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Energy

  • National Administration

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Ministry of Energy
    Description/subject: Substantial site. Non Renewable Energy Sector: Petroleum Sub-sector: - Upstream Petroleum Sub-sector; - Downstream Petroleum Sub-sector; - Petroleum Products Marketing Sub-sector; Coal Sub-sector; Nuclear Energy Sub-sector; Renewable Energy Sector: Hydro Electricity Sub-sector; Wind Energy Sub-sector; Solar Energy Sub-sector; Geothermal Energy Sub-sector; Biomass Energy Sub-sector. Myanmar Foreign Investment Law; Energy Efficiency, Conservation and Sustainability; Environmental Consideration and Prospect of Clean Development Mechanism ("CDM") Technology; Regional Energy Cooperation; Useful Links; Site Map; Energy Institutions of Myanmar; There are many Departments and Agencies under various Ministries, which share responsibilities on various aspects of energy sector's operation and management. The main agencies are as follows :- - Ministry of Energy - Ministry of Electric Power - Ministry of Mines - Ministry of Forestry - Ministry of Science and Technology - Ministry of Education Myanmar Energy Policy - To maintain the status of energy independence. - To employ hydroelectric power as one of the vital sources of energy sufficiency. - To generate and distribute more electricity for economic development. - To save non renewable energy for future energy sufficiency of the nation. - To promote efficient utilization of energy and impress on energy conservation. - To prevent deforestation caused by excess use of fuelwood and charcoal.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


  • Energy -- general

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "Energy Sector" ("Myanmar Times" Special issue on Energy - August, 2012) စြမ္းအင္က႑
    Date of publication: August 2012
    Description/subject: စမ္းအင္က႑ ၊ျမန္မာတိုင္း အထူးထုတ္ အခ်ပ္ပို- ၾသဂုတ္ ၂၀၁၂ .... အျမတ္အစြန္းမ်ားတဲ့ ေအ၀မ္း လုပ္ကြက္နဲ႔ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ အေပၚ သြယ္၀ိုက္ပတ္သက္မႈမ်ား ေဒ၀ူးက ဘယ္ေလာက္ရ ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံစြမ္းအင္ က႑နဲ႔ စိန္ေခၚမႈမ်ား... ႏိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈေကာင္းေသာ္လည္း အခက္အခဲမ်ားရွိဆဲ... ေရႊဓာတ္ေငြ႕စီမံကိန္းနဲ႔ ရခိုင္ျပည္သူေတြရဲ႕ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္... စြမ္းအင္က႑စီ္မံခန္႔ခဲြမႈနဲ႔ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးပုိင္း ပိုမိုပြင့္လင္း...ျမင္သာ လာမယ္လို႕ ကြၽန္ေတာ္ယံုၾကည္ပါတယ္- ဦးမိုးျမင့္... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတစ္ဝန္းရွိ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္စီမံကိန္းမ်ား... ဧရာဝတီျမစ္ဆံုစီမံကိန္း လြန္ဆြဲပြဲ... ရာသီဥတုေဖာက္ျပန္မႈ၊ လွ်ပ္စစ္ စြမ္းအင္နဲ႔ ဆင္းရဲႏြမ္းပါးမႈ... သဘာဝ ေလ၊ ေန စြမ္းအင္ေတြရမယ့္ အေဆာက္အအံုပံုစံဘက္ ဦးတည္လာ... ေရနံေဒၚလာကို က်န္းမာေရး၊ ပညာေရး ေတြမွာ ပိုသံုးသင့္ဟု တုိက္တြန္း... ဖက္စပ္လုပ္ကိုင္ျခင္းကသာ ေအာင္ျမင္မႈ ေသာ့ခ်က္ျဖစ္ႏိုင္... စက္သံုးဆီ ပုဂၢလိကက႑ လႊဲေပးၿပီးေနာက္ပိုင္း ... စီအင္န္ဂ်ီ သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႕ ျပည္တြင္းမွာ လိုအပ္ေနဆဲပါ... ျပန္လည္ႏုိးထ လာႏုိင္ေလမလား ဇီဝေလာင္စာ အလားအလာ... ေစာင့္ၾကည့္စရာ ထားဝယ္ေရနက္ဆိပ္ကမ္းစီမံကိန္း... ကုန္းတြင္း၊ ကမ္းလြန္ ေရနံလုပ္ကြက္ရရွိေရး တရားဝင္ လုပ္ထံုးလုပ္နည္းမ်ား... ေရနံနဲ႔သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႕ၾကြယ္ဝမႈက ႏိုင္ငံျခားကုမၸဏီေတြကိုဆြဲေဆာင္ေန... စြမ္းအင္စီမံကိန္းေတြအေပၚ ဆန္႔က်င္လႈပ္ရွားမႈမ်ား
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (1.8MB-OBL version; 2.72MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.mmtimes.com/2012/news/583/energy/MTM%20Energy.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 26 August 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: New Energy Architecture: Myanmar
    Date of publication: June 2013
    Description/subject: "...This report is structured as follows. First, the New Energy Architecture methodology is outlined. In Step 1, the performance of the country’s current energy architecture is assessed. Step 2 describes the setting of the objectives of the New Energy Architecture. Step 3 outlines insights to support the development of a New Energy Architecture, and highlights potential risks in achieving this. Step 4 then discusses the need for leadership and multistakeholder partnerships to support the implementation of a New Energy Architecture in Myanmar..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Economic Forum, Asian Development Bank (ADB), Accenture
    Format/size: pdf (4.2MB-OBL version; 5.3MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2013/new-energy-architecture-mya.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013


    Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012–2014 SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): ENERGY
    Date of publication: September 2012
    Description/subject: 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities: 2. Government’s Sector Strategy: Overview; Energy Demand and Supply; Coal; Oil and Gas; Renewable energy; Power Sector; Future power development; Transmission and Distribution Systems; Power Demand, Planning and Tariffs; Energy Efficiency; Core sector issues and constraints... 3. ADB Sector Experience: a. Near term-needs - Detailed energy sector assessment; Rehabilitation work in power generation, transmissions and distribution; Strengthening the capacity and capability of the environmental and social safeguards - b. Medium term-needs: Tariff and Structural reforms; Renewable energy and energy efficiency; Hydropower Development; Rural electrification; Rehabilitation and expansion of natural gas pipeline networks... PROBLEM TREE [provides a useful overview]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (96K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-energy.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


    Title: Energy Spotlight - A "Myanmar Times" Special Feature - August 2012
    Date of publication: 20 August 2012
    Description/subject: Implications for Myanmar over the lucrative A-1 concession - How much for Daewoo?..."The geopolitical challenge for Myanmar’s energy sector" - Soe Myint [a retired director-general of the Department of Energy Planning under the Ministry of Energy]..."Positive FDI picture, but hurdles remain" - Juliet Shwe Gaung..."Three main types of insurance policies in energy sector" (General manager of the Myanma Insurance, Dr Mg Maung Thein discusses with The Myanmar Times reporter Thiha Toe about insurance policies in the energy sector.)..."Concerns remain over Shwe gas benefits" - Juliet Shwe Gaung...“I expect to see rapid change change for the better” - U Moe Myint ["The potential for Myanmar’s energy sector has never been better in light of the government’s efforts to reform the economy and subsequent lifting of many Western sanctions. Myanmar’s oil man, MPRL E&P CEO U Moe Myint, discusses with "The Myanmar Times" the potential for investment in the sector and what it means for the country’s development potential."]...Current development of major hydropower projects: - Map of Burma and boxes covering: Ayeyarwady Maykha/ Malikha Dams; Tamanthi Dam; Tasang Dam; Yeywa Dam; Lawpita Hydropower Project; Dagwin Dam; Dapeyin Dam; Upper and Lower Paunglaung Dams; Shweli Dams; Ywat hit Dam; Weigyi Dam; Upper Thanlwin Dam (Kunlong); Hatgyi Dam..."Myitsone should not resume, say experts and locals" - Ei Ei Toe Lwin..."Engineering prospects with energy" - Yhoon Hnin Phyu..."Climate change adds challenges" - Pinky..."Homeowners pick green designs for energy efficiency" - Htar Htar Khin..."More funding necessary for education and health sectors" - Naw Say Phaw Waa..."Joint ventures could be key to development success" - Victoria Bruce..."Privatisation sees costly improvements" - Myat May Zin..."Companies provide support to Myanmar-China pipeline area" - Juliet Shwe Gaung..."Lessons learned from Jatropha?" - Noe Noe Aung..."Social responsibility core of PTTEP work" [PTTEP answers questions from The Myanmar Times about what the company has learned from its long term investments in the country, its reputation as a responsible investor, and its future projects.]..."Getting in the energy sector of Myanmar" - Sandar Lwin..."East and West eyeing off Myanmar oil wealth" - Victoria Bruce...[PAGE WITH TABLES AND LISTS OF ON- AND 0FF-SHORE GAS- AND OIL-FIELDS]: Offshore gas fields. MAP SHOWING OIL AND GAS FIELDS]: List of onshore winners announced in December 2011. Onshore gas fields. Onshore oil fields...Total E&P explains its position and activities: - Total E&P has been present in Myanmar since 1993. Deciding to stay in a country despite widespread international criticism over human right abuses, things maybe coming full circle as Aung San Suu Kyi recently stated that she considered Total to be a responsible investor and called for other companies to emulate their business practice. Total’s General Manager in Myanmar, Namita Shah, presented the company’s position in the country to The Myanmar Times via written Q&A, explaining its social responsibility, local business practices and future developments...Energy campaigns work....the feature contains a lot of ads from energy companies
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


    Title: EU Energy Initiative - Mission Report - Energy Scoping Myanmar
    Date of publication: May 2012
    Description/subject: Table of Contents:- Part I: SCOPING MISSION REPORT: 1 Background of the Scoping ... 2 Country Overview ... 3 Energy Access Policy & Institutional Framework … 3.1 Overview & Observations .... 3.2 Conclusions & Recommendations on Energy Access Policy ... 4 Electricity: 4.1 Electricity Sector Overview ; 4.2 Rural Electricity Access ; 4.2.1 Electricity Situation in the Field ; 4.2.2 Rural Electricity Access Options; 4.2.3 Conclusions & Recommendations on Rural Electricity Access; 4.3 Notes on Urban, Commercial & Industrial Electricity Supply .... 5 Biomass Energy: 5.1 Biomass Energy Governance; 5.2 Wood Fuel Situation; 5.3 Improved Cook Stoves (ICS); 5.4 Other Forms of Biomass Energy ; 5.5 Conclusions & Recommendations on Biomass Energy ... 6 Scoping Mission Schedule & Contact Details..... Part II: OPTION PAPERS: Option Paper: Technical & Policy Advisory of Rural Energy Development Committee ' Option Paper: Support in Rural Energy Planning & Coordination; Option Paper: Piloting Village Mini-Grid Approaches for Systematic Learning; Option Paper: Sustainable Market Development for Household-level PV Systems ; Option Paper: Preparatory Assessment of Woodfuel Demand & Supply Side; Option Paper: Biomass Cooking Energy Programme for Rural Areas
    Author/creator: Mirka Bodenbender, Dr. Christoph Messinger, Roman Ritter
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EU Energy Initiative - Partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEI PDF)
    Format/size: pdf (2.7-OBL version; 3.74-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.euei-pdf.org/sites/default/files/files/field_pblctn_file/EUEI_PDF_Myanmar_Energy%20Scoping_Report_May2012_EN.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


    Title: Developments in Myanmar Energy Sector
    Date of publication: 22 November 2008
    Description/subject: Greater Mekong Subregion...Second Meeting of the Subregional Energy Forum (SEF-2)Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 22 November 2008.....Contents: * Emerging Challenges in Energy Sector * Developments in Energy Sector * Cooperation with GMS NeighbouringCountries * Country Response to Climate Change
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Energy Planning Department, Ministry of Energy, Union of Myanmar
    Format/size: pdf (3.53MB)
    Date of entry/update: 06 January 2009


    Title: Energy - A Special Myanmar Times Feature, July 2008
    Date of publication: 21 July 2008
    Description/subject: The LED lights are on for Yangon's Ko Pyone Cho ...Energy companies respond to Nargis victims... Revenue from gas sales expected to double » Oil and gas ranks second largest FDI at $3.24 billion » Myanmar's major gas projects » Policy, government, market and tax top investment factors » Hydro leads way in power generation » More deepwater blocks for energy companies » Rice husk gasifiers to foster rural development » Fuel prices spur bio-ethanol growth in Myanmar market » Used-car trading motors along despite fuel prices » Service companies see greener pastures
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 July 2008


    Title: Ministries of Electrical Power: Current and Planned Projects as of 2007
    Date of publication: September 2007
    Description/subject: This resource covers the visuals from a power point presentation by Myanmar delegates to an ASEAN energy seminar in September 2007. Organograms, otherwise unavailable, show the responsibilities of the two Myanmar ministries of electric power since they were separated in mid-2006. Charts provide lists of existing, planned and projected power stations and sub-power stations. They are accompanied by maps showing the current and projected transmission grids. The Myanmar presentation at the seminar can be usefully compared with similar presentations by other delegates from other ASEAN nations presently available on the website of Thailand's Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment... Includes lists of hydropower projects in operation, under construction and in the planning stage.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment of Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (670KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th/seminar_programme/seminar.html
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2008


    Title: Energy Myanmar ("The Myanmar Times" Special Feature, August 2007)
    Date of publication: August 2007
    Description/subject: Daewoo’s massive gas strike puts Rakhine region in spotlight -- “The discovery of gas deposits in the A-1 block was one of factor that attracted international oil companies to this region; in the past gas deposits like this would not have interested oil companies,” said U Chan Mya, general manager of Smart technical services company...Nation set for huge increase in oil and gas investment “Daewoo and PTTEP both have to build platforms and pipelines to transport the gas from the A-1, A-3 and M-9 blocks. This kind of infrastructure investment will certainly boost FDI for the next two or three years at least,” ...The coloured history of the Burmah Oil Company » Asian explorers head for deep water » Why do we need oil and natural gas? » A study of abundance: major onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in Myanmar » Increased gas exports to underpin eco growth » Harnessing energy from the clouds » Energy sector’s ‘nuclear renaissance’ » Overview of major oil field service companies » Government speeds up CNG filling in Yangon » World looks green as local industry battles for life » Reality of US$100 oil not far off » Fuelling the future with Jatropha Curcas » Giving back through socioeconomic programs » Energy outlook grim: study » Negotiations for sale of Daewoo gas continuing » China seeks way around ‘Malacca Dilemma’.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


    Title: DEADLY ENERGY (Mya Yadana Report)
    Date of publication: September 1993
    Description/subject: This report by Green November 32 in 1993 was the first ever NGO perspective report written on the Yadana gas pipeline and on the border dams as they were first discussed by Thai and Burmese governments around that time. It was actually one of the first detailed reports on any of the post 1988 environmental issues by any Burmese- or border- based organisation, and is of particular interest in the light of the current opposition to the Irrawaddy dam projects... "Officials of the Thai government and the SLORC military regime have for some years now been planning a series of huge energy joint ventures to be undertaken in some of the most fought over territory in Burma. The energy projects, if they are endorsed by the Thai Government - and implemented with the participation of Japanese and Western corporations - will have extremely serious, possibly even terminal repercussions for the Burmese pro-democracy movement which is based in these same areas of the Burma -Thai border. Indeed, this seems to be what a number of the proponents of the development projects intend to achieve, particularly the generals in Rangoon. The SLORC, as well as politicians, military men and businessmen in Thailand and abroad would garner great benefit from the destruction of the Burmese opposition groups along the border, and the opening of the way to even more unrestrained natural resource exploitation than is currently taking place. There are ten planned energy development joint ventures, comprising two offshore natural gasfield developments and eight hydro-electric dams. These are: •The Martaban Gasfield developments led by Total CFP of France •The Yetagun Gasfield exploratory program led by Texaco of the US •The Upper Salween Dam, •The Lower Salween Dam •The Nam Kok Project •The Nam Moei 3 Project •The Nam Moei 2 Project •The Klong Kra Project •The Nam Moei 1 Project, and •The Nam Mae Sai Project... The energy projects will lead to environmental and social havoc on a scale comparable to the largest development projects in the world. Indeed, the Upper Salween Dam will be among the largest in the world. Altogether the projects will directly result in the flooding and deforesting of thousands of square kilometers of the forests bordering Burma and Thailand. The projects will displace many thousands of indigenous peoples, some of them already refugees from the forty-five years of bloody civil war in Burma. Many have already been affected by military operations of the SLORC and Thai armies, operations which can easily be seen in the context of clearing the way for the development of the 820-1,000 kilometre gas pipeline or the construction of the eight dams... The energy projects will put billions of dollars into the control of an ultra-nationalist military regime that is one of the world's worst human rights violators and that is rapidly building up a large and extraordinarily aggressive army which poses a significant threat to the stability of the region. The massive input of funds from the Western and Japanese multinational oil and energy development companies, combined with the cheap sale and presents of Chinese weaponry, and the profits from the heroin traffic that the SLORC is alleged to control, has funded this huge expansion of the SLORC armed forces... The energy joint ventures will, if signed, mark the second and higher level of engagement in the much criticised ASEAN policy of "constructive engagement" towards the SLORC regime, which through the activities of the logging, oil and fishing companies have already caused untold damage to Burma's environment. The multinational corporations, the Keidanrens and the Thai state oil and electricity institutes PTT and EGAT are therefore amongst the most powerful influences supporting the SLORC in its brutal and undemocratic suppression of the peoples of Burma."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Green November 32
    Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
    Date of entry/update: 24 September 2011


