.".......The main URL for this document in OBL leaqds to a 1.5MB version, obtained by passing the original through ocr software. The original and uthoritative version can be found as an alternate link in this entry.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin Development Networking Group (KDNG)
        Format/size: pdf (3.77MB - original and authoritative; 1.5MB - ocr version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.eldis.org/assets/Docs/24720.html
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


        Title: Gold Diggers
        Date of publication: October 2005
        Description/subject: Big companies push small prospectors aside in hunt for Burma’s riches... "In Alice in Wonderland, the Red Queen tells Alice: “A word means what I want it to mean.” That sums up in one sentence the state of Burma’s statute books—particularly those decrees relating to mining the country’s rich resources. Robert Moody, in his 1998 “Report on Mining in Burma,” put it more directly. The law on mining passed by the Rangoon regime in 1994, he said, “is not just one, but a parade of farts in a bucket.” The law makes no provisions for holding mining companies responsible for failure to stabilize workings and waste piles, nor for rehabilitating closed mines. There are no requirements for an environmental and reclamation bond to be posted by a mining company, no need for an environment and social impact assessment, nor for an independent monitor to ensure compliance during mining and post-closure operations.The law allows private citizens to prospect for gold, but they are not permitted to use machinery. People granted permits must sign an agreement to turn over 30 percent of their refined gold to the Ministry of Mines. Citizens are also permitted to pan for placer gold found in streams, although they are increasingly being edged out by Chinese contractors dredging the Irrawaddy River..."
        Author/creator: Charles Large
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


        Title: At What Price? Gold Mining in Kachin State, Burma
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: Contents:-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; MAP; EXECUTIVE SUMMARY; INTRODUCTION & METHODOLOGY;; BACKGROUND; UNEARTHING BURMA; ENVIRONMENT AND MINING LAWS; THE LAND OF THE KACHIN; GEOGRAPHY & BIODIVERSITY; HISTORY; GOLD IN THE KACHIN HILLS; CONCESSION POLICY; ROLE OF THE KIO; FOREIGN INVESTORS; CHINA; GOING FOR KACHIN GOLD: MINING TECHNIQUES; PLACER MINING; PANNING; BUCKET DREDGES; SUCTION DREDGES; HYDRAULIC MINING; GOLD ORE; OPEN-CAST MINES; SHAFT MINES; CHEMICALS IN THE MINING PROCESS; DANGER: MERCURY; ALTERNATIVES TO MERCURY; CYANIDE LEACHING; CASE STUDIES OF MINING AREAS IN KACHIN STATE; HUKAWNG; MALI HKA; N’MAI HKA; HPAKANT; GOLD AND THE ENVIRONMENT3; AFTER THE GOLD RUSH: TAILINGS AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE; LAND REHABILITATION; THE RIVER ECOSYSTEM; GOLD AND ITS SOCIAL IMPACT; SEEKING WORK, SEEKING GOLD; ENDANGERING MINERS; MINING AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS; RECOMMENDATIONS... APPENDICES: IVANHOE MINES LTD.; EXAMPLES OF MERCURY AND METHYLMERCURY POISONING; CASES OF CYANIDE POLLUTION; AGREEMENT BETWEEN MYITKYINA TPDC AND NORTHERN STAR MINERALS TRADING AND PRODUCTION CO.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Images Asia Environment Desk, Pan Kachin Development Society
        Format/size: pdf (3.4MB) 66 pages
        Date of entry/update: 21 December 2004


      • Mining legislation

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Mining Laws of Asian Countries
        Description/subject: Interesting to compare the Burmese 1994 Mining Law with those of other Asian countries (see analysis of the 1994 Mining Law in "Grave Diggers" by Roger Moody, which is on the OBL shelves).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Metal Mining Agency of Japan
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20041115084443/www.mmaj.go.jp/mmaj_e/services.html
        Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


        Individual Documents

        Title: Gold Diggers
        Date of publication: October 2005
        Description/subject: Big companies push small prospectors aside in hunt for Burma’s riches... "In Alice in Wonderland, the Red Queen tells Alice: “A word means what I want it to mean.” That sums up in one sentence the state of Burma’s statute books—particularly those decrees relating to mining the country’s rich resources. Robert Moody, in his 1998 “Report on Mining in Burma,” put it more directly. The law on mining passed by the Rangoon regime in 1994, he said, “is not just one, but a parade of farts in a bucket.” The law makes no provisions for holding mining companies responsible for failure to stabilize workings and waste piles, nor for rehabilitating closed mines. There are no requirements for an environmental and reclamation bond to be posted by a mining company, no need for an environment and social impact assessment, nor for an independent monitor to ensure compliance during mining and post-closure operations.The law allows private citizens to prospect for gold, but they are not permitted to use machinery. People granted permits must sign an agreement to turn over 30 percent of their refined gold to the Ministry of Mines. Citizens are also permitted to pan for placer gold found in streams, although they are increasingly being edged out by Chinese contractors dredging the Irrawaddy River..."
        Author/creator: Charles Large
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


        Title: Grave Diggers: A report on Mining in Burma
        Date of publication: 14 February 2000
        Description/subject: A report on mining in Burma. The problems mining is bringing to the Burmese people, and the multinational companies involved in it. Includes an analysis of the SLORC 1994 Mining Law.... 'Grave Diggers, authored by world renowned mining environmental activist Roger Moody, was the first major review of mining in Burma since the country's military regime opened the door to foreign mining investment in 1994. Singled out for special attention in this report is the stake taken up by Canadian mining promoter Robert Friedland, whose Ivanhoe Mines has redeveloped a major copper mine in the Monywa area in joint venture enterprise with Burma's military regime. There are several useful appendices with first hand reports from mining sites throughout the country. A series of maps shows the location of the exploration concessions taken up almost exclusively by foreign companies in the rounds of bidding that took place in the nineties.
        Author/creator: Roger Moody
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Various groups
        Format/size: pdf (1.4MB) html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/grave-diggers-report-mining-burma
        http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/miningwatch.ca/files/Grave_Diggers.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


        Title: The 1994 Mines Law - SLORC Law No. 8/94 (English)
        Date of publication: 06 September 1994
        Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Myanmar Mines Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No 8/94)... The 2nd Waxing Day of Tawthalin, 1356 M.E. (6th September, 1994) "The objectives of this Law are as follows: a.to implement the Mineral Resources Policy of the Government; b.to fulfil the domestic requirements and to increase export by producing more mineral products; c.to promote development of local and foreign investment in respect of mineral resources; d.to supervise, scrutinize and approve applications submitted by person or organization desirous of conducting mineral prospecting, exploration or production; e.to carry out for the development of, conservation, utilization and research works of mineral resources; f.to protect the environmental conservation works that may have detrimental effects due to mining operation..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
        Format/size: html, pdf (82K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/1994-SLORC_Law1994-08-The_%20Myanmar_Mines_Law-en.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Oil and gas

