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Administration

  • Military, Police, Jails, Fire services etc.

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to the Military, Police, Fire services etc (commentary)

      Individual Documents

      Title: BURMA: Police torture of gay and transgendered people
      Date of publication: 22 July 2013
      Description/subject: "The Asian Human Rights Commission has been following with concern news of the police targeting of gay and transgendered people in Burma, or Myanmar, and has recently obtained detailed information on a number of cases of alleged arbitrary arrest, detention and torture of persons on the grounds of sexual orientation. The AHRC is troubled both by the manner in which this minority group appears to have been deliberately targeted by the police, and by the implications of these police abuses not only for the rights of minorities in democratizing Burma, but also for the rights of all people living there. According to recent news reports, police in Mandalay have been conducting an operation against gay and transgendered people who have been congregating in certain public places in the city. Although the police claim that they are simply removing from certain areas anyone found to be causing a disturbance to the public, from all accounts it is clear that they have been specifically targeting gay and transgendered people..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 July 2013


    • Laws, decrees, bills, regulations and manuals relating to the Military, Police, Fire services etc. (texts)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Manual of Rules for the Superintendence and Management of Jails in Burma
      Date of publication: 1968
      Description/subject: Full text (28MB). Also divided into smaller sections for easier downloading
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (45K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 November 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Law Amending the Law on Military Ranks - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 42/2014
      Date of publication: 07 October 2014
      Description/subject: Provisional English title
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
      Format/size: pdf (39K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2014


      Title: People's Military Service Law (State Peace and Development Council Law No. 27/ 2010)
      Date of publication: 04 November 2010
      Description/subject: Union of Myanmar State Peace and Development Council People's Military Service Law (State Peace and Development Council Law No. 27/ 2010) B. E. 1372 12th the Waning Moon Day of ThidinGyut (November 4, 2010)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council
      Format/size: pdf (75K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 March 2012


      Title: The Law Repealing the National Intelligence Bureau Law - SPDC Law No, 7/2004 (English)
      Date of publication: 22 October 2004
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (55K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222829/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml04_07....
      Date of entry/update: 10 June 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Myanmar Police Force Maintenance of Discipline Law - SPDC Law No. 3/97 (English)
      Date of publication: 30 December 1997
      Description/subject: The State Peace and Development Council... The Law Amending the Myanmar Police Force Maintenance of Discipline Law... (The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 3/97)... The 2nd Waxing Day of Pyatho , 1359 M.E. (30th December, 1997
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council
      Format/size: pdf (86K)
      Date of entry/update: 11 June 2013


      Title: The Fire Services Law - SLORC Law No. 1/97 (English)
      Date of publication: 10 January 1997
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Fire Services Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 1/97)... The 2nd Waxing Day of Pyatho, 1358 M.E. (10th January, 1997)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (80K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: The Myanmar Police Force Maintenance of Discipline Law - SLORC Law No. 4/95 (English)
      Date of publication: 26 April 1995
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Myanmar Police Force Maintenance of Discipline Law... The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 4/95... The 12th Waning of Oo Tagu, 1357 ME (26th April, 1995)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (118K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: THE BURMA POLICE MANUAL VOLUME IV
      Date of publication: 1981
      Description/subject: FIPTH EDITION (REPRINT-1981) Original edition, 1953 RANGOON
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: GOVT. PRINTING AND STATIONERY, BURMA
      Format/size: pdf (4.5MB, 13MB))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/Police_Manual-Vol.4-red-en.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 March 2014


      Title: The Defence Services Rules (English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
      Date of publication: 1960
      Description/subject: Accompanies The Defence Services Act of 1959.....OBL RECOMMENDS USING A DOWNLOAD MANAGER FOR LARGE FILES LIKE THIS, AND PRINTING OR READING OFFLINE
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (12MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2014


      Title: The Defence Services Act
      Date of publication: 1959
      Description/subject: Accompanies the Defence Services Rules of 1960.....OBL RECOMMENDS USING A DOWNLOAD MANAGER FOR LARGE FILES LIKE THIS... Firefox took 3 minutes to download this 10MB file (some pages not displayed)...Chrome took 45 seconds (all pages displayed)...A Download manager (Flashget 3) took 23 seconds to download the file to a directory for offline use.
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (10MB)
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2014


      Title: 1950 Emergency Provisions Act (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
      Date of publication: 09 March 1950
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma via "The Burma Code" Vol. II
      Format/size: pdf (343K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2014


      Title: 1950 Emergency Provisions Act (English)
      Date of publication: 09 March 1950
      Description/subject: Probably an unoffical translation
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma via "The Burma Code" Vol. II
      Format/size: pdf (12K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2014


      Title: The Police Act, 1945
      Date of publication: 19 March 1945
      Description/subject: ‘WHEREAS it is expedient to amend and re-enact the law relating to the police in order to make it a more efficient instrument for the prevention and detection of crime; * * * 2 It is hereby enacted as follows: —
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma via "The Burma Code" Vol. I
      Format/size: pdf (74K)
      Date of entry/update: 22 July 2013


      Title: BURMA POLICE MANUAL VOLUME II
      Date of publication: 1940
      Description/subject: CONTAINING ORDERS AND RULES MADE FOR THE BURMA POLICE WITH THE SANCTION OF GOVERNMENT VOLUME II FIFTH EDITION, 1940
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Govt. Printing and Stationary, Rangoon
      Format/size: pdf (9MB)
      Date of entry/update: 11 March 2014


      Title: BURMA POLICE MANUAL VOLUME 1
      Date of publication: 01 April 1894
      Description/subject: ADMINISTRATION, CRIME AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE DUTIES... 1985 edition
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inspector-General of Police, Burma
      Format/size: pdf (6.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 11 March 2014


  • Environmental laws, decrees, regulations etc.

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to the environment (commentary)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: FAO Legal Office - Legislative Studies
      Description/subject: More than 100 full-text studies from 1971 on legal issues related, directly or indirectly, to the environment. Most in English; some also in French and Spanish.
      Language: English, French, Spanish
      Source/publisher: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 May 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Good Governance and the Extractive Industry in Burma: Complications of Burma’s Regulatory Framework (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
      Date of publication: 16 July 2013
      Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ အစိုးရအတြက္ သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ေရးရာႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအေနျဖင့္ လမ္းေၾကာင္းမွန္ေပၚသို႔ ေျခလွမ္းလွ်က္ရွိသည္ဟု ဆိုႏိုင္ေသာ္လည္း၊ ျမန္မာအစိုးရမွာ ေကာင္းမြန္သည့္ အစိုးရအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရး စနစ္ ျဖစ္ရန္ အလွမ္းေဝးေနပါေသးသည္။ ျမန္မာအစိုးရအေနျဖင့္ ၎ကိုယ္၌က သဘာဝသယံဇာတမ်ား ကာကြယ္ထိန္းသိမ္းေရးႏွင့္ ေရရွည္ တည္တံ့ေစေရးအတြက္၊ ‘ေကာင္းမြန္သည့္ အစိုးရအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးစနစ္’ လမ္းညႊန္မူမ်ားႏွင့္ ကိုက္ညီသည့္၊ ေလ်ာ္ကန္ေသာ မူဝါဒအေျခခံ မူေဘာင္တစ္ခု မခ်မွတ္ႏိုင္သမွ် ကာလပတ္လံုး၊ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ စာခ်ဳပ္စာတမ္းမ်ားႏွင့္ ေကာ္ပိုေရးရွင္းႀကီးမ်ား၏ စည္းမ်ဥ္းမ်ားက သဘာဝသယံဇာတမ်ား အေဟာသိ ကံျဖစ္ရမႈ၊ ပ်က္စီး ဆံုးရႈံးေနရမႈကို ေလွ်ာ့နည္း က်ဆင္းေစလိမ့္မည္ မဟုတ္ေပ။ ေရႊသဘာဝ ဓာတ္ေငြ႔ စီမံကိန္းသည္လည္း ဤသို႔ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ဆံုးရႈံးထိခိုက္ ပ်က္စီးေစမည့္ စီမံကိန္းတစ္ခု ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ ျပည္တြင္း ဥပေဒမူေဘာင္မ်ားက အထူးသျဖင့္ သဘာဝသယံဇာတ ထုတ္လုပ္သည့္လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားတြင္ ဤသို႔ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ စံခ်ိန္စံႏႈန္း မ်ားကို ျပည့္မီသည့္အခါမွသာ၊ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ား ျပဳသင့္ပါသည္။ ထိုသုိ႔မဟုတ္ပါက စဥ္းစားဖြယ္ပင္ မရွိပါ။ ဤအခ်က္မွာ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံ သူမ်ား၊ ေကာ္ပိုေရးရွင္းႀကီးမ်ား၊ ပါဝင္ပတ္သက္ေနသည့္ အစိုးရမ်ား၊ အစိုးရမ်ား အၾကား ပူးေပါင္းေဆာင္ရြက္ေရး အသင္းအဖြဲ႔မ်ားႏွင့္ ျမန္မာအစိုးရ အေပၚ နည္းလမ္းေပါင္းစံုႏွင့္ ဖိအား သက္ေရာက္ေစသည့္ အုပ္စုမ်ားအတြက္ သတိျပဳရမည့္ ေတာင္းဆိုခ်က္ပင္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ေျပာင္းလဲရန္ လိုအပ္ ေနသည့္ မူဝါဒ ဆိုင္ရာအေရးကို ဆိုင္းငံ့ဖင့္ေလးထားပါက၊ ပါဝင္ပတ္သက္ေနသည့္ အင္အားစုအားလံုးအေနျဖင့္ ေကာင္းမြန္သည့္ ကမၻာလံုးဆိုင္ရာ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈစနစ္ ျဖစ္ေပၚေစရန္ လိုအပ္ခ်က္တာဝန္မ်ားကို လ်စ္လ်ဴရႈထားသည့္ သဖြယ္ ျဖစ္ေနေစပါလိမ့္မည္။ ေအာက္ေဖာ္ျပပါ အၾကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ားကို ကုလသမဂၢ၏ အခြင့္အေရးမ်ားဆိုင္ရာ ရႈေထာင့္မွ ခ်ည္းကပ္၍ အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ ေဆာင္ရြက္သင့္ပါသည္။ ၎တို႔၏ ခ်ည္းကပ္မႈအရ ‘ျပည္သူမ်ားကို သူတို႔ကိုယ္ပိုင္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးအတြက္ အေရးပါသည့္ လႈပ္ရွားေဆာင္ရြက္သူမ်ားဟု အသိအမွတ္ ျပဳၾကရမည္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ အေထာက္အပံ့ခံ အျပဳခံမ်ားဟူ၍ မသတ္မွတ္သင့္ပါ။’
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://burmese.shwe.org/?p=1190
      http://burmese.shwe.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Gov-EI-Burm-Web-Final.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 July 2013


      Title: Good Governance and the Extractive Industry in Burma: Complications of Burma’s Regulatory Framework (English)
      Date of publication: 16 July 2013
      Description/subject: "...While Burma may be taking steps in the right direction, the Burmese government is still far from being one of good governance. Until the Burmese government develops its own sound policy framework to protect and sustainably develop its natural resources in a way that meets ‘good governance’ guidelines, no amount of international treaties or corporate regulation will mitigate the damage of natural resource development projects like the Shwe Gas Project. Until Burma’s internal framework meets these standards, foreign direct investment, particularly in extractive industries, should not be an option. This is a call for all investors, corporations, stakeholder governments, intergovernmental groups, and various others to utilize their means and authority to pressure the Burmese government. Pending the necessary policy changes, all parties involved may be lacking the due diligence necessary to ensure good global governance. The following recommendations should be undertaken with the UN rights based approach as a basis, in which ‘people are recognized as key actors in their own development, rather than passive recipients of commodities and services.’..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: pdf (1MB-OBL version; 4.5MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.shwe.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Gov-EI-Final.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 July 2013