    Title: Burma - Issues and options in the energy sector
    Date of publication: 30 June 1985
    Description/subject: Sector Report. Burma' s energy resources are large and varied. While the Government has done a commendable job of developing these resources largely on its own, their development has nevertheless been comparatively slow. While this may have constrained economic growth to date, it also provides a ready basis for an acceleration in future economic growth and increased exports. This report analyzes the technical, financial and institutional requirements for realizing that potential through the turn of the century in the context of two scenarios - a Planned Growth scenario which reflects the official growth targets, and an Economic Growth scenario under which public finance and balance of payments constraints result in somewhat slower economic growth. Under either scenario a major investment program and infusion of current technology will be needed. The report recommends considerable technical assistance and studies to help effect this transfer of technology. To help finance these requirements, it will be necessary to improve the financial footing of the public corporations in the sector; this would entail price increases for many energy products. There is also a need to strengthen energy planning and inter-ministerial coordination on energy matters. Keywords: Hydroelectric power; Petroleum; Natural gas; Coal; Fuelwood; Biomass energy; Petroleum exports; Technical assistance; Technology transfer; Deforestation; Offshore gas fields; Energy planning
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: Page, Text (432K), PDF (8531K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000009265_3970723102606/Rendered/INDEX/multi_page.txt
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000009265_3970723102606/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Renewable energy

    • Renewable energy - general

      Individual Documents

      Title: Turning on Burma’s Lights
      Date of publication: 10 January 2013
      Description/subject: "New technologies could put electricity within reach for millions of Burmese—at a fraction of the economic and environmental cost of traditional means of power generation."
      Author/creator: David Fullbrook
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


      Title: EU Energy Initiative - Mission Report - Energy Scoping Myanmar
      Date of publication: May 2012
      Description/subject: Table of Contents:- Part I: SCOPING MISSION REPORT: 1 Background of the Scoping ... 2 Country Overview ... 3 Energy Access Policy & Institutional Framework … 3.1 Overview & Observations .... 3.2 Conclusions & Recommendations on Energy Access Policy ... 4 Electricity: 4.1 Electricity Sector Overview ; 4.2 Rural Electricity Access ; 4.2.1 Electricity Situation in the Field ; 4.2.2 Rural Electricity Access Options; 4.2.3 Conclusions & Recommendations on Rural Electricity Access; 4.3 Notes on Urban, Commercial & Industrial Electricity Supply .... 5 Biomass Energy: 5.1 Biomass Energy Governance; 5.2 Wood Fuel Situation; 5.3 Improved Cook Stoves (ICS); 5.4 Other Forms of Biomass Energy ; 5.5 Conclusions & Recommendations on Biomass Energy ... 6 Scoping Mission Schedule & Contact Details..... Part II: OPTION PAPERS: Option Paper: Technical & Policy Advisory of Rural Energy Development Committee ' Option Paper: Support in Rural Energy Planning & Coordination; Option Paper: Piloting Village Mini-Grid Approaches for Systematic Learning; Option Paper: Sustainable Market Development for Household-level PV Systems ; Option Paper: Preparatory Assessment of Woodfuel Demand & Supply Side; Option Paper: Biomass Cooking Energy Programme for Rural Areas
      Author/creator: Mirka Bodenbender, Dr. Christoph Messinger, Roman Ritter
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EU Energy Initiative - Partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEI PDF)
      Format/size: pdf (2.7-OBL version; 3.74-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.euei-pdf.org/sites/default/files/files/field_pblctn_file/EUEI_PDF_Myanmar_Energy%20Scoping_Report_May2012_EN.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


      Title: Renewable Energy Workshops in Burma
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: "...two hands-on renewable energy workshops were conducted in June 2002. One was for thirteen participants in Myitkyina, Kachin State in northern Burma, and another for fifteen participants in Toungoo in central Burma. The workshops emphasized both theory and practice of solar-electric system installation and maintenance..."
      Author/creator: Chris Greacen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: home power 98
      Format/size: pdf (252K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009


    • Biofuels

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Agrofuels
      Description/subject: A collection of articles on bio-fuels
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Foundation for Ecological Recovery
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2008


      Individual Documents

      Title: Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels and Rural Renewable Energy: Myanmar
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: v Abbreviations... vi Acknowledgment... 1 Introduction: 1 Agroecological Zones and Administrative Divisions... 1 Land Use... 1 Workforce in Agriculture... 3 Expansion of the Irrigation Network... 3 Food Security Situation... 4 Rationale and Objectives..... 6 Energy Market and Outlook: 6 Energy Supply and Demand... 18 Potential Alternative Sources of Energy... 21 Justification of Biofuel as an Alternative Energy Source... 22 Obstacles to the Development of Biofuels in Myanmar..... 23 Resource Base for Biofuels Production: 23 Energy Security and Sustainability... 23 Biofuel Options... 24 Biodiesel Production... 27 Bioethanol Production... 33 Biomass Energy Consumption from Wood Fuel..... 38 Prioritization of Feedstocks: 38 Priority Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production... 40 Priority Feedstocks for Bioethanol Production..... 42 Agribusiness Models: 42 Existing Biofuel Business Model... 42 Opportunities and Constraints to Biofuel Business Development... 45 Integration of Small Farmers into the Agribusiness Chain and Options... for Promoting Biofuel Business Ventures..... 47 Case Studies of Biofuel Ventures in Myanmar..... 56 Policy, Regulatory, and Institutional Support for Biofuel Development: 56 National Policies and Strategies for Biofuel Development... 57 Development Program and Plans to Address Agriculture Sector Objectives... 58 Institutional Analysis for Biofuel Development... 60 Investment and Financing Arrangements... 60 The Way Forward..... 61 Appendix 1: Oil Content of Different Land Races of Jatropha Curcas..... 62 Appendix 2: A Proposed Institutional Structure and Implementation Mechanism for Biofuels Development..... 63 Appendix 3: Indicative National Biofuel Program for Myanmar.
      Author/creator: U Hla Kyaw, Thandar Kyi, San Thein, U Aung Hlaing, U Tin Maung Shwe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


      Title: FMI subsidiary signs biofuel deal
      Date of publication: 16 November 2008
      Description/subject: "A K30 billion energy deal could be a huge step forward for Myanmar’s production of renewable energy. The deal, with a South Korean company, could lead to the setting up of a refinery in Myanmar. The source of the renewable energy is jatropha Curcas, a biodiesel crop grown in Myanmar. South Korean biofuel giant Enertech, and Myanmar Agri-Tech (MAGT) signed a preliminary memorandum of understanding (MoU) covering the production, export and refining of the fuel in Yangon on November 5...
      Author/creator: Ye Lwin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


      Title: Biofuel by Decree -- Unmasking Burma's bio-energy fiasco
      Date of publication: 01 May 2008
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: In December 2005, Burma's Senior General Than Shwe ordered the start of a nation-wide campaign to plant the toxic bush-like tree, Jatropha curcas, for biodiesel production. The country was to plant eight million acres, or an area the size of Belgium, within three years. Two years on, this report documents how Burma's people have endured forced labor, confiscation of farmlands, loss of income and threats to food security under the program. At the same time, testimonies of crop failure and mismanagement from all of Burma's states expose the campaign as a fiasco. Each of Burma's states and divisions, regardless of size, are expected to plant at least 500,000 acres. In Rangoon Division, 20% of all available land will be covered in jatropha. In Karenni State, to meet the quotas, every man, woman and child will have to plant 2,400 trees. Army commanders and state officials have organized mass meetings extolling the virtues of jatropha. Photos of senior officers with watering cans and shovels have appeared in the newspapers; progress reports from around the country have been announced daily. Signboards, advertisements, and pamphlets have bombarded the nation. Since 2006, all sectors of Burma's society have been forced to divert funds, farm lands, and labor to growing jatropha. Teachers, school children, farmers, nurses and civil servants have been directed to spend working hours planting along roadsides, at schools, hospitals, offices, religious compounds, and on farmland formerly producing rice. This radical program was started despite growing international concern about the negative impacts of biofuel production, especially when implemented rapidly or on a large scale. Field research from 32 townships in each of Burma's states, including 131 interviews with farmers, civil servants, and investors, reveals how people have been fined, arrested, and threatened with death for not meeting quotas, damage to the plants, or criticism of the program. One result of the excessive demands for farmlands and labor is a new phenomenon of "jatropha refugees" of whom nearly 800 have already fled from southern Shan State to neighbouring Thailand. Plantations up to 2,500 acres in size have ignored local climate and soil conditions and been planted haphazardly, leaving up to 75% of the plants dead. Improper processing of the oil has left engines damaged and raised serious questions about the existence of adequate infrastructure to realize domestic biodiesel production. A complete ignorance of harvest yields, price, or market for the oil has left farmers and even businessmen cynical about any potential benefits of the program. Burma's agricultural sector is the backbone of the country's economy and society. Policies impacting the sector should be considered carefully and implemented cautiously. However, with disturbing echoes of China's "Great Leap Forward" to increase steel production in the 1950s, Burma's generals are forging ahead with an ill-conceived draconian campaign, ignoring its negative impacts. This report highlights the urgent need for political reform in Burma so that agriculture is not left to the whims of generals. Sustainable agricultural policies are needed that can ensure land rights and human security and allow communities to manage their own natural resources.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: The Ethnic Community Development Forum (ECDF),
      Format/size: pdf (English - 1.2MB; Burmese, 2.67MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.terraper.org/file_upload/BiofuelbyDecree.pdf
      http://www.terraper.org/file_upload/BiofuelbyDecreeBurmese.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2008


      Title: Ethnische Minderheiten im Würgegriff
      Date of publication: 01 May 2008
      Description/subject: Die ethnischen Minderheiten stellen rund 30 Prozent der 50 Millionen Bewohner Burmas. Sie leben überwiegend in den Bergregionen an den Grenzen zu den Nachbarländern. Seit 1948 ringen sie um mehr Selbstverwaltung und Menschenrechte. Während sich die internationale Gemeinschaft nun für die Freilassung der bei der Niederschlagung der Proteste in Rangun Festgenommenen einsetzt, nimmt kaum jemand wahr, dass in den Minderheitengebieten seit Jahren schwerste Menschenrechtsverletzungen andauern; Menschenrechtsverletzungen vor und nach 2007; Chin; Karen; Biosprit; Human rights violations before and after 2007; natural ressources, bio-fuels
      Author/creator: Ulrich Delius
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: FMI says K30 billion needed to develop Ayeyarwady Division biofuel plantation
      Date of publication: 13 January 2008
      Description/subject: "THE chairman of First Myanmar Investment Co Ltd, U Theim Wai, says an investment of K30 billion will be needed for a 100,000-acre biofuel plantation it is developing in Ayeyarwady Division in partnership with SPA Co. FMI’s chairman, U Theim Wai, told shareholders at the company’s annual general meeting in mid-December the group is expected to have a 30 percent share in the project. The balance would be held by SPA Co, he said. U Theim Wai said 700 acres of jatropha curcas has already been planted under the project, launched by FMI Co and SPA Co, in 2006. “We are scheduled to plant another 10,000 acres in 2008,” he told shareholders..."
      Author/creator: Ye Lwin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


      Title: Big plans for biofuel exports
      Date of publication: 09 September 2007
      Description/subject: "SINGAPORE – Myanmar plans to export jatropha-based biodiesel as it attempts to tap the growing market for biofuels, a senior Myanmar energy official told a seminar in Singapore on August 27. “By this time next year we hope to have seven million acres (2.8 million hectares) of jatropha plantations in full swing and a large amount of biodiesel for export in the future,” said U Soe Myint, director general of the Energy Planning Department..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


      Title: Workshop on Biofuel Cooperation held
      Date of publication: 13 September 2005
      Description/subject: "YANGON, 12 Sept — Ministry of Energy of Myanmar and Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency of Thailand jointly held the Workshop on Biofuel Cooperation in A y e y a w a d y - C h a o Phraya-Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy (ACMECS) at Sedona Hotel here today..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
      Format/size: pdf (62K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


      Title: THE NATIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOP ON WOODFUEL TRADE IN MYANMAR
      Date of publication: 30 November 1996
      Description/subject: "In 1990, fuelwood accounted for some 80% of total energy consumption in Myanmar, equivalent to about 20,000 tons. Since then, the consumption of fuelwood has increased, and this trend is likely to continue in the coming years. Though the country is known for its vast forest resources, in populated areas scarcities of fuelwood are severe and basic fuel needs are not satisfied, particularly in the Dry Zone. The flow and trade of woodfuels in the country may be a key element of balancing supply and demand. RWEDP has for many years cooperated with the Forest Department of Myanmar, which in 1992 resulted in a programme for the introduction of improved stoves. In the same period, a study was undertaken on 'Woodfuel Flows in the Dry Zone of Myanmar' (see RWEDP Field Document No. 39, published in 1993). When the government of Myanmar declared 1995 the Year of Fuelwood Substitution, RWEDP contributed to the national effort by giving expert advice on technologies for densification of biomass residues for fuels. Furthermore, throughout the years, delegates from Mynamar have been active contributors to regional workshops and expert consultations on various aspects of wood energy development. The National Training Workshop on Woodfuel Trade in Myanmar, organized by the Forest Department in 1996 at Yezin, was supported by RWEDP and built on previous experiences as well as presented new studies. The National Workshop also extended the concepts of the Regional Course on Trade in Woodfuel-related Products, organized by RWEDP in 1995 at Peshawar, Pakistan (see RWEDP Report No. 25). More than a hundred participants attended the National Workshop at Yezin, of which the present report gives an account. The report will be of interest not only to the many staff involved in Myanmar itself, but also to experts in other RWEDP member-countries. Thanks are due to the Myanmar Forest Department and to Mr. Tara Bhattarai, Wood Energy Resources Specialist at RWEDP, who assisted in the preparations and overviewed the publication..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Forest Research Institute, Yezin
      Format/size: pdf (754K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


    • Hydro-electricity
      See under Electrical Power: Production and Use

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Dams and other hydropower projects
      Description/subject: Link to the dams material in the Water section
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: OnlineBurma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: The New Great Walls: A Guide to China’s Overseas Dam Industry
      Date of publication: 26 November 2012
      Description/subject: "Chinese dam builders have come to dominate the world market. Civil society groups have expressed concerns about the social and environmental impacts of numerous Chinese dams in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This NGO guide published by International Rivers presents the lessons of past experience and informs interested NGOs how they can best influence the projects and policies of Chinese dam builders and advocate for social and environmental interests. This guide provides useful information for groups concerned about dam projects in which Chinese companies and financiers are involved, including: *A "who's who" among Chinese companies and financiers; *Laws and standards in the Chinese dam building sector; *A map of China's major overseas dam projects; *The new environmental policy of Sinohydro, the world's largest dam-builder; *An action guide for how to address problematic dams built by Chinese companies and financiers, and who to reach out to for help; *Case studies of how NGOs have influenced Chinese overseas projects; and *A sample letter to a Chinese dam building company... Translations into Chinese and Spanish are planned for early 2013. Please contact us if you would like to organize a civil society training with the new guide, or suggest translations into other languages.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Rivers
      Format/size: html, pdf (4.6MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/attached-files/intlrivers_newgreatwalls_2012_0.pdf (the full report)
      Date of entry/update: 10 January 2013


    • Solar energy

      Individual Documents

      Title: Solar power fills in for electricity in rural areas
      Date of publication: 06 October 2009
      Description/subject: "...Solar power is being used by many people in rural areas in Burma, where electricity is not available. Shops selling solar power plates in some townships said that more and more people are using solar power than before in Irrawaddy and Pegu Divisions, Kachin, Chin and Kayah States in Burma..."
      Author/creator: Nem Davies
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 October 2009


      Title: Solar Energy Potential and Applications in Myanmar
      Date of publication: August 2008
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Energy consumption is one of the indices in determining the levels of development of a nation. Therefore, availability of energy supply to all sectors of life in any country is crucial for its development. These exists shortage of all kinds of energy, particularly electricity which is badly needed for economic development. Electricity from the sun which is quite abundant in most of the developing countries is used in rural areas to meet basic electricity needs of a rural community. Today’s electricity supply in Myanmar is generated by fuel generators and hydroelectric power plants. However, far-flung areas which are away from National Grids cannot enjoy the electricity generated by these sources. Since Myanmar is a land of plentiful sunshine, especially in central and southern regions of the country, the first form of energy- solar energy could hopefully become the final solution to its energy supply problem. The direct conversion of solar energy into electricity using photovoltaic system has been receiving intensive installation not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. It is mainly intended to present solar energy potential and application in Myanmar. It is also wanted to get the benefits of using solar energy for people in remote areas which are not yet connected to the national grids because of the high price of fossil fuel."... Keywords—Electricity supply in Myanmar, National Grids, solar energy.
      Author/creator: Thet Thet Han Yee, Su Su Win, and Nyein Nyein Soe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 42 2008
      Format/size: pdf (340K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009


