"UNODC and its predecessors, the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC), have been active in Myanmar since 1978 to reduce the cultivation, production, trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs. In all its projects, UNODC promotes a participatory approach that serves to empower local communities and strengthen civil society, where the focus is on community development rather than relying on top-down methodologies. Because the current scale of intervention efforts is marginal in relation to the magnitude of drug-related problems in Myanmar, the Office focuses on expanding expertise and assistance through partnerships with other UN agencies and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs)..."
Emerging trends and concerns:
• Myanmar remains a major source of methamphetamine pills and opiates in South-East Asia, most of which
are manufactured in Shan State in the eastern part of the country.
• For the first time, a crystalline methamphetamine manufacturing facility was seized in 2012.
• Large amounts of methamphetamine in pill and crystalline form originating from Myanmar continue to be
seized in neighbouring countries.
• Precursor chemicals are trafficked from neighbouring countries to methamphetamine manufacturing
centres located near Myanmar’s eastern border, where Government control remains limited.
• Preliminary data for 2012 suggests that seizures of illicit drugs and their precursor chemicals have increased
• Opium poppy cultivation has increased in Myanmar for six consecutive years
"...In 2012, the annual opium survey in Myanmar covered Shan State (North, East, and South Shan),
and Kachin State, which constitute the country’s principal opium poppy-cultivating regions. The
UNODC rapid assessment survey found no evidence of opium poppy cultivation in the Special
Regions in Shan (Wa Special Region 2, Kokang Special Region 1 and Special Region 4).
However, limited satellite imagery and findings from ground surveillance did find evidence of
limited opium poppy cultivation in Chin, though the region was not fully covered in the survey.
The total area under cultivation in 2012 was estimated at 51,000 hectares, representing an increase
of one sixth on the 2011 level of 43,600 hectares and the sixth consecutive year-on-year increase
since the low 2006 level of 21,600 hectares...This increase in opium poppy cultivation was not confined to a specific region, but was actually
observed in East, North and South Shan, as well as in Kachin. The area under cultivation
continued to be dominated by areas in South and East Shan, which continued to account for more
than three quarters of the estimated total, but the increase was most pronounced (in relative terms)
in North Shan, where the area rose by nearly half (from 4,300 hectares in 2011 to 6,300 hectares in
2012), and in Kachin, which registered an increase of more than a third (from 3,800 hectares to
5,100 hectares). This explains why the share of the total attributable to Kachin and North Shan
(collectively) edged up from 19% in 2011 to 22% in 2012. In absolute terms, East Shan, North
Shan and South Shan all registered an increase of approximately 2,000 hectares. The increase in
East Shan followed a relatively stable trend over the preceding two years, while the increases in
each of the other regions represented a continuation of the recent trend. These figures do not
include cultivation in Chin, which, based on limited data, was assessed to be in the order of
several hundred hectares in 2012..." [the primary URL does not contain the Lao PDR section, which can be found in the secondary link]
UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
pdf (4.1MB) with Lao section, 5.55MB)
https://www.unodc.org/documents/crop-monitoring/sea/SouthEastAsia_Report_2012_low.pdf - full report, containing the LAO PDR section
1. RECENT STATISTICS AND TREND ANALYSIS OF ILLICIT DRUG MARKETS:
A. Extent of illicit drug use and health consequences...
B. Illicit opiate market...
C. Cocaine market...
D. Cannabis market...
E. Illicit market for amphetamine-type stimulants.....
2. THE CONTEMPORARY DRUG PROBLEM:
CHARACTERISTICS, PATTERNS AND DRIVING FACTORS:
A. What are the fundamental characteristics of the contemporary illicit drug problem...
B. How have the patterns of the drug problem shifted over time...
C. Which factors shape the evolution of the problem...
Myanmar features prominently in this report, but there are no country chapters....Search for Myanmar.
"...Opium Poppy Cultivation:
In 2011, for the fifth year in a row, opium poppy cultivation increased in Myanmar. The total area
under opium poppy cultivation was estimated at 43,600 ha, an increase of 14% compared to 2010
(38,100 ha). This upward trend started in 2007 after six years of decline between 2001 and 2006.