      Title: Overview of Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade - Baseline Study 4 - Myanmar
      Date of publication: November 2011
      Description/subject: Table of Contents:- 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND MAJOR FINDINGS … 2. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW ... 3. NATIONAL FOREST STRATEGY, POLICIES AND REGULATIONS: 3.1 The Myanmar Selection System and Annual Allowable Cut; 3.2 Forest Law and Policy ; 3.3 Forest Land Categories; 3.4 Community Forestry; 3.5 Impact of Forest Law Enforcement on Local People... 4. DEMAND: DOMESTIC DEMAND AND WOOD EXPORTS: 4.1 Domestic Demand ; 4.2 Exports ... 5. TIMBER SUPPLY: DOMESTIC PRODUCTION AND WOOD IMPORTS: 5.1 Domestic Wood Production; 5.2 Plantation Production... 6. FOREST INDUSTRY: 6.1 Myanmar Timber Enterprise; 6.2 Non-MTE Harvesting; 6.3 Medium-Sized Companies and Traders; 6.4 Value-Added Processing... 7. ILLEGAL TIMBER TRADE AND MYANMAR STANDARDS, NATIONAL CODES, TIMBER CERTIFICATION AND VERIFICATION SYSTEMS: 7.1 Illegal Timber Trade; 7.2 Progress towards Standards, National Codes, Timber Certification and Verification Systems ... 8. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS : 8.1 Government; 8.2 Timber Processing Industry: Private Sector and Quasi-Private Sector; 8.3 Civil Society; 8.4 Bilateral Donor Programs... BIBLIOGRAPHY... APPENDIX 1: MYANMAR TIMBER EXPORT PROCESS .
      Author/creator: Kevin Woods and Kerstin Canby
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Forest Trends for FLEGT Asia Regional Programme
      Format/size: pdf (1.6MB-OBL version; 1.78-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_3159.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 July 2013


      Title: Environment and Law in Burma
      Date of publication: August 2001
      Description/subject: "Environmental law in Burma under the current military regime is very weak. One of the main problems is that there are no up-to-date laws that regulate pollution. There are also no regulations for environmental impact assessments to examine the harmful effects of projects. Reasonably effective environmental laws were enacted under the British. The democratic period in Burma, from 1948 to 1962, did not improve these laws. After 1962, the military junta repealed and replaced the British laws. The current legislation is too general and has never significantly provided for the protection of the environment. Unfortunately, the Burmese junta shows little concern for the environment..".
      Author/creator: Peter Gutter
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 9 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in "Legal issues of Burma Journal" No. 9 at http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%209.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Grave Diggers: A report on Mining in Burma
      Date of publication: 14 February 2000
      Description/subject: A report on mining in Burma. The problems mining is bringing to the Burmese people, and the multinational companies involved in it. Includes an analysis of the SLORC 1994 Mining Law.... 'Grave Diggers, authored by world renowned mining environmental activist Roger Moody, was the first major review of mining in Burma since the country's military regime opened the door to foreign mining investment in 1994. Singled out for special attention in this report is the stake taken up by Canadian mining promoter Robert Friedland, whose Ivanhoe Mines has redeveloped a major copper mine in the Monywa area in joint venture enterprise with Burma's military regime. There are several useful appendices with first hand reports from mining sites throughout the country. A series of maps shows the location of the exploration concessions taken up almost exclusively by foreign companies in the rounds of bidding that took place in the nineties.
      Author/creator: Roger Moody
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Various groups
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB) html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/grave-diggers-report-mining-burma
      http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/miningwatch.ca/files/Grave_Diggers.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


      Title: ENVIRONMENTAL LAW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE UNION OF MYANMAR
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: "...Environmental Legislation in Myanmar: Even under the old laws which were made in the days when international concern for environmental matters was less recognized than today, various laws of Myanmar contained provisions relating to the environment. There are 53 legal instruments in Myanmar. Some of these laws have been recently formulated and contain wide ranging provisions for environmental protection and conservation. However, there is still a need to modify or amend some old laws and to formulate new laws that take into account the changing economic situation in the country, the prevailing global environmental concerns as well as the international environmental conventions and agreements to which Myanmar is a party. The several significant laws are as follows:-..."
      Author/creator: Tee Tee Cho (Department of Law, Dagon University, Yangon, Myanmar)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law (1997 1 pp 609-614)
      Format/size: pdf (41K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 May 2013


  • Land, property and planning

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to land, property and planning (commentary)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burma HLP Initiative
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: "Since its establishment in 2006, Displacement Solutions has been active in exploring the housing, land and property rights situation in Burma. The Burma HLP Initiative aims to shed new light on the numerous HLP rights issues in Burma today by building capacity for enforcing these rights by citizens of the country. The Initiative works together with various groups within and outside Burma towards these ends. The Initiative explores key questions such as: * What are the characteristics and status of the legal regime in Burma as it relates to HLP rights issues? * How effective is the current legal regime in promoting human rights standards relevant to HLP rights? What are the key issues facing the HLP rights regime in Burma? * In what ways can the legal code more effectively address HLP rights in Burma, and how might it be reformed to avoid problems in the future transition process? This will draw on the many experiences of political transition since the end of the Cold War. * How can the capacity of the Burmese democratic opposition be enhanced to structurally address the HLP legal environment in Burma today? How can expert capacity be strengthened to better prepare the broader democratic opposition to address the HLP challenges that will arise during and after political transition?..." THIS LINK CONTAINS A HYPERLINKED SET OF BURMESE HLP-RELATED LAWS
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: HOUSING, LAND AND PROPERTY RIGHTS IN BURMA: THE CURRENT LEGAL FRAMEWORK
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: A compilation of all of the existing housing, land and property laws in Burma, plus commentary... "The deplorable human rights record of Burma’s military junta has been a key focus of international attention for many years. The military has ruled the country for half a century, and has presided over a collapse of the economy and of social services. At the same time, successive military regimes have perpetuated an almost feudal governance system – where the population is seen as a resource at the disposal of the rulers – that is in many respects unchanged since pre-colonial times. A combination of deliberate abuse, a general climate of impunity, and out-dated and ineffective social policies all contribute to a fundamental absence of basic human rights in this country of 55 million people. To date, the bulk of attention has focused on important questions of political prisoners, denial of basic freedoms, forced labour, forced displacement, as well as the other abuses related to the army’s brutal counter-insurgency policies. However, there are additional types of rights abuses that are not as frequently mentioned, but that have a critical impact on the daily lives of millions of people across Burma. And it is these – housing, land and property (HLP) rights – that form the contents of this important new book. This volume contains all of the existing housing, land and property laws in Burma, and makes a vital contribution to understanding the impact that these legal structures have on communities across the country. Being able to view the HLP legal code in its entirety for the first time reveals more clearly than ever before that supporters of democratic and governance reform within Burma need to better understand – and place greater emphasis on – HLP issues than they have to date. Understanding how these issues are dealt with in both law and practice will enable more creative thinking about Burma’s HLP future, in order that the peoples of the country can most fully enjoy their legitimate housing, land and property rights."
      Author/creator: Scott Leckie and Ezekiel Simperingham (eds)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions & The HLP Institute
      Format/size: pdf (3.42MB) - 1255 pages
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2009


      Title: Displacement Solutions
      Description/subject: NGO working on housing, land and property rights (HLP) http://mebel-it.com.ua/shkafyi/dlya-odezhdyi http://getenergy.ru/?page_id=10
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 August 2009


      Title: Results of a google search for agribusiness burma myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Google
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 September 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: ‘Ancestral’ lands to be protected under draft policy
      Date of publication: 05 December 2014
      Description/subject: "Unregistered ancestral lands and those under shifting cultivation will be protected under draft policy and protected from confiscation under under a draft land use policy, a change land rights groups say would be a major step forward for tenure security."
      Author/creator: Sandar Lwin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 12 December 2014


      Title: Land Acquisition and Practice in Myanmar (Table of Contents)
      Date of publication: 20 October 2014
      Description/subject: "DS has just completed a 70-page legal study examining Land Acquisition and Practice in Myanmar. Requested by the International Finance Corporation to carry out this in-depth survey based on DS’ many years working on land issues in the country, the Study minutely analyses areas of Myanmar land acquisition laws against the comparatively strong provisions found in the IFC’s Performance Standards 1 and 5, the latter of which outlines rules on Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement when the IFC engages with client companies investing in locations potentially involving land acquisition measures. Given Myanmar’s lengthy and controversial practices of land acquisition – both historical and present – the Study aims to assist companies to comply in full with the far more stringent IFC standards and, in turn, ensure that investments do not lead either to arbitrary land confiscation nor to any additional violations of the rights possessed by those living on affected land. The table of contents of the report, project objectives and methodology can be found here."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
      Format/size: pdf (106K); html
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/new-ds-study-on-land-acquisition-law-and-practice-in-myanmar-augus...
      Date of entry/update: 19 November 2014


      Title: NOT JUST DEFENDING; ADVOCATING FOR LAW IN MYANMAR
      Date of publication: June 2014
      Description/subject: "...Through research on Myanmar, we argue that in authoritarian settings where legality has drastically declined, the starting point for cause lawyering lies in advocacy for law itself, in advocating for the regular application of law’s rules. Because this characterization is liable to be misunderstood as formalistic, particularly by persons familiar with less authoritarian, more legally coherent settings than the one with which we are here concerned, it deserves some brief comments before we continue...By insisting upon legal formality as a condition of transformative justice, cause lawyers in Myanmar advocate for the inherent value of rules in the courtroom, but also incrementally build a constituency in the wider society. In advocating for faithful application of declared rules, in insisting on formal legality in the public domain, lawyers encourage people to mobilize around law as an idea, essential for making law meaningful in practice. They promote a notion of the legal system as once more an arena in which citizens can set up interests that are not congruent with those of the state; an arena in which cause lawyering is made viable and in which the cause lawyer has a distinctive role to play..." Includes description and discussion of the Kanma land-grab case.....The digitised version may contain errors so the original is included an an Alternate URL.
      Author/creator: Nick Cheesman, Kyaw Min San
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wisconsin International Law Journal
      Format/size: pdf (226K-digitised version; 1.6MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs19/Cheesman_KMS__Not_just_defending-orig.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014


