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Freedom of Movement

  • Freedom of Movement - standards and mechanisms

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Right to freedom of movement - Legislation Online summary
    Description/subject: Freedom of movement within state territory: The right of freedom of movement is a fundamental human right, to be accorded to all individuals within States. Migrants exercising this right may however be subject to restrictions in their movements on entering a State of which they are not yet permanent residents or nationals. Article 13 (1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, (1948) (UDHR), states that "everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State”. Article 12 (1) of The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, (1966) (ICCPR), a legally binding instrument, provides for the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose ones residence for those ‘lawfully’ within the territory of a State. This would therefore exclude irregular migrants entering a State, of which they are not a national, although migrants whose status has been regularised would be considered to be lawfully within the territory for the purposes of Article 12. A number of national constitutions reflect this provision of international law and provide citizens with the right to freedom of movement within the State. However this right may not be fully extended to migrants present within the territory who may be restricted to residing in certain parts of the country...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Legislation Online
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2012


  • Freedom of Movement, violations of in Burma/Myanmar

    Individual Documents

    Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, November 2011 to July 2012
    Date of publication: 12 April 2013
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2012 by a community member, describing events occurring in Papun District from November 2011 to July 2012. The report describes restrictions placed upon villagers' movement by Major Thi Ha of Tatmadaw LIB #212; villagers were told not to travel to their farms and were threatened with being shot at if they were seen outside of their village. Villagers also faced restrictions on their movement as a result of unexploded landmines. The community member also describes the use of villagers for forced labour in May 2012 by BGF Battalions #1013 and #1014, including the collection of materials for the building of an army camp for Battalion #1013. The village heads of P---, as well as two villagers, were ordered to stay at BGF #1014's camp in order to work in the camp and porter for the soldiers. Also described, is an incident prompting fear amongst villagers, in which KNLA Battalion #102 Major Saw Hsa Yu Moo shot a gun in front of a villager's house. The community member raises concerns that, despite the ceasefire, cases of villagers being threatened, forced labour, and risks from landmines, continue to pose serious problems for villagers..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (267K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b20.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/KHRG/KHRG%202013/KHRG-2013-04-12-Papun_Situation_Update_Bu_Tho_Township...
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


    Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: Moo Township, June to November 2012
    Date of publication: 11 December 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Nyaunglebin District, during the period between June and November 2012. The community member suggests that human rights abuses have decreased in the Moo Township area by 60 percent after the signing of the preliminary ceasefire agreement by the Karen National Union and the Burma government. The community member raises difficulties faced by villagers, including the consequences on agriculture production of unseasonable rain, and goes on to describe human rights abuses that have continued to take place, including the restriction of movement and forced labour. In Moo Township, landmines planted by the Tatmadaw and the Karen National Liberation Army remain underground, causing villagers to feel unsafe to travel. The report describes how, on October 13th 2012, Officer Aung Ko Ko from Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) #590, Column #4, released an order to take action on villagers without written permission to travel to hill fields, farm huts and betel nut plantations: thus restricting freedom of movement and trade. On September 16th 2012, D--- villagers were ordered by LIB #599 soliders to cut bamboos and wood used for making fences. The existence of Tatmadaw camps has also been an obstacle to villagers doing their livelihoods safely."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (116K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2012-12-11-Nyaunglebin_Situation_Update_Moo_Township_June_t...
    http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg12b84.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 December 2012


    Title: Ongoing forced labour and movement restrictions in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 12 March 2012
    Description/subject: "In Toungoo District between November 2011 and February 2012 villagers in both Than Daung and Tantabin Townships have faced regular and ongoing demands for forced labour, as well movement and trade restrictions, which consistently undermine their ability to support themselves. During the last few months, the Tatmadaw has demanded villagers to support road-building activities by providing trucks and motorcycles to send food and materials, to drive in front of bulldozers in potentially-landmined areas, to clean brush, dig and flatten land during road-building, and to transport rations during MOC #9 resupply operations as recently as February 7th 2012."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


    Title: Papun Interview: Maung R---, August 2011
    Date of publication: 29 February 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview submitted to KHRG in August 2011 by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions in Bu Tho Township, Papun District. The villager interviewed Maung R---, a 31-year-old village head, who described extensive demands for forced labour, specifically for villagers to porter military rations, produce thatch shingles and bamboo poles, and tend to plantations owned by Border Guard soldiers. He also detailed demands for money including mandatory payments in lieu of recruitment for portering duties and arbitrary taxation. Threats against villagers were used to ensure compliance with these demands. Past instances of forced recruitment into the Border Guard were mentioned, as well as cases of direct violence, including an attack against villagers with three reported deaths. Other concerns expressed include the absence of basic medical care, and the poor quality of farmland which contributes to food insecurity and can force villagers to seek daily wage work in order to meet their basic food requirements. To mitigate this insecurity villagers employ a range of tactics including the sharing of food, as described by Maung R--- below."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (288K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b20.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