Shan State accounted now for 91% of opium production in Myanmar, while the largest increase in
poppy cultivation was observed in Kachin State (+27%). In Shan State most of the increase in the
area cultivated took place in South Shan (+21%) followed by North Shan (+17%). There was no
significant change in East Shan (+1%)...Opium yield and production
In 2011, the national average opium yield was estimated at 14.0 kg per hectare, which represents a
decrease of 8% compared to last year’s yield. Nevertheless, the larger area under cultivation
resulted in an increase in total opium production of 5%, from 580 mt in 2010 to 610 mt in 2011...
Opium prices in Myanmar have significantly increased in 2011. The average farm-gate price of
opium (weighted by the estimated area under cultivation) was US$ 450/kg in 2011, up some 48%
from US$ 305/kg in 2010. Opium prices have continued to increase since 2002. The most recent
increase can be explained by the strong demand in opium from neighbouring countries as well as
the depreciation of the Kyat against the US$ (by some 14% over the past year)...
Household income from opium:
The average annual cash income of opium-producing households increased by almost 24% in the
Shan State, from US$ 830 in 2010 to US$ 1,030 in 2011. However, opium farmers in Myanmar
generally remain poorer than non-opium growing farmers. For non-opium cultivating households
(including those that never cultivated or have stopped opium poppy cultivation), the average
annual cash income was almost US$ 1,200. On average, income from opium accounts for 54% of
total cash income among poppy-growing farmers and in South Shan even more than 60%. For
Myanmar opium survey 2011
these farmers, opium cultivation is the principal income to survive, which is illustrated by the
comments of farmers that had stopped cultivating opium and had to purchase food on credit or
borrow food and rely on relatives and friends...
Data on opium and other drug addiction was collected via interviews with village headmen.
Headmen were asked about the number of daily opium users and the number of ‘regular’ users of
other drugs (without specifying frequency of use). According to the headmen, daily opium use in
Shan State and in Kachin affects 0.8% of the population aged 15 years and above. As in previous
years, the prevalence rate was higher in opium-growing villages (1.3%) than in non-opiumgrowing
villages (0.4%). Although the number of amphetamine type stimulant (ATS) users is
increasing, the prevalence rate remained very low, at 0.2% of the population in opium-growing
areas which is almost the same ratio as last year. Heroin use is also reported to be very low,
affecting less than 0.1% of the population aged 15 and above. However, information on drug use
must be interpreted with caution, as respondents may have been reluctant to report opium, heroin
and ATS consumption in the context of the Government’s efforts to curb drug use and addiction...
This survey did not monitor or validate the results of the eradication campaign carried out by the
Government of Myanmar (GOUM). According to the GOUM, a total of 7,058 ha were eradicated
in the 2010-2011 opium season, which is 15% less the area eradicated in 2009-2010. Most of the
eradication continued to take place in Shan State (85% of the total), notably in South Shan (51%).
44% of the eradication concentrated in three townships in the southern part of South Shan, namely
Pinlaung, Pekong and Sisaing townships...
Food security and coping strategies:
Food security remains a major problem in almost all regions where the survey took place for both
poppy-growing and non-poppy-growing villages. The erosion of food security is of particular
concern because it could trigger a further increase in opium cultivation. In order to meet their food
deficit, households across all regions most frequently sought assistance from friends and/or took
loans to buy food.
The high (and rising) price of opium in Myanmar is making opium production more attractive. In
fact, as a proportion of total income, opium income has increased among opium growing farmers.
Among opium growing farmers, the proportion of total household income derived from opium
production is also now increasing. Between 2003 and 2009, the income generated by opium was a
declining proportion of opium-growing farmers’ total cash income falling (from 70% to about
20% during the period). However, in 2010, this trend reversed and the proportion of total cash
income coming from opium is now 54%. With the cultivation of one hectare of opium farmers
earned 9 times more than from rice cultivation in low lands, and 15 times more than rice cultivated
in uplands. This makes it more difficult to convince farmers to abandon opium and switch to other
crops. Nonetheless, this survey provides important information to help design and target
UN Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
pdf Myanmar section: 1.6MB (low res); Full text: 4.8MB - OBL version; 6.36MB - original
Search for Myanmar (84 references)..."...While [opium] cultivation in Afghanistan remained stable, the global trend was mainly driven by increases in Myanmar, where cultivation rose by some 20 per cent from 2009. Consequently, opium production in Myanmar increased from 5 per cent of global production in 2007 to 12 per cent in 2010..."