      Title: SOLAR POWER SEEN AS SOLUTION FOR REMOTE VILLAGES
      Date of publication: 12 October 2003
      Description/subject: "Subsidies, technical support and greater awareness are needed to speed the development of alternative energy sources in Myanmar, an industry spokesman said last week. One of the leaders in the field, U Win Khaing, managing director of Myanmar Solar Energy System, a subsidiary of United Engineering, is enthusiastic about the future of solar power as an alternative power source in this country. “Myanmar has great potential for utilising solar energy which is a free energy source. It could provide an immediate solution for remote villages that are not connected to the national electricity grid”
      Author/creator: Kyaw Naing,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Times, 2003-10-03.
      Format/size: pdf (85K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/myanmartimes/no186/MyanmarTimes10-186/022.htm
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009


      Title: Renewable Energy Workshops in Burma
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: "...two hands-on renewable energy workshops were conducted in June 2002. One was for thirteen participants in Myitkyina, Kachin State in northern Burma, and another for fifteen participants in Toungoo in central Burma. The workshops emphasized both theory and practice of solar-electric system installation and maintenance..."
      Author/creator: Chris Greacen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: home power 98
      Format/size: pdf (252K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009


  • Non-renewable energy

    • Coal

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Ministry of Mines
      Description/subject: Situated in South East Asia Peninsula, covering an area of 676578 sq km, Myanmar is endowed with rich mineral resources in which mining of precious minerals date as for back as second century BC. Myanmar Rubies, Sapphires and Jade are admired around the world. Silver Lead and Zinc were extracted since 15 century AD and Myanmar stood as one of the leading exporters of tin and tungsten in the world market during 1930's. "Ministry of Mines is responsible for Formulation of Mining Policy, Exploration and Extraction of Minerals and Gems. Department of Mines is responsible for Mining Policy Formulation, Granting of Mineral Permits and Coordination of Mining Sector. Mining Enterprise No. 3 is responsible for production of Coal. Department of Geological Surveys and Mineral Exploration is responsible for exploration of Coal Deposits."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Mines
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Poison Clouds: Lessons from Burma’s largest coal project at Tigyit
      Date of publication: January 2011
      Description/subject: Summary: "• Although Burma is rich in energy resources, the ruling military regime exports those resources, leaving people with chronic energy shortages. The exploitation of natural resources, including through mining, has caused severe environmental and social impacts on local communities as companies that invest in these projects have no accountability to affected communities. • There are over 16 large-scale coal deposits in Burma, with total coal resources of over 270 Million tons (Mt). Tigyit is Burma’s biggest open pit coal mine, producing nearly 2,000 tons of coal every day. • The Tigyit coal mine and coal-fi red power plant are located just 13 miles from Burma’s famous Inle Lake, a heritage site of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Water polluted by the mine and waste from the power plant fl ow into the Lake via the Balu Creek but no study of the impact of the project on the Lake has been made public. • Coal from the mine is transported to Burma’s only operating coal-fi red power plant in Tigyit. The plant uses 640,000 tons of coal per year to produce 600 Gigawatts of power with a capacity of 120 Megawatts. 100-150 tons of toxic fl y ash waste is generated per day. The majority of power from the plant is slated for use at an iron mining factory that will be operated by Russian and Italian companies. • Implementation of the mine and power plant began in 2002 by the China National Heavy Machinery Corporation (CHMC) and the Burmese companies Eden Group and Shan Yoma Nagar. • Two nearby villages of Lai Khar and Taung Pola were forced to relocate for the project and over 500 acres of farmlands have been confi scated. Farming families facing eviction and loss of lands are going hungry and have turned to cutting down trees to sell for fi rewood or migrated in order to survive. Explosions from the mine have destroyed local pagodas. • Air and water pollution is threatening the agriculture and health of nearly 12,000 people that live within a fi ve mile radius of the project who may eventually have to move out. Currently 50% of the local population is suffering from skin rashes. • The Pa-Oh Youth Organization and Kyoju Action Network have been monitoring the project since February 2010 and urges the companies and government to suspend operations pending full environment, social and health impact assessments. The organization also urges local communities not to sign documents without understanding them and to oppose corruption and exploitation which harms the communities’ livelihoods and natural resources."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pa-Oh Youth Organization (PYO), The Kyoju Action Network (KAN)
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB - English; 2.2MB - Burmese; 2.3MB - Thai))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/PoisonClouds(bu).pdf (Burmese)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/PoisonClouds(th).pdf (Thai)
      Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


      Title: Undercurrents -- Monitoring development on Burma's Mekong - issue 2
      Date of publication: July 2006
      Description/subject: Articles on mining (including gold, manganese, coal), logging, opium, rape... Unhindered Prospects - Remote areas of Shan State a convenient place to mine for neighboring countries... Bigger, not Better - Despite its expansion, the Burma Army rests on shaky foundations... Deadly Changes - Unpredictable water surges and unprecedented low water levels on the Mekong have human costs... An Order is an Order - The junta's zeal for castor oil causes hardship for villagers... The En people... Still no signs of outlawing license to rape - Burma Army expansion impacts women... Gun-toting monks - Militarization leaves nothing sacred in Burma... Even the Last Tree - Unrestricted logging leaves the hills of eastern Shan State bare... What Opium Ban? - Despite UN claims of reductions, poppy cultivation and trade continue in territories under the control of ceasefire groups and the SPDC... Anything for Gold - Desperate gold mining continues even after deadly accident... Chameleon Moves his Capital - Leader of NDAA survives political shake-up and continues to develop his new center of action.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lahu National Development Organization (LNDO)
      Format/size: pdf (1.25MB)
      Date of entry/update: 05 July 2006


    • Nuclear

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Search results for Burma Myanmar on the NTI site
      Description/subject: 229 articles about nukes and Burma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: WISE Uranium Project
      Description/subject: Expert site on uranium. Sections on: Uranium Radiation and Health Effects • Uranium Mining and Milling: Industry · Issues · Impacts · Tailings · More... • Uranium Enrichment and Fuel Fabrication... • Depleted Uranium: Waste · Civilian Use · Military Use • Tailings Dam Safety... • Phosphate Tailings.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Information Service on Energy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Deep Connections between Myanmar’s Department of Atomic Energy and the DTVE
      Date of publication: 28 January 2010
      Description/subject: Summary: "Through internet searches, ISIS identified extensive links and associations between Myanmar’s Department of Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE) and Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), under the greater Ministry of Science and Technology. In particular, the Director General of the DAE, Dr. Ko Ko Oo was also at one point director of DTVE. In addition, directors and deputy directors of the DTVE have appeared regularly at nuclear conferences together, despite the lack of organizational justification for the DTVE’s apparent interest in nuclear energy. Significant personnel links exist within the Myanmar Ministry of Science and Technology between these two agencies. Internet searches establish that Dr. Oo was director of the DTVE as recently as 2004. Dr. Oo was Director General of the Ministry of Science and Technology as recently as 2006, a post that he may still hold. He often appears at conferences with different administrative titles, and therefore it is difficult to track changes in career position precisely. The DTVE and DAE also at one point shared an address, phone number, and fax number until the Department of Atomic Energy relocated to the new capital of Naypidyaw. The DTVE is also now located in Naypidyaw, but no current address can be found."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 February 2010


      Title: Exploring Claims about Secret Nuclear Sites in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 28 January 2010
      Description/subject: "...Overall, the lack of specifics about many of the sites mentioned in the reports from opposition groups and defectors makes independent analysis using commercial satellite imagery very difficult. Those reporting the existence of secret nuclear sites in Burma should provide more direct and specific evidence, in addition to geographical coordinates, in order for some of the sites to be further investigated. ISIS does not want to overweigh the importance of debunking a few claims about secret nuclear activities in Burma. There remain valid suspicions about the existence of undeclared nuclear activities in Myanmar, particularly in the context of cooperation between Myanmar and North Korea. But the methods used in the public so far to allege secret nuclear facilities are flawed. Identification of suspect nuclear sites requires a more rigorous basis than is currently evident..."
      Author/creator: Robert Kelley, Andrea Scheel Stricker and Paul Brannan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 February 2010


      Title: Myanmar: Beneath The Surface (video)
      Date of publication: 23 December 2009
      Description/subject: "Two years ago the world watched in dismay as Myanmar's military junta brutally crushed the so-called Saffron Revolution. It was the only show of mass opposition to have occurred inside the country in almost 20 years. Filmmaker Hazel Chandler entered the country undercover for People & Power to find out how Myanmar's people are fairing, and to investigate disturbing claims that the regime may be trying to develop nuclear weapons."
      Author/creator: Hazel Chandler
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (People and Power)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (23 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


      Title: BURMA: ANOTHER CONVERSATION ABOUT BURMA-DPRK
      Date of publication: 10 November 2009
      Description/subject: "...[NAME REMOVED] , who on [DETAILS REMOVED] informed Australian Ambassador Chan in Rangoon that Burma and the DPRK were engaged in “peaceful nuclear cooperation” (reftel), has changed [DETAILS REMOVED] story. In a November 9 conversation with Ambassador Chan, [NAME REMOVED] said there had been a “misunderstanding.” After Chan’s “blunt” response to the August revelation (Chan had responded with incredulity to the thought that the GOB might consider nuclear cooperation of any sort with the DPRK to be acceptable), [NAME REMOVED] had checked around Nay Pyi Taw. [DETAILS REMOVED] now says GOB-DPRK conversations were merely “exploratory.” ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon, via Wikileaks
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


      Title: Burma's nuclear bomb alive and ticking/Time for a close look at Burma's nuclear programme
      Date of publication: 02 August 2009
      Description/subject: 2 linked articles.... Talk to regional security authorities or their embassy staff about Burma having a nuclear programme and it usually generates two responses - total disbelief or horror. Strategic defence studies expert Professor Desmond Ball and journalist Phil Thornton spent two years investigating rumours, speculation, misinformation and the small truths that all help to conceal the Burmese military regime's nuclear ambitions from serious examination
      Author/creator: Desmond Ball, Phil Thornton
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post" (Spectrum)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 25 August 2009


      Title: BURMESE CIVILIAN OFFERS TO SELL PURPORTED URANIUM
      Date of publication: 23 September 2008
      Description/subject: "...um-238. The individual had initially contacted the USDAO eight days prior with the offer. The individual provided a small bottle half-filled with metallic powder and a photocopied certificate of testing from a Chinese university dated 1992 as verification of the radioactive nature of the powder. During XXXXXXXXXXXX interview, the individual claimed to be able to provide up to 2000 kg of uranium-bearing rock from a location in Kayah State XXXXXXXXXXXX , and further stated if the U.S. was not interested in purchasing the uranium, he and his associates would try to sell it to other countries, beginning with Thailand..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon, via Wikileaks
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


      Title: An Untimely Quest
      Date of publication: July 2007
      Description/subject: Regardless of Burma’s right to pursue peaceful nuclear technology, its capacity to do so safely and practically should be the most immediate concern... "As speculation mounts over Burma’s nuclear collaboration with Russia, perhaps o­ne fear can be laid to rest. The proposed research reactor will not allow Burma’s military leaders to produce nuclear weapons—at least not yet. So what benefits can be derived from such a facility, and what purpose might it serve in Burma? ..."
      Author/creator: Edward Blair
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Burma Plays Nuclear Card
      Date of publication: July 2007
      Description/subject: Assurances of peaceful intentions arouse o­nly skepticism... "Burma’s confirmation of plans to build a 10-megawatt nuclear reactor with the help of Russia’s federal atomic energy agency Rosatom has created nervousness and anxiety among Burma observers. The regime in Naypyidaw, facing international isolation and sanctions, claims that the planned nuclear reactor is to be built for a “peaceful purpose.” Back in January 2002, then-deputy Foreign Minister Khin Maung Win declared that Burma’s “interest in nuclear energy for peaceful purpose is longstanding.” Such assurances have met with skepticism o­n the part of the international community and Burmese at home and abroad, however..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Thein Oo Po Saw: Burma’s Spokesperson for Nuclear Power
      Date of publication: July 2007
      Description/subject: Burma’s nuclear ambitions have been the subject of serious discussions at the country’s constitution-drafting National Convention, which has convened intermittently since 1993. These discussions have been led by Thein Oo Po Saw, a US-trained nuclear scientist.
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=7737
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Burma’s Nuclear Ambition
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: The Irrawaddy charts the timeline on the evolution of Burma's efforts to create a nuclear research facility... "Burma’s nuclear ambitions, spotlighted by last month’s announcement that Russia has agreed to help the regime build a nuclear research facility, date back at least seven years. In December 1995, the junta signed the Bangkok Treaty, banning the development, manufacture, possession, control, stationing, transport, testing or use of nuclear weapons under the terms of the international Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Five years later, after a visit to Moscow by Burma’s minister for science and technology, U Thaung, the junta’s nuclear plans became clearer..."
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: BURMA XXXXXXXXXXXX REPORT SENSITIVE SHIPMENT
      Date of publication: 30 January 2007
      Description/subject: "...Embassy contacts XXXXXXXXXXXX shared with us on XXXXXXXXXXXX documents for 112 metric tons of “mixed ore” shipped on January 25 from Burma to China via Singapore. XXXXXXXXXXXX noticed that authorities treated the shipment as highly sensitive, and suspect it may have included uranium. Our contact had no direct evidence to support this claim..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon, via Wikileaks
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


      Title: Burma’s Nuclear Program: Dream or Nightmare?
      Date of publication: May 2004
      Description/subject: "Burma has long been suspected of harboring nuclear ambitions...Perhaps the best example of the military junta’s questionable priorities is its determination to build a nuclear reactor. This project has caused considerable unease in the region, and in centers like Vienna and Washington. Over the past few months, this concern has begun to turn to alarm, as reports have emerged suggesting that the reactor may be built with the assistance of North Korea. This has raised the specter of a future nuclear weapons program that could intimidate Burma’s neighbors and be used as a bargaining chip against the US and its allies..."
      Author/creator: William Ashton
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 August 2004


      Title: BURMA: RUMORS OF CONSTRUCTION OF A NUCLEAR REACTOR
      Date of publication: 20 January 2004
      Description/subject: 'An expatriate businessman XXXXXXXXXXXX recently volunteered to an Embassy Officer that he had heard rumors that a nuclear reactor was being built near Minbu, in central Magway Division on the Irawaddy River. The businessman added that he personally had seen a “massive” barge containing large-sized rebar being unloaded on a trip to the area. After asking local residents about the rebar’s purpose, he was told that similar size barge shipments were arriving almost weekly and that the rebar was to be used in the construction of unnamed/unidentified factories. In the opinion of the businessman, the quantities involved as well as the diameter of the rebar suggested a project larger than “factories.” Along these lines, the businessman noted that there was a new airport near Minbu with a landing strip that, based on its length and thickness, seemed excessive, adding that “you could land the space shuttle on it.”...'
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon, via Wikileaks
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


      Title: US Warns Myanmar On Nuclear Reactor Aspirations
      Date of publication: 22 January 2002
      Description/subject: "The United States warned Myanmar on Tuesday that it must honor its obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty, after Yangon signalled that it intended to build a nuclear reactor with Russian help..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Space Daily
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Yangon's Nuclear Ambitions Alarm Asia And Europe
      Date of publication: 18 January 2002
      Description/subject: "Myanmar's wish to develop a nuclear research reactor has alarmed many of its Asian neighbours as well as the European community. 'Myanmar is committed to developing a nuclear research reactor for medical purposes,' Foreign Minister Win Aung said recently. While he said that 'it will be some time' before the reactor is built, his words have been startling nonetheless. This is especially so following numerous reports in recent weeks that Russia has signed a deal with Myanmar to supply a reactor..."
      Author/creator: Larry Jagan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Straits Times
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Russia Negotiating to Help Impoverished Nation With Reactor Project : Burma Seeks Nuclear Research Plant
      Date of publication: 14 July 2001
      Author/creator: Thomas Crampton
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Herald Tribune
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Nuclear Energy Sub-Sector
      Description/subject: Uranium Ore Deposits of Myanmar, Current State of Exploitation, Future Plan. "Studies are ongoing on ways and means to utilize nuclear sources for application and at the same time advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy and also cause and effect experienced by developing countries on implementation and utilization of nuclear energy in various fields will compared and analysis made."
      Source/publisher: Energy Planning Department of the Ministry of Energy (Myanmar)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Oil and gas
      See also Foreign investment in oil and gas, above, and the section under Extractive Industries in the Economy section.