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Search results for "Myanmar" on OilOnline
      Date of publication: 01 February 2004
      Description/subject: Oil industry website
      Author/creator: NA
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: OilOnline
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.oilonline.com/
      Date of entry/update: 19 December 2004


      Title: Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) - upstream
      Description/subject: "Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) is the 100% State Owned Enterprise and is responsible for Upstream Petroleum Sub-sector". Paras and tables include: Oil and Gas Bearing Areas of Myanmar, Oil and Gas Fields of Myanmar, Natural Gas Pipelines of Myanmar, Capabilities of Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise, Onshore and Offshore Blocks of Myanmar. It invites cooperation in the sector, with paras on Objectives of Production Sharing Contract, Current Operating Multi-national Companies, Major Discoveries in Offshore Area (incl. paras on Yadana and Yetagun fields), Available Blocks, Exploration and Production of Crude Oil and Natural Gas with Multi-national Companies, Details of production-sharing contracts, Onshore Natural Gas Pipelines existing, under construction and planned.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


      Title: Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise (MPE) - downstream
      Description/subject: Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise ("MPE") is a "100% State Owned Economic Enterprise responsible for Downstream Petroleum Sub-sector". Lists its refineries and plants producing urea fertilizer, methanol, LPG, bitumen, carbon dioxide, lubricants etc. and invites cooperation in this sector
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.energy.gov.mm/downstreampetroleumsubsector.htm
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


      Title: Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise (MPPE) - downstream
      Description/subject: Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise is the State-owned Organization vested with authority and responsibility to carry out retail and whole sale distribution of Petroleum products in Myanmar. The Enterprise has conducted the effective and intensive distribution of Petroleum Products, dedicated to Agriculture, Fishery, Transport, Power Generation, Defense, Construction and Industries in the Government Sector and also to the Private Sector from the existing 4 Main Fuel Terminals, 26 Sub Fuel Terminals, 11 Aviation Depots and 256 Filling Stations." Lists its terminals and filling stations and carries an interesting little invitation regarding "Import of Crude Oil, Diesel Fuel and Motor Gasoline on a Deferred Basis
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Hunting for Myanmar's hidden treasure
      Date of publication: 17 October 2014
      Description/subject: " Ramree Island, Myanmar - Zaw Myint looked quizzical as he sniffed a handful of grey sludge. He had just pulled the mud up from the bottom of an oil well he's digging on Myanmar's impoverished western coastline, hoping for the sweet whiff of black gold. "The money I get working here is good," Zaw Myint said, standing in a shallow pool of water that glistened with the sheen of oil. However, Zaw Myint's success may soon change. Big Oil is hot on his trail. Companies from the United States, Europe, Japan and Singapore are elbowing their way into the country they turned their backs on during the past two decades because of its appalling human rights abuses. The country fell into China's less scrupulous embrace and, for two decades, Myanmar was the monogamous partner in a loveless marriage of convenience. Western nations are moving into the resource-rich country after decades of disinterest, challenging China's interests... In 2011, fearing the country was sliding towards Chinese client statehood, Myanmar began a process of liberalising the economy, releasing political prisoners, and rebalancing foreign relations. As Myanmar took its first baby-steps towards democracy, Western nations eased economic sanctions. Last year, Myanmar's President Thein Sein met with US President Barack Obama at the White House, the first such visit by a Myanmar head of state in almost 50 years. China is no longer Myanmar's only suitor; she's being courted, she's seeing other people. It's complicated... Burmah Oil: Myanmar is one of the world's oldest oil producers, exporting its first barrel in 1853. Its discovery by British colonisers prompted the creation of the Burmah Oil Company, an early shareholder of the company that would later become oil giant BP. ..."
      Author/creator: Hereward Holland
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aljazeera
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 October 2014


      Title: The shell starts to crack? - Real owners of Myanmar’s oil and gas blocks come forward
      Date of publication: October 2014
      Description/subject: "Corrupt politicians all over the world use companies and trusts with hidden ownership to seize public property worth billions of dollars. This deprives ordinary citizens of money that should be spent on development and empowers unaccountable elites, often helping them gain and maintain power at the expense of democracy, human rights and peace. Revealing the real people behind companies is critical to achieving genuine reform in Myanmar, where military families and crony tycoons have long benefited from control of natural resources like gas and gemstones. This is a critical time—in July 2014, Myanmar became a candidate member of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), a global transparency standard which recommends that the identities of individuals who own and control oil, gas and mining companies are published. If Myanmar can meet the standard, it will go a long way to addressing the question of who really owns the companies that control the country’s most valuable natural assets. To test the waters, Global Witness asked each of the companies granted oil and gas blocks in Myanmar over the past 12 months to declare their ultimate beneficial ownership. These blocks were awarded in the wake of a public commitment by the Ministry of Energy to manage Myanmar’s energy sector in line with international best practices, and alongside the engagement of leading energy companies in Myanmar’s EITI process. As such, the willingness of block winners to open up their ownership is an important yardstick for progress on reform of Myanmar’s extractive industries..."
      Author/creator: NA
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Global Witness
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-reduced version; 2.29MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.globalwitness.org/sites/default/files/Global%20Witness%20-The%20shell%20starts%20to%20cr...
      Date of entry/update: 14 October 2014


      Title: Myanmar Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA) - full text
      Date of publication: 04 September 2014
      Description/subject: " The Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA), developed by the Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB) in partnership with its co-founders, the Institute of Human Rights and Business and the Danish Institute of Human Rights, is intended to support responsible business practices in this growing sector of Myanmar’s economy. The Myanmar Oil & Gas SWIA puts detailed information on potential impacts of the sector into the public domain for uptake and use by a wide range of audiences. It assesses not only localised impacts on individuals and groups that may arise from projects in the sector, but also cumulative impacts and the sector’s potential impacts on Myanmar society as a whole. This is important because: Myanmar is currently facing a rapid increase in investment in its oil and gas (O&G) sector with the award of 16 onshore and 20 offshore blocks in the space of 12 months in 2013-2014 Even though the country is emerging from decades of ethnic conflict, authoritarian rule and economic isolation it is, and will remain for some time, a high-risk country with poor governance. An understanding of the potential impacts of the sector is necessary to improve the outcomes for Myanmar and its people. Responsible business conduct in the Oil & Gas sector in Myanmar therefore requires enhanced due diligence to determine what impacts business activities may have on society, including on human rights. This must include robust approaches to managing those impacts. The Oil & Gas SWIA is intended to be a resource for these efforts. The recommendations in the SWIA are directed towards government, businesses (and investors in those business), civil society and development partners for Myanmar, and are intended to support wider multistakeholder collaboration..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business
      Format/size: pdf (5.7MB), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/news/swia/oil-and-gas-swia.html
      Date of entry/update: 02 October 2014