      Title: The politics of the emerging agro-industrial complex in Asia’s ‘final frontier’ - The war on food sovereignty in Burma
      Date of publication: 03 September 2013
      Description/subject: "Burma's dramatic turn-around from 'axis of evil' to western darling in the past year has been imagined as Asia's 'final frontier' for global finance institutions, markets and capital. Burma's agrarian landscape is home to three-fourths of the country's total population which is now being constructed as a potential prime investment sink for domestic and international agribusiness. The Global North's development aid industry and IFIs operating in Burma has consequently repositioned itself to proactively shape a pro-business legal environment to decrease political and economic risks to enable global finance capital to more securely enter Burma's markets, especially in agribusiness. But global capitalisms are made in localized places - places that make and are made from embedded social relations. This paper uncovers how regional political histories that are defined by very particular racial and geographical undertones give shape to Burma's emerging agro-industrial complex. The country's still smoldering ethnic civil war and fragile untested liberal democracy is additionally being overlain with an emerging war on food sovereignty. A discursive and material struggle over land is taking shape to convert subsistence agricultural landscapes and localized food production into modern, mechanized industrial agro-food regimes. This second agrarian transformation is being fought over between a growing alliance among the western development aid and IFI industries, global finance capital, and a solidifying Burmese military-private capitalist class against smallholder farmers who work and live on the country's now most valuable asset - land. Grassroots resistances increasingly confront the elite capitalist class' attempts to corporatize food production through the state's rule of law and police force. Farmers, meanwhile, are actively developing their own shared vision of food sovereignty and pro-poor land reform that desires greater attention.... Food Sovereignty: a critical dialogue, 14 - 15 September, New Haven.
      Author/creator: Kevin Woods
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
      Format/size: pdf (593K)
      Date of entry/update: 04 September 2013


      Title: Bridging the HLP Gap - The Need to Effectively Address Housing, Land and Property Rights During Peace Negotiations and in the Context of Refugee/IDP Return
      Date of publication: 02 June 2013
      Description/subject: Bridging the HLP Gap - The Need to Effectively Address Housing, Land and Property Rights During Peace Negotiations and in the Context of Refugee/IDP Return: Preliminary Recommendations to the Government of Myanmar, Ethnic Actors and the International Community.....Executive Summary: "Of the many challenging issues that will require resolution within the peace processes currently underway between the government of Myanmar and various ethnic groups in the country, few will be as complex, sensitive and yet vital than the issues comprising housing, land and property (HLP) rights. Viewed in terms of the rights of the sizable internally displaced person (IDP) and refugee populations who will be affected by the eventual peace agreements, and within the broader political reform process, HLP rights will need to form a key part of all of the ongoing moves to secure a sustainable peace, and be a key ingredient within all activities dedicated to ending displacement in Myanmar today. The Government Myanmar (including the military) and its various ethnic negotiating partners – just as with all countries that have undergone deep political transition in recent decades, including those emerging from lengthy conflicts – need to fully appreciate and comprehend the nature and scale of the HLP issues that have emerged in past decades, how these have affected and continue to affect the rights and perspectives of justice of those concerned, and the measures that will be required to remedy HLP concerns in a fair and equitable manner that strengthens the foundations for permanent peace. Resolving forced displacement and the arbitrary acquisition and occupation of land, addressing the HLP and other human rights of returning refugees and IDPs in areas of return, ensuring livelihood and other economic opportunities and a range of other measures will be required if return is be sustainable and imbued with a sense of justice. There is an acute awareness among all of those involved in the ongoing peace processes of the centrality of HLP issues within the context of sustainable peace, however, all too little progress has thus far been made to address these issues in any detail, nor have practical plans commenced to resolve ongoing displacement of either refugees or IDPs. Indeed, the negotiating positions of both sides on key HLP issues differ sharply and will need to be bridged; many difficult decisions remain to be made..."
      Author/creator: Scott Leckie
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
      Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org
      http://displacementsolutions.org/landmark-report-launch-bridging-the-housing-land-and-property-gap-in-myanmar/
      Date of entry/update: 17 June 2013


      Title: Access Denied - Land Rights and Ethnic Conflict in Burma
      Date of publication: May 2013
      Description/subject: The reform process in Burma/Myanmar by the quasi-civilian government of President Thein Sein has raised hopes that a long overdue solution can be found to more than 60 years of devastating civil war... Burma’s ethnic minority groups have long felt marginalized and discriminated against, resulting in a large number of ethnic armed opposition groups fighting the central government – dominated by the ethnic Burman majority – for ethnic rights and autonomy. The fighting has taken place mostly in Burma’s borderlands, where ethnic minorities are most concentrated. Burma is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse countries. Ethnic minorities make up an estimated 30-40 percent of the total population, and ethnic states occupy some 57 percent of the total land area and are home to poor and often persecuted ethnic minority groups. Most of the people living in these impoverished and war-torn areas are subsistence farmers practicing upland cultivation. Economic grievances have played a central part in fuelling the civil war. While the central government has been systematically exploiting the natural resources of these areas, the money earned has not been (re)invested to benefit the local population... Conclusions and Recommendations: The new land and investment laws benefit large corporate investors and not small- holder farmers, especially in ethnic minority regions, and do not take into account land rights of ethnic communities. The new ceasefires have further facilitated land grabbing in conflict-affected areas where large development projects in resource-rich ethnic regions have already taken place. Many ethnic organisations oppose large-scale economic projects in their territories until inclusive political agreements are reached. Others reject these projects outright. Recognition of existing customary and communal tenure systems in land, water, fisheries and forests is crucial to eradicate poverty and build real peace in ethnic areas; to ensure sustainable livelihoods for marginalized ethnic communities affected by decades of war; and to facilitate the voluntary return of IDPs and refugees. Land grabbing and unsustainable business practices must halt, and decisions on the allocation, use and management of natural resources and regional development must have the participation and consent of local communities. Local communities must be protected by the government against land grabbing. The new land and investment laws should be amended and serve the needs and rights of smallholder farmers, especially in ethnic regions.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI), Burma Centre Netherlands
      Format/size: pdf (161K-OBL version; 3.22MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/accesdenied-briefing11.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 14 May 2013


      Title: Land grabbing as big business in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 08 March 2013
      Description/subject: "Inadequate land laws have opened rural Myanmar to rampant land grabbing by unscrupulous, well-connected businessmen who anticipate a boom in agricultural and property investment. If unchecked, the gathering trend has the potential to undermine the country's broad reform process and impede long-term economic progress. Under the former military regime, land grabbing became a common and largely uncontested practice. Government bodies, particularly military units, were able to seize large tracts of farmland, usually without compensation. While some of the land Land grabbing as big business in Myanmar By Brian McCartan Inadequate land laws have opened rural Myanmar to rampant land grabbing by unscrupulous, well-connected businessmen who anticipate a boom in agricultural and property investment. If unchecked, the gathering trend has the potential to undermine the country's broad reform process and impede long-term economic progress. Under the former military regime, land grabbing became a common and largely uncontested practice. Government bodies, particularly military units, were able to seize large tracts of farmland, usually without compensation. While some of the land was used for the expansion of military bases, new government offices or infrastructure projects, much of it was used either by military units for their own commercial purposes or sold to private companies. The threat of military force meant there was little grass roots opposition to these land seizures and few avenues to secure adequate compensation. That's changed under the new democratic order as local communities band together to fight back against seizure of their lands. Many of the current land disputes date to the period before the 2010 general elections that ushered in President Thein Sein's reformist quasi-civilian government...Two new land laws passed on March 30, 2012 - the Farmland Law and the Vacant, Fallow, and Virgin Land Management Law - were intended to clarify ownership under the constitution and provide protections to land owners. While the laws guaranteed more individual ownership rights, to date big businesses have profited most from the legislation. The new laws created a dysfunctional and opaque system of land registration and administration that reinforced a top-down decision-making process without local participation. The absence of adequate legal and judicial recourse for the protection of land rights has further exacerbated the situation. Rather than deter land rights violations, the laws have effectively facilitated more land grabbing and manipulation of the system..."
      Author/creator: Brian McCartan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 June 2013


      Title: Business and Human Rights in Burma (Myanmar) - Testimony of Marco Simons
      Date of publication: 28 February 2013
      Description/subject: Testimony of Marco Simons to the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission: "This submission describes the emerging landscape as U.S. businesses reengage in Burma and identifies specific human rights concerns associated with current and prospective corporate activities in Burma (Myanmar). A number of companies, including General Electric, have already invested in Burma, and U.S. oil supermajors are considering participation in upcoming auctions for oil blocks. Increased foreign investment has already been linked to large-scale displacement of local communities and loss of traditional livelihoods in Burma. The legal framework for land rights is inadequate to protect the fundamental human rights of those whose homes and fields stand in the way of economic development; indeed, it facilitates arbitrary and inadequately compensated alienation of land. Moreover, violence and gross human rights abuses continue to occur in association with natural resource development projects, as at the Letpadaung Copper Mine at Monywa, and in Shan State along the Shwe Gas Pipeline corridor. Having decided that public disclosure, rather than regulation, is a more appropriate tool to address the human rights and environmental concerns associated with Western investment in Burma, the U.S. Government has proposed Reporting Requirements for Responsible Investment in Burma that are expected to take effect prior to April 2013. While they may assist government and civil society to monitor the human rights implications of the relaxation of U.S. sanctions on Burma, these Reporting Requirements have a number of troubling weaknesses that may allow serious human rights risks to avoid detection. Moreover, while the U.S. is now allowing the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank to extend loans to Burma, such projects are already being met with complaints over lack of transparency and consultation..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission
      Format/size: pdf (4,7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 17 July 2013


      Title: Land disputes and the ongoing development of the substantive rule of law in Myanmar (Burma)
      Date of publication: 2013
      Description/subject: Abstract: "The Myanmar Parliament has passed the Farmland Law and the Vacant, Fallow, and Virgin Lands Management Law . Both pieces of legislation form part of a legislative re sponse as Myanmar (Burma) emerges from a sixty year period of chronic armed conflict. Part 2 of this paper outlines the underlying grievances associated with land disputes with a focus upon Kayin (Karen) and Rakhin e (Arakan) states. Part 3 critically analyses the relevant constitutio nal and legislative framework and the role of Parliamentary bodies in l ight of these underlying grievances. Part 4 adopts a comparative stance and considers the approach taken in Kenya as it has sought to add ress similar issues. Finally, Part 5 reflects upon the role that constit utional and legislative reform in relation to land disputes plays in the on going development of the substantive rule of law in Myanmar (Burma)."
      Author/creator: Nathan Willis
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Chapter in "Law & practice: critical analysis and legal reasoning", 2013
      Format/size: pdf (81K-reduced version; 104K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://epubs.scu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1373&context=law_pubs
      Date of entry/update: 07 December 2014


      Title: Legal Review of Recently Enacted Farmland Law and Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law - Improving the Legal & Policy Frameworks Relating to Land Management in Myanmar
      Date of publication: November 2012
      Description/subject: "The Farmland Law and the VFV Law were approved by Parliament on March 30th, 2012. There have been a few improvements compared to previous laws such as recognition of non-rotational taungya as a legitimate land-use and recognition that farmers are using VFV lands without formal recognition by the Government. However overall the Laws lack clarity and provide weak protection of the rights of smallholder farmers in upland areas and do not explicitly state the equal rights of women to register and inherit land or be granted land-use rights for VFV land. The Laws remain designed primarily to foster promotion of large-scale agricultural investment and fail to provide adequate safeguards for the majority of farmers who are smallholders. In particular tenure security for farmland remains weak due to the Government retaining power to rescind farm land use rights leaving smallholders vulnerable to dispossession of their land-use rights. In addition there remains some unnecessary de-facto government control over the crop choices of farmers. In particular it is recommended that recognition of land-use rights under customary law and the creation of mechanisms for communal registration of land-use rights, be included in the Farmland and VFV Laws. There needs to be a comprehensive process of re-classifying land in the country to reflect land-use changes resulting from conversion of forests and VFV land into agricultural land, loss of agricultural land due to development projects, urban expansion and population growth. This will serve to reduce land conflict in the countryside and provide genuine tenure security for smallholders. Furthermore the specific and independent rights of women must be explicitly stated in the Laws. Added to this the fundamental principle of free, prior and informed consent should be enshrined, especially in regard to removal of land-use rights in the national interest. It is also necessary that the Government works in partnership with civil society and farmers associations to revise the Farmland and VFV Laws..."
      Author/creator: Robert B. Oberndorf, J. D.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Forest Trends, Food Security Working Group’s Land Core Group
      Format/size: pdf (236K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Legal_Review_of_Farmland_Law&VFV_Land_Law.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013


