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Regional Development
See also Infrastructure and UNESCAP

  • ASEAN
    See ASEAN under Foreign Relations

  • Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)
    See also Multilateral Assistance

    • Asian Development Bank

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: ADB GMS page
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2004


      Title: IFI-Burma - discussion group
      Description/subject: Updates on development schemes in Burma, with particular focus on bilateral and multilateral assistance; concerns and strategies.
      Language: English
      Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: IFI-Burma Project
      Description/subject: "The Burma Project conducts research and analysis on issues of development assistance from international financial institutions (IFIs) to Burma, with a particular focus on multilateral development banks (MDBs). The Burma Project also provides current information on these issues to members of civil society who work to protect human rights and the environment in Burma, so that they may be equipped with necessary knowledge, skills and a working network to assist them in ensuring that operations of MDBs in Burma are conducted in a socially and environmentally accountable manner, and truly benefits citizens..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Bank Information Center
      Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
      Format/size: html, Word, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Multilateral Banks and Burma
      Date of publication: April 2004
      Description/subject: "The Asian Development Bank has quietly started providing modest assistance to Rangoon. Is more to follow?... On April 8, 2004 Mitch McConnell, a prominent American senator from Kentucky with an interest in the Burma debate, expressed concerns over multilateral assistance to Burma and threatened to cut US funding to institutions that might provide such assistance. At a hearing of the Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, he stated: “Unfortunately, I am hearing that international financial institutions—particularly the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank—are keen on re-engaging Burma. They do so at their own risks, and should begin finding other funding sources for the upcoming fiscal year because none will be forthcoming from this Subcommittee.” Senator McConnell’s statement reflects the unease shared by many in the Burma democracy movement about multilateral assistance going to Rangoon, which has a poor track record regarding transparency and public participation in development projects and has been accused of a range of human rights abuses. So what exactly are the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, or ADB, doing with respect to Burma? As yet the numbers are small, but imply an effort to renew assistance..."
      Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


      Title: GMS Regional Economic Cooperation Strategy and Program (RCSP) 2004-2008. The GMS - beyond borders
      Date of publication: March 2004
      Description/subject: The principal URL goes to the main text. The appendices are accessble from the RCSP page, given by OBL as an alternate URL.... "The Regional Economic Cooperation Strategy and Program (RCSP) is a road map to guide ADB’s regional operations in the Mekong Region... Consistent with ADB’s overarching goal of poverty reduction, the RCSP aims to reduce poverty in the region. To achieve this, it defines a five-year strategy supported initially by a 3-year program of assistance... The strategy was approved in March and presented to the ADB's Board of Directors. It was prepared through consultations with governments, NGOs and civil society. Earlier drafts of the RCSP were presented to GMS governments in December 2003. In January 2004, a draft was circulated to NGOs. It was discussed at a Tripartite Meeting in Bangkok on 27-28 January where NGOs, GMS governments, and ADB attended. Read the executive summary. We welcome public comments on the present, revised draft, which incorporates ongoing consultations. The RCSP will be updated regularly through continuous consultations with stakeholders. Contents: Executive Summary; 1. The Mekong People; 2. The Economic Context; 3. GMS - Beyond Borders; 4. GMS: Connectivity, Competitiveness, and Community; 5. Making it Happen: The GMS Strategy; 6. ADB's Program for the Greater Mekong Subregion; 7. Towards 2008 - Assessing the Strategy and Potential Risks... Appendixes: 1. Greater Mekong Subregion Poverty Map; 2. Major Ethnic Groupings; 3. Millennium Development Goals (8 Tables); 4. Economic Indicators (15 tables); 5. Greater Mekong Subregion Principal Programs and Projects; 6. Greater Mekong Subregion Development Assistance Coordination Matrix; 7. Asian Development Bank-Assisted Greater Mekong Subregion Projects; 8. Indicative ADB Program for Greater Mekong Subregion: 2004-2006; 9. Concept Papers for Lending Products: 2004-2006 10. Concept Papers for Nonlending Products: 2004-2006.." T
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/CSPs/GMS/2004/default.asp
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