      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar delays energy tender to improve transparency
      Date of publication: 05 September 2012
      Description/subject: Myanmar has delayed an oil and gas exploration tender to meet the transparency standards of the Western energy majors lining up, many for the first time, to invest in the rapidly reforming nation, a senior energy ministry official said.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Reuters via Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: Energy Myanmar ("The Myanmar Times" Special Feature, August 2007)
      Date of publication: August 2007
      Description/subject: Daewoo’s massive gas strike puts Rakhine region in spotlight -- “The discovery of gas deposits in the A-1 block was one of factor that attracted international oil companies to this region; in the past gas deposits like this would not have interested oil companies,” said U Chan Mya, general manager of Smart technical services company...Nation set for huge increase in oil and gas investment “Daewoo and PTTEP both have to build platforms and pipelines to transport the gas from the A-1, A-3 and M-9 blocks. This kind of infrastructure investment will certainly boost FDI for the next two or three years at least,” ...The coloured history of the Burmah Oil Company » Asian explorers head for deep water » Why do we need oil and natural gas? » A study of abundance: major onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in Myanmar » Increased gas exports to underpin eco growth » Harnessing energy from the clouds » Energy sector’s ‘nuclear renaissance’ » Overview of major oil field service companies » Government speeds up CNG filling in Yangon » World looks green as local industry battles for life » Reality of US$100 oil not far off » Fuelling the future with Jatropha Curcas » Giving back through socioeconomic programs » Energy outlook grim: study » Negotiations for sale of Daewoo gas continuing » China seeks way around ‘Malacca Dilemma’.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


      Title: Oil and Gas Supply, Processing and Refining in the ASEAN Region
      Date of publication: January 2002
      Description/subject: This edition of the quarterly ASEAN Energy Bulletin features country articles on the status, prospects and future direction of oil and gas supply, processing and refining in the Southeast Asia region. The Myanmar article, written by U Soe Myint, of the Energy Planning Department of the state Energy Ministry, is a useful summary of upstream and downstream aspects of the oil and gas industry in the country. It is accompanied by map showing the location of both onshore and offshore development blocks offered in concession by the Ministry.
      Author/creator: Soe Myint
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ASEAN Energy Bulletin
      Format/size: pdf (1.5 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.aseanenergy.org/download/aeb/aeb_1st_2002.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 24 August 2005


      Title: DEADLY ENERGY (Mya Yadana Report)
      Date of publication: September 1993
      Description/subject: This report by Green November 32 in 1993 was the first ever NGO perspective report written on the Yadana gas pipeline and on the border dams as they were first discussed by Thai and Burmese governments around that time. It was actually one of the first detailed reports on any of the post 1988 environmental issues by any Burmese- or border- based organisation, and is of particular interest in the light of the current opposition to the Irrawaddy dam projects... "Officials of the Thai government and the SLORC military regime have for some years now been planning a series of huge energy joint ventures to be undertaken in some of the most fought over territory in Burma. The energy projects, if they are endorsed by the Thai Government - and implemented with the participation of Japanese and Western corporations - will have extremely serious, possibly even terminal repercussions for the Burmese pro-democracy movement which is based in these same areas of the Burma -Thai border. Indeed, this seems to be what a number of the proponents of the development projects intend to achieve, particularly the generals in Rangoon. The SLORC, as well as politicians, military men and businessmen in Thailand and abroad would garner great benefit from the destruction of the Burmese opposition groups along the border, and the opening of the way to even more unrestrained natural resource exploitation than is currently taking place. There are ten planned energy development joint ventures, comprising two offshore natural gasfield developments and eight hydro-electric dams. These are: •The Martaban Gasfield developments led by Total CFP of France •The Yetagun Gasfield exploratory program led by Texaco of the US •The Upper Salween Dam, •The Lower Salween Dam •The Nam Kok Project •The Nam Moei 3 Project •The Nam Moei 2 Project •The Klong Kra Project •The Nam Moei 1 Project, and •The Nam Mae Sai Project... The energy projects will lead to environmental and social havoc on a scale comparable to the largest development projects in the world. Indeed, the Upper Salween Dam will be among the largest in the world. Altogether the projects will directly result in the flooding and deforesting of thousands of square kilometers of the forests bordering Burma and Thailand. The projects will displace many thousands of indigenous peoples, some of them already refugees from the forty-five years of bloody civil war in Burma. Many have already been affected by military operations of the SLORC and Thai armies, operations which can easily be seen in the context of clearing the way for the development of the 820-1,000 kilometre gas pipeline or the construction of the eight dams... The energy projects will put billions of dollars into the control of an ultra-nationalist military regime that is one of the world's worst human rights violators and that is rapidly building up a large and extraordinarily aggressive army which poses a significant threat to the stability of the region. The massive input of funds from the Western and Japanese multinational oil and energy development companies, combined with the cheap sale and presents of Chinese weaponry, and the profits from the heroin traffic that the SLORC is alleged to control, has funded this huge expansion of the SLORC armed forces... The energy joint ventures will, if signed, mark the second and higher level of engagement in the much criticised ASEAN policy of "constructive engagement" towards the SLORC regime, which through the activities of the logging, oil and fishing companies have already caused untold damage to Burma's environment. The multinational corporations, the Keidanrens and the Thai state oil and electricity institutes PTT and EGAT are therefore amongst the most powerful influences supporting the SLORC in its brutal and undemocratic suppression of the peoples of Burma."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Green November 32
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 September 2011


  • Electrical Power: Production and Use

    • General articles and reports

      Individual Documents

      Title: Achieving Burma’s Energy Goal Will Be ‘Very Tough’: Report
      Date of publication: 11 July 2014
      Description/subject: "...Burma faces a “very tough task” to achieve the Ministry of Electric Power’s ambition to develop a modern national energy infrastructure in the next 15 years, an industry report said. The ministry has outlined plans to increase Burma’s power-generating capacity to nearly 25,000 megawatts by 2030. At present, the national capacity is only 4,360 megawatts—barely one third of the capacity of tiny Singapore, which has a population of 5.3 million. “Asia’s new economic frontier Myanmar, seeking to attract tens of billions of dollars in investment, is also one of the darkest places in the world with an electricity capacity which reaches only one in five of the estimated 60 million population,” said Asia Power Monitor, an international energy industry weekly newspaper. “The Ministry of Energy has outlined vague plans for 40 power projects across the country to achieve the 2030 generating target—which is less than neighboring Thailand’s today with a similar population,” it said this week..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 12 July 2014


      Title: Country Analysis Note: Burma/Myanmar
      Date of publication: 12 June 2014
      Description/subject: "Burma relies heavily on hydropower for most of its electricity generation (71% in 2011). The electricity sector fails to meet the country’s needs, with about 49% of the total population and 29% of the rural population having access to electricity in 2011, according IEA estimates. In addition, aging power plants and poor electricity transmission infrastructure cause severe power shortages. Consequently, traditional biomass and waste (typically consisting of wood, charcoal, manure, and crop residues) is widely utilized and accounts for about two-thirds of Burma’s primary energy consumption. This has prompted efforts to invest in more hydroelectric, natural gas, and coal-fired electric capacity, improve grid reliability, and promote demand management..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Energy Information Administration.
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 July 2014


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR (Fourth Edition) Articles for March-April 2013
      Date of publication: 28 May 2013
      Description/subject: This is the last in a series of supplements to the fourth edition of The Electrical Industry of Burma/Myanmar which was published in April 2012. Since that time, eleven supplements have been issued. This issue covers articles published in March and April 2013 along with a couple of items of special interest published at the beginning of May. The compendium itself includes approximately 350 cross-linked articles which cover many aspects of the industry including the development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in this economic sector, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the development of the national power grid and alternative and sources of electricity, among others The fourth edition of the compendium can be accessed using the following URL: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs2/ELEC-Burma-4th-edition.pdf. Previous supplements for April 2012 through to February 2013, as well as the Compendium itself are available in the Infrastructure section under “Economy” in the Main Library archive of the Online Burma Library. Check for Electrical Power: Production and Use.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (169K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 May 2013


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR (Fourth Edition) Articles for February 2013
      Date of publication: 25 March 2013
      Description/subject: This is the eleventh in a series of supplements to the fourth edition of The Electrical Industry of Burma/Myanmar which was published in April 2012. Approximately 350 cross-linked articles in the original cover many aspects of the industry including the development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in this economic sector, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the development of the national power grid and alternative and sources of electricity, among others. This supplement covers articles published in February, 2013. The fourth edition of the compendium can be accessed using the following URL: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs2/ELEC-Burma-4th-edition.pdf. Previous supplements for April-May 2012 through to January 2013 are available at http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-April-May2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-June2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Electricity-Sup-3July2012.pdf http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup4-August-2012.pdf. http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup5-Sept-2012-red.pdf http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup-Oct-2012-red.pdf http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup-Nov-2012-red.pdf http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup-Dec-2012-red.pdf http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Elec-Sup-2013-01-red.pdf Note that the titles of some of the articles included in the supplements have been altered to indicate with more precision the contents of the item or article. Summaries of some of the articles are included
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (110K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 March 2013


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR (Fourth Edition) Articles for January 2013
      Date of publication: March 2013
      Description/subject: "This is the ninth in a series of supplements to the fourth edition of The Electrical Industry of Burma/Myanmar which was published in April 2012. Approximately 350 cross-linked articles in the original cover many aspects of the industry including the development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in this economic sector, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the development of the national power grid and alternative and sources of electricity, among others. This supplement covers articles published in January, 2013. The fourth edition of the compendium can be accessed using the following URL: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs2/ELEC-Burma-4th-edition.pdf. Previous supplements for April-May 2012 through to December 2012 are available at http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-April-May2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-June2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Electricity-Sup-3July2012.pdf http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup4-August-2012.pdf. http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup5-Sept-2012-red.pdf http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup-Oct-2012-red.pdf http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup-Nov-2012-red.pdf http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup-Dec-2012-red.pdf Note that the titles of some of the articles included in the supplements have been altered to indicate with more precision the contents of the item or article. Summaries of some of the articles are included
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (147K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 March 2013


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR (Fourth Edition) Articles for December 2012
      Date of publication: 08 January 2013
      Description/subject: "This is the eighth in a series of supplements to the fourth edition of The Electrical Industry of Burma/Myanmar which was published in April 2012. Approximately 350 cross-linked articles in the original cover many aspects of the industry including the development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in this economic sector, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the development of the national power grid and alternative and sources of electricity, among others. This supplement covers articles published in December, 2012..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (119K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2013


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR (Fourth Edition) Articles for November 2012
      Date of publication: 02 January 2013
      Description/subject: This is the seventh in a series of supplements to the fourth edition of The Electrical Industry of Burma/Myanmar which was published in April 2012. Approximately 350 cross-linked articles in the original cover many aspects of the industry including the development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in this economic sector, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the development of the national power grid and alternative and sources of electricity, among others. This supplement covers articles published in November, 2012.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (158K)
      Date of entry/update: 02 January 2013


      Title: Electricity Demand and Supply in Myanmar
      Date of publication: December 2012
      Description/subject: In this study focusing on the need to rapidly expand Myanmar's gas-fired electricity potential, Harvard scholar David Dapice deals with the question of prices and costs. 'Why is gas-fired power in Myanmar so inefficient?' he asks. The study points to some practical solutions to the financial constraints involved in improving the electricity supply.
      Author/creator: David Dapice
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Proximity Designs, Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf (884K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ash.harvard.edu/extension/ash/docs/electricitydemand.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2013


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR (Fourth Edition) Articles for October 2012
      Date of publication: 27 November 2012
      Description/subject: "This is the sixth in a series of supplements to the fourth edition of The Electrical Industry of Burma/Myanmar which was published in April 2012. Approximately 350 cross-linked articles in the original cover many aspects of the industry including the development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in this economic sector, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the development of the national power grid and alternative and sources of electricity, among others. This supplement covers articles published in October, 2012. The fourth edition of the compendium can be accessed using the following URL: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs2/ELEC-Burma-4th-edition.pdf. Previous supplements for April-May 2012, June 2012, July 2012, August 2012 and September 2012 are available at http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-April-May2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-June2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Electricity-Sup-3July2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup4-August-2012.pdf, and http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec-Sup5-Sept-2012-red.pdf. Note that the titles of some of the articles included in the supplements have been altered to indicate with more precision the contents of the item or article. Summaries of some of the articles are included."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (147K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR (Fourth Edition) Articles for September 2012
      Date of publication: 15 October 2012
      Description/subject: "This is the fifth in a series of supplements to the fourth edition of The Electrical Industry of Burma/Myanmar which was published in April 2012. Approximately 350 cross-linked articles in the original cover many aspects of the industry including the development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in this economic sector, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the development of the national power grid and alternative and sources of electricity, among others. This supplement covers articles published in September, 2012, but also includes a couple of articles that were published earlier. The fourth edition of the compendium can be accessed using the following URL: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs2/ELEC-Burma-4th-edition.pdf. Previous supplements for April-May 2012, June 2012, July 2012 and August 2012 are available at http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec- Sup-April-May2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-June2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Electricity-Sup-3July2012.pdf and http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Elec- Sup4-August-2012.pdf. Note that the titles of some of the articles included in the supplements have been altered to indicate with more precision the contents of the item or article. Summaries of some of the articles are included."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (126K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 October 2012


      Title: Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment
      Date of publication: October 2012
      Description/subject: Description: In order to have a better understanding of Myanmar’s energy sector, an ADB mission visited Myanmar from 20 through 30 September 2011. The information and findings gathered during the mission served in drafting an initial assessment of the sector. Subsequently, the assessment has been updated to reflect the findings of follow-up ADB missions and consultations with the government... The Report: Clearly, strengthening Myanmar’s energy sector is critical to reducing poverty and enhancing the medium and long-term development prospects of the country. Electrification is an urgent requirement, without which whole areas of the country will be severely hampered in their efforts to advance economically. Social progress also depends on electrification, without which health, education, and other essential services inevitably suffer. There are many dimensions to the sector and they must be addressed comprehensively and systematically so as to ensure efficient and effective use of resources. While electrification, especially of rural areas, is of primary concern, issues of sustainability and protection of the environment must be considered simultaneously... Conclusions: Drawing from this initial assessment of the energy sector, but with the caveat that a comprehensive assessment is needed, Myanmar’s development partners—in consultation with the government—could begin considering support for the sector by focusing on several apparent priorities including:
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: pdf (4.16MB) html (Summary)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/documents/myanmar-energy-sector-initial-assessment
      Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR (Fourth Edition) Articles for August 2012
      Date of publication: 11 September 2012
      Description/subject: "This is the fourth in a series of supplements to the fourth edition of The Electrical Industry of Burma/Myanmar which was published in April 2012. Approximately 350 cross-linked articles in the original cover many aspects of the industry including the development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in this economic sector, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the development of the national power grid and alternative and sources of electricity among others. This supplement covers articles published in August, 2012. The fourth edition can be accessed using the following URL: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs2/ELEC-Burma-4th-edition.pdf. Previous supplements for April-May 2012 and June 2012 are available at http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-April-May2012.pdf, http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-June2012.pdf and http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Electricity-Sup-3July2012.pdf. Note that the titles of some of the articles included in the supplements have been altered to indicate with more precision the contents of the item or article. Summaries of some of the articles are included."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (146K)
      Date of entry/update: 11 September 2012


      Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012–2014 SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): ENERGY
      Date of publication: September 2012
      Description/subject: 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities: 2. Government’s Sector Strategy: Overview; Energy Demand and Supply; Coal; Oil and Gas; Renewable energy; Power Sector; Future power development; Transmission and Distribution Systems; Power Demand, Planning and Tariffs; Energy Efficiency; Core sector issues and constraints... 3. ADB Sector Experience: a. Near term-needs - Detailed energy sector assessment; Rehabilitation work in power generation, transmissions and distribution; Strengthening the capacity and capability of the environmental and social safeguards - b. Medium term-needs: Tariff and Structural reforms; Renewable energy and energy efficiency; Hydropower Development; Rural electrification; Rehabilitation and expansion of natural gas pipeline networks... PROBLEM TREE [provides a useful overview]
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: pdf (96K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-energy.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR (Fourth Edition) Articles for July 2012
      Date of publication: July 2012
      Description/subject: "This is the third in a series of supplements to the fourth edition of The Electrical Industry of Burma/Myanmar which was published in April 2012. Approximately 350 cross-linked articles in the original cover many aspects of the industry including the development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in this economic sector, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the development of the national power grid and alternative and sources of electricity among others. This supplement covers articles published in July, 2012. The fourth edition can be accessed using the following URL: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs2/ELEC-Burma-4th-edition.pdf. Previous supplements for April-May 2012 and June 2012 are available at http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec- Sup-April-May2012.pdf and http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Elec-Sup-June2012.pdf Note that the titles of some of the articles included in the supplements have been altered to indicate with more precision the contents of the item or article. Summaries of some of the articles are included..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (96K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 August 2012


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR ON-LINE COMPENDIUM (Fourth Edition – April 2012) Articles June 2012
      Date of publication: June 2012
      Description/subject: 30 articles and documents on Burma/Myanmar's electrical industry published in the Burmese and international media in June 2012...These supplement "ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR ON-LINE COMPENDIUM" (Fourth Edition – April 2012) and the April-May 2012 supplement
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (127K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 July 2012


      Title: Electricity in Myanmar: The Missing Prerequisite for Development
      Date of publication: 31 May 2012
      Description/subject: The possibility of using natural gas to fuel a much-needed rapid expansion of Myanmar's electric power generating capacity is explored in this brief study by Harvard scholar, David Dapice, well-known for his ongoing interest in the country's development potential
      Author/creator: David Dapice
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Proximity Designs, Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf (652K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ash.harvard.edu/extension/ash/docs/electricity.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2013