      Title: Myanmar at the HLP Crossroads (final version)
      Date of publication: 25 October 2012
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Few issues are as frequently discussed and politically charged in transitional Myanmar as the state of housing, land and property (HLP) rights. The effectiveness of the laws and policies that address the fundamental and universal human need for a place to live, to raise a family, and to earn a living, is one of the primary criterion by which most people determine the quality of their lives and judge the effectiveness and legitimacy of their Governments. Housing, land and property issues undergird economic relations, and have critical implications for the ability to vote and otherwise exercise political power, for food security and for the ability to access education and health care. As the nation struggles to build greater democracy and seeks growing engagement with the outside world, Myanmar finds itself at an extraordinary juncture; in fact, it finds itself at the HLP Crossroads. The decisions the Government makes about HLP matters during the remainder of 2012 and beyond, in particular the highly controversial issue of potentially transforming State land into privately held assets, will set in place a policy direction that will have a marked impact on the future development of the country and the day-to-day circumstances in which people live. Getting it right will fundamentally and positively transform the nation from the bottom-up and help to create a nation that consciously protects the rights of all and shows the true potential of what was until very recently one of the world's most isolated nations. Getting it wrong, conversely, will delay progress, and more likely than not drag the nation's economy and levels of human rights protections downwards for decades to come. Myanmar faces an unprecedented scale of structural landlessness in rural areas, increasing displacement threats to farmers as a result of growing investment interest by both national and international firms, expanding speculation in land and real estate, and grossly inadequate housing conditions facing significant sections of both the urban and rural population. Legal and other protections afforded by the current legal framework, the new Farmland Law and other newly enacted legislation are wholly inadequate. These conditions are further compounded by a range of additional HLP challenges linked both to the various peace negotiations and armed insurgencies in the east of the country, in particular Kachin State, and the unrest in Rakhine State in the western region. The Government and people of Myanmar are thus struggling with a series of HLP challenges that require immediate, high-level and creative attention in a rights-based and consistent manner. As the country begins what will be a long and arduous journey toward democratization, the rule of law and stable new institutions, laws and procedures, the time is ripe for the Government to work together with all stakeholders active within the HLP sector to develop a unique Myanmar- centric approach to addressing HLP challenges that shows the country's true potential. And it is also time for the Government to begin to take comprehensive measures - some quick and short-term, others more gradual and long-term - to equitably and intelligently address the considerable HLP challenges the country faces, and grounding these firmly within the reform process.Having thoroughly examined the de facto and de jure HLP situation in the country based on numerous interviews, reports and visits, combined with an exhaustive review of the entire HLP legislative framework in place in the country, this report recommends that the following four general measures be commenced by the Government of Myanmar before the end of 2012 to improve the HLP prospects of Myanmar:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 2.55MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/files/documents/MyanmarReport.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 26 October 2012


      Title: No protection for taungya farmers in bylaws: experts
      Date of publication: 22 October 2012
      Description/subject: "A network of land-focused civil society organisations has raised concerns that bylaws for two new pieces of land legislation fail to offer proper protection for upland farmers who use shifting cultivation, leaving millions at risk of losing their land tenure rights. Land Core Group chairman U Shwe Thein said that the recently introduced bylaw for the Farmland Law interprets taungya, or upland farming, as only fields under permanent cultivation. This leaves farmers who practise upland shifting cultivation with little protection from losing their lands..."
      Author/creator: Thomas Kean
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 12 December 2014


      Title: GUIDANCE NOTE ON DEVELOPING POLICY OPTIONS FOR ADDRESSING LAND GRABBING AND SPECULATION IN MYANMAR JULY 2012
      Date of publication: July 2012
      Description/subject: "Land grabbing and speculation, which can both manifest in a multitude of forms, are unfortunate, often-inter-twined, yet common practices in countries undergoing structural political transition. If unchecked, unregulated, or unintentionally encouraged by the very governments that replace formerly authoritarian regimes, these two land realities can serve to undermine democratic reforms, entrench economic and political privilege and seriously harm the human rights prospects of those affected, in particular internationally recognised housing, land and property (HLP) rights. Land grabbing and speculation can increase inequality, harm economic prospects and create conditions where social tensions and even violence may become inevitable. Unless law and policy explicitly address the negative consequences of these practices, land grabbing and speculation can erode citizen confidence in government, reduce incomes and livelihoods and increase poverty and broad declines in a range of vital social indicators. And yet, there is nothing inevitable or inherent about the inequitable acquisition and control of ever-larger quantities of land in fewer and fewer hands. Indeed, governments wishing to protect the HLP rights of rural and urban dwellers and properly regulate the land acquisition and transfer process can succeed in reducing the prevalence of both land grabbing and speculation, improve the human rights prospects of current landholders and ultimately strengthen both democratic processes and macro-economic perspectives. It is clear that these issues are affecting Myanmar at the moment, and that it is up to the Government to take steps to address these problems in a fair, effective and equitable manner Twelve possible steps that the Government may wish to consider, include:..."
      Author/creator: Displacement Solutions
      Source/publisher: Scott Leckie
      Format/size: pdf (270K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 October 2012


      Title: Land to the Tillers of Myanmar
      Date of publication: 13 June 2012
      Description/subject: "...with increasing frequency, land is taken from farmers, often with little or no compensation. Large swathes of farmland have already been made available to foreign-based companies in a process that appears to be accelerating. Government data show that the amount of land transferred to private companies increased by as much as 900 percent from the mid-1990s to mid-2000s and now totals roughly 5 percent of Myanmar’s agricultural land... Myanmar law requires farmers to grow what the government or the local military commander wants them to grow, and subjects farmers to production quotas. Policies like these also displace farmers and lead to food insecurity, as farm productivity suffers. This can push farmers into debt by forcing them to take out loans from money lenders or sell their land in an effort to meet an unrealistic planting directive. And now two new land laws — the Farmland Bill and the Vacant, Fallow, and Virgin Land Management Bill, recently passed by the legislature and awaiting action by President Thein Sein — are poised to give the government even more power to seize land without consultation or compensation..."
      Author/creator: Roy Prosterman and Darryl Vhugen
      Source/publisher: "New York Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 June 2012


      Title: MYANMAR AT THE H.L.P. CROSSROADS (initial version)
      Date of publication: 12 June 2012
      Description/subject: "The HLP [Housing, Land and Property]choices the nation makes in the coming months will largely determine whether this unbelievably beautiful land, and its proud and wonderful people, will face the tumult, inequities and tragic HLP outcomes of so many other nations of transition; or whether Myanmar can chart an entirely new HLP path, which ushers in a truly new HLP dawn, whereby every one of the country’s 55 million citizens can – as rapidly as possible – enjoy growing security of tenure, improving housing and living conditions, ever greater access to clean water and regular supplies of electricity, and ultimately all of the HLP rights promised to citizens everywhere under human rights law and international best practice. Indeed, we need to dream of an HLP future that unfolds into sustainable cities and towns, where historical neighbourhoods are preserved, where HLP policy begins from a pro-poor perspective where justice follows and where the nations farmer’s experience ever growing levels of HLP rights protections enabling them to restore this land’s position as the world’s rice bowl. Securing HLP rights for all and not just the few is the way to build a strong economy, a stable society and a prosperous future. There is still every chance for the people of Myanmar to get it right and pursue a wholly original, forward-looking approach to these issues. But time is passing quickly and space for re-positioning legislative and policy initiatives on HLP issues is becoming ever smaller. And the HLP challenges facing Myanmar are nothing short of immense..."
      Author/creator: Scott Leckie
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
      Format/size: pdf (132K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 October 2012


      Title: Examination and Critique of the 2012 Farmland Law
      Date of publication: May 2012
      Description/subject: N. B. The title of this article, published in the April-May issue of "The Mon Forum", uses the term "Bill" which implies that the law has not been adopted. Elsewhere in the article, however, it is clear that the analysis is of the adopted Law... "The Farmland Law was enacted and approved by Burma Pyi Daung Su Hluttaw (Burma Union Parliament) on March 30th, 2012. According to the Farmland Law section 3 (a), “farmland means paddy land, ya land, kiang land, shifting-cultivated land (taung ya), perennial plant land, dhani (coastal) land, orchards, and alluvial land.” Under section 3 (b), “farmland means the land which is mainly for boosting agricultural production, and producing naturally growing or man-made products that can be cultivated with an irrigation system.” Analysis: Because farmland is defined as land primarily for the growth of agricultural production, it is an obstacle for the farmers to cultivate their land freely. It gives the right to cultivate agricultural crops solely for the purpose of agricultural production. [Download PDF Version of Farmland Bill in Burmese]..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM)
      Format/size: pdf (146K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2012


      Title: More warnings over land bills
      Date of publication: 26 February 2012
      Description/subject: Experts say two pieces of draft legislation have 'major gaps' that could be exploited for land grab..."Harvard academics, farmers, activists, politicians, United Nations agencies and a Nobel Prize-winning economist have joined the debate on land rights reform, warning that two proposed land laws could lead to increased poverty and inequality if approved in their current form. The Farmland Bill and Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management Bill were submitted to parliament during the second session but had not been passed when the session ended in late November. Activists and land rights experts say the bills are inadequate and require further consultation, and in late 2011 quietly began campaigning to have both of the draft laws amended. With as much as two-thirds of the population relying on agriculture for their livelihoods, the issue is considered critical to efforts to alleviate poverty and promote inclusive and sustainable development..."
      Author/creator: Thomas Kean
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times" Volume 31, No. 615
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012


      Title: BURMA: Draft land law denies basic rights to farmers
      Date of publication: 01 November 2011
      Description/subject: A Statement by the Asian Human Rights Commission... During the second sitting of the new semi-elected parliament in Burma this year, the government submitted a draft land law. The government gazette published the draft on September 16, and it is currently still before the parliament. Burma needs a new land law. The current legislation on land, either for reasons of content or because of institutional factors, lacks coherence. It is ineffectual in protecting the rights of cultivators. With the rise and rise of private businesses linked to serving and former army officers and bureaucrats, the incidence of land grabbing also is fast increasing, and is bound to increase even more dramatically in the next few years. Although a new law would not stop or perhaps even slow land grabbing of its own accord, one protecting cultivators' rights and situating powers of review over land regulations and cases in the hands of the judiciary and independent agencies could at least set some clear benchmarks against which to measure actual practices, and establish some groundwork for minimum institutional protections. Unfortunately, the draft bill before parliament is not the law that Burma needs. In fact, it is precisely the opposite of what the country needs. Rather than protecting cultivators' rights, it undercuts them at practically every point, through a variety of provisions aimed at enabling rather than inhibiting land grabbing. It invites takeover of land with government authorization for the purpose of practically any activity, not merely for other forms of cultivation. Under the draft, farmers could be evicted to make way for the construction of polluting factories, power lines, roads and railways, pipelines, fun parks, condominiums and whatever else government officials claim to be in "the national interest"..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
      Format/size: pdf (105K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 November 2011