    Title: Toungoo Interview: Saw T---, September 2011
    Date of publication: 28 February 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during September 2011 in Than Daung Township by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Saw T---, a 46 year old betelnut and cardamom plantation farmer who described movement and trade restrictions during 2011, specifically the closure of a vehicle road, that disrupted the transport of staple food supplies, as previously reported by KHRG in "Toungoo Situation Update: May to July 2011". Saw T--- described past instances of the theft and looting of food supplies and the burning of cardamom plantations and noted that the sale price of villagers' agricultural outputs has fallen, while the cost of basic commodities has risen. He also described previous incidents in which a villager portering for Tatmadaw soldiers was shot whilst attempting to escape, and one villager was killed and another seriously injured by landmines, providing insight into the way past experience with violence continues to circumscribe villagers' options for responding to abuse. Saw T---nonetheless described how villagers hide food to prevent theft, and covertly trade in food staples and other commodities to evade movement and trade restrictions. Saw T--- also noted that villagers have introduced a monthly rota system in order to share village head duties."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (388K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b19.html
    Date of entry/update: 29 February 2012


    Title: Toungoo Situation Update: May to July 2011
    Date of publication: 31 October 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in August 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Toungoo District between May and July 2011. It describes a series of trade and movement restrictions imposed on villagers in June and July 2011, due to frequent clashes between Tatmadaw and non-state armed groups, and road closures between Toungoo Town and Buh Sah Kee. The report also examines in detail the serious impacts the road closures have had on the livelihoods of villagers who have been unable to support themselves by transporting and selling agricultural produce and purchasing rice supplies as usual. The report further describes incidents of human rights abuse by Tatmadaw forces, including the summary execution of two civilians in July 2011 by soldiers from Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) #379; forced labour including the portering of military supplies, the production and supply of building materials, guide duty and sweeping for landmines; and an attack on a village previously reported by KHRG and the subsequent destruction of villagers' homes and food stores."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (356K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/KHRG-2011-10-31-Toungoo_Situation_Update_May_to_July_2011-en.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2012


    Title: Toungoo Situation Update: April to July 2011
    Date of publication: 13 October 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in August 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Toungoo District between April and July 2011. It describes a May 2011 attack on villages and the destruction of paddy and rice stores in the Maw Thay Der area of Tantabin Township, previously reported by KHRG, and relates the following human rights abuses by Tatmadaw forces: restrictions on movement and trade; including regular closure of vehicle roads and levying of road tolls; forced production and delivery of thatch shingles and bamboo poles; forced portering of military rations; and the theft and looting of villagers' livestock. This report also explains how community members share food when confronting food insecurity, and attempt to ensure that children receive education despite financial barriers and teacher shortages."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (168K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg11b37.pdf

    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/KHRG-2011-10-13-Toungoo_Situation_Update_April_to_July_2011-en.p...
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2012


    Title: Civilian and Military order documents: March 2008 to July 2011
    Date of publication: 05 October 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes translated copies of 207 order documents issued by military and civilian officials of Burma's central government, as well as non-state armed groups now formally subordinate to the state army as 'Border Guard' battalions, to village heads in eastern Burma between March 2008 and July 2011. Of these documents, at least 176 were issued from January 2010 onwards. These documents serve as primary evidence of ongoing exploitative local governance in rural Burma. This report thus supports the continuing testimonies of villagers regarding the regular demands for labour, money, food and other supplies to which their communities are subject by local civilian and military authorities. The order documents collected here include demands for attendance at meetings; the provision of money and food; the production and delivery of thatch, bamboo and other materials; forced recruitment into armed ceasefire groups; forced labour as messengers and porters for the military; forced labour on bridge construction and repair; the provision of information on individuals, households and non-state armed groups; and the imposition of movement restrictions. In almost all cases, demands were uncompensated and backed by implicit or explicit threats of violence or other punishments for non-compliance. Almost all demands articulated in the orders presented in this report involved some element of forced labour in their implementation."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (656K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg1103.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2012