      Title: Myanmar Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA) - in sections
      Date of publication: 04 September 2014
      Description/subject: " The Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA), developed by the Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB) in partnership with its co-founders, the Institute of Human Rights and Business and the Danish Institute of Human Rights, is intended to support responsible business practices in this growing sector of Myanmar’s economy. The Myanmar Oil & Gas SWIA puts detailed information on potential impacts of the sector into the public domain for uptake and use by a wide range of audiences. It assesses not only localised impacts on individuals and groups that may arise from projects in the sector, but also cumulative impacts and the sector’s potential impacts on Myanmar society as a whole. This is important because: Myanmar is currently facing a rapid increase in investment in its oil and gas (O&G) sector with the award of 16 onshore and 20 offshore blocks in the space of 12 months in 2013-2014 Even though the country is emerging from decades of ethnic conflict, authoritarian rule and economic isolation it is, and will remain for some time, a high-risk country with poor governance. An understanding of the potential impacts of the sector is necessary to improve the outcomes for Myanmar and its people. Responsible business conduct in the Oil & Gas sector in Myanmar therefore requires enhanced due diligence to determine what impacts business activities may have on society, including on human rights. This must include robust approaches to managing those impacts. The Oil & Gas SWIA is intended to be a resource for these efforts. The recommendations in the SWIA are directed towards government, businesses (and investors in those business), civil society and development partners for Myanmar, and are intended to support wider multistakeholder collaboration..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business
      Format/size: html, pdf (5.78MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs19/SWIA-Myanmar-Oil_and_Gas_Sector_Wide_Assessment-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 October 2014


      Title: Burma’s Oil Production Tipped to Decline; Fuel Imports to Increase
      Date of publication: 17 July 2014
      Description/subject: "Burma will become increasingly dependent on imported crude oil and refined fuels over the next ten years because of a lack of planning and investment, an industry report has forecast. A rise in crude oil imports is highly likely in spite of an expected upsurge in onshore and offshore exploration in coming years, while underinvestment in refining capacity will necessitate more imports of petrol and diesel, said Business Monitor International (BMI) in a study of Burma’s energy resources. BMI is an international business risks analysis company based in London..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 July 2014


      Title: Who are the real winners of Myanmar’s latest oil and gas block sales? - Tackling hidden company ownership in Myanmar
      Date of publication: June 2014
      Description/subject: Summary: "In October 2013 and March 2014, Myanmar awarded 36 major oil and gas blocks to 47 international and local companies. Global Witness has contacted each of these winning companies to ask simply: who owns and controls you? Getting full answers to this question is crucial to putting an end to the corruption which has kept Myanmar’s people in poverty for so long. Secret company structures enable powerful individuals to hide their identities and there are countless examples globally of corrupt officials awarding major deals to companies which they later turn out to own. Putting company ownership details into the public domain provides a crucial safeguard against corruption. Of the 47 companies contacted, only 13 provided responses to Global Witness’ ownership questions.1 Two private companies have set a positive precedent by revealing full details of the individuals who own and control them. Overall, however, these results reveal a high level of corporate secrecy which must be tackled if Myanmar’s oil and gas riches are to benefit its people..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Global Witness
      Format/size: pdf (819K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.globalwitness.org/sites/default/files/Myanmar/MBriefing.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 July 2014


      Title: Summary of March 2014 Consultation Meetings: Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA)
      Date of publication: 16 April 2014
      Description/subject: Overview and links to pdf versions of individual reports..... "MCRB will carry out a series of SWIAs to help inform government policy, advance responsible business practice and build civil society capacity to strengthen accountability. MCRB held consultations in Yangon, 24-26 March 2014, on the findings and assessments from field work across Myanmar, forming part of the forthcoming Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA) on Myanmar’s Oil & Gas sector. Three sessions were convened: Business (English language) on 24 March 2014 Local civil society (Myanmar language) on 25 March 2014 The international NGO, Embassies and donor community (English language) on 26 March 2014..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/pdf/SWIA.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2014


      Title: Draft not for citation or reference 1 Sector -­‐ Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA) of Myanmar’s Oil & Gas Sector:" Draft for Consultation March 2014
      Date of publication: March 2014
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB)
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2014


      Title: กลุ่มเคลื่อนไหวเรียกร้องให้ยุติมรดกบาปด้านทรัพยากรของพม่า (Thai)
      Date of publication: 22 March 2012
      Description/subject: นักลงทุนเริ่มหลั่งไหลเข้าไปในพม่า ซึ่งยังขาดความโปร่งใสและการตรวจสอบได้เกี่ยวกับรายได้ ซึ่งจะยิ่งส่งผลให้เกิดมรดก บาปด้านทรัพยากรมากขึน้ ของประเทศนี ้กลุ่มเคลื่อนไหวเตือนในวันนี ้ จากข้อมูลในรายงานของกลุ่ม Arakan Oil Watch รายได้จากก๊าซธรรมชาติหลายพันล้านเหรียญไม่ได้รับการบันทึกข้อมูล อย่างเหมาะสมและไม่ได้เข้ากระเป๋าของรัฐ แต่กลับถูกโยกไปเข้ากระเป๋าของนายทหารที่ทุจริต ส่งผลให้พม่ายังคงเป็น ประเทศที่มีดัชนีชีวั้ดด้านสังคมเลวร้ายสุดในโลก และเต็มไปด้วยความขัดแย้งเนื่องจากทรัพยากรธรรมชาติ
      Language: Thai
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (74K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


      Title: ျမန္မာ့သယံဇာတက်ိန္စာ အဆံုးသတ္ရန္ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေရးအဖြဲ႔မွ ေျပာၾကား (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 22 March 2012
      Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံထဲသို႔ စီးပြားေရးရင္းႏွီးျမွဳပ္ႏွံသူမ်ား အလံုးအရင္းႏွင့္စတင္ဝင္ေရာက္ လာၾကေသာ္လည္း တိုင္းျပည္တြင္းတြင္ ဘ႑ာေငြဆိုင္ရာ ပြင့္လင္းျမင္သာမႈႏွင့္တာဝန္ခံမႈ ဆိတ္သုန္းကင္းမဲ့ေနျခင္းက တုိင္းျပည္၏ သဘာဝသယံဇာတက်ိန္စာအား ပို၍ပင္ဆိုးရြားသြားေစသည္ဟု ရခုိင့္ေရနံေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေရး အဖြဲ႔မွ ယေန႔ သတိေပးေျပာၾကားလိုက္သည္။ သဘာဝဓါတ္ေငြ႔တင္ပို႔ေရာင္းခ်ရာမွရရိွေသာ ဘ႑ာဝင္ေငြ ေဒၚလာဘီလီယံေပါင္းမ်ားစြာကို ျပည့္သူ႔ ေငြစာရင္းမ်ားထဲတြင္ ထည့္သြင္းျခင္းမရိွဘဲ အက်င့္ပ်က္ျခစားေနေသာ စစ္ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ားကသာ မတရား အလႊဲသုံးစားျပဳလုပ္ေနၾကေသာေၾကာင့္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသည္ ကမၻာေပၚမွာ အဆုးိ ရြားဆုံး လူမႈဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ ညႊန္းကိန္းမ်ားႏွင့္တိုင္းျပည္တစ္ခုျဖစ္ေနၿပီး၊ သဘာဝသယံဇာတဆုိင္ရာ ပဋိပကၡမ်ားႏွင့္ျပႆနာမ်ားကို လည္း ရင္ဆိုင္ေနရသည္ဟု အဆိုပါအဖြဲ႔က ေျပာၾကားသည္။
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (60K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