"...In 2009 the annual opium survey in Myanmar covered the Shan State (North, East, and South
Shan), Kachin and Kayah States, i.e. all the regions of Myanmar where opium poppy cultivation
was reported. As in 2008, the survey included several Special Regions in Shan (Wa Special
Region 2, Kokang Special Region 1 and Special Region 4), where rapid assessments were
conducted. The survey confirmed the sustainability of the opium-ban in these three Special
In 2009, the total area under opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar was estimated at 31,700 ha,
representing an increase of 11% compared to 28,500 ha in 2008. This upward trend started slowly
from 2007 after five years of decline (2002 to 2006)..."
"...In 2008, the total area under opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar is estimated at 28,500 hectares,
representing an increase of 3 per cent from 27, 700 hectares in 2007. Opium poppy cultivation is
concentrated, primarily, in Shan State, where 89 per cent of the total opium poppy was grown. The
weighted national average opium yield for 2008 is estimated at 14.4 kilograms per hectare, leading
to an estimated potential opium production of 410 metric tones. Compared to the estimated yield
of 16.6 per cent and the estimated potential opium production of 460 metric tones in 2007, the
estimates this year indicate a drop both in the yield and production of opium by 13 and 11 per
"...In 2007, opium
cultivation in Myanmar rose by 29% while production was up 46% thanks to higher yields. These
increases are dwarfed by the opium boom in Afghanistan, that produces 20 times more drugs than
Myanmar. But they flash a warning sign that reminds us that Myanmar is still, by far, the world's
second largest opium producer (at 460 tonnes). Myanmar needs a more effective counter narcotics
strategy and more assistance, if it is to reach its target of being opium free by 2014.
The situation is particularly worrisome in the South Shan State. Although access for our ground
surveyors was difficult, there are signs of significant opium cultivation in this region.
Furthermore, there is evidence that double cropping, irrigation and fertilization are resulting in
higher yields than in other parts of the country. As in parts of Afghanistan and Colombia where
drugs and insecurity overlap, various groups are taking advantage of the situation in the South
Shan State to profit from instability.
More rural development assistance is essential to reduce the vulnerability to cultivate drugs
stemming from poverty. Ridding the Golden Triangle of opium, which has taken a generation,
could be quickly undone if farmers see no improvement in their living standards. In Laos, for
example, as opium production has fallen, prices have gone up â“ by 500% in the past five years.
Returning to opium is a serious temptation in poor communities which have yet to see the benefits
of abandoning poppy.
Opium growing regions would also benefit from improved drug treatment in order to cope with
disproportionately high rates of addiction.
The signs from South East Asia have been encouraging over a number of years. But there is no
guarantee that progress can be sustained over time. To consolidate the gains made until recently,
national governments and all stakeholders in an opium-free region need to continue their
engagement. The Golden Triangle should not be forgotten now that it is no longer notorious..."
Acreage down, yield up...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:
"...The 2006 Opium Survey in Myanmar was conducted jointly by the Government of the Union of
Myanmar (GOUM) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). An extensive
survey, combining the use of satellite images and ground verification, was conducted in Shan
State where most of the opium poppy cultivation takes place. A rapid ground survey was
conducted in Special Region 2 (Wa) to certify its opium free status. Limited ground surveys were
also conducted in townships of Kachin and Kayah States to assess the level of cultivation in these
areas and monitor possible displacement of opium poppy cultivation.
Opium poppy cultivation
In 2006, the total area under opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar was estimated at 21,500
hectares, representing a decrease of 34% compared to 2005 (32,800 hectares). The largest
cultivation areas were found in South Shan where 72% of the national cultivation took place. 21%
was cultivated in East Shan State. In North Shan State cultivation continued to decrease and
reached a negligible level. In Kayah State, which was surveyed for first time this year, only a few
hectares could be found. In 2006, there was also some limited cultivation in Kachin accounting for
5% of the total opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar. The most remarkable change was recorded
in Special Region 2 (Wa), where there was no opium poppy cultivation this year, while in 2005
this region represented 30% of the national opium poppy cultivation.
Opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar has been decreasing continuously over the last years. Since
1998, the year of the United Nations Special Session on Drugs, the area under opium poppy
decreased by 83% from 130,000 ha to 21,500 ha. Since 2002, the year of the first joint GoUM
/UNODC survey, opium poppy cultivation fell by 73%.Opium yield and production
The weighted national average opium yield for 2006 was estimated at 14.6 kg/ha (against 9.5
kg/ha in 2005). Yields ranged from only 8.9 kg/ha in East Shan State over 16.6 kg/ha in South
Shan State up to 21.4 kg/ha on the best irrigated fields in Kachin State. In general, weather
conditions were favourable for opium production (sufficient and timely rainfall). In addition,
irrigation of opium poppy fields and multistage cropping contributed to yield increases. The
considerable yield increase in 2006 offset the decrease in the cultivation area. In 2006, the
potential production of opium remained with 315 metric tons almost at the level of 2005 (312
metric tons). The survey results show that the largest increase in production took place in South
Shan State. Overall opium production in Myanmar has decreased by 75% since 1998 but the
downward trend of recent years has come to a halt due to the production increases in East and
South Shan State in 2006..."
"...Opium cultivation in Myanmar has steadily declined since 2000, and two-thirds of poppy crops
have disappeared. Compared with the peak in 1996, the number of hectares devoted to opium has
been reduced by 80% in 2005, from 163,000 hectares to 32,800 hectares. When adding the
weather factor, influencing opium yields on the fields, an 82% decline in the opium production is
registered over the same period of time. While the data included in the report is largely positive, certain worrying factors, with a potential
to undo this rapid progress, need addressing. Compared to the previous year, opium production
has doubled in the southern Shan State despite the acreage showing only a slight increase. This is
in part due to additional rains, however, and more disquieting, also due to improved cultivation
practices. The latter, in turn, is an indication of more sophisticated criminal activity, transcending
poverty, and not dissimilar to the trends witnessed with ATS production: cross-border networking
and transfer of new and improved techniques.
Even so and taking note of the exception mentioned, general figures overwhelmingly associate
opium with marginal economic conditions typical to remote mountainous areas in which most of
the opium is grown. Shocking for anybody less familiar to the opium problem in Myanmar, is the
low income of farmers in the Shan State. Non-opium growing households in the Shan State earn
an average US$364 annually, against only US$292 for an opium farming household, consisting of
both parents and two to four children. Half of the households surveyed in the Shan State report
food insecurity; a figure that rises to an astounding 90% in concentrated poppy-cultivation areas.
With the loss of opium income, these poor farmers and their families not only lose their coping
mechanism to deal with endemic poverty and a chronic food shortage; they equally lose access to
health services and to schools. They end up very vulnerable to exploitation and misery – from
human right abuses to enforce the opium bans, to internal displacement or human trafficking to
survive the bans.
For the United Nations, replacing one social evil (narcotics) with another (hunger and poverty) is
wrong. Therefore the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime calls on the international
community to provide for the basic human needs of those affected. The situation in the Golden
Triangle is similar to the one in Afghanistan and the Andeans: some of the poorest people are
being affected by the loss of income from drugs as cultivation declines. Thus, the international
community must have the wisdom to fight drugs and poverty simultaneously, to eliminate both the
causes and the effects of these twin afflictions. In other words, the world will not condone
counter-narcotic measures that result in humanitarian disasters. If there is one concrete measure
that the Government and its development assistance partners can take now to ensure Myanmar’s
future, it is this: food security and income generation programmes must remain in place and be
strengthened to support both the farmers’ decisions not to plant opium, and enforcement measures
to eradicate the opium that is planted against the law..."
"Today, Myanmar, located in the heart of the “Golden Triangle,” is the main opium producer
in Southeast Asia. However, despite its reputation as a leading producer, during the last
decade, Myanmar has demonstrated a steady and remarkable reduction in opium poppy
cultivation. While the number of hectares devoted to opium cultivation was estimated at
160,000 in the mid-1990s, by early 2004, opium poppy cultivation stood at 44,200 hectares -
- a reduction of 73% from the peak in 1996.