      Title: Regional Cooperation and Strategy Program (RCSP) 2004-2008. The GMS - beyond borders (draft executive summary)
      Date of publication: 06 January 2004
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2004


      Title: Marketing the Mekong: the Asian Development Bank and the Greater Mekong Sub-region Economic Cooperation Program
      Date of publication: 12 December 2003
      Description/subject: Shortcomings of economic cooperation in the Greater Mekong...The Greater Mekong Subregion: A Regional Fantasy... The document critically examines the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation (GMS) Programme, which was initiated by the Asian Development Bank in 1992 to boost economic development in the resource rich region. It outlines the main features of the programme and highlights the shortcomings and problem of the GMS: * the centrality of natural resource exploitation (water, land, forests, energy, minerals, fisheries) results in the large-scale expropriation of resources crucial to daily sustenance * the distribution of benefits is uneven since participating countries have differing levels of development and capacity (i.e. what does the Lao PDR gain from the East-West Corridor?) * internal disparities within participating countries are widened because of pockets of high capital and infrastructure investment in specific parts of countries, which can result in tensions and conflicts between national and local government, and between the government and the people * the vision of development promoted through the GMS serves regional investment, and not national or local development priorities: projects are formulated based on their potential for profits for investors rather than on their potential to respond to social, economic, ecological or institutional needs among local and national communities * GMS projects have already resulted in negative impacts on local communities through road and hydropower projects, impacts include displacement of families, loss of livelihood sources, loss of lands, among others * in the GMS framework, the rights of investors are protected, but the rights of local people and communities are not * local-national communities outside of governments and private sector have not been involved in drawing up GMS plans * the financing of GMS projects have tremendous debt implications for participating countries: new forms of project financing are creating new forms of debt and financial liabilities * governments play conflicting roles as owners, investors and regulators in public-private partnerships in infrastructure projects * GMS projects facilitate the transfer of local-national wealth to private actors external to the Mekong region.
      Author/creator: Shalmali Guttal
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Focus on the Global South
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


      Title: Verbrannte Erde und Überflutungen: Staudammprojekte am Salween in Burma
      Date of publication: October 2003
      Description/subject: Ein Artikel über die Aktivitäten der ADB in Burma, Staudammprojekte am Salween, Umweltkatastrophen, ölkologische Folgen der Staudammprojekte. activities of the ADB concerning Burma; environmental, ecological and sicial consequences of dam-projects
      Author/creator: Daniel Apolinarski
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Burma Initiative Asienhaus
      Format/size: pdf (99K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


      Title: ADB Country Assistance Plan, Myanmar 2001-2003
      Date of publication: December 2000
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank
      Format/size: PDF (254K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/documents/caps/mya/default.asp
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Destruction and violation: Burma's border development policies
      Date of publication: February 1999
      Description/subject: The military dictatorship governing Burma is currently using the discourse of development to legitimise its domination of the border areas. Curtis W. Lambrecht examines the regime and its development policies including its destructive effects on the communities it is supposed to be helping.
      Author/creator: Curtis W. Lambrecht
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Watershed Vol. 5 No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


      Title: ADB-Myanmar Yangon: Thilawa Port Improvement/Development Project
      Description/subject: Greater Mekong Subregion - Project Profiles W10: Yangon-Thilawa Port Improvement/Development Project. Sector/Location. Geographical Scope.Project Objectives and Scope. Expected Impact and Benefits. Estimated Project Cost. Financing Arrangements. Implementation Arrangements. Status. Critical Success Factors. Transport-water transport/Myanmar. Subregional. "Considering recent rapid growth in traffic at Yangon Port, particularly with respect to containerized traffic, the principal objective of the project would be to implement both hardware and software measures to increase Yangon Port's capacity to serve primarily traffic to/from Myanmar and secondarily traffic to/from Yunnan Province. In the short term, the project would involve the construction of a container terminal, a container freight station, and a mechanical workshop at Thilawa, as well as technical assistance aimed at improving the efficiency of port operations at Yangon. In the medium term, the project would involve the construction of three timber berths and one berth for handling bulk agricultural products at Thilawa. In the long term, 17 berths would be completed at Thilawa, including four container terminals, three timber berths, two berths for bulk agricultural products, and eight general cargo berths. .."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ADB: Greater Mekong Subregion -- Myanmar
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ADB: Greater Mekong Subregion -- Yunnan
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Greater Mekong Subregion - ADB
      Description/subject: Implementation of the Yadana-Ratchaburi Myanmar-Thailand Gas Pipeline Project
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Probe International
      Description/subject: Search results for "Burma"
      Source/publisher: News and Periodical Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