      Title: Burma’s Resource Curse The case for revenue transparency - A briefing by Arakan Oil Watch
      Date of publication: 22 March 2012
      Description/subject: "Burma is rich in natural resources. Exports of natural gas alone amount to approximately US$2.5 billion in annual revenues, and these are expected to increase by 60% as three additional production blocks come on line as early as next year. Yet despite this enormous wealth, Burma is one of the poorest countries in the world. A lack of transparency around revenues from the sale of oil, gas and other natural resources, a lack of an accountable system to manage revenues, and a lack of equitable benefit sharing of resource revenues are perpetuating a resource curse in Burma. It is a country crippled by corruption, censured for major human rights violations, and continuing to suffer from a decades-old civil war between the ruling government and ethnic peoples. The country’s major businesses are controlled by military companies and cronies. Projects which extract and export natural resources have directly led to human rights abuses such as forced labor, land confiscation, rape and displacement, as well as severe environmental degradation. The revenues from these projects have in turn helped prop up authoritarian rule and enrich top military generals. There is therefore an urgent need for Burma to manage oil and gas revenues with a greater transparency and accountability as well as to reform its military-dominated economy to ensure that the benefits of the country’s resources are shared more equitably among its people and for the country’s sustainable development. in the oil and gas sector"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (739K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


      Title: Burma’s Resource Curse The case for revenue transparency in the oil and gas sector (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 22 March 2012
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma is rich in natural resources, particularly natural gas and oil. Yet instead of using these resources for the country’s development through industry and job growth, military leaders have been exporting them for over a decade. This has generated huge revenue flows, but a lack of transparency and mismanagement of these revenues has left Burma with some of the worse development indicators in the world, creating a resource curse. Sales revenues of natural gas exports alone amounted to US$ 2.5 billion in 2010-11. It is estimated that this amount will increase by over 60% to US$ 4.1 billion starting from 2013 as three additional production blocks come on line. Further revenues will be generated from over 40 additional oil and gas blocks that are currently under exploration. Despite this enormous wealth, Burma remains extremely poor and its people live with chronic energy shortages. It is a country crippled by corruption, with its major businesses controlled by military companies and cronies. Burma is censured for major human rights violations, and continues to suffer from a decades-old civil war between the ruling government and ethnic peoples. Due to Burma’s lack of protection laws, projects which extract and export natural resources have directly led to human rights abuses such as forced labor, land confiscation, rape and displacement, as well as severe environmental degradation. The projects also fuel armed conflict as government and ethnic troops clash in order to access and control project areas. The revenues from resource extraction projects have in turn helped prop up authoritarian rule and enrich top military generals. The report analyzes the previous Than Shwe regime and new military-dominated government’s lack of transparency around oil and gas revenues, lack of an accountable system to manage revenue, corruption, and a lack of equitable benefit sharing of resource revenues. Although a new “civilian” government is now in place, under Burma’s new constitution, the military remains firmly outside the law and beyond civilian control. The role of military companies in Burma’s economy and in accessing and managing Burma’s massive oil and gas revenues remain unknown and unregulated. The government does not disclose how much it receives in gas revenues, or how those revenues are managed or spent. Foreign oil companies engaging in Burma’s oil and gas sector also refuse to publish how much and how they pay the military regime. There is therefore an urgent need for Burma to manage oil and gas revenues with greater transparency and accountability as well as to reform its military-dominated economy to ensure that the benefits of the country’s resources are shared more equitably among its people and for the country’s sustainable development. If Burma prioritizes the protection of peoples and the environment in extraction projects and manages the revenues from the sale of its resources transparently, the country’s non-renewable resources can be used sustainably for the benefit of current and future generations, decreasing the pace and need to extract resources from additional areas. Mechanisms and systems for public disclosure of money flows, independent revenue management and auditing, civil society input, and equal benefit sharing currently exist in international standards of revenue transparency and are put into practice in oil and gas producing countries around the world. This report provides key lessons from these countries that Burma can draw on to improve the management of its oil and gas revenues and work toward ending its resource curse."
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


      Title: Burma’s Resource Curse The case for revenue transparency in the oil and gas sector (English)
      Date of publication: 22 March 2012
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma is rich in natural resources, particularly natural gas and oil. Yet instead of using these resources for the country’s development through industry and job growth, military leaders have been exporting them for over a decade. This has generated huge revenue flows, but a lack of transparency and mismanagement of these revenues has left Burma with some of the worse development indicators in the world, creating a resource curse. Sales revenues of natural gas exports alone amounted to US$ 2.5 billion in 2010-11. It is estimated that this amount will increase by over 60% to US$ 4.1 billion starting from 2013 as three additional production blocks come on line. Further revenues will be generated from over 40 additional oil and gas blocks that are currently under exploration. Despite this enormous wealth, Burma remains extremely poor and its people live with chronic energy shortages. It is a country crippled by corruption, with its major businesses controlled by military companies and cronies. Burma is censured for major human rights violations, and continues to suffer from a decades-old civil war between the ruling government and ethnic peoples. Due to Burma’s lack of protection laws, projects which extract and export natural resources have directly led to human rights abuses such as forced labor, land confiscation, rape and displacement, as well as severe environmental degradation. The projects also fuel armed conflict as government and ethnic troops clash in order to access and control project areas. The revenues from resource extraction projects have in turn helped prop up authoritarian rule and enrich top military generals. The report analyzes the previous Than Shwe regime and new military-dominated government’s lack of transparency around oil and gas revenues, lack of an accountable system to manage revenue, corruption, and a lack of equitable benefit sharing of resource revenues. Although a new “civilian” government is now in place, under Burma’s new constitution, the military remains firmly outside the law and beyond civilian control. The role of military companies in Burma’s economy and in accessing and managing Burma’s massive oil and gas revenues remain unknown and unregulated. The government does not disclose how much it receives in gas revenues, or how those revenues are managed or spent. Foreign oil companies engaging in Burma’s oil and gas sector also refuse to publish how much and how they pay the military regime. There is therefore an urgent need for Burma to manage oil and gas revenues with greater transparency and accountability as well as to reform its military-dominated economy to ensure that the benefits of the country’s resources are shared more equitably among its people and for the country’s sustainable development. If Burma prioritizes the protection of peoples and the environment in extraction projects and manages the revenues from the sale of its resources transparently, the country’s non-renewable resources can be used sustainably for the benefit of current and future generations, decreasing the pace and need to extract resources from additional areas. Mechanisms and systems for public disclosure of money flows, independent revenue management and auditing, civil society input, and equal benefit sharing currently exist in international standards of revenue transparency and are put into practice in oil and gas producing countries around the world. This report provides key lessons from these countries that Burma can draw on to improve the management of its oil and gas revenues and work toward ending its resource curse."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