Together with the parallel decline in opium cultivation in Laos, this trend, if sustained, signals
a potential end to more than a century of opium production in the Golden Triangle, a fitting
close to one of the most tragic chapters in the history of narcotic drugs.
However, as history has proved in other countries, often with tragic consequences, Myanmar
now faces a critical, two-fold challenge. First, the country needs to support the decline in its
opium supply. Second, Myanmar must strive to prevent the humanitarian disaster
threatening opium-growing families who at present live on, or below, the poverty line.
These two processes must be implemented simultaneously. Supply control will bring more
stability to a country that has been plagued by ethnic tensions, tensions that have often been
exacerbated by narco-trafficking. At the same time, without provisions designed to ensure
that the basic needs of affected families are met, without the necessary human rights
guarantees, the current opium reduction programme may prove unsustainable.
Democratization and national reconciliation in Myanmar, as well as a national commitment to
drug control, are goals the United Nations has re-affirmed on several occasions. I would thus
encourage the Government of Myanmar to adopt the steps recommended by the Secretary-
General in his report on the human rights situation in Myanmar, along with the reduction of
opium cultivation. The international donor community also carries a responsibility to support
this process by providing alternative sources of income to those families in Myanmar whose
livelihoods are affected by the loss of opium-generated revenue.
The world has watched as various countries have struggled to eliminate the cultivation of
opium. Some states have succeeded – others have failed. Those who were able to realize a
reduction in poppy cultivation brought both stability and progress to their nations and their
citizens. Those who failed at curtailing the production of opium also failed at providing the
security the citizens of these nations need and deserve, both within and beyond national
their national borders.
While the United Nations welcomes any significant progress in opium reduction, we are very
much aware that, in Myanmar, there remains a very fine line between success and failure.
We continue to believe, however, that the proposed compact between the Myanmar
government and the international community is a powerful alternative to failure, and that this
compact has both the potential and the support to turn the current crop reduction effort in
Myanmar into a sustainable and successful process..."
"Proponents of increased counter-narcotics assistance for Burma should be reminded of how it was misused in the past.
As the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, or UNODC, lobbies governments to increase their contributions to opium eradication projects, it is worth looking back on the last major phase of international funding of narcotics suppression, to be reminded of what Burma’s military government did with it. In particular, the misuse of US aid should provide a cautionary tale to any bilateral or multilateral donors..."
Strategic Programme Framework UN Drug control activities in Myanmar... "The proliferation of drugs over the past 30 years is an example of the previously unimaginable becoming reality very quickly."...
Table of contents:...
List of acronyms 2
Drug control overview and situation update;;The role of the UN and drug control;
Past and present activities:
I. Internal fighting hinders effective drug control (1976 to 1988);
II. National unification dominates drug control (1988 to 1996);
III. Drug control successes (1996 to 2001);
IV. Funding shortfall (2001 to 2003)...
I. Drug control fits within the wider UN agenda for Myanmar;
II. Financial constraints hold back the ongoing interventions;
III. Strategic alliances;
IV. Innovation through involvement of the civil society...
A Map of Myanmar;
B Map of ongoing UN drug control interventions in Myanmar;
C Map of Shan State – Special regions;
D Map of Shan State – Opium cultivation;
E Map of alternative development pilot project in Special Region 2 of the
F Letter of the UN Country Team in Myanmar;
G ODCCP 2001 Country Profile;
H UNDCP programme in Myanmar - Matrix 1976 to 2005;
Opium poppy flower (Southern Wa);
Picture: UNDCP Yangon.
Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP)
"In Myanmar, the problem of opium and heroin production has deep historical roots that reach
back to the 19th century. Second source of illicit opium and heroin in the world after
Afghanistan during the last decade, the country has recorded an encouraging decline of illicit
opium poppy cultivation since the mid-1990s.
Results of the extensive fieldwork and satellite imagery analysis conducted by the last
UNODC-supported opium survey confirm the continuation of the positive trend in 2003. With
a further one-year decline of 24%, opium poppy cultivation is now down to 62,200 ha
(against 81,400 ha in 2002). Since 1996, cultivation has declined by more than 100,000 ha,
The largest cultivation decrease this year took place in the Northern Shan State (- 50%). It is
attributed to farmers’ compliance with the Government’s request not to plant opium poppy.