      Title: EU Energy Initiative - Mission Report - Energy Scoping Myanmar
      Date of publication: May 2012
      Description/subject: Table of Contents:- Part I: SCOPING MISSION REPORT: 1 Background of the Scoping ... 2 Country Overview ... 3 Energy Access Policy & Institutional Framework … 3.1 Overview & Observations .... 3.2 Conclusions & Recommendations on Energy Access Policy ... 4 Electricity: 4.1 Electricity Sector Overview ; 4.2 Rural Electricity Access ; 4.2.1 Electricity Situation in the Field ; 4.2.2 Rural Electricity Access Options; 4.2.3 Conclusions & Recommendations on Rural Electricity Access; 4.3 Notes on Urban, Commercial & Industrial Electricity Supply .... 5 Biomass Energy: 5.1 Biomass Energy Governance; 5.2 Wood Fuel Situation; 5.3 Improved Cook Stoves (ICS); 5.4 Other Forms of Biomass Energy ; 5.5 Conclusions & Recommendations on Biomass Energy ... 6 Scoping Mission Schedule & Contact Details..... Part II: OPTION PAPERS: Option Paper: Technical & Policy Advisory of Rural Energy Development Committee ' Option Paper: Support in Rural Energy Planning & Coordination; Option Paper: Piloting Village Mini-Grid Approaches for Systematic Learning; Option Paper: Sustainable Market Development for Household-level PV Systems ; Option Paper: Preparatory Assessment of Woodfuel Demand & Supply Side; Option Paper: Biomass Cooking Energy Programme for Rural Areas
      Author/creator: Mirka Bodenbender, Dr. Christoph Messinger, Roman Ritter
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EU Energy Initiative - Partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEI PDF)
      Format/size: pdf (2.7-OBL version; 3.74-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.euei-pdf.org/sites/default/files/files/field_pblctn_file/EUEI_PDF_Myanmar_Energy%20Scoping_Report_May2012_EN.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


      Title: Supplement to ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR ON-LINE COMPENDIUM (Fourth Edition – April 2012) Articles April-May 2012
      Date of publication: May 2012
      Description/subject: More than 50 articles on Burma/Myanmar's electrical industry published in the Burmese and international media April-May 2012...These supplement "ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR ON-LINE COMPENDIUM" (Fourth Edition – April 2012).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (99K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 July 2012


      Title: Gov’t to buy back electricity from China to power Rangoon
      Date of publication: 25 April 2012
      Description/subject: "The Burmese government is negotiating to buy back 100 megawatts of electrical power sold to China to be used to provide more electricity in Rangoon Region. Minister for Electric Power and Industry Nyan Tun Oo told Rangoon Region Assembly legislators of the plan in reply to a question raised by a legislator on Wednesday. “We had to implement power cuts and a load shedding system this year because the power demand increased,” he told lawmakers. “We reduced the power supply to industrial zones to augment the power shortages in residential areas. “We will buy back 100 megawatts of power from China. This additional power will be distributed to the people,” said Nyan Tun Oo. It was not clear whether all of Rangoon's electrical power needs would be met by the buy-back plan. Experts have said that another problem with electrical capacity in Burma is an inadequate grid system and outdated infrastructure..."
      Author/creator: Min Thet
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Mizzima"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


      Title: 24/7 electricity returns to Yangon, says YESB
      Date of publication: 22 April 2012
      Description/subject: "YANGON Electricity Supply Board chairman U Aung Khaing said that Yangon city would be provided electricity 24 hours a day from April 9. U Aung Khaing made the statement during a press conference at the YESB office in Ahlone township on April 6. YESB had earlier announced that from April 1 supply to the city would be rationed, with households receive between 12 and 18 hours of power a day. However, U Aung Khaing said the decision was reversed because the board did “not want the people to have social difficulties”. He added that Yangon’s industrial zones would still face power rationing..."
      Author/creator: Juliet Shwe Gaung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times" Volume 32, No. 623
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


      Title: Chinese Plan to Extract Gold from Laymro River under Guise of Hydropower Project
      Date of publication: 20 April 2012
      Description/subject: "Chinese nationals are reportedly planning to extract gold from Peophru Island in the Laymro River in Mrauk-U Township in western Burma’s Arakan State, under the guise of constructing a hydropower project on the island. Local youth from the regional capital Sittwe, who recently returned from the island after studying the proposed hydropower project, said the equipment that is being brought in by the Chinese to the island are those used for gold mining. “There is widespread news in our region that a Chinese company will construct a hydropower plant on Poephru Island, but what the Chinese have now brought to the island are the machinery, plastic pipes, and baskets that are used in extracting and panning for gold. That equipment suggests that the Chinese are preparing to find gold on the island and will not be constructing the hydropower plant,” said the youth on condition of anonymity..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Narinjara
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


      Title: Myanmar's power struggle endangers economic boom
      Date of publication: 16 April 2012
      Description/subject: "...A year of dramatic political changes after half a century of isolating military rule has convinced the West to start lifting sanctions imposed years ago in response to human rights abuses, encouraged by this month's historic by-elections that saw Nobel Peace Prize-winning dissident Aung San Suu Kyi win a seat in parliament. But the lack of a cheap and reliable energy supply could slow an expected economic boom, forcing consumers and businesses to rely on costly private generators and imported fuel..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Reuters
      Format/size: pdf (44K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/15/myanmar-energy-idUSL3E8F40BM20120415
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2012


      Title: ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY OF BURMA/MYANMAR ON-LINE COMPENDIUM (Fourth Edition – April 2012)
      Date of publication: 10 April 2012
      Description/subject: The compendium consists of approximately three hundred and fifty key articles that cover development of the hydro and thermal power resources of the country, the increasing intervention of foreign and national companies in resource development, the use of electricity, the production of electrical and electronic goods, government plans and regulation of the industry, the power grid and alternative power sources. This is the final edition of the compendium in its present form. When it was started in 2006, published information about the electrical industry in Burma/Myanmar was still relatively scarce and it was possible to cover developments across a wide spectrum in a single web document of this kind. This is no longer feasible because of the growing volume of information and the need for more specialized reporting. Since much of the information contained in the compendium is no longer easily accessed elsewhere, it was decided to make this final edition available for permanent reference in the Online Burma Library, and librarian David Arnott has graciously consented to host it in its present form. Many thanks to users for their comments, suggestions and contributions over the years.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Courier Research Associates
      Format/size: pdf (6.3MB, 6.62MB); Word 13MB
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs2/ELEC-Burma-4th-edition.doc
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/ELEC-Burma-4th-edition-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 April 2012


      Title: 230 KV Shwesaryan-Myaukpyin power grid, 230 KV 200 MVA Myaukpyin main power station commissioned into service
      Date of publication: 09 April 2012
      Description/subject: "NAY PYI TAW, 8 April— The Ministry of Electric Power No. 2 put into service 230 KV Shwesaryan- Myaukpyin power grid and 230 KV 200 MVA Myaukpyin main power station with an inauguration held in its compound in Patheingyi Township in Mandalay District in Mandalay Region this morning..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar",
      Format/size: pdf (84K)
      Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


      Title: Union EP-2 Minister, GEC Vice Chairman hold talks over gas power plants
      Date of publication: 08 April 2012
      Description/subject: NAY PYI TAW, 7 April — Union Minister for Electric Power No 2 U Khin Maung Soe and Vice Chairman of General Electric Corporation Mr John G Rice and party discussed matters on running the natural gas power plants at full capacity.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
      Format/size: pdf (257K)
      Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


      Title: Dy EP-1 Minister attends international water resources conference in Thailand
      Date of publication: 03 April 2012
      Description/subject: "Deputy Minister for Electric Power No. 1 U Myint Zaw, accompanied by Director-General of Hydropower Implementation Department U Maw Tha Htway and four members, attended Fourth International Conference on Water Resources and Renewable Energy Development in Asia (Asia 2012) organized by The International Journal on Hydropower and Dams from 25 to 27 March in Chiang Mai of Thailand..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar",
      Format/size: pdf (58K)
      Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


      Title: Fourth International Conference on Water Resources and Renewable Energy Development in Asia (Asia 2012) Conference and Exhibition Shangri-La Hotel, Chiang Mai, Thailand , 26 and 27 March 2012
      Date of publication: 27 March 2012
      Description/subject: Flyer for the conference, with requests for papers, and list of the International Steering Committee, which includes U Myo Myint, Vice Minister of Electric Power, Myanmar...A. Palmieri, Lead Dam Specialist, World Bank...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The International Journal on Hydropower and Dams"
      Format/size: pdf (1.49MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


      Title: Tay Za Granted Electricity Contract
      Date of publication: 04 January 2010
      Description/subject: "The Htoo Trading Co Lt, listed on the US sanctions list and owned by Tay Za, a business crony of senior Burmese generals, and others have been awarded a contract to build, operate and transfer electricity for two hydro power projects in Burma. Htoo Co Lt is the first private Burmese company to be awarded such a contract in the hydro power sector. According to a short report on Thursday in a state-run-newspaper in Burmese, Myanma Alin, the Ministry of Electric Power-1 and the Htoo Trading Co Lt signed an agreement on Dec. 29 to build, operate and transfer electricity from the Hsedawgyi and Htaka hydro power projects.
      Author/creator: Wai Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 January 2010


      Title: Prime Minister General Thein Sein attends opening of Multi-purpose Diesel Engine Factory, Hydropower Turbine and Generator Factory
      Date of publication: 01 January 2010
      Description/subject: "...two news items relating to the electric power scene in Burma/Myanmar. The first reports that a factory that will assemble small cap turbine-generator sets has been opened in the industrial park at Thagara in Yedashe township. It says that 50 pairs of Francis turbine-generators of 100-kW, 500-kW and 2-MW capacity will be produced annually. That's good news for many smaller towns and large villages that have depended on diesel generators or been without regular power supply for years. Some good pictures of the factory and the turbines that will be produced there accompany the article....A second news item in the same edition reported that Htoo Trading had signed on to build the Upper Hsedawgyi and Htakha dams and power plants on a B.O.T. basis. The Upper Hsedawgyi project has been talked about for years, but this is first time I've come across the name 'Htakha'. If anyone has any information about this project, please share it...."... "...Ceremonies to open the Multi-purpose Diesel Engine Factory and the Hydropower Turbine and Generator Factory were held at Thagara Industrial Region of the Ministry of Industry-2 near Thagara of Yedashe Township this morning, attended by Prime Minister General Thein Sein..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
      Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
      Date of entry/update: 03 January 2010


      Title: Looking for the Switch to Light Up Burma’s Cities
      Date of publication: 03 December 2009
      Description/subject: "Efforts by Burma’s military regime to improve the country’s unreliable electricity supply ahead of promised national elections next year face big hurdles. A new hydroelectric dam near the central city of Mandalay is being tested this month and in theory it could expand Burma’s power generating capacity by over 40 percent. Additionally, a 150-kilometer pipeline is to be built in the south to carry gas to Rangoon, seemingly to alleviate perpetual power shortages there. An inadequate and decrepit infrastructure, however, is likely to result in wastage of much of any extra electricity—if it isn’t sold to China anyway. Chinese developers are this month conducting tests on the 790-megawatt capacity Yeywa hydro dam nearing completion on the Myitnge River. The project, which has been under construction since 2004 and has reportedly cost more than US $600 million, should raise Burma’s electricity generating capacity by more than 40 percent. However, with so much Chinese involvement—including investment of about $200 million—some of the power might be pumped north into China’s equally hungry Yunnan province, observers believe. The Yeywa dam, 50 kilometers south of blackout-plagued Mandalay, is about 300 kilometers from the Chinese border. Burma has one of the world’s worst electricity generating capacities—a mere 1,700 megawatts for a population of around 50 million..."
      Author/creator: WILLIAM BOOT
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=17345
      Date of entry/update: 04 December 2009


      Title: Developments in Myanmar Energy Sector
      Date of publication: 22 November 2008
      Description/subject: Greater Mekong Subregion...Second Meeting of the Subregional Energy Forum (SEF-2)Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 22 November 2008.....Contents: * Emerging Challenges in Energy Sector * Developments in Energy Sector * Cooperation with GMS NeighbouringCountries * Country Response to Climate Change
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Energy Planning Department, Ministry of Energy, Union of Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf (3.53MB)
      Date of entry/update: 06 January 2009


      Title: Country Report on Progress of Power Development Plans and Transmission Interconnection Projects: MYANMAR
      Date of publication: 21 November 2008
      Description/subject: Contents: (1)Developments in Institutional / Policy Framework for ElectricitySector... (2) Status of Electricity Demand and Supply... (3) Progress in Power Development Program... (4) Developments in Power Cooperation with GMS Neighbors
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: pdf (520K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2009


      Title: Myanmar Country Report to Bangkok seminar on “Powering ASEAN: Technology and Policy Options”
      Date of publication: 07 September 2007
      Description/subject: The Myanmar country presentation at the seminar has some useful information on the organizational set-up of the two Electric Power Ministries, as well as data on various projects of both ministries and three useful maps showing the location of the existing and planned power stations and high-voltage grids throughout the country.
      Author/creator: Mr. U Kyaw TIN, Ministry of Electric Power
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: “Powering ASEAN: Technology and Policy Options”
      Format/size: pdf (670K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th/seminar_programme/seminar.html (Seminar home page)
      Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


      Title: Ministries of Electrical Power: Current and Planned Projects as of 2007
      Date of publication: September 2007
      Description/subject: This resource covers the visuals from a power point presentation by Myanmar delegates to an ASEAN energy seminar in September 2007. Organograms, otherwise unavailable, show the responsibilities of the two Myanmar ministries of electric power since they were separated in mid-2006. Charts provide lists of existing, planned and projected power stations and sub-power stations. They are accompanied by maps showing the current and projected transmission grids. The Myanmar presentation at the seminar can be usefully compared with similar presentations by other delegates from other ASEAN nations presently available on the website of Thailand's Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment... Includes lists of hydropower projects in operation, under construction and in the planning stage.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment of Thailand
      Format/size: pdf (670KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th/seminar_programme/seminar.html
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2008


    • Hydro-electricity

      • Dams and rivers - articles, reports, resources

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Mekong Watch Japan
        Date of publication: 1993
        Description/subject: "Mekong Watch is the Japanese NGO established in1993 to monitor and research social and environmental impacts of the Japanese development initiatives in the Mekong region, and to advocate more sustanable and people-centered ways..." It appears to be a consortium of NGOs, largely Japanese, which aims "...to create channels for local people in the Mekong region to participate in each decision-making process of development initiatives affecting their livelihoods, cultures and ecosystems. We will foster a deeper understanding of them and their impacts, and support local people for benefiting their own development paths based on their local resources and rules. Strategies 1.Information gathering and analysis on problematic development plans. 2.Understanding social and environmental situation in Mekong River Region. 3.Feedback of relevant information both to Mekong region and Japan. 4.Developing ideas on information disclosure, participation and civil society. Critical, in particular, of Japanese-funded dams.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: "International Water Power and Dam Construction"
        Description/subject: Search for Myanmar..."Welcome to the official website for International Water Power and Dam Construction magazine (IWP&DC), where you’ll find essential information on the hydro power and dams industry, from the latest details on embankment dams, spillways and Kaplan and Francis turbines, through to flood management plans, tunnelling projects and generator refurbishment. New users who require more information should click here..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Water Power and Dam Construction
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008


        Title: ADB: Salween River Basin Development
        Description/subject: Thanlwin River Basin Development in Myanmar and Thailand, Including Transmission Interconnections Between the Two Countries
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma Rivers Network (BRN)
        Description/subject: Salween, Irrawaddy, Chindwin, Mekong, Sittaung, Kaladan, Estuaries including "Burma Dams map"... * Home * News o News Archives * Rivers o Irrawaddy o Salween o Chindwin o Mekong o Sittaung o Kaladan o Estuaries * Burma Energy o Hydropower o Oil and Gas o Bio-fuel * Dam Projects o Salween Dams + Upper Thanlwin + Tasang + Weigyi + Dagwin + Hatgyi + Downstream Impacts o Irrawaddy/N'Mai/Mali o Yeywa Dam o Paunglaung Dams o Shweli Dams o Tamanthi Dam o Dapein Dam o Kengtawng Dam o Lawpita Hydropower o Mekong Development * Concerns o Transparency o Social Impacts of Dams o Environmental Impacts of Dams o Dam Safety o Militarization o Mining o Mangrove Loss * Investors o Chinese o Thai o Burmese o Others * Resources o About Dams o Hydropower Guidelines o Burma's River Law o China's Dam Industry o BRN Publications * Actions o Press Releases o International Campaigns o Local Action o Tools * Photos o Salween River o Mekong River o Shweli River o Irrawaddy River o Paunglaung River o Downstream Impacts * Videos "Large dams are being constructed on all of Burma's major rivers and tributaries by Chinese, Thai and Indian companies. The dams are causing displacement, militarization, human rights abuses, and irreversible environmental damage, threatening the livelihoods and food security of millions. The power and revenues generated are going to the military regime and neighbouring countries. There is complete military control of energy development in Burma and no processes that allow for information disclosure, public participation or implementation of proper standards for dam-building. Neighbouring countries benefit from this situation by gaining electricity without bearing the social and environmental costs. To ensure transparency and accountability, the recognition of rights, and social justice in energy development projects, a democratically-elected government is needed in Burma. All investments in large dam projects in Burma must be stopped until that time, when sustainable energy policies can be developed. The Burma Rivers Network invites you to join us to protect the health and biodiversity of river ecosystems, and to protect the rights of communities negatively impacted by large-scale river development. Please contact us at burmariversnetwork@gmail.comThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or visit this website for updates on current campaigns."
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Burma Rivers Network (BRN)
        Format/size: html, pdf, Adobe Flash
        Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