      Title: Burmese government land grab: Farmers without rights
      Date of publication: 23 May 2011
      Description/subject: "...Life for farmers and workers in Burma is growing increasingly more difficult. The minimum wage fails to provide the ‘just and favourable remuneration’ that ensures ‘an existence worthy of human dignity’ that is guaranteed by Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. As a result, many Burmese citizens are forced to leave their families and communities to work as migrant labourers in neighbouring countries. Further, the government’s efforts to confiscate the land of small farmers in order to profit from foreign investors has increased the vulnerability of many Burmese citizens. These actions have been taken in sharp contrast to both Burmese domestic and international laws. The government has provided no reasonable justification for their actions and, therefore, the government is acting in an illegal manner inconsistent with their responsibilities to the Burmese population."
      Author/creator: U Myo and Lane Weir
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima.com
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2011


      Title: Upland Land Tenure Security in Myanmar - an Overview (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
      Date of publication: February 2011
      Description/subject: "This report provides an overview of issues related to upland smallholder land tenure. The immediate objective of the report is to promote a shared understanding of land tenure issues by national-level stakeholders, with a longer term objective of improving the land tenure, livelihood and food security of upland farm families. The report is intended for government and non-government agencies, policy makers and those impacted by policy. The report covers four main areas: status of and trends in upland tenure security; institutions that regulate upland tenure security; mechanisms available to ensure access to land; and points for further consideration which could lead to increased effectiveness and equity. Trends in the uplands include increased population growth, resettlement and concentration of populations, fragmentation and degradation of agricultural lands, and increased loss of land to smallholder farmers or landlessness. Declining access to land for smallholder farmers results in the depletion of common forest resources, increased unemployment, outmigration for labor, and ultimately food insecurity for the people who live in these areas..."
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Food Security Working Group
      Format/size: pdf (4.3MB; 11MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2013


      Title: Upland Land Tenure Security in Myanmar, an Overview (English)
      Date of publication: February 2011
      Description/subject: "This report provides an overview of issues related to upland smallholder land tenure. The immediate objective of the report is to promote a shared understanding of land tenure issues by national-level stakeholders, with a longer term objective of improving the land tenure, livelihood and food security of upland farm families. The report is intended for government and non-government agencies, policy makers and those impacted by policy. The report covers four main areas: status of and trends in upland tenure security; institutions that regulate upland tenure security; mechanisms available to ensure access to land; and points for further consideration which could lead to increased effectiveness and equity. Trends in the uplands include increased population growth, resettlement and concentration of populations, fragmentation and degradation of agricultural lands, and increased loss of land to smallholder farmers or landlessness. Declining access to land for smallholder farmers results in the depletion of common forest resources, increased unemployment, outmigration for labor, and ultimately food insecurity for the people who live in these areas..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Food Security Working Group
      Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2013


      Title: Land Tenure: A foundation for food security in Myanmar’s uplands (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
      Date of publication: December 2010
      Description/subject: "Access to land for smallholder farmers is a critical foundation for food security in Myanmar's uplands. Land tenure guarantees seem to be eroding and access to land becoming more difficult in some upland areas. If this trend continues it may have negative impacts for food security and undermine environmental and economic sustainability. This briefing paper explores the relationship between land tenure and food security, as well as key institutional and other factors that influence land access and tenure for smallholder farmers in the uplands today..."
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Food Security Working Group
      Format/size: pdf (489K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2013


      Title: Land Tenure: A foundation for food security in Myanmar’s uplands (English)
      Date of publication: December 2010
      Description/subject: "Access to land for smallholder farmers is a critical foundation for food security in Myanmar's uplands. Land tenure guarantees seem to be eroding and access to land becoming more difficult in some upland areas. If this trend continues it may have negative impacts for food security and undermine environmental and economic sustainability. This briefing paper explores the relationship between land tenure and food security, as well as key institutional and other factors that influence land access and tenure for smallholder farmers in the uplands today."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Food Security Working Group
      Format/size: pdf (458K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2013


      Title: Status of Customary Land Rights in Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 10 July 2010
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Concern, Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.angoc.org (Asian NGO Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development)
      Date of entry/update: 04 September 2013


      Title: Status of Customary Land Rights in Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: July 2010
      Description/subject: 30 pages for projection
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Concern
      Format/size: pdf (651K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.angoc.org/portal/publications/CLR/A.%20Burma%20Customary%20Land-Rights.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2013


      Title: Guidance Note on Land Issues (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: June 2010
      Description/subject: "This note is meant to serve as a quick reference for local authorities and NGOs to acquire an understanding of relevant land laws and the context of land-use in Myanmar. All land and all natural resources in Myanmar, above and below the ground, above and beneath the water, and in the atmosphere is ultimately owned by the Union of Myanmar. Although the socialist economic system was abolished in 1988, the existing Land Law and Directions were not changed in parallel, and thus these are still in use today in accordance with the ‘Adaptation of Expression of Law’ of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No 8/88..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Habitat, UNHCR
      Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 November 2011


      Title: Confronting the absence of law
      Date of publication: 28 December 2009
      Description/subject: Dec 28, 2009 (DVB)–Few countries’ legal systems are as corrupt and opaque as Burma’s. We spoke to Scott Leckie, director of Displacement Solutions, about their new book on housing, land and property rights (HLP) in Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 January 2010


      Title: A State-run "Market Economy"
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: Without the rule of law, there are no guarantees the economy will be free of state interference under the 2008 Constitution... "The economic aspects of Burma’s 2008 Constitution have been notably absent from the recent written analysis of its implications for Burmese society. Though constitutions are not primarily economic documents, Burma’s latest Constitution does contain clauses that have economic import, and it is worth looking at them carefully. There is an important caveat, however, and this is that a regime that consistently honors the rule of law only in the breach and has many incentives (financial and otherwise) for maintaining the status quo is unlikely to change its behavior anytime soon; therefore, the Constitution may amount to little. Regardless of whether the military abides by its Constitution, however, the document can provide insight into the thinking of its drafters..."
      Author/creator: Sean Turnell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17134
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


      Title: Housing, Land and Property Rights in Burma: Towards New Strategies
      Date of publication: April 2009
      Description/subject: "...Burma's citizens and their international friends need to move beyond the advocacy efforts relied upon during the past decades and identify new and refreshing ways of promoting positive change that starts with the people in Burma. An increasing reliance on HLP rights as a foundation for change, grounded deeply in the daily experience of their denial by the vast majority of those living in the country, and the clear range of concrete actions that can be carried out beginning today to improve the HLP situation in the country, could provide a whole new way of transforming the landscape of the country. A novel vision of Burma is required; a vision where all are adequately housed, where all have secure tenure to their land, where displacement as a policy tool is relegated to history, where basic services are enjoyed by all and where Burma's towns and cities become the bustling, modern, vibrant pride and joy of all the peoples within Burma as they go about living lives of dignity, prosperity, equality and security. HLP strategies could provide the basis for transforming this vision into reality, and the time to commence this work is now"
      Author/creator: Scott Leckie
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Lawyers' Council, ("Lawkapala" No. 32) via Displacement Solutions
      Format/size: pdf (449K)
      Date of entry/update: 29 August 2009


      Title: A Guide to Housing, Land and Property Rights in Burma
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: Table of Contents:- Introduction: I. International Human Rights Law 1. What are human rights? 2. Where do human rights come from? 3. Human rights and government duties... II. The Right to Adequate Housing 1. Housing is a Human Right 2. What is the Right to Adequate Housing? 3. The Right to Adequate Housing and the Duties of Government... III.Forced Evictions 1. Evictions and Human Rights 2. Is an eviction a violation of human rights? 3. Is the eviction absolutely necessary? 4. The Government’s Duties before, during and after eviction 5. Government duties BEFORE an eviction 6. The government’s duties DURING an eviction 7. The government’s duties AFTER an eviction... IV. Housing, Land and Property Restitution Rights 1. What is Housing, Land and Property restitution? 2. International Human Rights standards on HLP Restitution: the “Pinheiro Principles”. 3. Who does the principle of HLP Restitution apply to? 4. The right to return 5. What is the right to restitution? 6. What about people who are occupying land of displaced persons? 7. What should be done to promote the right to return and restitution?
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE)
      Format/size: pdf (712K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO RETURN HOME (English, Karen, Burmese)
      Date of publication: 2008
      Description/subject: Housing rights in Burma after the cyclone... Explaining the right to return and the right to housing, land and property restitution in Burma
      Language: English, Karen, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE)
      Format/size: pdf (English - 56K; Karen - 126K; Burmese - 116K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.cohre.org/sites/default/files/burma_-_factsheet_-_everyone_has_the_right_to_return_home_...
      http://www.cohre.org/sites/default/files/burma_-_factsheet_-_everyone_has_the_right_to_return_home_...
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: Displacement and Dispossession: Forced Migration and Land Rights in Burma
      Date of publication: 05 December 2007
      Description/subject: "According to COHRE's new report, 'Displacement and Dispossession: Forced Migration and Land Rights in Burma', land confiscation by Government forces is responsible for many serious housing, land and property (HLP) rights violations in Burma. These abuses occur during military counter-insurgency operations; to clear land for the construction of new army bases; to make way for infrastructure development projects; to facilitate natural resource extraction; and to cater for the vested interests of business. 'Displacement and Dispossession: Forced Migration and Land Rights in Burma' also reveals that control of land is a key strategy for the military regime, and a means of promoting the on-going expansion of the Burmese Army (Tatmadaw). In 1998, the SPDC issued a directive instructing Tatmadaw battalions to become self-sufficient in rice and other basic provisions. This prompted the Tatmadaw to 'live off the land' by appropriating resources (food, cash, labour, land) from the civilian population. This policy has exacerbated conflict and displacement across much of rural Burma. The Thai Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) and its partners estimate that during 2007, approximately 76,000 people have been newly displaced by armed conflict and associated human rights abuses. The majority of new incidents of forced migration and village destruction were concentrated in northeast Karen State and adjacent areas of Pegu Division. The total number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Eastern Burma in October 2007 was 503,000. These included 295,000 people in ceasefire zones, 99,000 IDPs 'in hiding' in the jungle and 109,000 in relocation sites. The estimates exclude hundreds of thousands of IDPs in other parts of Burma (especially Kachin and Shan States, and the west of the country, as well as in some parts of Karen State). Including these figures would bring the total to over a million internally displaced people. COHRE's Du Plessis said, "More than one million people have been dispossessed and are internally displaced in Burma -- not because of a natural disaster, but due to their own government's calculated and brutal actions. We have here a state monopoly which forcibly transfers property, income and assets, from rural, non-Burman ethnic nationalities to an elite, military Government. The HLP violations found in Burma today are the result of short-sighted and predatory policies that date back to the early years of Independence, and to the period of colonial rule. These problems can only be resolved through substantial and sustained change in Burma. Political transition should include improved access to a range of fundamental rights, as enshrined in international law and conventions -- including respect for HLP rights."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Coalition on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE)
      Format/size: pdf (3.21MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.cohre.org/news/documents/burma-displacement-and-dispossession-forced-migration-and-land-...
      Date of entry/update: 01 December 2010