Important decreases also took place in the Southwestern (-18%) and Southeastern areas
(-26%) of the Shan State. By contrast, cultivation increased by 21% in the Wa Special
Region 2, and 6% in the Central Shan region. As a result, the Wa Special region 2 now ranks
first for opium poppy cultivation, with 34% of the national total, and the Northern Shan region
second with 29%, in 2003.
Based on an estimated harvest of about 810 metric tons of opium, and a price of
approximately 130 US$/kg, the total farmgate value of the 2003 opium production in
Myanmar would amount to around US$ 105 million.
The estimated 350,000 households who cultivated opium poppy in the Shan State this year
would earn an average of about US$ 175 from the sale of their individual opium harvest.
Although seemingly very small, this income makes opium by far the first source of cash for
those families, accounting for 70% of their total annual cash income (about US$ 230)"...
Table of contents:-
OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION;
YIELD AND PRODUCTION
OPIUM PRICES AND CASH INCOME;
WA ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT SURVEY FINDINGS:
OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION;
OPIUM YIELD AND PRODUCTION;
ORGANISATION AND STAFF;
OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION ESTIMATES;
Annex 1 Satellite images used for the 2003 Opium Survey;
Annex 2 Calculation for Opium Area Estimates;
Annex 3 Opium Cultivation Area and Production by township;
Annex 4 Opium Survey Results By Administrative Zones for 2002 and 2003...
Map 1 2003 Survey Regions;
Map 2 2003 Distribution of Opium Poppy Cultivation over Agricultural Areas;
Map 3 2003 Opium Poppy Cultivation (by Township);
Map 4 Shan State - Change in Opium Poppy Cultivation 2002-03;
Map 5 2003 Opium Production (by township);
Map 6 WADP townships;
Map 7 Sampled village tracts in the Shan State;
Map 8 Landsat7 and IKONOS map used for the 2003 Myanmar opium survey;
Map 9 Shan State – Administrative Regions.
"Jean-Luc Lemahieu is the Rangoon representative of the UN Office of Drugs and Crime. His office works with both the military and ethnic minority groups to wipe out drug production and trafficking in Burma. Through ground research and satellite surveys, the UNODC has made significant progress in identifying production sites and supply routes. He spoke to Aung Zaw...
Question: You’ve spoken about evidence of gradual political will from Rangoon in combatting the drug problem. What do you mean by that?
Answer: I mean the government still has a long way to go if it they want to be the best student in the class. If you consider the class as the international community, and if every member of the community has obligations to enforce international drug control efforts, you can definitely say this government has good reports. Nonetheless, in the academic world you have primary school, secondary school, you have university. Overall, you could say in terms of drug control we are now here in secondary school ready to go to university. The fact that the money laundering legislation has been approved, that the mutual legal assistance legislation is being formulated is a positive sign. Once that is in place, we can go to university. But getting into university demands added effort from the government. We’re gradually moving forward...
Q: What do you make of the drug burning shows, organized by officials in Burma?
A: What is more important, the burning of the drugs, or the interception of the drugs? I think the burning of the drugs has a symbolic value and it can serve certain purposes, it can serve as an indicator and as a message of good will, there are different ways to look at it. But obviously, the interest is not how high the flames of the drug burning go, but how we can intercept more drugs.
Q: Is a drug-free Burma realistic?
A: We’re not aiming for a drug free Burma. We’re aiming for a Burma where drug problems do not negatively affect the daily lives of the thousands of people as it does today..."
Regional Seminar on Alternative Development
for Illicit Crop Eradication Policies, Strategies and Actions.