    • Dams, Energy

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Dams and other hydropower projects
      Description/subject: Link to the dams material in the Water section
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: OnlineBurma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


      Title: EPDC Homepage
      Description/subject: "Launched in 1952, Electric Power Development Company (EPDC) has upheld the economic development of Japan as a special-purpose corporation for the development and supply of electric power. Organized primarily under government funding, EPDC has supported the stable supply of electric power, serving the electric power companies of Japan as a wholesale electric utility..." The Japanese Government/company interface which was coordinating (and will in the future?) various Japanese dam projects on the Burma-Thailand border
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EPDC
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: IFI-Burma - discussion group
      Description/subject: Updates on development schemes in Burma, with particular focus on bilateral and multilateral assistance; concerns and strategies.
      Language: English
      Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: IFI-Burma Project
      Description/subject: "The Burma Project conducts research and analysis on issues of development assistance from international financial institutions (IFIs) to Burma, with a particular focus on multilateral development banks (MDBs). The Burma Project also provides current information on these issues to members of civil society who work to protect human rights and the environment in Burma, so that they may be equipped with necessary knowledge, skills and a working network to assist them in ensuring that operations of MDBs in Burma are conducted in a socially and environmentally accountable manner, and truly benefits citizens..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Bank Information Center
      Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
      Format/size: html, Word, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 June 2003


      Title: South East Asia Rivers Network (SEARIN)
      Description/subject: "Southeast Asia Rivers Network-Thailand Chapter or SEARIN Thailand was launched on March 14, 1999, the International Day of Action Against Dams and for Rivers, Water and Life. SEARIN Thailand was established by academics and NGO activists who have been working on social and environmental issues in Thailand, particularly on the environmental and social problems caused by large dams, and state policies on resource management. SEARIN Thailand is a campaign-based organization, working to support local community rights to their rivers, and to oppose threats to rivers and riverine ecosystems in mainland south-east Asia, such as large dams and water diversion projects..." News items and documents including: Evaluation of the EIA for the Proposed Upper Mekong Navigation Improvement Project; Preliminary Impact Assessment on Navigation Channel Improvement Project of the Lancang-Mekong (draft); Agreement on Commercial Navigation on Lancang-Mekong River; EIA of the Navigation Channel Improvement Project of the Lancang-Mekong River; Report on the Feasibility of the Waterway Improvement Project on the Upper Mekong River.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SEARIN
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: China Moves to Dam the Nu, Ignoring Seismic, Ecological, and Social Risks
      Date of publication: 25 January 2013
      Description/subject: "In a blueprint for the energy sector in 2011-15, China’s State Council on Wednesday lifted an eightyear ban on five megadams for the largely free-flowing Nu River [Salween], ignoring concerns about geologic risks, global biodiversity, resettlement, and impacts on downstream communities. “China’s plans to go ahead with dams on the Nu, as well as similar projects on the Upper Yangtze and Mekong, shows a complete disregard of well-documented seismic hazards, ecological and social risks” stated Katy Yan, China Program Coordinator for the environmental organization International Rivers. Also included in the plan is the controversial Xiaonanhai Dam on the Upper Yangtze. A total of 13 dams was first proposed for the Nu River (also known as the Salween) in 2003, but Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao suspended these plans in 2004 in a stunning decision. Since then, Huadian Corporation has continued to explore five dams – Songta (4200 MW), Maji (4200 MW), Yabiluo (1800 MW), Liuku (180 MW), and Saige (1000 MW) – and has successfully lobbied the State Council to include them in the 12th Five Year Plan..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Rivers
      Format/size: pdf (71K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 January 2013