    Title: Tenasserim Interview: Saw P---, Received in May 2011
    Date of publication: 01 October 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during May 2011 in Te Naw Th’Ri Township, Tenasserim Division by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Saw P---, the 36-year-old head of a village in which Tatmadaw soldiers maintain a continuous presence. Saw P--- described the disappearance of a male villager who has not been seen since February 2010 when he was arrested by Tatmadaw soldiers as he was returning from his hill plantation, on suspicion of supplying food assistance to Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) troops. Saw P--- also described human rights abuses and livelihoods difficulties faced regularly by villagers, including: forced labour, specifically road construction and maintenance; taxation and demands for food and money; theft of livestock; and movement restrictions, specifically the imposition of road tolls for motorbikes and the prohibition against travel to villagers’ agricultural workplaces, resulting in the destruction of crops by animals. Saw P--- also expressed concerns about disruption of children’s education caused by the periodic commandeering of the village school and its use as a barracks by Tatmadaw soldiers. He explained how villagers respond to abuses and livelihoods challenges by avoiding Tatmadaw soldiers, harvesting communally, sharing food supplies and inquiring at the local jail to investigate the disappearance of a fellow villager."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (243K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg11b33.pdf

    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/KHRG-2011-10-01-Tenasserim_Interview_Saw_P_Received_in_May_2011-...
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2012


    Title: Tenasserim Interview: Saw C---, Received in May 2011
    Date of publication: 09 September 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted prior to Burma's November 2010 elections in Te Naw Th’Ri Township, Tenasserim Division by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Saw C---, a 30-year-old married hill field farmer who told KHRG that he was appointed to the position of village head by his local VPDC in an area of Te Naw Th’Ri Township that is frequently accessed by Tatmadaw troops, and in which there is no KNLA presence. Saw C--- described human rights abuses faced by residents of his village, including: demands for forced labour; theft and looting of villagers' property; and movement restrictions that prevent villagers from accessing agricultural workplaces. He also cited an incident in which a villager was shot and killed by Tatmadaw soldiers while fishing in a nearby river, and his death subsequently concealed; and recounted abuses he witnessed when forced to porter military rations and accompany Tatmadaw soldiers during foot patrols, including the theft and looting of villagers’ property and the rape of a 50-year-old woman. Saw C--- told KHRG that villagers protect themselves in the following ways: collecting flowers from the jungle to sell in local markets in order to supplement incomes, failing to comply with orders to report to a Tatmadaw camp, and using traditional herbal remedies due to difficulties accessing healthcare. He noted, however, that these strategies can be limited, for example by threats of violence against civilians by Tatmadaw soldiers or scarcity of plants commonly used in herbal remedies."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (169K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b29.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


    Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Saw S---, May 2011
    Date of publication: 30 July 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in May 2011 with a villager from Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District. The researcher interviewed Saw S---, a 17 year-old student who compared his experiences living in a Tatmadaw-controlled relocation site, and in his own village in a mixed-administration area under effective Tatmadaw control. Saw S--- described the following abuses: killing of villagers; forced relocation; movement restrictions; taxation and demands; theft and looting; and forced labour including portering, sentry duty, camp maintenance and road construction. Saw S--- also discussed the impact of forced labour and movement restrictions on livelihoods; access to, and cost of, health care; and constraints on children's access to education, including the prohibition on Karen-language education. In order to address these issues, Saw S--- explained that villagers attempt to bribe military officers with money to avoid relocation, and with food and alcohol to lessen forced labour demands; conceal from Tatmadaw commanders that villagers sometimes leave the village to work without valid permission documents; and go into hiding to protect their physical security when conflict occurs near the village."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (744K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg11b19.pdf

    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/KHRG-2011-07-30-Nyaunglebin_Interview_Saw%20S_May_2011-en.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 February 2012


    Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Naw P---, May 2011
    Date of publication: 26 July 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in May 2011 with a villager from Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District. The researcher interviewed Naw P---, a 40-year-old farmer who described her experiences living in a Tatmadaw-controlled relocation site, and in her original village in a mixed-administration area under effective Tatmadaw control. Naw P--- described the following human rights abuses: rape and sexual violence; indiscriminate firing on villagers by Tatmadaw soldiers; forced relocation; arrest and detention; movement restrictions; theft and looting; and forced labour, including use of villagers as military sentries and porters. Naw P--- also raised concerns regarding the cost of health care and about children's education, specifically Tatmadaw restrictions on children's movement during perceived military instability and the prohibition of Karen-language education. In order to address these concerns, Naw P--- told KHRG that some villagers pay bribes to avoid forced labour and to secure the release of detained family members; lie to Tatmadaw commanders about the whereabouts of villagers working on farms in violation of movement restrictions; and organise covert Karen-language education for their children."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (158K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg11b18.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/KHRG-2011-07-26-Nyaunglebin_Interview_Naw_P_May_2011-en.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2012