      Title: Housing, Land, and Property Rights in Burma
      Date of publication: October 2004
      Description/subject: "...The main objective of this research is to examine housing, land, and property rights in the context of Burma’s societal transition towards a democratic polity and economy. Much has been written and discussed about property rights in their various manifestations, private, public, collective, and common in terms of “rights”. When property rights are widely and fairly distributed, they are inseparable from the rights of people to a means of living. Yet in the contemporary world, millions of people are denied access to the land, markets, technology, money and jobs essential to creation of livelihoods (Korten, 1998). The most significant worldwide problems of unjust property rights remain those associated with landlessness, rural poverty, and inequality (Hudson-Rodd & Nyunt, 2000)..."
      Author/creator: Nancy Hudson-Rodd
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Edith Cowan University, Centre for Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE)
      Format/size: pdf (741K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 February 2007


      Title: State-induced violence and poverty in Burma
      Date of publication: April 2004
      Description/subject: "...The objective of this research paper is to describe specific ways in which the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) deprives the people of Burma of their land and livelihood. Confiscation of land, labour, crops and capital; destruction of person and property; forced labour; looting and expropriation of food and possessions; forced sale of crops to the military; extortion of money through official and unofficial taxes and levies; forced relocation and other abuses by the State..."
      Author/creator: Dr Nancy Hudson-Rodd, Dr Myo Nyunt, Saw Thamain Tun, Sein Htay
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Edith Cowan University, National Council of Union of Burma (NCUB), Federation of Trade Unions-Burma (FTUB)
      Format/size: pdf (448K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 February 2007


      Title: The Impact of the confiscation of Land, Labor, Capital Assets and forced relocation in Burma by the military regime
      Date of publication: May 2003
      Description/subject: 1. Introduction 1; 2. Historical Context and Current Implications of the State Taking Control of People, Land and Livelihood 2; 2.1. Under the Democratically Elected Government 2; 2.1.1. The Land Nationalization Act 1953 2; 2.1.2. The Agricultural Lands Act 1953 2; 3. Under the Revolutionary Council (1962-1974) 2; 3.1. The Tenancy Act 1963 3; 3.2. The Protection of the Right of Cultivation Act, 1963 3; 4. The State Gains Further Control over the Livelihoods of Households 3; 4.1. Under the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) Rule (1974 - 1988) 3; 4.1.1 Land Policy and Institutional Reforms 3; 4.2 Under the Military Rule II - SLORC/SPDC (1988 - present) 4; 4.2.1. Keeping it Together: Agriculture, Economy, and Rural Livelihood 5; 5. Militarization of Rural Economy 8; 5.1. Land confiscation 8; 5. 2. Land reclamation 11; 5.3. Military Agricultural Projects 13; 5.4. The Fleecing of Burmese Farmers 15; 5.5. Procurement 17; 5.5.1. Other crops 20; 5.5.2. Farmers tortured in Mon State 23; 6. Forced Relocation and Disparity of Income and wealth 25; 7. Conclusion 29... APPENDICES NOT YET ACQUIRED Appendix 1. Summary Report on Human Rights Violations by SPDC and DKBA Troops in 7 Districts of KNU ( 2000 to 2002) 31; Appendix 2. Forced labor by SPDC troops on road construction from Pa-pun to Kamamaung in 2003 38; Appendix 3. Survey Questionnaires (Ward/village and Household - in Burmese) 45.
      Author/creator: Dr Nancy Hudson-Rodd, Dr Myo Nyunt, Saw Thamain Tun, Sein Htay
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: NCUB, FTUB
      Format/size: html (19K) pdf (649K, 812K, 413K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/land_confiscation-NHR+al-en-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2003


      Title: An Overview of the recognition of Native Title in the Commonwealth of Australia
      Date of publication: April 2000
      Description/subject: "..Rights to land in Burma are bound up with issues of ethnic conflict, militarisation and lack of democratic institutions. A future democratic Burma will need to seek ways to resolve competing claims to land, taking into account such issues as traditional ownership by particular ethnic nationalities, return of displaced persons, varying religious ties to land, development imperatives and agricultural demands. The chosen method of resolution will need to address, as much as possible, the needs for certainty, efficiency and a fair hearing for those concerned. The democratic opposition and its international supporters are seeking to explore and collect ideas for the construction of effective and fair ways of dealing with the many complex legal and social issues in Burma. As part of this exploration of ideas for the future, Burma Lawyers' Council encourages articles explaining relevant issues in other countries. The following article is kindly provided by the principle legal officer of an indigenous land council in Australia. The Australian experience offers an interesting perspective on possible judicial, legislative and administrative responses to the issue of indigenous ownership of land..."
      Author/creator: D L Ritter
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 5 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Land as a Free Gift of Nature
      Date of publication: 1920
      Description/subject: Use Google Chrome to read online - otherwise download and read offline
      Author/creator: J. S. Furnivall
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Cambridge University Press
      Format/size: pdf (193K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2014


    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to land, property and planning (texts)
      Many of these texts were taken (with permission) from the Displacement Solutions Book: "HOUSING, LAND AND PROPERTY RIGHTS IN BURMA: THE CURRENT LEGAL FRAMEWORK" http://www.displacementsolutions.org/files/documents/Burma_HLP_book.pdf

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burma HLP Initiative
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: "Since its establishment in 2006, Displacement Solutions has been active in exploring the housing, land and property rights situation in Burma. The Burma HLP Initiative aims to shed new light on the numerous HLP rights issues in Burma today by building capacity for enforcing these rights by citizens of the country. The Initiative works together with various groups within and outside Burma towards these ends. The Initiative explores key questions such as: * What are the characteristics and status of the legal regime in Burma as it relates to HLP rights issues? * How effective is the current legal regime in promoting human rights standards relevant to HLP rights? What are the key issues facing the HLP rights regime in Burma? * In what ways can the legal code more effectively address HLP rights in Burma, and how might it be reformed to avoid problems in the future transition process? This will draw on the many experiences of political transition since the end of the Cold War. * How can the capacity of the Burmese democratic opposition be enhanced to structurally address the HLP legal environment in Burma today? How can expert capacity be strengthened to better prepare the broader democratic opposition to address the HLP challenges that will arise during and after political transition?..." THIS LINK CONTAINS A HYPERLINKED SET OF BURMESE HLP-RELATED LAWS
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: HOUSING, LAND AND PROPERTY RIGHTS IN BURMA: THE CURRENT LEGAL FRAMEWORK
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: A compilation of all of the existing housing, land and property laws in Burma, plus commentary... "The deplorable human rights record of Burma’s military junta has been a key focus of international attention for many years. The military has ruled the country for half a century, and has presided over a collapse of the economy and of social services. At the same time, successive military regimes have perpetuated an almost feudal governance system – where the population is seen as a resource at the disposal of the rulers – that is in many respects unchanged since pre-colonial times. A combination of deliberate abuse, a general climate of impunity, and out-dated and ineffective social policies all contribute to a fundamental absence of basic human rights in this country of 55 million people. To date, the bulk of attention has focused on important questions of political prisoners, denial of basic freedoms, forced labour, forced displacement, as well as the other abuses related to the army’s brutal counter-insurgency policies. However, there are additional types of rights abuses that are not as frequently mentioned, but that have a critical impact on the daily lives of millions of people across Burma. And it is these – housing, land and property (HLP) rights – that form the contents of this important new book. This volume contains all of the existing housing, land and property laws in Burma, and makes a vital contribution to understanding the impact that these legal structures have on communities across the country. Being able to view the HLP legal code in its entirety for the first time reveals more clearly than ever before that supporters of democratic and governance reform within Burma need to better understand – and place greater emphasis on – HLP issues than they have to date. Understanding how these issues are dealt with in both law and practice will enable more creative thinking about Burma’s HLP future, in order that the peoples of the country can most fully enjoy their legitimate housing, land and property rights."
      Author/creator: Scott Leckie and Ezekiel Simperingham (eds)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions & The HLP Institute
      Format/size: pdf (3.42MB) - 1255 pages
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2009


      Individual Documents

      Title: Farmland Rules - Notification No 62/2012 (English)
      Date of publication: 31 August 2012
      Description/subject: Notification No 62/2012 - 14 Waxing Wagaung 1374 ME (31, August, 2012) - Designating the Date of Coming into Force of Farm Land Law...The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation promulgated the following rules by using the power vested by the section-42, sub-section (a) of farm land law with the approval of Pyidaungsu Government.... 1. These rules shall be called farm land rules. 2. The words and expressions contained in these rules shall mean as contained in Farm Land Law. And the following words shall mean as described..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar President Office
      Format/size: pdf (159K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 January 2013


      Title: Farmland Rules - Notification No. 62/2012 ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္ ဥပေဒအမွတ္ ၆၂) ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ လယ္ယာစိုက္ပ်ိဳ
      Date of publication: 31 August 2012
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
      Format/size: pdf (189K-OBL version; 213K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://myanmarpoliceforce.org/images/pdf/35.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 June 2013


      Title: Law Amending 1955 Government Housing (Expelling) Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 16/2012 (၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ျပည္ေထာင္စု လႊတ္ေတာ္ ဥပေဒ အမွတ္ ၁၆။)၁၉၅၅ ခုႏွစ္၊
      Date of publication: 31 August 2012
      Description/subject: 1955 Government Housing
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") ေၾကးမံု 2 September 2012
      Format/size: pdf (63K,"Kyemon"; 114K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs16/2012-08-31-Pyidaungsu_Hluttaw_Law16-bu.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


      Title: Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Rules - Notification No. 1/2012 (English)
      Date of publication: 31 August 2012
      Description/subject: The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, exercising its given rights, and with the approval of the Union Government, has issued the following rules in accordance with Section 34, Subsection (a) of the Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law - 1. These rules shall be called the Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Rules. 2. The terms and expressions used in these rules shall have the same meaning as used in the Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law. In addition, the following expressions shall have the meanings as stated below:
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (Unofficial Translation by UN-Habitat)
      Format/size: pdf (295K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 January 2013


      Title: Bill Amending the Transfer of Immoveable Property Act / ပစၥည္း လႊဲေျပာင္းျခင္း အက္ဥပေဒကို ျပင္ဆင္သည့္ ဥပေဒၾကမ္း (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 09 July 2012
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Alin"
      Format/size: pdf (91K)
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


      Title: Environment Conservation Law - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 9/2012 (English)
      Date of publication: 30 March 2012
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
      Format/size: pdf (58K)
      Date of entry/update: 22 June 2013


      Title: Environment Conservation Law - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 9/2012 /ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ထိန္းသိမ္းေရးဥပေဒ (၂ဝ၁၂ ခုႏွစ္၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္ဥပေ
      Date of publication: 30 March 2012
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law, "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") ေၾကးမံု 1 April 2012
      Format/size: pdf (56K, 205K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/KN/9_2012_Enveronment_Conservation_Law_Mirror2012-04-01.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2012


      Title: Farmland Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 11/2012 (English)
      Date of publication: 30 March 2012
      Description/subject: Farmland Act (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No.ll of 2012) Day of 8th Waxing of Tagu 1373 ME (30th March, 2012).....The translation has some notable shortcomings...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (GRUM) via UN Habitat
      Format/size: pdf (62K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 May 2013


      Title: Farmland Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 11/2012 / ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စု လႊတ္ေတာ္ ဥပေဒ အမွတ္ ၁၁လယ္ယာေျမ ဥပေဒ (၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ မ
      Date of publication: 30 March 2012
      Description/subject: agrarian
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") ေၾကးမံု 3 April 2012
      Format/size: pdf (44K, 143K-"Mirror" version; 125K, Alternate URL))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Farmland_Act%28bu%29.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/KN/30.3.12_Farmland_law-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