16-19 July 2001,
Taunggyi, Myanmar...List of Contents:
Alternative Development is a Polity for Rural Justice, Freedom and Peace - - Foreword by Dr. Sandro Calvani;
Working Together Towards an Enhanced Alternative Development Strategy in East Asia - - Dr. Sanong Chinnanon;
Opium Poppy Control and Alternative Development Efforts Promoted by
the Yunnan Provincial Government in the Border Areas of Its Neighboring Countries - - Mr. Song Shiyin;
A Balanced Approach to Elimination of Opium Poppy Cultivation in Lao People’s Democratic Republic -
- Mr. Kou Chansina & Mr. Shariq Bin Raza;
UN - Nonghet Alternative Development Project -
- Dr. Bounpone Sirivong;
Long Alternative Development Project (LADP)- Mr. Khamsao & Mr. Krister Winter;
Beng Alternative Development Micro-Project - Mr. Houmphanh Bouphakham;
The Lao-German Drug Control Project - Ms. Andrea Kuhlmann;
Village Based Development Component in a Pilot Project on Stabilization of Shifting Cultivations
in Houaphan Province - Mr. Mahinada Kurukulasuriya;
Myanmar Country Paper - Mr. U Nyi Nyi & Lt. Colonel Wa Tin;
Wa Alternative Development Project - Mr. Xavier Bouan;
Support for Opium Eradication Programmes in Kokang Special Region No.1 and Nam Tit Township,
Wa Special Region No.2, Shan State - U Kyaw Thu;
Thailand Country Paper - Mr. Pittaya Jinawat;
The Role of Non-Agricultural Development in the Doi Tung Development Project - - Mom Rajawongse Putrie Viravaidya;
Royal Project Foundation - Dr. Santhad Rojanasoonthon;
Thai-German Highland Development Program (TG-HDP) in Northern Thailand - Mr. Hagen Dirksen;
Sustainable Agricultural Development Project - Mr. Prasong Jantakad;
Eliminating Opium : Lessons From Thailand
- Dr. Ronald Renard;
Vietnam: Results of Drug Control Programme in 1998-2000 and Future Directions in 2001-2005 - Mr. Ha Dinh Tuan;
Ky Son Alternative Development Project in Vietnam - UNDCP Hanoi;
An Overview Of Alternative Development And Illicit Crop Eradication Policies,
Strategies and Actions in The Region - Mr. Leik Boonwaat
Summary of Key Issues Raised after Presentations and During Discussions; Consolidated Summary of Recommendations from Group Discussions;
Consultations and Sharing Best Practices: Seminar Proceedings;
Elimination of Illicit Drugs is a National Duty for Myanmar
- Police Major General Soe Win;
Opening Welcoming Remarks - Colonel Win Hlaing
We Look Forward to an Enhanced Cooperation - Dr. Sanong Chinnanon;
Concluding remarks from heads of delegations;
Summary of Evaluation from the Seminar;
Karamosia International Japan;
List of Participants and Contact details.
UNDCP Regional Centre for East Asia and the Pacific
"In March 2003, a joint assessment team comprising international NGOs and UN
agencies operating in Myanmar traveled to the Kokang and Wa Special Regions in
north-eastern Shan State. Their purpose was to assess the humanitarian impact of the
opium ban in the Kokang region, and the potential impact of a similar ban due to go
into effect in the Wa region in June 2005.
The following is the report submitted by this team after their mission. It is unedited
and unabridged. Maps used in the report have been removed to reduce the file size.
They are available from the UNODC Myanmar Office upon request."
Joint Kokang-Wa Humanitarian Needs Assessment Team
"...The 2002 opium poppy survey was the first comprehensive survey implemented
throughout the Shan State of Myanmar by the Central Committee for Drug Abuse
Control (CCDAC) of the Government of Myanmar in co-operation with UNDCP, in the
framework of UNDCP?s Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP)...The present report consists of three main chapters. Chapter one describes the
methodology and the implementation of the survey. Chapter two presents the main
findings of the opium survey. A third chapter presents a brief socio-economic profile of
the northern Wa Special Region which accounts 22% of the poppy cultivation in
Myanmar. This study, the first of its kind, could be used for planning activities to tackle
the supply and demand sides of opium use in this area. Several annexes present the
breakdown of the estimates as well as maps illustrating some of the survey findings..."
A Compilation of UN Data and Sources
Prepared by the UNDCP Office for Myanmar
"...This report provides a general overview of the drug situation in Myanmar using UN data and sources with the objective of providing a detached and technical view...".....This document is no longer accessible on the UN site but is archived at www.archive.org ...Graphic features like photos and maps are not available, though some can be seen at the original source, e.g. the World Drug Report for 2000.