    Title: Dooplaya Interview: U Sa---, July 2011
    Date of publication: 22 July 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in July 2011 with a villager from Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District. The researcher interviewed U Sa---, who described how his family and other residents of Pa--- village faced threats and abuses from Tatmadaw soldiers after local DKBA forces captured a Tatmadaw soldier at his home on June 15th 2011. U Sa--- described the following abuses: threats to burn or shell civilian areas; shelling of civilian areas; indiscriminate use of small arms in civilian areas; the taking of civilians as hostages; threats to kill civilians; and the imposition of movement restrictions, including threats to shoot villagers violating restrictions on sight. U Sa--- explained that he and his family fled Pa--- on June 16th to avoid these threats; as of July 3rd, they did not yet feel safe to return to their home. This interview was conducted by a KHRG researcher in July 2011; other details on the situation in Pa--- village after June 15th, including a general situation update, one incident report, and three photographs were submitted by a different KHRG researcher in June and July 2011."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (464K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg11b17_0.pdf

    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/KHRG-2011-07-22-Dooplaya_Interview_U_Sa_July_2011-en.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2012


    Title: Thaton Situation Updates: May 2010 to January 2011
    Date of publication: 18 May 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes two situation updates written by villagers describing events in Thaton District during the period between May 13th 2010 and January 31st 2011. The villagers writing the updates chose to focus on issues including: updates on recent military activity, specifically the rebuilding of Tatmadaw camps, and the following human rights abuses: demands for forced labour, including the provision of building materials; and movement restrictions, including road closure and requirements for travel permission documents. In these situation updates, villagers also express serious concerns regarding food security due to abnormal weather in 2010; rising food prices; the unavailability of health care; and the cost and quality of children's education."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (256K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b7.html
    Date of entry/update: 29 February 2012


    Title: Exploitative governance under SPDC and DKBA authorities in Dooplaya District
    Date of publication: 11 July 2008
    Description/subject: "With largely consolidated control over Dooplaya District in southern Karen State the SPDC and DKBA, as the two dominant (and allied) military forces, operate under a system of coexistence. The local civilian population, in turn, faces exploitative governance on two fronts as both SPDC and DKBA soldiers seek to extract money, labour, food and other supplies from them. Enforcing heavy movement restrictions on top of persistent exploitative demands, local communities are facing deteriorating livelihood opportunities, increasing poverty, and a constriction of educational and health care opportunities. Persistent human rights abuses thus foster the economic pressures fuelling the continuing migration of rural communities in Dooplaya District to refugee camps in Thailand and towards livelihood opportunities at urban centres in Burma and Thailand. This report examines the situation of abuse in Dooplaya District from January to June 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F8)
    Format/size: html, pdf (666 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg08f8.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Attacks, forced labour and restrictions in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 01 July 2008
    Description/subject: "While the rainy season is now underway in Karen state, Burma Army soldiers are continuing with military operations against civilian communities in Toungoo District. Local villagers in this area have had to leave their homes and agricultural land in order to escape into the jungle and avoid Burma Army attacks. These displaced villagers have, in turn, encountered health problems and food shortages, as medical supplies and services are restricted and regular relocation means any food supplies are limited to what can be carried on the villagers' backs alone. Yet these displaced communities have persisted in their effort to maintain their lives and dignity while on the run; building new shelters in hiding and seeking to address their livelihood and social needs despite constraints. Those remaining under military control, by contrast, face regular demands for forced labour, as well as other forms of extortion and arbitrary 'taxation'. This report examines military attacks, forced labour and movement restrictions and their implications in Toungoo District between March and June 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F7)
    Format/size: html, pdf (880 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg08f7.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Oppressed twice over: SPDC and DKBA exploitation and violence against villagers in Thaton District
    Date of publication: 20 March 2008
    Description/subject: "Throughout Thaton District the SPDC has persistently worked to expand and entrench military control not only by increasing its own troops, but also by heavily relying on the DKBA as a local proxy force. Both groups exploit the civilian population to support their respective military hierarchies and local villagers thus face a double burden on their lives. This report looks at various forms and specific incidents of forced labour, extortion, violence and other abuse against villagers in Thaton District which SPDC and DKBA personnel have perpetrated up to February 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2008-F4)
    Format/size: html, pdf (672 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg08f4.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009


