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Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to the environment (commentary)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: FAO Legal Office - Legislative Studies
Description/subject: More than 100 full-text studies from 1971 on legal issues related, directly or indirectly, to the environment. Most in English; some also in French and Spanish.
Language: English, French, Spanish
Source/publisher: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 May 2013


Individual Documents

Title: Good Governance and the Extractive Industry in Burma: Complications of Burma’s Regulatory Framework (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
Date of publication: 16 July 2013
Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ အစိုးရအတြက္ သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ေရးရာႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအေနျဖင့္ လမ္းေၾကာင္းမွန္ေပၚသို႔ ေျခလွမ္းလွ်က္ရွိသည္ဟု ဆိုႏိုင္ေသာ္လည္း၊ ျမန္မာအစိုးရမွာ ေကာင္းမြန္သည့္ အစိုးရအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရး စနစ္ ျဖစ္ရန္ အလွမ္းေဝးေနပါေသးသည္။ ျမန္မာအစိုးရအေနျဖင့္ ၎ကိုယ္၌က သဘာဝသယံဇာတမ်ား ကာကြယ္ထိန္းသိမ္းေရးႏွင့္ ေရရွည္ တည္တံ့ေစေရးအတြက္၊ ‘ေကာင္းမြန္သည့္ အစိုးရအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးစနစ္’ လမ္းညႊန္မူမ်ားႏွင့္ ကိုက္ညီသည့္၊ ေလ်ာ္ကန္ေသာ မူဝါဒအေျခခံ မူေဘာင္တစ္ခု မခ်မွတ္ႏိုင္သမွ် ကာလပတ္လံုး၊ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ စာခ်ဳပ္စာတမ္းမ်ားႏွင့္ ေကာ္ပိုေရးရွင္းႀကီးမ်ား၏ စည္းမ်ဥ္းမ်ားက သဘာဝသယံဇာတမ်ား အေဟာသိ ကံျဖစ္ရမႈ၊ ပ်က္စီး ဆံုးရႈံးေနရမႈကို ေလွ်ာ့နည္း က်ဆင္းေစလိမ့္မည္ မဟုတ္ေပ။ ေရႊသဘာဝ ဓာတ္ေငြ႔ စီမံကိန္းသည္လည္း ဤသို႔ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ဆံုးရႈံးထိခိုက္ ပ်က္စီးေစမည့္ စီမံကိန္းတစ္ခု ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ ျပည္တြင္း ဥပေဒမူေဘာင္မ်ားက အထူးသျဖင့္ သဘာဝသယံဇာတ ထုတ္လုပ္သည့္လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားတြင္ ဤသို႔ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ စံခ်ိန္စံႏႈန္း မ်ားကို ျပည့္မီသည့္အခါမွသာ၊ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ား ျပဳသင့္ပါသည္။ ထိုသုိ႔မဟုတ္ပါက စဥ္းစားဖြယ္ပင္ မရွိပါ။ ဤအခ်က္မွာ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံ သူမ်ား၊ ေကာ္ပိုေရးရွင္းႀကီးမ်ား၊ ပါဝင္ပတ္သက္ေနသည့္ အစိုးရမ်ား၊ အစိုးရမ်ား အၾကား ပူးေပါင္းေဆာင္ရြက္ေရး အသင္းအဖြဲ႔မ်ားႏွင့္ ျမန္မာအစိုးရ အေပၚ နည္းလမ္းေပါင္းစံုႏွင့္ ဖိအား သက္ေရာက္ေစသည့္ အုပ္စုမ်ားအတြက္ သတိျပဳရမည့္ ေတာင္းဆိုခ်က္ပင္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ေျပာင္းလဲရန္ လိုအပ္ ေနသည့္ မူဝါဒ ဆိုင္ရာအေရးကို ဆိုင္းငံ့ဖင့္ေလးထားပါက၊ ပါဝင္ပတ္သက္ေနသည့္ အင္အားစုအားလံုးအေနျဖင့္ ေကာင္းမြန္သည့္ ကမၻာလံုးဆိုင္ရာ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈစနစ္ ျဖစ္ေပၚေစရန္ လိုအပ္ခ်က္တာဝန္မ်ားကို လ်စ္လ်ဴရႈထားသည့္ သဖြယ္ ျဖစ္ေနေစပါလိမ့္မည္။ ေအာက္ေဖာ္ျပပါ အၾကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ားကို ကုလသမဂၢ၏ အခြင့္အေရးမ်ားဆိုင္ရာ ရႈေထာင့္မွ ခ်ည္းကပ္၍ အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ ေဆာင္ရြက္သင့္ပါသည္။ ၎တို႔၏ ခ်ည္းကပ္မႈအရ ‘ျပည္သူမ်ားကို သူတို႔ကိုယ္ပိုင္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးအတြက္ အေရးပါသည့္ လႈပ္ရွားေဆာင္ရြက္သူမ်ားဟု အသိအမွတ္ ျပဳၾကရမည္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ အေထာက္အပံ့ခံ အျပဳခံမ်ားဟူ၍ မသတ္မွတ္သင့္ပါ။’
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://burmese.shwe.org/?p=1190
http://burmese.shwe.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Gov-EI-Burm-Web-Final.pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2013