      Title: 监察团体:结束缅甸的资源诅咒
      Date of publication: 22 March 2012
      Description/subject: 随着投资者开始涌入缅甸,收益透明度及问责机制的缺失正加剧该国的资源诅 咒,一个监察团体在今天发出警告。 由阿拉干石油观察发布的一份报告显示,数十亿美元的天然气销售收入没有记 录进缅甸的国家账户,而被腐败的军事统治者窃取,留给缅甸的只是一些世界最糟 糕的社会指标,并使其卷入自然资源的冲突中。
      Language: Chinese
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (66K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


      Title: End Burma’s Resource Curse Says Watchdog Group
      Date of publication: 22 March 2012
      Description/subject: As investors start flooding in to Burma, a lack of revenue transparency and accountability is set to exacerbate the country’s resource curse, warns a watchdog group today. According to a report by the Arakan Oil Watch, billions of dollars in revenues from the sale of natural gas have gone unrecorded in Burma’s public accounts and been siphoned off by corrupt military rulers, leaving Burma with some of the worst social indicators in the world and embroiled in conflicts over natural resources.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (12K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


      Title: Oil and Politics Don’t Mix
      Date of publication: July 2009
      Description/subject: "The growing revenues from Burma’s oil and gas resources provide financial support to the Burmese military to the detriment of Burma and her peoples... AS the Burmese regime increases its isolation of opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy, the United Nations and Western governments, especially the US and the European Union, remain steadfast in applying diplomatic pressure on the junta. Burma’s stubborn military leaders can shrug off Western pressure, however, knowing they can rely on support from such friendly and powerful neighbors as China, India and some Southeast Asian countries, most of which have significant trade and investment links with Burma and which are inclined to follow an engagement-oriented policy towards the regime..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


      Title: Laid Waste: Human Rights along the Kanbauk to Myaing Kalay gas pipeline
      Date of publication: 01 May 2009
      Description/subject: "...Laid Waste documents the suffering of villagers along the 180-mile Kanbauk to Myaing Kalay gas pipeline. Ten years after the pipeline’s initial construction, villagers along its route continue to see their land seized and income taken as they are conscripted into work as forced laborers and subject to arbitrary detentions, torture and summary execution. This report is released at a time when international debate on appropriate responses to the situation in Burma appears to be renewing. The discussion is healthy and appreciated. But there should be no question: projects like the Kanbauk to Myaing Kalay gas pipeline do not benefit the people of our country."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM)
      Format/size: pdf (3.7MB; 12MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Laid-Waste.pdf (higher resolution)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Laid-Waste-smaller.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 May 2009


      Title: Energy Security: Security for Whom?
      Date of publication: 22 July 2008
      Description/subject: "In military-ruled Burma, also known as Myanmar, large-scale natural gas projects have directly and indirectly led to violations of basic human rights through the complicity of multinational corporate actors. These abuses are ongoing and there is an unreasonably high risk they will increase as more gas projects are developed. This paper assesses the past, present, and future human rights impacts of large-scale natural gas extraction in Burma, and the implications these impacts have in terms of corporate accountability. The paper provides background information regarding Burma’s government, economic policy, and the energy sector and considers past and present human rights abuses connected to the Yadana natural gas project, developed by a consortium including Chevron, Total, PTTEP, and MOGE. The authors argue that the companies are complicit in ongoing human rights abuses in connection to their investment. The paper then describes the threat of future human rights abuses in connection to the country’s largest offshore gas deposits, concluding that there is a high risk that current human rights abuses in the proposed project areas will be exacerbated by the new gas production, and that there will likely be abuses directly linked to the Shwe pipeline project. Finally, the authors assess the interests and actors involved in the Southeast Asia regional energy security dynamic as it relates to Burma’s fast growing oil and gas sector, human rights, and corporate accountability. They argue that the energy security strategies of China, Thailand, and India—and by association, the national oil corporations under those governments—relying on Burmese resources have paid dangerously inadequate attention to the protection of human rights."
      Author/creator: Matthew F. Smith and Naing Htoo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal
      Format/size: pdf (336K)
      Date of entry/update: 31 October 2008


      Title: Pipeline Politics
      Date of publication: October 2007
      Description/subject: "The Burmese junta controls huge natural resources but inefficiency and incompetence—and bizarre priorities—keep the rewards from reaching the people While most Burmese struggle daily with high fuel prices, commodity shortages and a lack of electricity, huge quantities of natural gas lie unexploited under the sea off the west coast of Arakan because of the military regime’s indecision or incompetence. A Burmese worker checks the level of gasoline being transported in drums for sale to roadside outlets [Photo: Yuzo/The Irrawaddy] Burma is rich in national energy resources—with gas, oil and hydroelectric power potential—but critics say the military government is too busy planning grandiose projects to make the best use of energy resources for the people’s benefit. Analysts who closely observe the regime say corruption and oftentimes strange priorities that are only apparent to the tight inner circle that controls the country’s decision-making process also account for the underdevelopment of the country’s money-making resources. Energy industry analysts say that the recoverable gas reserves that have been independently verified in just two blocks of the offshore Shwe field in the Bay of Bengal could bring in US $2 billion annually for at least the next 25 years..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8905
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Energy Myanmar ("The Myanmar Times" Special Feature, August 2007)
      Date of publication: August 2007
      Description/subject: Daewoo’s massive gas strike puts Rakhine region in spotlight -- “The discovery of gas deposits in the A-1 block was one of factor that attracted international oil companies to this region; in the past gas deposits like this would not have interested oil companies,” said U Chan Mya, general manager of Smart technical services company...Nation set for huge increase in oil and gas investment “Daewoo and PTTEP both have to build platforms and pipelines to transport the gas from the A-1, A-3 and M-9 blocks. This kind of infrastructure investment will certainly boost FDI for the next two or three years at least,” ...The coloured history of the Burmah Oil Company » Asian explorers head for deep water » Why do we need oil and natural gas? » A study of abundance: major onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in Myanmar » Increased gas exports to underpin eco growth » Harnessing energy from the clouds » Energy sector’s ‘nuclear renaissance’ » Overview of major oil field service companies » Government speeds up CNG filling in Yangon » World looks green as local industry battles for life » Reality of US$100 oil not far off » Fuelling the future with Jatropha Curcas » Giving back through socioeconomic programs » Energy outlook grim: study » Negotiations for sale of Daewoo gas continuing » China seeks way around ‘Malacca Dilemma’.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