      Title: Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 10/2012 (၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္ ဥပေဒအမွတ္ (၁၀) မလြတ္၊ ေျမလပ္ႏွ
      Date of publication: 30 March 2012
      Description/subject: Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") ေၾကးမံု 2 April 2012
      Format/size: pdf (86K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Vacant_Fallow_and_Virgin_Land_Management_Act%28bu%29.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 April 2012


      Title: Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 10/2012 (English)
      Date of publication: 30 March 2012
      Description/subject: Unofficial translation by UN-Habitat
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
      Format/size: pdf (292K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 June 2012


      Title: Ward and Village Administration Amending Act -Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 7/2012 (၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္ ဥပေဒအမွတ္ (၇) ရပ္ကြက္ သို့မဟုတ္
      Date of publication: 30 March 2012
      Description/subject: Ward and Village Administration Amending
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Alin" 30. 3. 2012 ျမန္မာ့အလင္းသတင္းစာ
      Format/size: pdf (191K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/KN/7_2012_Ward_and_Village_Administration_Amending_Act_Mirror2012-03-30...
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2012


      Title: Environment Conservation Law - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 9/2012 (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 20 March 2012
      Description/subject: Adopted 20 March 2012, published 1 April 2012....."The objectives of this Law are as follows: (a) to enable to implement the Myanmar National Environmental Policy; (b) to enable to lay down the basic principles and give guidance for systematic integration of the matters of environmental conservation in the sustainable development process; (c) to enable to emerge a healthy and clean environment and to enable to conserve natural and cultural heritage for the benefit of present and future generations; (d) to reclaim ecosystems as may be possible which are starting to degenerate and disappear; (e) to enable to manage and implement for decrease and loss of natural resources and for enabling the sustainable use beneficially; (f) to enable to implement for promoting public awareness and cooperation in educational programmes for dissemination of environmental perception; (g) to enable to promote international, regional and bilateral cooperation in the matters of environmental conservation; (h) to enable to cooperate with Government departments, Government organizations, international organizations, non-government organizations and individuals in matters of environmental conservation..."
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
      Format/size: pdf (58K-English; 215K-Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Environment_Conservation_Act-bu.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 May 2013


      Title: Ward or Village Administration Law - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 1/2012 (English
      Date of publication: 24 February 2012
      Description/subject: Date of adoption, 24 February 2012. Date of publication 25 February...We are not 100% sure if this English version is of the adopted law or if there were amendments...this version is a bit blurry with Firefox. Try Chrome or IE.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
      Format/size: pdf (602K)
      Date of entry/update: 16 May 2013


      Title: 2011 Farmland Bill
      Date of publication: 20 September 2011
      Description/subject: The Draft land law
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Hluttaws
      Format/size: pdf (34K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 January 2012


      Title: THE LAW AMENDING THE TRANSFER OF IMMOVEABLE PROPERTY RESTRICTION LAW (2005)
      Date of publication: 13 January 2005
      Description/subject: (State Peace and Development Council Law No. 1/2005) The 4th Waxing Day of Pyatho, 1366 M.E (13th January, 2005)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council
      Format/size: pdf (61K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: The City of Mandalay Development Law - SPDC Law No. 8/2002 (English)
      Date of publication: 14 November 2002
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (72K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222803/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml02_08....
      Date of entry/update: 11 June 2013


      Title: PROCEDURES CONFERRING THE RIGHT TO CULTIVATE LAND/RIGHT TO UTILIZE LAND FOR AGRICULTURAL AND LIVESTOCK BREEDING PURPOSES (AMENDMENT) (1998)
      Date of publication: 28 September 1998
      Description/subject: THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR - THE CENTRAL COMMITTEEE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CULTURABLE LAND, FALLOW LAND AND WASTE LAND - NOTIFICATION NO 1/98 - Yangon, Thw Waxing Day of Thadingyut, 1360 ME - (28th September 1998)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
      Format/size: pdf (57K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: CITY OF YANGON DEVELOPMENT (AMENDMENT) LAW (1996)
      Date of publication: 25 January 1996
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 1/96 - The 6th Waxing Day of Tabodwe, 1357 M.E.- 25 January 1996
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council
      Format/size: pdf (62K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CITY OF YANGON DEVELOPMENT (AMENDMENT) LAW (1995)
      Date of publication: 04 May 1995
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 5/95 - The 6th Waxing of Kason, 1357 ME. - 4 May 1995
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council
      Format/size: pdf (64K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Law - SLORC Law No.1/93 (English)
      Date of publication: 27 January 1993
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Law - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.1/93) - The 5th Waxing Day of Tabodwe, 1354 ME. - 27th January, 1993
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (96K); html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Narcotic_Drugs_Act.htm
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE FOREST LAW (1992)
      Date of publication: 03 November 1992
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 8/92 - The 9th Waning Day of Tazaungmon, 1354 M.E. - 3 November 1992
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (102K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE LAW FOR THE REPEAL OF LAWS (1992)
      Date of publication: 19 February 1992
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 1/92 - The 1st Waning Day of Tabodwe, 1353 ME - 19 February 1992 - "Whereas it is expedient to provide for the repeal of certain laws from among existing laws, which on scrutiny have been found to be no longer in conformity with the changing circumstances, laws which have not been in use for a very long time and laws for which there are no reasons for use in future, the State Law and Order Restoration Council hereby enacts this Law..." [137 laws repealed]
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (74K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: PROCEDURES CONFERRING THE RIGHT TO CULTIVATE LAND/ RIGHT TO UTILIZE LAND (1991) - Central Committee for the Management of Culturable Land, Fallow Land and Waste Land Notification No.1/91 (English)
      Date of publication: 12 December 1991
      Description/subject: The Government of the Union of Myanmar - The Central Committee for the Management of Culturable Land, Fallow Land and waste Land - Notification No. 1/91 - 6th waxing Day of Nadaw, 1353 M.E - (12th December, 1991)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council
      Format/size: pdf (62K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: DUTIES AND RIGHTS OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CULTURABLE LAND, FALLOW LAND AND WASTE LAND (1991)
      Date of publication: 13 November 1991
      Description/subject: The Union of Myanmar - The State Law and Order Restoration Council - Notification No. 44/91 - 7th Waxing Day of Tazaungmon, 1353 M.E. - (13th November, 1991)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council
      Format/size: pdf (56K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE LAW AMENDING THE CITY OF YANGON MUNICIPAL ACT (1991)
      Date of publication: 22 April 1991
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.8/91 The 10th Waxing Day of Kason, 1353 M.E. 22 April 1991
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council
      Format/size: pdf (70K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: The City of Yangon Development Law - SLORC Law No. 11/90 (English)
      Date of publication: 14 May 1990
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The City of Yangon Development Law - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 11/90) - The 6th Waning Day of Kason, 1352 M.E. (14th May, 1990)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (69K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: The Law Amending the Electricity Law - SLORC Law No. 3/90 (English)
      Date of publication: 07 March 1990
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Law Amending the Electricity Law - (The State Law and Order Restoration council Law No. 3/90) - The 12th Waxing Day of Tabaung, 1351 M.E. (7th March, 1990)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (54K, 63K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Electricity-Amendment-Law-1990.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: Procedures relating to the Union of Myanmar Foreign Investment Law - SLORC Notification No. 11/88 (English)
      Date of publication: 07 December 1988
      Description/subject: This document includes the forms used in the procedure...Procedures relating to the Union of Myanmar Foreign Investment Law - The Government of the Union of Myanmar Notification No. 11/88 - The 14th waning day of Tazaungmon, I350 B.E (7 December 1988)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (421K)
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2013


      Title: THE UNION OF MYANMAR FOREIGN INVESTMENT LAW (1988)
      Date of publication: 30 November 1988
      Description/subject: The 7th waning day of Tazaungmon, 1350 B.E. (30th November, 1988).....Repealed by the Foreign Investment Law of 2 November 2012, The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 21/2012.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council
      Format/size: pdf (90K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: TRANSFER OF IMMOVEABLE PROPERTY RESTRICTION ACT (1987)
      Date of publication: 1987
      Description/subject: Pyithu Hluttaw Act 1, 1987
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Union of the Socialist Republic of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (63K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: The 1963 Tenancy Law & the 1965 Amendment (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 1965
      Description/subject: Renting Land for Cultivation Law The Union of Burma Revolutionary Council Law 8, 1963 [Reprint 1963]....THE TENANCY LAW AMENDING LAW, 1965. (THE UNION OF BURMA REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL LAW NO. 2 OF 1965)
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Union of Burma Revolutionary Council
      Format/size: pdf (1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE TENANCY LAW AMENDING LAW, 1965.
      Date of publication: 1965
      Description/subject: (THE UNION OF BURMA REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL LAW NO. 2 OF 1965)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Union of Burma Revolutionary Council
      Format/size: pdf (50K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE LAW SAFEGUARDING PEASANT RIGHTS, 1963.
      Date of publication: 1963
      Description/subject: (THE UNION OF BURMA REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL LAW NO. 9 OF 1963).....Repealed by the Farmland Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 11/2012
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Union of Burma Revolutionary Council
      Format/size: pdf (50K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE TENANCY LAW (1963)
      Date of publication: 1963
      Description/subject: Renting Land for Cultivation Law... The Union of Burma Revolutionary Council Law 8, 1963
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Union of Burma Revolutionary Council
      Format/size: pdf (56K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE VILLAGE (AMENDMENT) ACT (1961)
      Date of publication: 02 October 1961
      Description/subject: ACT No. XXXIV OF 1961 The 2nd October 1961
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (42K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CITY OF YANGON MUNICIPAL (AMENDMENT) ACT (1961)
      Date of publication: 17 March 1961
      Description/subject: ACT NO. 1 OF 1961 THE 17th MARCH 1961
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (49K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: 1960 Urban Rent Control Act (1960, Act No.8)
      Date of publication: 1960
      Description/subject: This text also includes the 1960 Urban Rent Control (Amendment) Act (1960 Act Number 20)and the 1961 Urban Rent Control (Amendment) Act (1961 Act number 31)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (98K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CITY OF RANGOON MUNICIPAL (AMENDMENT) ACT (1960)
      Date of publication: 1960
      Description/subject: ACT No. XXXI OF I960
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (73K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: URBAN RENT CONTROL (AMENDMENT) ACT (1960)
      Date of publication: 1960
      Description/subject: Act No. 20, 1960
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (101K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CITY OF YANGON MUNICIPAL (AMENDMENT) ACT (1958)
      Date of publication: 24 March 1958
      Description/subject: Act No. XVII OF 1958 The 24th March 1958
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (66K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CITY OF RANGOON MUNICIPAL (AMENDMENT) ACT (1955)
      Date of publication: 1955
      Description/subject: Act No XLI 1955
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (31K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE VILLAGE (AMENDMENT) ACT (1955)
      Date of publication: 1955
      Description/subject: Act No XXV 1955
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (29K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: Land Nationalization Act of 1953 (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 26 October 1953
      Description/subject: Repealed by the Farmland Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 11/2012.....Replaced the Land Nationalization Act of 1948
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (873K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 March 2011