Title: Good Governance and the Extractive Industry in Burma: Complications of Burma’s Regulatory Framework (English)
Date of publication: 16 July 2013
Description/subject: "...While Burma may be taking steps in the right direction, the Burmese government is still far from being one of good governance. Until the Burmese government develops its own sound policy framework to protect and sustainably develop its natural resources in a way that meets ‘good governance’ guidelines, no amount of international treaties or corporate regulation will mitigate the damage of natural resource development projects like the Shwe Gas Project. Until Burma’s internal framework meets these standards, foreign direct investment, particularly in extractive industries, should not be an option. This is a call for all investors, corporations, stakeholder governments, intergovernmental groups, and various others to utilize their means and authority to pressure the Burmese government. Pending the necessary policy changes, all parties involved may be lacking the due diligence necessary to ensure good global governance. The following recommendations should be undertaken with the UN rights based approach as a basis, in which ‘people are recognized as key actors in their own development, rather than passive recipients of commodities and services.’..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
Format/size: pdf (1MB-OBL version; 4.5MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.shwe.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Gov-EI-Final.pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2013


Title: Overview of Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade - Baseline Study 4 - Myanmar
Date of publication: November 2011
Description/subject: Table of Contents:- 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND MAJOR FINDINGS … 2. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW ... 3. NATIONAL FOREST STRATEGY, POLICIES AND REGULATIONS: 3.1 The Myanmar Selection System and Annual Allowable Cut; 3.2 Forest Law and Policy ; 3.3 Forest Land Categories; 3.4 Community Forestry; 3.5 Impact of Forest Law Enforcement on Local People... 4. DEMAND: DOMESTIC DEMAND AND WOOD EXPORTS: 4.1 Domestic Demand ; 4.2 Exports ... 5. TIMBER SUPPLY: DOMESTIC PRODUCTION AND WOOD IMPORTS: 5.1 Domestic Wood Production; 5.2 Plantation Production... 6. FOREST INDUSTRY: 6.1 Myanmar Timber Enterprise; 6.2 Non-MTE Harvesting; 6.3 Medium-Sized Companies and Traders; 6.4 Value-Added Processing... 7. ILLEGAL TIMBER TRADE AND MYANMAR STANDARDS, NATIONAL CODES, TIMBER CERTIFICATION AND VERIFICATION SYSTEMS: 7.1 Illegal Timber Trade; 7.2 Progress towards Standards, National Codes, Timber Certification and Verification Systems ... 8. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS : 8.1 Government; 8.2 Timber Processing Industry: Private Sector and Quasi-Private Sector; 8.3 Civil Society; 8.4 Bilateral Donor Programs... BIBLIOGRAPHY... APPENDIX 1: MYANMAR TIMBER EXPORT PROCESS .
Author/creator: Kevin Woods and Kerstin Canby
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forest Trends for FLEGT Asia Regional Programme
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB-OBL version; 1.78-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_3159.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 July 2013


Title: Environment and Law in Burma
Date of publication: August 2001
Description/subject: "Environmental law in Burma under the current military regime is very weak. One of the main problems is that there are no up-to-date laws that regulate pollution. There are also no regulations for environmental impact assessments to examine the harmful effects of projects. Reasonably effective environmental laws were enacted under the British. The democratic period in Burma, from 1948 to 1962, did not improve these laws. After 1962, the military junta repealed and replaced the British laws. The current legislation is too general and has never significantly provided for the protection of the environment. Unfortunately, the Burmese junta shows little concern for the environment..".
Author/creator: Peter Gutter
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 9 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in "Legal issues of Burma Journal" No. 9 at http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%209.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Grave Diggers: A report on Mining in Burma
Date of publication: 14 February 2000
Description/subject: A report on mining in Burma. The problems mining is bringing to the Burmese people, and the multinational companies involved in it. Includes an analysis of the SLORC 1994 Mining Law.... 'Grave Diggers, authored by world renowned mining environmental activist Roger Moody, was the first major review of mining in Burma since the country's military regime opened the door to foreign mining investment in 1994. Singled out for special attention in this report is the stake taken up by Canadian mining promoter Robert Friedland, whose Ivanhoe Mines has redeveloped a major copper mine in the Monywa area in joint venture enterprise with Burma's military regime. There are several useful appendices with first hand reports from mining sites throughout the country. A series of maps shows the location of the exploration concessions taken up almost exclusively by foreign companies in the rounds of bidding that took place in the nineties.
Author/creator: Roger Moody
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various groups
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB) html
Alternate URLs: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/grave-diggers-report-mining-burma
http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/miningwatch.ca/files/Grave_Diggers.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


Title: ENVIRONMENTAL LAW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE UNION OF MYANMAR
Date of publication: 1997
Description/subject: "...Environmental Legislation in Myanmar: Even under the old laws which were made in the days when international concern for environmental matters was less recognized than today, various laws of Myanmar contained provisions relating to the environment. There are 53 legal instruments in Myanmar. Some of these laws have been recently formulated and contain wide ranging provisions for environmental protection and conservation. However, there is still a need to modify or amend some old laws and to formulate new laws that take into account the changing economic situation in the country, the prevailing global environmental concerns as well as the international environmental conventions and agreements to which Myanmar is a party. The several significant laws are as follows:-..."
Author/creator: Tee Tee Cho (Department of Law, Dagon University, Yangon, Myanmar)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law (1997 1 pp 609-614)
Format/size: pdf (41K)
Date of entry/update: 08 May 2013