      Title: Step on the Gas
      Date of publication: July 2007
      Description/subject: Asian nations are stumbling over each other in a rush to capture the concession rights to huge gas and oil resources controlled by the Burmese junta... "Despite the efforts of some Western governments to isolate the Burmese regime economically, the stark reality is that more private companies and countries than ever are courting the Burmese generals to obtain a share of the country’s vast oil and gas resources. International energy companies from nine countries are now competing for exploration or production rights for gas and oil both offshore and o­nshore in Burma. A Thai company recently discovered a huge offshore gas field that may harbor as much as two trillion cubic feet of gas..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: India Woos Burma with Weapons for Gas
      Date of publication: January 2007
      Description/subject: New Delhi's eagerness to supply Burma with weapons highlights new quid pro quo policies... "Increased contacts between senior military chiefs o­n both sides of the Burma-India border, involving Indian weapons sales, are believed by analysts to have two primary objectives: to help flush out Burma-based Indian insurgents and to counter growing Chinese influence in Naypyidaw. But the sale of arms and related technical equipment is also likely to be linked to New Delhi"Look East" economic policy, including ambitions to buy huge quantities of Burma's offshore gas in the Bay of Bengal. If the gas bid—against rivals China and Thailand—is successful, it will also involve building a costly pipeline through rebel-infested areas of northwest Burma and northeast India..."
      Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


      Title: Burma and Its Neighbours: The Geopolitics of Gas
      Date of publication: 24 August 2006
      Description/subject: "while countries in the neighbouring regions - particularly India and Thailand, but also Australia and Japan - may have important roles to play, China wields far more leverage. For those who wish to influence Burma in a positive direction, it is therefore essential to consider ways that change could be stimulated with the active participation of China, whether through sanctions, constructive engagement and/or any form of dialogue." The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Nautilus Institute. Readers should note that Nautilus seeks a diversity of views and opinions on contentious topics in order to identify common ground..."
      Author/creator: Ã…shild KolÃ¥s & Stein Tønnesson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Austral Policy Forum 06-30A 24 August 2006
      Format/size: html, pdf (137K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


      Title: Energy Security in Asia: China, India, Oil and Peace
      Date of publication: April 2006
      Description/subject: Report to the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs..."India and China are both characterized by a tremendous increase in energy consumption, of which an increasing share derives from imports. Very rapid economic growth always makes it difficult to arrive at a sound balance between demand and supply, and this tends to generate waste, bottlenecks and insecurity. Although both countries are trying hard to provide appropriate energy, increase their energy efficiency, and diversify their sources of supply, they are becoming increasingly dependent on imported oil, and the Persian Gulf is set to remain their predominant source of oil in the coming decades. Instability in the Middle East thus poses a serious challenge to the security of China and India, just as it does for Japan, the US and many European countries. The question of maintaining a stable supply of fossil fuels poses several security challenges. One is to boost one's own production, another to diversify one's sources of import, and a third to secure the transportation of oil and gas on vulnerable sea routes; or over land through pipelines that depend on long-term strategic relationships with the producing countries. In China and India a heightened awareness of the geopolitical implications of energy supply and demand has given energy issues an increasing prominence both in their domestic and foreign policies. However, it is difficult to say if this leads to more tension in their foreign relations or if instead it pushes them towards increased international cooperation. Plans are certainly being made for future possible ‘resource wars', but emphasis is presently being put on economic competition, and on seeking to maximise each country's position on the international energy market. Then again, such increasing resource competition may contribute to raising the stakes of conflict in areas where national jurisdiction has not been resolved (East China Sea, South China Sea), and also in some of the energy exporting countries. Burma is one such country, in which the energy security dynamics of India and China are played out, and this is detailed in an appendix to the report. The report is based on available literature, online energy data, and communication with Indian and Chinese researchers. We have used country reports and statistics provided by the International Energy Agency (IEA), statistics, forecasts and analyses by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), unpublished academic papers, books and articles by Indian and Chinese researchers, and reports by several European and American analysts. Based on our assessments of the energy security strategies and interests of the major players in the region, the report outlines three scenarios for the future of international relations in Asia. The first, called ' is the most positive and also, in our judgment, the most likely. The second scenario, ', presents a possible embargo against China, and is perhaps the least likely, at least in the near future. The third scenario, ' presents the nightmare scenario of a full scale ' with global impact and serious consequences for India and China. The situation in Iraq, and especially the ongoing developments with relation to Iran's nuclear programme, force us to say that this scenario is not just a fantasy fiction, but a real possibility, even in the short term. The final section of the report offers suggestions as to implications of the outlined scenarios for Norwegian foreign policy formulation. Four areas of cooperation that would improve energy security in China and India, as well as globally, are identified: 1) support for the promotion of energy efficiency, 2) assistance in the development of clean coal and gas technology for electricity production, 3) a campaign for engaging the world's great powers in a major research effort to develop transportation technologies that do not depend on oil, 4) assistance in the nomination and promotion of Indian and Chinese candidature for IEA membership..."
      Author/creator: Stein Tønnesson and Åshild KolÃ¥s
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)
      Format/size: pdf (185K)
      Date of entry/update: 29 November 2007


  • Industry - General articles

    Individual Documents

    Title: Waiting for an Industrial Revolution
    Date of publication: September 2003
    Description/subject: "Industry in Burma lags well behind that of its neighbors largely because of double standards, military meddling, and now, stiffer US economic sanctions... Small may be beautiful but it is also vulnerable. And as increased US sanctions on Burma halt imports to American markets, all but the largest private garment factories in Burma are falling like dominoes. On the outskirts of Rangoon, several private garment firms with fewer than 100 employees are shutting down, explains the editor of a business journal in the capital. Signed into law on July 29, America’s severe sanctions will likely eliminate hundreds of thousands of jobs. The ban on imports threatens to cripple Burma’s entire labor-intensive garment industry. Even the big manufacturers are buckling under the weight of US pressure. "We are almost dying. The future for our business looks so bleak," says a South Korean manager from Myanmar Daewoo International in Rangoon, speaking to The Irrawaddy on the condition of anonymity..."
    Author/creator: Min Zin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No 7
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=3049
    Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