        Title: Dams and other hydropower projects
        Description/subject: Link to the dams material in the Water section
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: OnlineBurma/Myanmar Library
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


        Title: EarthRights International home page
        Description/subject: Search for Burma, Tasang etc.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008


        Title: Rivers Watch: E&SE Asia
        Description/subject: Opposition to big dams from activist groups in East and Southeast Asia, including Burma. Pak Mun Declaration approved at the First East and SE Asia Meeting on Dams, Rivers and People. Country studies. Good links page.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: South East Asia Rivers Network (SEARIN)
        Description/subject: "Southeast Asia Rivers Network-Thailand Chapter or SEARIN Thailand was launched on March 14, 1999, the International Day of Action Against Dams and for Rivers, Water and Life. SEARIN Thailand was established by academics and NGO activists who have been working on social and environmental issues in Thailand, particularly on the environmental and social problems caused by large dams, and state policies on resource management. SEARIN Thailand is a campaign-based organization, working to support local community rights to their rivers, and to oppose threats to rivers and riverine ecosystems in mainland south-east Asia, such as large dams and water diversion projects..." News items and documents including: Evaluation of the EIA for the Proposed Upper Mekong Navigation Improvement Project; Preliminary Impact Assessment on Navigation Channel Improvement Project of the Lancang-Mekong (draft); Agreement on Commercial Navigation on Lancang-Mekong River; EIA of the Navigation Channel Improvement Project of the Lancang-Mekong River; Report on the Feasibility of the Waterway Improvement Project on the Upper Mekong River.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SEARIN
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Stop Damming the Chindwin (Burmese, English, Kuki)
        Date of publication: December 2011
        Description/subject: "The Burmese military government, together with the government of India, is planning to build a giant hydroelectric dam near Tamanthi on the Chindwin River in northwest Burma’s Sagaing Division. The dam’s fl ood reservoir will be almost 1,400 sq km, the size of Delhi, and will permanently displace over 45,000 people, including the entire town of Khamti. Already over 2,400 people have been relocated at gunpoint from the dam site, without fair compensation. The Tamanthi dam will adversely affect the biodiversity and ecological balance of the entire Chindwin River, which, as the largest tributary of the Irrawaddy, acts as a major watershed for the whole country. Although the dam will bring about massive changes to the Chindwin, the entire dam building process has been shrouded in secrecy, and there has been a complete lack of public participation in decision making. Local indigenous Kuki people have been nourished by the Chindwin for generations, and are determined to protect the river from this destructive project. We therefore urge the Burmese regime and Indian government to immediately cancel the Tamanthi dam."
        Language: English, Burmese, Kuki
        Source/publisher: The Kuki Women’s Human Rights Organization (KWHRO)
        Format/size: pdf (English, 603K - OBL version; 804K - original)
        Alternate URLs: http://burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/english/Stop%20Damming%20the%20Chindwin%20%28English-2011-Dams%29.pdf
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Stop_Damming_the%20_Chindwin(bu)-red.pdf
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Stop_Damming_the%20_Chindwin(ku)-red.pdf
        http://burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/chinese/DammingChindwin_Burmese2.pdf
        http://burmariversnetwork.org/burmese/images/stories/publications/burmese/Damming%20the%20Chindwin_Kuki.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 January 2012


        Title: EP-2 Ministry endeavouring for soonest supply of newly generated power to entire nation
        Date of publication: 02 January 2010
        Description/subject: "...Information in this article comes from the Ministry of Electric Power No 2 and differs somewhat from that of the previous article that was sourced from info provided by the EPM-1 which focuses mainly on the construction of hydropower dams and plants. I found the chart in the second article which shows how power demand is apportioned among the various classes of users to be of considerable interest...."Now, power plants only can generate 556 megawatts due to decrease in producing electricity of hydropower plants in summer when fewer water can be stored and decrease in generating capacity of some old power plants although the amount of electricity demand is 1555.25 megawatts. A total of 856 megawatts of electricity is being produced and distributed averagely including 300 megawatts from Shweli (1) Hydropower Plant of Ministry of Electric Power No (1). So, the Ministry of Electricity No (2) is distributing electricity alternately to the public from the national power grid by setting groups in order to keep balance between supply and demand of electric power." If this statement is correct, then half the power currently being generated at Shweli-1 is being transmitted over long distances to the central part of the country to supply power needs there...."... "For development of the economy of the State, the electric power plays a major role in building infrastructures for the agriculture and industrial sectors. Electricity is also essential for the daily life of the people. Therefore, after 1988, the government built power grid and main power supply stations in the country as part of efforts for supplying power to areas with no access to it and for timely supply of power from increased generation to the people..." CONTAINS TABLES AND PHOTOS
        Author/creator: Kayan Soe Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
        Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
        Date of entry/update: 03 January 2010


        Title: Efforts being made for increasing generation of electricity based on plentiful water resources - Country will achieve electricity sufficiency with surplus production across the nation in near future
        Date of publication: 31 December 2009
        Description/subject: "...The rather surprising assertion in this article that the total MW capacity of Burma/Myanmar's electric power plants has passed the 2250-MW mark is apparently explained by the fact that Shweli-1 which has been exporting most of its power production to the PRC is now being included in the name-plate capacity of these power stations. ..."....."Now, Myanmar is on the path of development to achieve success. New factories and workshops operated by private entrepreneurs and the government have emerged one after another reflecting progress in the industrial sector. Likewise, the production capacity rose in the agriculture sector. As a result, farmers can use modern farming machinery. Moreover, the urban areas have expanded. The people are enjoying the higher living standard, and their electricity consumption rose many times. It was estimated that the power consumption has increased by 15 per cent annually in the entire nation..."....INCLUDES PHOTOS AND TABLES
        Author/creator: Maung Saw Win
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
        Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
        Date of entry/update: 03 January 2010


        Title: Roots and Resilience - Tasang dam threatens war-torn Shan communities
        Date of publication: July 2009
        Description/subject: 'The report “Roots and Resilience” by the Shan Sapawa Environment Organization focuses on the ecologically unique area of Keng Kham, a community of 15,000 that was forcibly relocated over ten years ago; the majority have fled to Thailand. Today the estimated 3,000 that remain are managing to maintain their livelihoods and culture despite the constant threats of the Burma Army and the impending Tasang dam. Indigenous Shan cultural practices, river-fed farms, sacred cave temples and pristine waterfalls are depicted in photos from this isolated war-zone, together with updated information about the dam project, which has been shrouded in secrecy. The 7,110 MW Tasang Dam is the biggest of five dams planned on the Salween River; the majority of the power from the dam will be sold to Thailand. Project investors include the Thai MDX Company and China’s Gezhouba Group Company. Thailand’s support for the controversial dam was recently reiterated when the project was included in its national Power Development Plan. Military tension has escalated in recent months in Shan State as the Burmese regime has been putting pressure on the United Wa State Army to transform into a “Border Guard Force.” Abuses linked to anti-insurgency campaigns are also on the rise.'
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: Shan Sapawa Environmental Organization
        Format/size: pdf (4.68MB - English; 6.58MB - Thai)
        Alternate URLs: http://salweenwatch.org/images/PDF/rootsandresiliencethai.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 05 October 2009


        Title: CHINA IN BURMA: THE INCREASING INVESTMENT OF CHINESE MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN BURMA’S HYDROPOWER, OIL AND NATURAL GAS, AND MINING SECTORS
        Date of publication: September 2008
        Description/subject: Updated September 2008...INTRODUCTION: Amidst recent international interest in China’s moves to secure resources throughout the world and recent events in Burma1, the international community has turned its attention to China’s role in Burma. In September 2007, the violent suppression of a peaceful movement led by Buddhist monks in Burma following the military junta’s decision to drastically raise fuel prices put the global spotlight on the political and economic relationships between China and neighboring resource-rich Burma. EarthRights International (ERI) has identified at least 69 Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs) involved in at least 90 hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma. These recent findings build upon previous ERI research collected between May and August 2007 that identified 26 Chinese MNCs involved in 62 projects. These projects vary from small dams completed in the last two decades to planned oil and natural gas pipelines across Burma to southwest China. With no comprehensive information about these projects available in the public domain, the information included here has been pieced together from government statements, English and Chinese language news reports, and company press releases available on the internet. While concerned that details of the projects and their potential impacts have not been disclosed to affected communities of the general public, we hope that this information will stimulate additional discussion, research, and investigation into the involvement of Chinese MNCs in Burma. Concerns over political repression in Burma have led many western governments to prohibit new trade with and investment in Burma, and have resulted in the departure of many western corporations from Burma; notable exceptions include Total of France and Chevron3 of the United States. Meanwhile, as demand for energy pushes many Asian countries to look abroad for natural resources, Burma has been an attractive destination. India, Thailand, Korea, Singapore, and China are among the Asian countries with the largest investments in Burma’s hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining sectors. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Burma’s oil and natural gas sectors, for example, more than tripled from 2006 to 2007, reaching US$ 474. million, representing approximately 90% of all FDI in 2007. While China has embraced a foreign policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, the line between business and politics in a country like Burma is blurred at best. In pursuit of Burma’s natural resources, China has provided Burma with political support, 6 military armaments,7 and financial support in the form of conditions-free loans.8 Investments in Burma’s energy sectors provide billions of US dollars in financial support to the military junta, which devotes at least 40% of its budget to military spending, 9 only slightly more than 1% on healthcare, and around 5% on public education.10 These kinds of economic and political support for the current military regime constitute a concrete involvement in Burma’s internal affairs. The following is a brief introduction to and summary of the major completed, current and planned hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma with Chinese involvement. All information is based on Chinese and English language media available on the internet and likely represents only a fraction of China’s actual investment.
        Language: English, Burmese, Chinese, Spanish
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International
        Format/size: pdf (825K; 3.22MB- original, Alternate URL; 1.85MB - Burmese; 1.3MB - Chinese; 3.52MB - Spanish)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/publication/china-burma-increasing-investment-chinese-multinational-corporations-burmas-hydropower-o
        http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-English.pdf (English)
        http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Burmese.pdf (Burmese)
        http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Chinese.pdf (Chinese)
        http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Spanish.pdf (Spanish)
        Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


        Title: Vor der Flut
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: Sie werden nicht gefragt, nicht entschädigt und bald einfach fortgejagt: Ein Staudammprojekt am Ayeyarwady in Myanmar bedroht die Natur und die Existenz tausender Flussanwohner. Der Widerstand gegen die Pläne der Militärjunta ist lebensgefährlich. Chinesische Investitionen, Kachin; Chinese Investment.
        Author/creator: Veronika Buter
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Kontinente
        Format/size: html (16K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Title: Chinese Hydropower Industry Investment in the Mekong Region-Impacts and Opportunities for Cooperation: Perspectives from Civil Society
        Date of publication: October 2007
        Description/subject: The past decade has witnessed a tremendous surge in investment in hydropower projects in Southeast Asian countries on the part of Chinese corporations at the same time as the PRC continues to overdevelop its own hydropower potential and environmental protection takes greater priorities within the country. In this paper delivered at at a China - ASEAN power forum attended by hundreds of executives of leading PRC power companies, Zao Noam and Piaporn Deetes of Thailand argue that the social and environmental impacts from hydropower development in the Mekong countries must be seriously addressed in order to mitigate damaging impacts to regional economies, food security and rural livelihoods. Without comprehensive and careful consideration of hydropower's multi-faceted impacts, millions of small farmers and fisher folk whose livelihoods depend on the richness of the Mekong ecosystems will bear most of the costs of the infrastructure development. Civil society in the Mekong region urges the Chinese corporate sector to conduct hydropower development in the region according to international standards which minimizes socio-economic and ecological harm.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Living River Siam
        Format/size: pdf (1 MB)
        Date of entry/update: 11 February 2008


        Title: China in Burma:- The increasing investment of Chinese multinational corporations in Burma’s hydropower, oil &gas, and mining sectors
        Date of publication: September 2007
        Description/subject: "Introductory research conducted by the Burma Project over the past three months has found more than 26 Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs) involved in more than 62 hydropower, oil & gas, and mining projects in Burma. The projects vary from small dams completed in the past decade to planned dual oil and gas pipelines across Burma to Yunnan province announced this year. Detailed information about many of these investments is not made available to affected communities or the general public, and we hope that the information here will stimulate additional discussion, research, and investigation into the conduct of Chinese MNCs in Burma..."
        Language: English, Chinese, Burmese
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International
        Format/size: pdf (English,3.21 MB; Chinese,1.8 MB; Burmese,1.84 MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/publication/china-burma-increasing-investment-chinese-multinational-corporations-burmas-hydropower-o
        Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


        Title: Ministries of Electrical Power: Current and Planned Projects as of 2007
        Date of publication: September 2007
        Description/subject: This resource covers the visuals from a power point presentation by Myanmar delegates to an ASEAN energy seminar in September 2007. Organograms, otherwise unavailable, show the responsibilities of the two Myanmar ministries of electric power since they were separated in mid-2006. Charts provide lists of existing, planned and projected power stations and sub-power stations. They are accompanied by maps showing the current and projected transmission grids. The Myanmar presentation at the seminar can be usefully compared with similar presentations by other delegates from other ASEAN nations presently available on the website of Thailand's Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment... Includes lists of hydropower projects in operation, under construction and in the planning stage.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment of Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (670KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th/seminar_programme/seminar.html
        Date of entry/update: 27 January 2008


        Title: Salween - Extracts from WWF Rivers report, 2007
        Date of publication: 22 March 2007
        Description/subject: "The Salween river basin is more than twice the size of England, the second largest river basin in southeast Asia and one of the last free-flowing international rivers in Asia..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: WWF
        Format/size: pdf (38K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 March 2007


        Title: Yeywa Hydropower Project - video
        Date of publication: 27 November 2006
        Description/subject: Myanmar - Yeywa Hydel Power Project - 6 min - Nov 27, 2006 Myanmar Patriots Netwrok - www.mrtv3.net.mm/... "The Yeywa Hydel Power Plant is situated near the Yeyamann Village, 31 miles southeast of Mandalahy. It will be able to generate Electrical P...all » The Yeywa Hydel Power Plant is situated near the Yeyamann Village, 31 miles southeast of Mandalahy. It will be able to generate Electrical Power by using the water flow of Myitnge River, 10 miles from the south of Mandalay, flowing into the Ayeyarwady River. Yeywa Hydel Power Dam is 2264 feet long and 433 feet high and is a Roller compacted concrete dam type blocks the MyitNge River. To construct the dam, water was diverted by digging a tunnel on the right side of the mountain range. There are two diversion tunnels in this dam. No.1 diversion tunnels is 33 feet wide and 1443 feet long and No.2 diversion tunnel is 33 feet wide and 1674 feet long . On completion of the dam, one of the two diversion tunnels will be blocked. The plant will be able to generate a total of 790 megawatts, with the installed four generators, each with a capacity of producing 179.5 megawatts. The turbine, installed there is a Francis, vertical shaft type. Yeywa Hydel Power Project has been implemented in cooperation with Myanmar Engineers and Foreign Technocrafts since 2001. Those responsible for the project are constructing with might and main to complete the project as soon as possible, in accordance with the set-standard. On completion of the project, annual generated electricity will be 3, 551 million kilowatt hours. For the Yeywa Hydel Power dam project, a Pozolan Plant is being constructed in Popa region, Mandalay Division to use Natural Pozolan to mixing the cement for construction of RCC concrete. On completion of the Natural Pozolan plant, the finished products from the plant are aimed not only for Yeywa Hydel Power Project but also for other National Grid Projects. Natural Pozolan Plant has been built from the beginning of August, 2003. Raw materials for the plant are available from Nga Yat Kone and KyaukTaGa Villages in Popa region, KyaukPaTaung Township. This plant can produce 1,000 tons of Natural Pozolans. We will be sending Pozolans for construction of RCC concrete dam of Yeywa Hydel Power Project in Mandalay Division. Yeywa Hydel Power Plant is a project that will benefit, not only for this region but also for the whole country.«..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Myanmar Patriots Network
        Format/size: video - 6 minutes
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


        Title: Yeywa Hydropower Project, an Overview
        Date of publication: 2006
        Description/subject: Introduction: "The 790 MW Yeywa Hydropower Project is located on the Myitinge River (lower reach of Nam Tu River), approximately 50 km southeast of Mandalay in central Myanmar. The project comprises principally of a 134m high roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD) with a 790 MW power station located on the left bank at the foot of the dam and an ungated spillway located in the central section of the dam for flood water discharges. Two concrete lined river diversion tunnels are located in the right bank, one of these being subsequently converted into a bottom outlet enabling reservoir drawdown and control on reservoir filling, maintaining of riparian flows to the river downstream during the impounding period and in the emergency case of all turbines being closed down." .... Technical data, with maps, plans, photos.
        Author/creator: U. Win Kyaw, U. Myint Zaw, Alan Dredge, Paul Fischer, K. Steiger
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: HydroAsia 2006 - Department of Hydropower, Ministry of Electric Power, Myanmar & Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, CH
        Format/size: pdf (789K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.vncold.vn/Modules/CMS/Upload/13/Documents/YHPPEW.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008