    Title: Bullets and Bulldozers: The SPDC offensive continues in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 19 February 2007
    Description/subject: "The first two months of 2007 have done nothing to lessen the intensity of attacks against the villagers of Toungoo District. SPDC forces continue to send in more troops and supplies, build new camps and upgrade older ones using forced village labour, convict porters and heavy machinery brought in for this purpose. Local villagers have been the ones to suffer from the increased military build-up and infrastructure 'development' as such programmes have put the SPDC in a stronger position to enforce their authority over civilians in rural areas and undermine the efforts of local peoples to evade military forces and maintain their livelihoods. Employing the new roadways and camps to shuttle troops and supplies deeper into areas beyond military control, SPDC forces continue to expand their reach in terms of extortion of funds, food and supplies; extraction of forced labour; and restriction of all civilian movement, travel and trade. These abuses have combined to exacerbate poverty, worsen the humanitarian situation and restrict the options of villagers living in these areas..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F1)
    Format/size: html, pdf (819 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg07f1.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-03: Freedom of Movement, Assembly and Association
    Date of publication: October 2003
    Description/subject: "Throughout 2002 the SPDC continued to interfere with and monitor the movement of people in Burma. Similarily, the rights of assembly and association continued to be effectively denied especially in border areas, despite the release of Aung San Suu Kyi in May. There was however, a temporary and partial easing of restrictions on the NLD which briefly gave rise to climate of hope for improved conditions in the future. However, by the end of the year Aung San Suu Kyi was clearly encountering increasing and serious harassment on her political trips outside the capital. There has been overall a notable absence of the freedoms of assembly and association throughout the period of military rule in Burma, especially since the 1988 coup and formation of the SLORC. Under the SPDC these freedoms have been further restricted, and labor unions, student unions and private civic associations are all banned. Through its extensive intelligence network and administrative procedures, the SPDC systematically monitors the travel of all citizens, especially the movements of politically active people in the country. All residents in Burma are required to carry national identity cards, showing their citizenship status, normal place of residence, date of birth, name of father, and so on. Since 1990 these cards are also required to contain information on the holders’ ethnicity and religion. All residents and citizens of Burma are required to apply for these cards, with the exception of the Muslim Rohingya minority, who are not considered citizens by the government (see chapter on minority rights for further information). As possession of these national identity cards is mandatory in order to buy train or bus tickets, to register with a local council outside one’s normal place of residence, to vote in any future election, or to enroll in institutions of higher learning, those without such cards face severe restrictions on their freedom of movement..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002: The Freedom of Movement
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "Throughout the year 2001 the SPDC continued to interfere with and monitor the movement of people in Burma. Through its extensive intelligence network and administrative procedures, the SPDC systematically monitors the travel of all citizens, especially the movements of politically active people in the country. All residents in Burma are required to carry national identity cards, showing the citizenship status, normal place of residence, date of birth, name of father, and so on. In 1990 these cards were also required to describe the holders ethnicity and religion. All residents and citizens of Burma are required to apply for these cards, with the exception of the Muslim Rohingya minority, who are not considered citizens by the government (see chapter on minority rights for further information). As possession of these national identity cards is mandatory in order to buy train or bus tickets, to register with a local council outside ones normal place of residence, to vote in any future election, or to enroll in institutions of higher learning, those without such cards face severe restrictions on their freedom of movement and liberty as human beings..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Humann Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: The Freedom of Movement
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "Throughout the year 2000 the SPDC continued to interfere in and monitor the movement of people in Burma. Through its extensive intelligence network and administrative procedure, the SPDC systematically monitors the travel of all citizens, especially the movements of politically active people in the country. All residents in Burma are required to carry national identity cards, showing the citizenship status, normal place of residence, date of birth, name of father, and so on. In 1990 these cards were also required to describe the holders ethnicity and religion. All residents and citizens of Burma are required to apply for these cards, with the exception of the Muslim Rohingya minority, who are not considered as citizens by the government. (see chapter on minority rights for further information) As possession of these national identity cards is mandatory in order to buy train or bus tickets, to register with a local council outside ones normal place of residence, to vote in any future election, or to enroll in institutions of higher learning, those without such cards face severe restrictions on their freedom of movement and liberty as human beings..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: Yearbook main page: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1994: 08 - Freedom of Movement
    Date of publication: September 1995
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html (13K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003