    Title: Industrial Development in Myanmar: Prospects and Challenges
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: "...we should look back Myanmar’s history on industrial policy. Every government to date since independence, either civilian or military, and either democratic or socialist, has approached the problem of the pri­vate sector with great concern and trepidation. Whenever they wanted to accommodate and integrate the energy of private enterprises into the na­tional economy, the socialist philosophy, anti-capitalist attitude, control-prone disposition and xenophobia based on the bitter colonial experiences provided obstacles, with the redefinition of the role of the private sector being left vague and halfway. The transition to market-oriented economy in the 1990s seems to be a his­torical exception. The various reform measures taken by the military gov­ernment apparently show their strong commitment toward a full-fledged market economy. The author calls the present transformation of the economy the Third Wave, and assures himself that it has been the biggest wave of liberalization in Myanmar’s industrial history. Compared with the previ­ous two waves, which the author thinks occurred in the latter half of the 1950s and in the mid-1970s, the present regime has committed itself much more clearly to market economic principles and the enhanced role of the private sector. Nevertheless, the history still exhibits a reserve to be fully confident in government policy toward a market economy. Recent backtracking of eco­nomic reforms is certainly something to be worried. It would be necessary for the military government to commit itself again to such ideas as open markets, free competition, transparency, accountability, consistency, level playing field, freedom of information and rule of law, which are the foun­dations for a free and fair market-oriented economy. Without the govern­ ment’s commitment to those ideas, the private sector would never be con­fident on public polices, and as a result, the full-fledged investments would never be forthcoming." See Toshihiro Kudo, “Industrial Policy in Myanamr: Lessons from the Past” in Industrial Devel­ opment and Reforms in Myanmar: ASEAN and Japanese Perspectives, (Bangkok, The Sasakawa Southeast Asia Cooperation Fund, 1999). 43
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization
    Format/size: pdf (642K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Industrial_Development_in_Myanmar-Prospects_and_Challenges.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Industrial_Development_in_Myanmar_Prospects_and_Challenges-balan...
    Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


  • Manufacturing

    • Industrial Zones

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: INDUSTRIAL ESTATES IN MYANMAR: 1995 – 2005
      Description/subject: "This compendium focuses on recent articles related to the development of industrial estates in the major urban centres of Myanmar. Although the clustering of traditional craft industries was common in towns and cities throughout Burma in the colonial era, it was not until the 1950s that modern industrial complexes such as those in the Pyay district of central Burma and in several parts of Rangoon began to take shape. The displacement of urban core residents and small enterprises that took place in the late fifties also led to the development of industrial sites in satellite towns on the east side of the capital. But it was only in the 1990s, following the opening to privately owned industries by Burma’s military government, that the push to develop industrial zones throughout the country began in earnest. Today there are more than fifty industrial parks scattered throughout the country, about half of them in the area around the national capital. Some, like the new complexes at Indagaw near Bago and the two near Kyaukse in Upper Myanmar are exclusively reserved for state-owned factories. Others are being developed with foreign capital for foreign-owned enterprises or foreign companies that have entered into joint-venture agreements with holding companies of the military government. Most of the new industrial estates are being developed by the Department of Human Settlement and Housing Development of the Ministry of Construction specifically for privately owned industries. Over 6,000 of the 50,000 privately owned manufacturing enterprises in the country are now accommodated in these zones. Recently, several privately owned land development companies have begun their own industrial parks in the Yangon area in collaboration with the DHSHD. The articles in the compendium are arranged in chronological order with the most recently published at the top of the list. The articles have been selected on the basis that they are representative of initiatives and challenges faced in the rapidly developing industrial zones of Myanmar. Internet search engines such as Google will yield many more references on any one of the many zones named here. Researchers should bear in mind that place names in Myanmar are frequently spelled in a variety of ways in English. Thus, the use of different spellings as search words may result in a considerable increase in the amount of information generated."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Information Services
      Format/size: html (445K), Word (558K), pdf (786K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/INDUSTRIAL%20ESTATES%20IN%20MYANMAR.doc
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/INDUSTRIAL%20ESTATES%20IN%20MYANMAR.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2005


      Individual Documents

      Title: Industrial zones in Burma and Burmese labour in Thailand
      Date of publication: January 2007
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "Massive migration of Burmese workers into Thailand affects both countries. On one hand, it depletes the availability of skilled workers in Burma, which is a clear loss for a developing country, while on the other hand, Thailand benefits from such a reservoir of cheap manpower. Burma receives the monthly remittances of its expatriate workers, but Thai entrepreneurs capitalise on the value added to their export-oriented productions by the work of the Burmese migrants. Each country is aware of the size of the phenomenon and its impact on their economy, but each reacts differently. The Myanmar junta chooses to ignore the huge emigration taking place, because it reduces the potential of social, if not political, demands building up within society. The Thai government plays down the boost given to its economy by the widespread use of cheap Burmese workers by its industries, and prefers to play up the supposed or real social disorders said to be brought by Burmese immigrants: increase of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis industrial zones in burma 181 and HIV; the drain on hospital resources to care for sick Burmese;45 the expansion of prostitution; and murders and thefts. The dual attitude of the Thai authorities is politically useful to hide their own social and health shortcomings from their own population. The contribution of migrants to the Thai economy is still unrecognised officially, although a ‘new vision’ towards migrants is beginning to appear in government circles, probably out of necessity and to be in accordance with the Economic Cooperation Strategy illustrated by the launch of the first economic and industrial zone in Myawaddy-Mae Sot. For their part, Burmese authorities, until now ignoring the plight of their expatriate workers, recently realised the potential political benefits of monitoring such a huge workforce in Thailand."
      Author/creator: Guy Lubeigt
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf (760K)
      Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf/whole_book.pdf
      http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf_instructions.html
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


      Title: INDUSTRIAL BELT TAKES SHAPE AROUND CAPITAL
      Date of publication: 17 January 1997
      Description/subject: "...Sources say the industrial zones are creating another headache: forced relocations of villagers. The source says that farmers have been forced to give up their prized land in Mingaladon north of Rangoon to make way for Mitsui's industrial park. "There is no negotiation between the farmers and the government. The govenrment simply puts up a sign saying, 'Everybody must move by this date.' Everybody must obey it or else. Villages are silently angry but they don't dare protest." Adds another local resident, explaining the public mentality about reallocations, "We have to obey the king. When the king says move, we have to move."..."
      Author/creator: B.J. Lee
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Nation"
      Format/size: html (22K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2007


    • Sectors

      • Apparel (Garment) industry
        including Clothing, Footware, Tanning and Leather goods

        Individual Documents

        Title: Location Advantages and Disadvantages in Myanmar: The Case of Garment Industry
        Date of publication: May 2009
        Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This research examines location advantages and disadvantages in Myanmar. The most notable location advantage of Myanmar is its abundant and low-wage labor. However, garment firms relocated here often suffer from difficulties such as electricity shortages, expensive and less available transport services, poor telephone, fax, and internet accesses, and cumbersome and time consuming administrative procedures. The wage gap between Myanmar and neighboring countries (including Thailand and China) does not attract garment firms to Myanmar but does lure Myanmar workers to its neighbors. In order to attract more garment firms to Myanmar, the government must enhance location advantages and alleviate disadvantages. While the country can do little to manipulate wages, it can reduce set-up, operation, and service link production costs through public policy and investment. A major priority for increasing the attractiveness of Myanmar is development of its infrastructure, especially the electricity supply. Further, institutional service link costs can be reduced by streamlining administrative procedures and establishing good governance. Such an improved business and investment climate will make it possible for the garment industry in Myanmar to compete in the global market." Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), garment industry, location advantage, location, disadvantage, cost-benefit analysis, production network, competitiveness, set-up cost, operation cost, service link cost, infrastructure
        Author/creator: KUDO Toshihiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE) Discussion Paper 203
        Format/size: pdf (126K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 September 2009