        Title: Damming at Gunpoint (English)
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: BURMA ARMY ATROCITIES PAVE THE WAY FOR SALWEEN DAMS IN KAREN STATE... "As Thailand proceeds with plans to join Burma’s military regime in building a series of dams on the Salween River to gain “cheap” electricity, this report reveals the atrocities being inflicted on the people of Northern Karen State to pave the way for two of the planned dams. The Upper Salween (Wei Gyi) Dam and Lower Salween (Dar Gwin) Dam are planned to be built on the river where it forms the border between Thailand’s Mae Hong Son province and Burma’s Karen State. Together they will produce about 5,300 MW of electricity. It is estimated that the reservoir for the Upper Dam will stretch for 380 kilometers inside Karen and Karenni States of Burma. Both dams are located at the eastern edge of Papun district in Karen State. Once a Karen liberated area, during the last decade Papun has been the site of repeated military offensives and anti-insurgency campaigns by the regime’s troops to crush the Karen resistance. Before 1992, there were only ten Burma Army garrisons in Papun district. Today there are fifty-four garrisons, including twelve along the Salween river bank, fortified with heavy artillery. The military campaigns have decimated the local population. 210 villages have been destroyed, and villagers forcibly relocated to 31 relocation sites, where movement has been strictly controlled, and villagers are subject to forced labour and other human rights abuses. Tens of thousands of villagers have fled to Thailand as refugees; others live in hiding in the jungle, where they live in constant fear of being found and tortured or killed. In 1992, there were estimated to be about 107,000 people in Papun district. Now this has been halved to about 54,000, of whom about 35,000, or 60%, are internally displaced in the jungles. The rest have fled to Thailand or other parts of Burma. Out of 85 original villages in the mountainous area of Eastern Papun directly adjoining the planned dam sites, only a quarter remain. Most of the communities who had farmed and traded along the Salween River have fled to Thailand, and many farms in the fertile tributary valleys have been lying fallow for over a decade. Over 5,000 villagers remain hiding in the jungle, facing severe food shortages and health problems. Roads to the planned dam sites have been built using forced labour, and landmines have been planted alongside the roads. There has been no consultation with local communities about the dam plans. If the dams are built, the floodwaters will permanently displace many of the communities currently in hiding or living as refugees in Thailand. The increased military security for the dam sites will also inevitably mean further abuses against local populations. The Salween dams fit into the ongoing strategy of the Burmese military regime to use “development” projects to gain funding and collusion from neighbouring countries to subjugate ethnic resistance movements, and exploit the natural resources in the ethnic areas. Karen Rivers Watch makes the following recommendations:..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Rivers Watch
        Format/size: pdf (617K - OBL version; 1.82MB - original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/english/dammingatgunpointenglish.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 23 February 2012


        Title: The Salween Under Threat: Damming the Longest Free River in Southeast Asia
        Date of publication: October 2004
        Description/subject: CHAPTER 1: Livelihoods and Ecosystems along the Salween; CHAPTER 2: Politics and Power Behind Dam Building; CHAPTER 3: Conditions in Burma; CHAPTER 4: Tasang Dam: CHAPTER 5: Wei Gyi and Dagwin Dams: CHAPTER 6: Salween Water Diversion Projects; CHAPTER 7: Avoiding Tragedy..."...This book calls for efforts to prevent destructive large scale hydro-power development on the Salween, and also to find low-impact models of development that can ensure a rising standard of living for the communities it supports. Our hope is that the international community will support the campaign to protect the Salween and its peoples in both Thailand and Burma...Among the major river systems in mainland Southeast Asia, the dam-building industry has successfully promoted construction of numerous dams on the Mekong River and its tributaries, causing the destruction of the environment and loss of livelihoods for millions of people. By contrast, the Salween River, which like the Mekong originates in the Himalayas and runs parallel to the Mekong for several hundred miles, remains the longest river in mainland Southeast Asia that flows freely, uninterrupted by dams. 3 This does not mean that the Salween River has been free from efforts to construct dams in its basin. In fact, hydro-power developers and dam builders from countries such as Japan, China, Australia, and Thailand have long been attracted to the Salween River basin, along with public institutions that have a history of financing hydro-power development and dam construction such as the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). Feasibility studies already have been conducted at many sites, and the promoters of the dams are geared to start construction at any moment without either consulting the local peoples or considering the social and environmental impacts the dams will have. If current trends continue, it is only a matter of time before the Salween will forever cease to flow freely. As with dam building in any other part of the world, the drive behind the plans to build dams on the Salween River does not necessarily stem from the quest for social or public welfare. While hydro-power may generate needed electricity, much of the push to dam comes from the ambitions of dam builders who stand to benefit from the consultancies, provision of equipment and building contracts. Chapter 2 examines the political and economic motives behind the plans to dam the Salween River. Dams’ Harmful Impacts Construction of large dams in any part of the world is known to inflict severe, negative effects on the environment and the livelihoods of the local people, and the planned dam and diversion projects in the Salween River system are no exception. Moreover, the current situation in Burma will certainly further aggravate such impacts for those communities living in the project areas in Burma. Chapters 1 and 3 describe the situation along the Salween where the dams are proposed. Given the negative impacts that are certain to occur, alternative energy and water management options should be considered before final decisions are made to dam the Salween River. Chapter 7 examines the alternative options that are available, and presents recommendations to the international community..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch, Southeast Asia Rivers Network, Center for Social Development Studies, Chulalongkorn University
        Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
        Date of entry/update: 16 December 2004


        Title: Hydro-powering the Regime
        Date of publication: June 2004
        Description/subject: "Burma’s government has initiated a massive dam-building program. Yuki Akimoto details the projects and examines the possible ramifications. [also see table for complete details] The military junta that rules Burma, the State Peace and Development Council, or SPDC, has a strong predilection for hydro-power plants. Council chairman, Sr-Gen Than Shwe, who hails from Kyaukse, through which the Zawgyi River flows, is widely rumored to believe himself a reincarnation of King Anawrahta (r. 1044-1077). The long-dead Pagan-era monarch was a prolific dam- and canal-builder, particularly along the Zawgyi, where he supervised the building of a series of weirs and canals to atone for killing his foster-brother Sokka-te..."
        Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


        Title: Hydropower Projects in Burma (Map)
        Date of publication: April 2004
        Description/subject: Map on Hydropower Projects in Burma
        Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto and Tetz Hakoda (Burma Information Network -Japan)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Information Network -Japan
        Format/size: JPEG (361KB)
        Date of entry/update: 31 March 2004


        Title: Trading Away the Future: The Mekong Power Grid
        Date of publication: 20 June 2003
        Description/subject: September 25, 2006 International River’s briefing paper outlines threats arising from the Mekong Power Grid scheme, proposed by the ADB, that would facilitate the construction of numerous hydropower schemes in Laos, Burma, and China’s Yunnan province to feed the power–hungry cities of Thailand and Vietnam. The briefing paper identifies alternative sustainable solutions that would satisfy the region’s energy needs, including the promotion of renewable energy technologies and the adoption of energy efficiency measures...."A quiet threat is brewing in the Mekong region. The Asian Development Bank and the World Bank are planning a regional power grid and electricity trading system that would undermine the fragile Mekong River ecosystem that millions depend on for their livelihoods and survival. Over 60 million people depend on the Mekong’s muddy waters for fish, irrigation, drinking water and many other critical human needs. The river is a symbol of life and fertility, considered the lifeblood of mainland Southeast Asia. But for institutions like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank, the river is a tempting resource that must be exploited. Their plans to create a regional power grid would lay the groundwork for an ambitious program of hydropower development. Power from some of the most controversial dam projects in China, Burma and Laos would be transmitted through the grid to the energy-hungry cities of Thailand and Vietnam. The ADB, World Bank and other institutions are eagerly promoting the regional power grid despite mounting evidence against hydropower. Internationally, hydropower projects have caused tremendous social and environmental problems and have often failed to produce as much power as predicted. In the Mekong region, many projects built during the last decade have left a legacy of damaged livelihoods, cultures and ecosystems in their wake. This devastation will increase if the Mekong power grid goes forward. This paper outlines the threats posed by the regional power grid, the poor experience with hydropower in the basin, and opportunities for sustainably and equitably meeting the region’s energy needs..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Rivers
        Format/size: pdf (626.47K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 July 2003


        Title: Tasang Dam Update (World Water Forum version)
        Date of publication: March 2003
        Description/subject: Current updates of hydroelectric power projects on the Salween River. Mainly based on wired reports in English.
        Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
        Language: Japanese
        Source/publisher: BurmaInfo
        Format/size: html (20K), pdf (43K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/env/tasangupdate-3wwwf.html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Tasang Dam Update #2
        Date of publication: 29 January 2003
        Description/subject: Current updates of hydroelectric power projects on the Salween River. Mainly based on wired reports in English.
        Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
        Language: Japanese
        Source/publisher: BurmaInfo
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org (home page of publisher)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Tasang Dam Update #1
        Date of publication: 23 December 2002
        Description/subject: Current updates of hydroelectric power projects on the Salween River. Mainly based on wire reports in English.
        Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
        Language: Japanese
        Source/publisher: BurmaInfo
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org (home page of publisher)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: MDX plans dam on Salween
        Date of publication: 13 December 2002
        Description/subject: "MDX Plc, a local major construction group, is set to sign a memorandum of understanding with Rangoon for the construction of a 3,600-megawatt hydro-power dam on the Salween River..."
        Author/creator: Yuthana Praiwan. Translator Tetz Hakoda (BurmaInfo)
        Language: Japanese, English
        Source/publisher: Bangkok Post (Business News)
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/env/bpost20021213_jp.pdf (Japanese)
        http://www.burmainfo.org/env/bpost20021213.pdf (English)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Zwangsumsiedlung für Staudammbau in Burma
        Date of publication: December 2001
        Description/subject: Für den Energieexport nach Thailand will Burmas Militärregierung einen Großstaudamm bauen, für den Tausende Angehörige der Shan umgesiedelt werden sollen. Der Tasang Staudamm soll am Fluss Salween im zentralen Shan Bundesstaat entstehen. Teile des Gebietes sind bereits entvölkert. Überblick der Geselschaft für bedrohte Völker über die Pläne zum Bau des Tasang-Staudamms und die Konsequenzen für die einheimische Bevölkerung und die Umwelt. key words: Tasang-dam, forced relocation, consequences for local population, environment
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
        Format/size: html (6,5K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.gfbv.de/fset_druck.php?doctype=inhaltsDok&docid=323
        Date of entry/update: 08 January 2004


        Title: Zwangsarbeit in Burma: Europäisches Investment finanziert militärische Unterdrückung
        Date of publication: June 2001
        Description/subject: forced labour, ILO, human rights, international economic relations. Bericht über Zwangsarbeit in Burma. Der Artikel von Tom Kramer beleuchtet auch den Aspekt von Auslandsinvestitionen und wie auslaendische Unternehmen von der Zwangsarbeit profitieren.
        Author/creator: Tom Kramer, Deutsch von Gudrun Witte
        Language: Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 17, Nr. 2 / Asienhaus
        Format/size: html 24k
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: A DAM FOR BURMA'S GENERALS
        Date of publication: February 2000
        Description/subject: Headwaters of the Salween River "A Thai dam-building company is proposing the construction of a massive hydroelectric dam on the Salween River in northeastern Burma. Tens of thousands of local people have already been forcibly relocated from the site of the proposed TA Sarong dam and its reservoir, by order of Burma's military dictatorship. "Recognising that there exist vast potential for joint utilization of energy resources, particularly hydropower and petroleum resources in the Union of Myanmar; for the mutual benefits of the peoples of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Union of Myanmar... "The Government of the Kingdom of Thailand hereby agrees to cooperate with the Government of the Union of Myanmar in the implementation of the policy to sell power to Thailand, and would encourage the purchase of power by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) or other agencies designated by the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand to buy up to I,500 Megawatt [sic] of electricity power from projects in Myanmar by the year 2010. (Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government or the Union of Myanmar on the Power Purchase Program from the Union of Myanmar, 4 July 1997)..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Towards Ecological Recovery and Regional Alliance (TERRA) Watershed Vol. 5, No. 2,
        Alternate URLs: http://www.rebound88.net/sp/eco/sdam.html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Dams and rivers - Salween Watch

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Salween Watch
        Description/subject: "...Salween Watch was set up with the primary aim of preventing the building of harmful hydroelectric dams on the Salween River. The group members aim to inform and raise awareness among local and international communities about the impacts of the proposed hydropower development projects in the Salween Basin. The coalition works to collect information directly from the affected project areas about the environment and the people. It also collects and analyses information from the media and from other credible sources. The information is used to raise awareness about the development projects and the potential effects on the environment. Both the positive and negative aspects of development projects among the affected communities are evaluated. The group strives to build the capacity of local activists, and supports local community initiatives to help organise against development projects that potentially harm their livelihoods. At the same time, much of the group's information and campaign activities are directed outwards, with the aim of alerting and motivating key sections of the regional and international community who are in a position to access more information, influence policy, and block the financing of the hydroelectric power projects..." Sections include: Salween River; Environmental Impacts; Social Impacts; Maps.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: SALWEEN WATCH UPDATE, VOL.16 , April-May 2004
        Date of publication: May 2004
        Description/subject: 1. The Battle of the Dambusters - Saving China's Virgin Rivers, Shanghai Daily, May 3, 2004; 2. Killing Nujiang hydro project the right move, Xiao Hua, April 29, 2004; 3. Chinese Ambassador to Thailand met with the Thai Energy Minister, Matichon Daily, April 20, 2004; 4.China, in surprise step, puts large dam on hold, Jim Yardley, New York Times Friday, April 9, 2004; 5. China's premier reportedly orders restudy of controversial dam...., Asia News, April 9, 2004; 6 . Dam activists win first round, S.H.A.N, April 3, 2004; 7 . Nujiang hydropower development, Eastern Morning Post, April 2, 2004, translated by Kevin Li; 8 . Let the Salween flow, Hseng Kham, Salween Watch, 21 March, 2004; 9 . President Hu asked to stop the Salween dams, S.H.A.N. March 13, 2004; 10 . Opening survey on the Kok begins, S.H.A.N, March 12, 2004; 11 . Dam on China's Salween goes for it, S.H.A.N, March 11, 2004; 12 . Norway behind Mekong power plan, S.H.A.N., March 10, 2004; 13.UN agency hits China over dams, The Nation, March 2, 2004; 14.Thai-Burmese plan to dam two rivers, Bangkok Post, February 25, 2004; 15.NHPC to help set up 800 MW power plant in Myanmar, Times News Network, February 25, 2004; 16.Indian Power Company to Invest in Myanmar, Mike Hurle, World Markets Research, February 25, 2004; 17.No sign of dam on the Salween, S.H.A.N, February 25, 2004.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 November 2004


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH UPDATE, VOL. 15, September 2003 - January 2004
        Date of publication: January 2004
        Description/subject: Contents: 1. Egat told to suspend dam talks, The Nation, Oct 27, 2003; 2. China, Myanmar sign contract on power transmission, People’s daily online, October 10, 2003; 3. China to discuss Salween dam project, Bangkok Post, October 6, 2003; 4. Tough challenges face Egat chief ahead of IPO, The Nation, Sep 10, 2003 5. Activists protest Tasang dam, October 13; 6. Tough challenges face Egat chief ahead of IPO, The Nation, Sep 10, 2003; 7. Minefield delays goods on way to Burma, The Bangkok Post, October 6, 2003; 8. China Huadian Corp to lead Nu River (upper Salween); hydropower plan, Yunnan TV, June 14, 2003, and Yunnan Daily, June 15, 2003; 9. Relocation of Mae Khon Kha Refugee Camp: Voices of Refugees; 10. Petition to Chinese Government on Upper Salween Dams, December 16, 2003.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween WAtch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 November 2004


        Title: Salween Watch Update March - August 2003, Volume 14
        Date of publication: August 2003
        Description/subject: 1. SALWEEN IS HOME TO NEW DAM ROW - KULTIDA SAMABUDDHI -Bangkok Post, 9 April 2003; 2. DAM - A COVER-UP FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF STRATEGIC ROAD BY BURMA TO CONTAIN SHAN MILITANTS - Asian Tribune, 24 April 2003; 3. BURMA TO GET POWER STATION (summary)- Bangkok Post, 11 August 2003; 4. THAILAND TO LOBBY MYANMAR FOR SALWEEN POWER PROJECT- Dow Jones Newswires, 24 April 2003; 5. TROOPS SURVEY DAM IMPACTS (summary)- Bangkok Post, 7 August 2003; 6. PM WANTS KAREN PEOPLE, STORED LOGS MOVED OUT- Yuwadee Tunyasiri, Bangkok Post, 25 April 2003; 7. BURMESE REFUGEES TO SHIFT FROM SALWEEN (summary)- Bangkok Post, 02 July 2003; 8. BURMESE TO BE SHIFTED FROM CAMP (summary)- Bangkok Post, 3 August 2003; 9. KRAISAK URGES GOVT TO ABANDON PROJECT- Apiradee Treerutkuarkul, Bangkok Post, 25 April 2003; 10. HELP NEEDED IN SOCIAL AREA, SAYS SURAKIART (summary)- Bhanravee Tansubhapol Achara Ashayagachat, Bangkok Post, 29 April 2003; 11. KRAISAK WARNS DAMS MAY BLUR BORDERLINE- Wasant Techawongtham, Bangkok Post, 29 April 2003; 12. PAST ERRORS MAKE NO IMPRESSION ON EGAT- Wasant Techawongtham, Bangkok Post, 2 May 2003; 13. MONEY SQUANDERED BY 'POOR PREPARATION" (summary)- Preeyanat Phanayanggoor -Bangkok Post, 16 April 2003; 14. TOO MANY PROJECTS GONE BUST (summary)- Kamol Hengkietisal -Bangkok Post, 20 April 2003; 15. INDIA SCOUTS FOR EXPLORATION PROJECTS IN MYANMAR (summary)- Asian Tribune, 2 May 2003; 16. CABINET GIVES GREEN LIGHT FOR RATIFICATION OF POWER ACCORD- Kultida Samabuddhi -Bangkok Post, 5 June 2003.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (187K)
        Date of entry/update: 11 September 2003