      Title: Verbrannte Erde und Überflutungen: Staudammprojekte am Salween in Burma
      Date of publication: October 2003
      Description/subject: Ein Artikel über die Aktivitäten der ADB in Burma, Staudammprojekte am Salween, Umweltkatastrophen, ölkologische Folgen der Staudammprojekte. activities of the ADB concerning Burma; environmental, ecological and sicial consequences of dam-projects
      Author/creator: Daniel Apolinarski
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Burma Initiative Asienhaus
      Format/size: pdf (99K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


      Title: Zwangsumsiedlung für Staudammbau in Burma
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: Für den Energieexport nach Thailand will Burmas Militärregierung einen Großstaudamm bauen, für den Tausende Angehörige der Shan umgesiedelt werden sollen. Der Tasang Staudamm soll am Fluss Salween im zentralen Shan Bundesstaat entstehen. Teile des Gebietes sind bereits entvölkert. Überblick der Geselschaft für bedrohte Völker über die Pläne zum Bau des Tasang-Staudamms und die Konsequenzen für die einheimische Bevölkerung und die Umwelt. key words: Tasang-dam, forced relocation, consequences for local population, environment
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
      Format/size: html (6,5K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.gfbv.de/fset_druck.php?doctype=inhaltsDok&docid=323
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2004


      Title: Dam Talks Exclude Minority Groups
      Date of publication: 15 September 1999
      Description/subject: Thai-based environmentalists yesterday accused the American organisers of a conference of going behind the backs of vulnerable ethnic groups in discussing massive Burmese dam projects in private. Oregon University, in co-operation with Bangkok's Asian Institute of Technology, asked representatives of the military regime and various business groups to discuss ways of damming Burma's Salween River.
      Author/creator: William Barnes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: South China Morning Post
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • General

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Australian Mekong Resource Centre
      Description/subject: "By fostering a deeper and wider understanding of contemporary changes in the Mekong Region the AMRC aims to support development paths that maintain the integrity, diversity and symbiosis of local livelihoods, cultures and ecosystems. "..Publications; Library; Case Studies; Projects; Events; Links; Mekong News. Lots of docs
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: University of Sydney -
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: IFI-Burma - discussion group
      Description/subject: Updates on development schemes in Burma, with particular focus on bilateral and multilateral assistance; concerns and strategies.
      Language: English
      Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: IFI-Burma Project
      Description/subject: "The Burma Project conducts research and analysis on issues of development assistance from international financial institutions (IFIs) to Burma, with a particular focus on multilateral development banks (MDBs). The Burma Project also provides current information on these issues to members of civil society who work to protect human rights and the environment in Burma, so that they may be equipped with necessary knowledge, skills and a working network to assist them in ensuring that operations of MDBs in Burma are conducted in a socially and environmentally accountable manner, and truly benefits citizens..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Bank Information Center
      Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
      Format/size: html, Word, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 June 2003


      Title: MekongInfo
      Description/subject: A dozen or more useful reports on Burma. "MekongInfo is an interactive system for sharing information and knowledge about participatory natural resource management (NRM) in the Lower Mekong Basin. In addition to over 2,000 documents (full-text and abstract) in the Library, MekongInfo provides: a Contacts database of individuals, projects and organisations, news and Announcements of events, relevant Web Links, a Gallery of useful resource materials, a Forum for online discussions, and a free Web hosting service. Please take a moment to Register and/or Login to enjoy full access to MekongInfo."
      Language: English, Cambodian, Vietnamese, Laotian, Thai
      Format/size: Free registration for full access, but the contact details you enter are then visible to the world.
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Rangoon the Economic Spoiler
      Date of publication: July 2005
      Description/subject: Burma’s narrow-minded generals are a barrier to Asian development... The Burmese junta doubtless believes it is clever in the way it plays its close relationship with China to gain leverage with India and even with fellow Asean members. The play is well recognized internationally, not least in India where realpolitik is adjudged to override commitment to democratic government. But what is less often realized is the damage that Burma’s combination of incompetent and thuggish government is doing to Asian development as a whole...Burma is not just an economic disaster in its own right, it is a major barrier to closer cooperation between South and Southeast Asia. The damage this does becomes clearer as the economies of India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh open up to the outside world, more aware of the benefits of trade and investment flows. South Asia as a whole may finally be about to make some progress towards a trade grouping and India is talking about a deal with Asean. But, as ever, Burma remains a physical obstacle to interaction between South and Southeast Asia as well as casting a shadow over the whole Asean process..."
      Author/creator: Philip Bowring
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