        Title: Waiting for an Industrial Revolution
        Date of publication: September 2003
        Description/subject: "Industry in Burma lags well behind that of its neighbors largely because of double standards, military meddling, and now, stiffer US economic sanctions... Small may be beautiful but it is also vulnerable. And as increased US sanctions on Burma halt imports to American markets, all but the largest private garment factories in Burma are falling like dominoes. On the outskirts of Rangoon, several private garment firms with fewer than 100 employees are shutting down, explains the editor of a business journal in the capital. Signed into law on July 29, America’s severe sanctions will likely eliminate hundreds of thousands of jobs. The ban on imports threatens to cripple Burma’s entire labor-intensive garment industry. Even the big manufacturers are buckling under the weight of US pressure. "We are almost dying. The future for our business looks so bleak," says a South Korean manager from Myanmar Daewoo International in Rangoon, speaking to The Irrawaddy on the condition of anonymity..."
        Author/creator: Min Zin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No 7
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=3049
        Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


      • Automotive

        Individual Documents

        Title: Burma’s Love Affair with the Jeep
        Date of publication: June 2004
        Description/subject: "Burma’s fledgling automobile industry hopes to cash in the country’s fondness for Jeeps. But the locally manufactured vehicles are lemons..."
        Author/creator: Htet Win
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


        Title: DEMAND SURVEY ON AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS
        Date of publication: November 2002
        Description/subject: This document presents the findings of a survey of over 100 dealers, agents and distributors of car spare parts and components in Myanmar. They were interviewed to determine the products they would need to import in order to service and maintain road vehicles throughout the country. While useful for the purpose for which it was prepared, the survey also provides a bird’s eye view of the main sectors of the automobile industry in Myanmar as it existed at the time of preparation.
        Author/creator: Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO
        Format/size: pdf (351 kb)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.intracen.org/sstp/Survey/automative/Myanmar_survey_final.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 23 August 2005


      • Cottage and Craft Industries

        Individual Documents

        Title: Where Even Dead Flowers are Doomed
        Date of publication: September 2007
        Description/subject: An ancient Burmese tradition faces decline... The fishermen of Inle Lake are not the only ones going through hard times. one of the area’s major handicraft businesses, making so-called “flower-molded” Buddha figurines, is also in steep decline. Generations of craftsmen have been making the exquisite statuettes for centuries, molding them from the petals of dried flowers, mixed with powder, teak sawdust and resin. Figurines molded from the petals of flowers and donated to lakeside temples are invested with miraculous powers by the Pa-O, Shan and Intha people who live in the region. But they’re also sought after as souvenirs by tourists visiting the lake. The rising cost of the raw materials, particularly the teak sawdust and resin, and encroaching competition from manufacturers of cheap wooden and plastic Buddhas have brought the local handicraft business practically to a standstill, however..."
        Author/creator: Kai Wai
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8465
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      • Metal industry

        Individual Documents

        Title: Iron, Steel and Base Metal Production In Myanmar
        Date of publication: 15 May 2005
        Description/subject: This compendium focuses on recent developments in Myanmar’s metal casting and metal products industries. Attention is directed to the base metals rather than to bronze, gold, and silver used in traditional craftwork. Apart from three small iron and steel mills operated as state enterprises, a modern copper cathode production plant at a mine near Monywa and foundries attached to several state factories, the base metal casting industry is carried out in scores of small private workshops throughout the country. The only mills in the country capable of processing crude iron are the small factory at Anisakhan near Pyin-U-Lwin, the Ywama steel mill at Insein and the mill belonging to the military owned Myanmar Economic Corporation near Aunglan in central Myanmar. None of these come close to meeting the country’s annual consumption of more than half a million tons of iron and steel. It is unlikely that a large national steel mill be built in the near future. As evidenced by several articles in this collection, the current trend is towards small, industry-specific foundries like those presently being opened in the industrial zones in Monywa, Mandalay and Taung-gyi, which are being jointly financed by the private sector and the government. Copper mined at a large open-pit mine near Monywa is now being converted into copper cathode sheets at a modern facility built in the late nineties by a joint venture company owned by the government and Ivanhoe Mines of Vancouver, Canada. Production is targeted to reach 40,000 tons in 2005 with the promise of the doubling of production in the near future, using ore from a nearby deposit, untapped to date. Unfortunately, all of the high quality copper cathode that is produced is exported to other markets in East Asia. The same situation applies to the tin smelter operated by a Wa mining company near the border with Yunnan. Similarly, China would presumably absorb all of the ferro-nickel produced at a processing plant in Tagaung area of Upper Myanmar , if a mine proposed for the area is developed.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Courier Information Services
        Format/size: pdf (589 K), 304K
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/metalworkcompendium2005-05-ocr.pdf
        (304K but lacks hyperlinks)
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/IronMetal.doc
        Date of entry/update: 15 May 2005


      • Pulp and Paper

        Individual Documents

        Title: PULP, PAPER AND PACKAGING INDUSTRY OF MYANMAR
        Date of publication: 04 August 2005
        Description/subject: This compendium focuses on recent developments in Myanmar’s pulp and paper and cardboard packaging industry. Myanmar has great potential for extended paper production but has lagged behind other southeast Asian countries in utilizing its bamboo and other pulp sources. However, the recent opening of a new jute based pulp and paper mill near Maubin and a large bamboo pulp mill near Thabaung in the Ayeyawaddy delta signal an important change in direction. Additional paper mills in the delta area and at Yeni in the upper Sittaung region are already under construction and others are planned for the Monywa and Thabeikkyin areas. Most of the machinery for these new mills is being imported from China and the fact that payments are to be made through the export of a large portion of the pulp that will be produced in the early years of their operation means that Myanmar will have to continue to import large quantities of the paper it uses annually. Restrictions are also laid on the expansion of the industry by shortages of adequate recycled feedstock for the small private factories and workshops that currently produce almost half of the paper and cardboard that is manufactured in the country. Many of these smaller plants still operate with antiquated machinery and their owners lack the necessary resources to import new equipment or upgrade older machinery.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Courier Information Services
        Format/size: pdf (360 kb)
        Date of entry/update: 05 August 2005


  • Tourism
    See Tourism (top-level, Main Library)