        Title: Salween Watch Update Vol. 13
        Date of publication: February 2003
        Description/subject: 1. SALWEEN WATCH EDITORIAL: A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE PAST 18 MONTHS; 2. EGAT TO TAKE PART IN SALWEEN DAM PROJECT; 3. MDX PLANS DAM ON SALWEEN; 4. 69 GROUPS OPPOSE SALWEEN DAM PROJECT; 5. DON'T STALL ON PRIVATISATION, EGAT TOLD; 6. SENATE PANEL WANTS DAM PLANS SCRAPPED; 7. EGAT BOARD RESIGNS EN MASS, AVOIDS CONTENTIOUS DECISION; ; 8. FUNDS SOUGHT FOR SALWEEN POWER PLANT; 9. FEASIBILITY STUDY INTO PLAN FOR DAM ON BURMESE BORDER; 10. BORDER REMAINS CLOSED AFTER RANGOON CHANGES MIND; 11. GOVT `PLAYS A ROLE IN ETHNIC CLEANSING; 12. THAIS WARY OF LATEST BURMESE BLITZKRIEG; 13. BURMA LOOKS ABROAD TO AVERT FOCUS AT HOME; 14. THREE-FOLD ERADICATION DEAL; 15. RESIDENTS ADVISED TO MOVE; 16. SENATE WANTS PROJECT NIXED.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (174K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH UPDATE Vol. 12.
        Date of publication: June 2001
        Description/subject: 1. EDITORIAL COMMENT; 2. DOZENS FEARED KILLED IN MYANMAR FLASH FLOODS; 3. FLASH FLOOD DERAILS MANDALAY-MYITKYINA TRAIN, DEAD, INJURED UNKNOWN;; 4. DAM COLLAPSED, CAUSED BY HEAVY RAIN AND FLOOD; 5. MORE INPUTS ARE NEEDED TO POWER A HYDRO FUTURE; 6. FIX ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE, OFFICIAL TELLS CONFERENCE ; 7. CREATING A STIR WITH 3 BILLION YEN-- AID TO BURMA. Japan sunshine policy to promote talks: US/EU due to human rights concerns, ill-timed; 8. FOREIGN MINISTER TANAKA IS CAUTIOUS ON BALUCHAUNG REPAIR; 9. JAPAN WILL GIVE $24 MILLION AID TO MYANMAR. THE INQUIRY MISSION WILL BE SENT IN MAY; 10. CONTROVERSIAL MON STATE DAM FINALLY COMMISSIONED.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (129K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH UPDATE Vol. 11
        Date of publication: May 2001
        Description/subject: Contents: 1. JAPAN REWARDS BURMA FOR POLITICAL OPENING : Aid Linked to Junta's Talks With Opposition; 2. JAPAN DEFENDS DAM-AID OFFER TO RANGOON; 3. MYANMAR EXILES CALLS JAPAN AID "MORE HARM THAN GOOD"; 4. $29M GRANT HINTS JAPAN READY TO TAKE LEAD ROLE; 5. BUSH URGED TO MAINTAIN SANCTIONS; 6. INTERVIEW WITH SENIOR OFFICER OF THE KARENNI ARMY ON THE SUBJECT OF JAPANESE PLANS TO GRANT FUNDS TO THE SPDC TO REPAIR THE BALUCHAUNG II POWER PLANT; 7. INTERVIEW WITH A KARENNI WOMAN DISPLACED FROM THE BALUCHAUNG HYDROPOWER PLANT AREA; 8. DAM MISINFORMATION AND THE PARADIGM SHIFT; 9. A REGION AT RISK: MEKONG'S FUTURE MUDDY. [though this issue is marked as June 2001, I have dated is as May, since it contains no articles for June, and there is another June issue - DA]
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (142K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH UPDATE Vol. 10
        Date of publication: April 2001
        Description/subject: 1. JAPAN MAY PROVIDE AID TO MYANMAR; 2. US$17 M DEBT RELIEF IN JAPANESE GOVT GRANT; 3. LETTER OF CONCERN TO THE JAPANESE FOREIGN MINISTER REGARDING RESUMPTION OF AID TO THE BALUCHAUNG HYDROPOWER PLANT; 4. STATEMENT OF KARENNI EVERGREEN REGARDING THE PROPOSED JAPANESE GOVERNMENT GRANT OF 3.5 BILLION YEN TO THE SPDC FOR THE REPAIR OF LAWPITA HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION NO-(2) IN KARENNI; 5. INSIDE SOURCES – LEAKS FROM THE CORPORATE STRUCTURE; 6. SALWEEN PROJECT DUSTED OFF; 7. CHAVALIT PROPOSES TO HELP DEVELOP BURMA: “Feeling comes from 'bottom of my heart'; 8. CHINESE PLANNING TO DIVERT WATER TO THE NORTHWEST PART OF CHINA FROM UPPER SALWEEN, UPPER MEKONG AND UPPER BRAMAPUTRA?; 9. PLANT FUELS POLLUTION CONCERNS; 10. SHANS TAKE PART IN THE ANTI-POWER PLANT PROTEST; 11. STOP FIRES BEFORE THEY TAKE HOLD. Commentary on the Politics of the Tachilek Power Plant and the Environment; 12. DAM CREATES BANGLADESH, MYANMAR TENSION; 13. KAREN REBELS BOAST OF MARCH 5 CONQUEST: DAM HEAD TAKEN, THREE DEAD IN RAID; 14. SINO-THAI POWER SHARING DEAL STRUCK.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (114K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH UPDATE Vol. 9
        Date of publication: January 2001
        Description/subject: 1. “STOP JAPANESE INVOLVEMENT IN THE TASANG DAM PROJECT”; 2. TASANG DAM PROJECT IN BURMA (Myanmar) Project Overview; 3. APPEAL FOR ELECTRIC POWER DEVELOPMENT COMPANY LTD.’S WITHDRAWAL FROM TASANG HYDROELECTRIC POWER GENERATION PROJECT (SHAN STATE, BURMA); 4. “REGIONAL COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SALWEEN RIVER”; “JAPAN’S “BURMA LOVERS” AND THE MILITARY REGIME”.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (173K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH UPDATE Vol. 8
        Date of publication: October 2000
        Description/subject: 1. CONTROVERSY DOGS BURMA’S SALWEEN DAM; 2. ARMY WIPING OUT POPULATION IN THE FLOOD AREA OF THE DAM PROJECT, SAY VILLAGERS; 3. WAS APPLYING FOR LOGGING CONCESSION IN THE SALWEEN DAM AREA; 4. CHINA EXIMBANK HELPS FUND MYANMAR POWER STATION; 5. JAPAN AND PLANS FOR THE TASANG DAM ON BURMA’S SALWEEN RIVER; 6. IRRIGATION DAM CAUSES DISPOSSESSION OF MONS; 7. PAK MOOL COST MORE THAN IT'S WORTH.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (131K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH UPDATE Vol. 7
        Date of publication: July 2000
        Description/subject: 1. From Scorched Earth to Flooded Earth: The Generals' Dam on Burma's Salween River; 2. REFUGEES REVEAL FURTHER DETAILS OF KUNHING KILLINGS; 3. JAPAN MAY DEFY BANS TO RESUME MYANMAR AID; 4. BIG QUAKE SHAKES NORTHERN MYANMAR; 5. PAK MUN DECLARATION; 6. A JAPANESE DAM FOR BURMA’S GENERALS: THE TA SANG DAM, FORCED LABOR AND THE JAPAN CONNECTION.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (159K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH UPDATE Vol. 6
        Date of publication: 01 May 2000
        Description/subject: 1. SHAN: Japan to Channel Funds Through China; 2. SHAN: Shan State Army - "Negotiations Have Not Begun; 3. KHRG: Interview with "Sai Harn"; 4. LE MONDE DIPLOMATIQUE: Thailand Taps Burma's Rivers; 5. SHRF: Reports of Massacres. 6. AP: UN Labor Agency Sends Burma Into Deeper Isolation 7. PROBE INTERNATIONAL: Peddling Yesterday's Technology 8. THE NATION: Chuan Shows Tact on Diplomacy 9. MTBR: Intense Focus on Developing Sustainable Primary Industry
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (183K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH HOTMAILOUT Vol. 5
        Date of publication: 24 March 2000
        Description/subject: (1) TERRA: A Dam For Burma's Generals; (2) PANYA CONSULTANTS: Hydropower Potential And Water Diversion Form The Salween Basin; (3) SHAN: The Salween Dam Mineral Survey Continues; (4) SHAN: Wa's Applying for Logging Concession In The Salween Dam Area; (5) THE NATION: GMS Power to Kick-Start Laos Dam Project; (6) IRN DAY OF ACTION - MARCH 14.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (190K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH HOTMAILOUT Vol. 4
        Date of publication: December 1999
        Description/subject: 1. SALWEEN DAM FACT SHEET; 2. WHAT'S THE DEAL HERE? - Some arguments to show that the dams and elated infra-structure projects between Thailand and Burma are not illusions; 3. Final Studies For Salween Dam Begun; 4. Alert issued over Salween dam decision; 5. YEYWA, BILIN AND THAUKYEGAT DAM FEASIBILITY STUDIES PRESENTED; 6. SHAN PEOPLE DON'T WANT THE SALWEEN DAM: SHAN VILLAGERS; 7. Statement of the Karen Youth Organisation on the 5 plans to build dams on the Salween River Karen Youth Organisation; Central Executive Committee;; 8. RADIO MESSAGE FROM SSA SOUTH ON THE DAM PROJECT; 9. MEETING POSITION ON THE PLANS BY THE BURMESE MILITARY REGIME TO BUILD A DAM ON THE SALWEEN RIVER IN SHAN STATE; 10. BURMA HINTS AT WORLD BANK TIES; 11. JAPANESE BUSINESS INTEREST IN BURMA; 12. JAPAN OFFERS TO HELP REFORM MYANMAR ECONOMY, SPECIAL MISSION COMING; 13. OBUCHI WILL TALK TO MYANMAR LEADER BurmaNet; 14. ANALYSIS-JAPAN'S MYANMAR MOVES REFLECT CHINA WORRY; 15. Earthquake Hits China's Southwest; 16. WHAT YOU MAY BE ABLE TO DO ABOUT THE SALWEEN DAM PLANS: Salween Watch suggestions and requests; 17. SENIOR LEADER MAUNG AYE STRESSES SELF-SUFFICIENCY.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (228K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH HOTMAIL-OUT Issue # 3
        Date of publication: November 1999
        Description/subject: 1. STATUS OF THE SALWEEN (THANLWIN) DAM PLANS; 2. STATUS OF THE HYDRO POWER PROJECTS TO BE IMPLEMENTED FOR POWER EXPORT TO THAILAND; 3. Open letter regarding the "Workshop on Transboundary Waters: The Salween Basin" to be held in Chiang Mai, Thailand, September 13-16, 1999; 4. BACKGROUND TO SALWEEN WATCH OPEN LETTER; 5. POSITION OF KNU REGARDING PROJECTS FOR BUILDING DAMS ON SALWEEN; 6. MEETING WITH DAM BUILDERS; 7. "Thanlwin Basin Hydropower Development Study in Myanmar and Thailand including Transmission Interconnection between the two countries": SUBREGIONAL ENERGY SECTOR STUDY FOR ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK - Draft Report, June 1994; Norconsult International; 8. Letter Regarding EPDC From Japanese NGO; 9. POWER BILL HIKE; 10. The World Water Vision (of the World Bank, UNU, FAO, etc.); 11. Junta Fortifying the Salween Dam Site.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (296K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: SALWEEN WATCH HOTMAIL OUT Vol. 2
        Date of publication: 17 May 1999
        Description/subject: 1. First Phase Of Salween Dam Survey Completed; 2. Plans to build the Salween Dam at Ta Sang in Southern Shan State; 3. JICA Interview Relating to the Kok-Ing-Nan Water Diversion Project; 4. Minutes of Meeting with JICA on Kok-Ing-Nan; 5. International Committee on Dams, Rivers and People WCD UPDATE No. 2, May 1999; 6. First round of Salween Dam survey completed; 7. Northern Thai Hill People's Demonstrate for Rights to Citizenship, and use of Traditional Lands and Resources.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (163K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


        Title: BACKGROUND DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE SALWEEN MEGADAM
        Date of publication: 24 February 1999
        Description/subject: 1. SALWEEN ACTION ALERT; 2. OVERVIEW OF THE SALWEEN DAM PLANS, 7th February 1999; 3. EMAIL NOTE: From an anonymous Shan source, 13 January ; 4. UPDATE ON THE SALWEEN DAM PROJECT IN SHAN STATE; 5. 3D VISION: THE SALWEEN UNDER ATTACK AGAIN; 6. FREE BURMA COALITION TO LAUNCH A CAMPAIGN IN PROTEST OF JAPAN'S RESUMPTION OF ODA TO BURMA;
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Salween Watch
        Format/size: html (246K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


    • Regional production and transmission

      Individual Documents

      Title: Greater Mekong Sub-region Options for the Structure of the GMS Power Trade Market - A First Overview of Issues and Possible Options
      Date of publication: December 2006
      Description/subject: Abstract: "The World Bank, working together with the Asian Development Bank (ADB), actively supports the development of a regional power market in the GMS: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and the Yunnan Province of the People's Republic of China. This report is part of a dynamic process aimed at developing power trade in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), the objective of which will be to provide reliable and economic electric service to consumers, consistent with sustainable use of natural resources. The report includes the following headings: introduction; issues related to the current situation; possible options and requirements for the intermediate term; recommendations for intermediate-term decisions; options for long-term trading in the GMS region; next steps; and conclusion"
      Author/creator: James Barker, Diane Minogue
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Bank (ESMAP Technical Paper 108/06)
      Format/size: pdf (1.39MB)
      Date of entry/update: 21 April 2010


    • Solar power

      Individual Documents

      Title: Solar power fills in for electricity in rural areas
      Date of publication: 06 October 2009
      Description/subject: "...Solar power is being used by many people in rural areas in Burma, where electricity is not available. Shops selling solar power plates in some townships said that more and more people are using solar power than before in Irrawaddy and Pegu Divisions, Kachin, Chin and Kayah States in Burma..."
      Author/creator: Nem Davies
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 October 2009


      Title: Solar Energy Potential and Applications in Myanmar
      Date of publication: August 2008
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Energy consumption is one of the indices in determining the levels of development of a nation. Therefore, availability of energy supply to all sectors of life in any country is crucial for its development. These exists shortage of all kinds of energy, particularly electricity which is badly needed for economic development. Electricity from the sun which is quite abundant in most of the developing countries is used in rural areas to meet basic electricity needs of a rural community. Today’s electricity supply in Myanmar is generated by fuel generators and hydroelectric power plants. However, far-flung areas which are away from National Grids cannot enjoy the electricity generated by these sources. Since Myanmar is a land of plentiful sunshine, especially in central and southern regions of the country, the first form of energy- solar energy could hopefully become the final solution to its energy supply problem. The direct conversion of solar energy into electricity using photovoltaic system has been receiving intensive installation not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. It is mainly intended to present solar energy potential and application in Myanmar. It is also wanted to get the benefits of using solar energy for people in remote areas which are not yet connected to the national grids because of the high price of fossil fuel."... Keywords—Electricity supply in Myanmar, National Grids, solar energy.
      Author/creator: Thet Thet Han Yee, Su Su Win, and Nyein Nyein Soe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 42 2008
      Format/size: pdf (340K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009


      Title: SOLAR POWER SEEN AS SOLUTION FOR REMOTE VILLAGES
      Date of publication: 12 October 2003
      Description/subject: "Subsidies, technical support and greater awareness are needed to speed the development of alternative energy sources in Myanmar, an industry spokesman said last week. One of the leaders in the field, U Win Khaing, managing director of Myanmar Solar Energy System, a subsidiary of United Engineering, is enthusiastic about the future of solar power as an alternative power source in this country. “Myanmar has great potential for utilising solar energy which is a free energy source. It could provide an immediate solution for remote villages that are not connected to the national electricity grid”
      Author/creator: Kyaw Naing,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Times, 2003-10-03.
      Format/size: pdf (85K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/myanmartimes/no186/MyanmarTimes10-186/022.htm
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009


      Title: Renewable Energy Workshops in Burma
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: "...two hands-on renewable energy workshops were conducted in June 2002. One was for thirteen participants in Myitkyina, Kachin State in northern Burma, and another for fifteen participants in Toungoo in central Burma. The workshops emphasized both theory and practice of solar-electric system installation and maintenance..."
      Author/creator: Chris Greacen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: home power 98
      Format/size: pdf (252K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009