      Title: The Land Nationalization Act of 1953 (English)
      Date of publication: 26 October 1953
      Description/subject: Repealed by the Farmland Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 11/2012..... Appended with ACT NO. 75 of 1953 (October 26, 1953), Amendment ACT NO. 22 of 1954 (March 30, 1954), Amendment ACT NO. 54 of 1955 (October 19, 1955), Amendment ACT NO. 49 of 1957 (October 16, 1957)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (188K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: Land Nationalization Act of 1948
      Date of publication: 1948
      Description/subject: No longer in force -- Replaced by the Land Nationalization Act of 1953 which in turn was replaced by the Farmland Law of 2012 - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 11/2012
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (94K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 August 2009


      Title: THE PUBLIC PROPERTY PROTECTION ACT (1947)
      Date of publication: 24 December 1947
      Description/subject: BURMA ACT LXXXIII, 1947] (24th December 1947)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (91K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE TOWNS (AMENDMENT) ACT (1947)
      Date of publication: 08 November 1947
      Description/subject: Burma Act No LXVI 8 November 1947
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (33K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE REQUISITIONING (EMERGENCY PROVISIONS) ACT (1947)
      Date of publication: 28 July 1947
      Description/subject: [BURMA ACT XXXVIII, 1947] (28th July, 1947)..... "WHEREAS it is expedient to make provisions for requisitioning lands and premises in certain respects; * * * * It is hereby enacted as follows : — ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (85K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CUSTODIAN OF MOVABLE PROPERTY ACT (1945)
      Date of publication: 01 November 1945
      Description/subject: BURMA Act X, 1945 1st November, 1945..... "WHEREAS it is expedient to make legislative provision for the recovery and return to the owners of movable property of which the owners have been deprived of possession by circumstances arising out of the war and for the appointment of Custodians of such property ; * * * * It is hereby enacted as follows: -..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (64K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: The Hindu Gains of Learning Act (1930)
      Date of publication: 25 July 1930
      Description/subject: India Act XXX, 1930 25th July, 1930..... "Whereas it is expedient to remove doubt, and to provide an uniform rule, as to the rights of a member of a Hindu undivided family in property acquiredby him by means of his learning ; It is hereby enacted as follow:-..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (51K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: The Hindu Law of Inheritance Amendment Act (1929)
      Date of publication: 21 February 1929
      Description/subject: INDIA Act II, 1929 21st February, 1929... "Whereas it is expedient to alter the order in which certain heirs of a Hindu male dying intestate are entitled to succeed to his estate ; It is hereby enacted as follows:-..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (47K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE HINDU INHERITANCE (REMOVAL OF DISABILITIES) ACT (1928)
      Date of publication: 20 September 1928
      Description/subject: India Act XII 1928 20th September, 1928... "Whereas it is expedient to amend the Hindu Law relating to exclusion from inheritance of certain classes of heirs, and to remove certain doubts; It is hereby enacted as follows:-..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (45K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE WATER POWER ACT (1927)
      Date of publication: 29 October 1927
      Description/subject: BURMA ACT XI, 1927 29th October, 1927
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (58K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CANTONMENTS (HOUSE ACCOMMODATION) ACT (1923)
      Date of publication: 01 April 1923
      Description/subject: INDIA ACT VI 1923 1st April 1923
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (77K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CITY OF RANGOON MUNICIPAL ACT (1922)
      Date of publication: 22 August 1922
      Description/subject: [Burma Act VI, 1922] [1 August, 1922]....."...1. This Act extends to the City of Rangoon [See clause (vii) of section 3 and Schedule VI] only: Provided that the President of the Union may, by notification, extend this Act or any part to any other local area in the Union of Burma...."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (315K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE RANGOON DEVELOPMENT TRUST ACT (1921)
      Date of publication: 01 February 1921
      Description/subject: Burma Act V, 1920 1st February, 1921.....1. "...This Act shall extend to the City of Rangoon and to such areas in the neighbourhood thereof as the President of the Union may, by notification, specify in this behalf:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (161K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE HINDU DISPOSITION OF PROPERTY ACT (1916)
      Date of publication: 28 September 1916
      Description/subject: India Act XV 1916 28th September 1916....Whereas it is expedient to remove certain existing disabilities in respect of the power of disposition of property by Hindus for the benefit of persons not in existence at the date of such disposition ; It is hereby enacted as follows:
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (49K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE EMBANKMENT ACT (1909)
      Date of publication: 15 October 1910
      Description/subject: BURMA ACT IV, 1909 15th October, 1910
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (59K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE (1909) (selections related to land))
      Date of publication: 01 January 1909
      Description/subject: [India Act, 1908] (1st January, 1909)-- selected articles
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (81K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE REGISTRATION ACT (1909)
      Date of publication: 01 January 1909
      Description/subject: INDIA ACT XVI 1st JANUARY 1909
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (132K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE VILLAGE ACT (1907)
      Date of publication: 01 January 1908
      Description/subject: BURMA ACT VI 1907 1st JANUARY 1908.....PRELIMINARY...DUTIES AND POWERS OF VILLAGE COMMITTEES, HEADMEN AND RURAL POLICEMAN...GENERAL DUTIES OF VILLAGERS...PROVISIONS RESPECTING RESIDENCE IN VILLAGE=TRACTS AND ERECTION OF HOUSES...PAWN SHOPS...PWES...SUPPLEMENTAL PROVISIONS
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (90K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE TOWNS ACT (1907)
      Date of publication: 25 May 1907
      Description/subject: BURMA ACT III, 1907 25th May. 1907.....GENERAL DUTIES OF HEADMEN AND ELDERS...GENERAL DUTIES OF RESIDENTS...PWES, BILLIARDS SALOONS, PAWN-SHOPS, ETC.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (68K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE BURMA LAWS ACT (1898)
      Date of publication: 04 November 1898
      Description/subject: India Act XIII, 1898 4th November, 1898...."...5. The President of the Union may, for administrative including revenue purposes,- (q) divide Upper Burma into divisions and each of these divisions into districts, and vary the limits of those divisions and districts, and (b) divide each of those districts into sub-divisions, each of those sub-divisions into townships and each of those townships into circles, and vary the limits of these sub-divisions, townships and circles. 6. For the purpose of facilitating the application of any enactment for the time being in force in any part of Upper Burma, any Court may construe the enactment with such alterations, not affecting the substance, as may be necessary or proper to adapt it to the matter before the Court..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (49K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE LOWER BURMA TOWN AND VILLAGE LANDS ACT (1899)
      Date of publication: 09 September 1898
      Description/subject: BURMA ACT IV 1898 9th SEPTEMBER 1899....."...1. This Act extends to Lower Burma and the Thayetmyo District of Upper Burma. 2. The provisions of this Act shall apply only to land in towns and villages..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (90K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE LAND ACQUISITION ACT (1894)
      Date of publication: 01 March 1894
      Description/subject: INDIA ACT I, 1894 1st March 1894
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (105K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE PARTITION ACT (1893)
      Date of publication: 09 March 1893
      Description/subject: INDIA Act IV, 1893 9th March, 1893....."...Whenever in any suit for partition in which, if instituted prior to the commencement of this Act, a decree for partition might have been made, it appears to the Court that, by reason of the nature of the property to which the suit relates, or of the number of the shareholders therein or of any other special circumstance, a division of the property cannot reasonably or conveniently be made, and that a sale of the property and distribution of the proceeds would be more beneficial for all the shareholders, the Court may, if it thinks tit, on the request of any of such shareholders interested individually or collectively to the extent of one moiety or upwards, direct a sale of the property and a distribution of the proceeds..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (51K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE UPPER BURMA LAND AND REVENUE REGULATION (1889)
      Date of publication: 13 July 1889
      Description/subject: [REGULATION III, 1889.] (13th July, 1889.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (101K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE LAND ACQUISITION (MINES) ACT (1885)
      Date of publication: 16 October 1885
      Description/subject: INDIA ACT XVIII 1885. 16th October, 1885....."WHEREAS it is expedient to provide for cases in which mines or minerals are situate under land which it is desired to acquire under the Land Acquisition Act; It is hereby enacted as follows:-..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (62K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE TRANSFER OF PROPERTY ACT (1882)
      Date of publication: 01 July 1882
      Description/subject: INDIA ACT IV 1882
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (198K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE KAZIS ACT (1880)
      Date of publication: 09 July 1880
      Description/subject: INDIA ACT XII, 1880..... "Whereas by the preamble to Act No. XI of 18642 it was (among other things) declared that it was inexpedient that the appointment of the Kazi-ul- Kuzaat, or of City, Town or Pargana Kazis, should be made by the Government, and by the same Act the enactments relating to the appointment by the Government- of the said officers were repealed ; and Whereas by the usage of the Muhammadan community [ * * * * ] the presence of Kazis appointed by the Government is required at the celebration of marriages and the performance of certain other rites and ceremonies, and it is therefore expedient that the Government should again be empowered A to appoint persons to the office of Kazi; It is hereby enacted as follows:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (59K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: Land and Revenue Act (1879)
      Date of publication: 01 February 1879
      Description/subject: INDIA Act II 1876..... "WHEREAS it is expedient to declare the law relating to the acquisition by private persons of rights in land in the Union of Burma ; And whereas it is expedient also to consolidate and' amend the law relating to the assessment and collection of land-revenue, capitation-tax and certain other taxes ; It is hereby enacted as follows :--..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (123K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE SPECIFIC RELIEF ACT (1877)
      Date of publication: 01 May 1877
      Description/subject: INDIA ACT 1877
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (141K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE MARRIED WOMEN’S PROPERTY ACT (1874)
      Date of publication: 24 February 1874
      Description/subject: INDIA Act III, 1874....."Whereas it is expedient to make such provision as hereinafter appears for the enjoyment of wages and earnings by women married before the first day of January, 1866, and for insurances on lives by persons married before or after that day: And whereas by the Indian Succession Act, 1865, section 4,1 it is enacted that no person shall by marriage acquire any interest in the property of the person whom he or she marries, nor become incapable of doing any act in respect of his or her own property, which he or she could have done, if unmarried : · And whereas by force of the said Act all women to whose marriages it applies are absolute owners of all property vested in, or acquired by, them, and their husbands do not by their marriage acquire any interest in such property, but the said Act does not protect such husbands from liabilities on account of the debts of their wives contracted before marriage, and does not expressly provide for the enforcement of claims by or against such wives : It is hereby enacted as follows : -,,,"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (61K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE HINDU WIDOWS’ REMARRIAGE ACT (1856)
      Date of publication: 25 July 1856
      Description/subject: INDIA Act XV, 1856....."Whereas it is known that by the law as administered in the civil Courts, Hindu widows with certain exceptions are held to be, by reason of their having been once married, incapable of contracting a second valid marriage, and the offspring of such widows by any second marriage are held to be illegitimate and incapable of inheriting property;..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (53K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011


      Title: THE CASTE DISABILITIES REMOVAL ACT, I850
      Date of publication: 11 April 1850
      Description/subject: INDIA ACT XXI, 1850....."Whereas it is enacted by section 9, Regulation VII, 1832, of the Bengal Code, that “whenever in any civil suit the parties to such suit may be of different persuasions, when one party shall be of the Hindu and the other of the Muhammadan persuasion, or where one of more parties to the suit shall not be either of the Muhammadan or Hindu persuasions, the laws of those religions shall not be permitted to operate to deprive such party or parties of any property to which, but for the operation of such laws, they would have been entitled”; and whereas it will be beneficial to extend the principle of that enactment; It is enacted as follows:-..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: pdf (34K)
      Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/?page_id=197 http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=20
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2011