      Title: A Prosperous Burma Would Benefit China
      Date of publication: July 2004
      Description/subject: "China's stability would be strengthened if Burma were economically stable and prosperous. Thus it should increase efforts to work for the economic and political changes in Burma that would allow the country to receive international assistance. The modernization of China initiated by Deng Xiaoping involved a shift in the conception of national power from a narrow military perspective to Comprehensive National Power, or CNP, currently seen as consisting of the "eight capabilities" of domestic economic activities, science and technology, foreign economic activities, social development, military, government regulation and control, foreign affairs and natural resources..."
      Author/creator: David Arnott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 October 2004


      Title: Regional Cooperation and Strategy Program (RCSP) 2004-2008. The GMS - beyond borders (draft executive summary)
      Date of publication: 06 January 2004
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2004


      Title: Sowing disorder: Support for the Burmese junta backfires on China
      Date of publication: November 2002
      Description/subject: "In the early 1990s China’s sale of arms to Burma played a crucial role in keeping the Burmese military in power. But this support for the generals in Rangoon is now backfiring, as many of the negative consequences spill over the border into China, writes Andrew Bosson. While China has generally taken a passive stance towards international efforts to pressure Burma to improve its rights record, it would be in Beijing’s best interests to push Rangoon towards economic and political reform, he argues. The relationship between Burma and China has been harmful to both countries, especially following the Chinese arms deals which preserved the junta in power and locked Burmese political and economic life into a stasis from which it has yet to emerge. The generals seem to have very little idea of how a modern economy functions and are essentially running the country as they would an army. Military expenditures continue to take up about 60 percent of the national budget. Thus it comes as no surprise that the economy is in an advanced state of failure. China also has been damaged economically: Burma’s lack of access to economic development assistance and its collapsed economy leave a gaping hole in the regional development projects the impoverished provinces of southwest China so badly need. China also suffers from the massive spread of HIV/AIDS, drug addiction and crime that have accompanied the massive quantities of heroin being trafficked from Burma into Yunnan Province. The growth of the drug economy in Burma may be traced directly to the lack of the necessary economic and political remedies, which is an indirect result of China’s intervention..."
      Author/creator: Andrew Bosson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: China Rights Forum Journal 2002-03
      Format/size: pdf (140K)
      Alternate URLs: http://iso.hrichina.org/public/contents/article?revision%5fid=3346&item%5fid=3345
      Date of entry/update: May 2003


      Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 3 - China–Burma relations
      Date of publication: 14 December 2001
      Description/subject: I Historical preface; II Strategic relations; III Drugs in the China–Burma relationship; IV China-Burma border: the HIV/AIDS nexus; V Chinese immigration: cultural and economic impact; VI Opening up southwest China; VII Gains and losses for various parties where Burma is (a) democratizing or (b) under Chinese “suzereinty”; VIII Possible future focus; IX Conclusions. " This paper has argued that China’s support for the military regime in Burma has had negative consequences for both Burma and China. The negative impact on Burma of its relationship with China is that it preserves an incompetent and repressive order and locks the country into economic and political stagnation. The negative impact on China is that Burma has become a block to regional development and an exporter of HIV/AIDS and drugs. China’s comprehensive national interests would be best served by an economically stable and prosperous Burma. China could help the development of such an entity by encouraging a political process in Burma that would lead to an opening up of the country to international assistance and a more competent and publicly acceptable administration..."
      Author/creator: David Arnott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International IDEA
      Format/size: pdf (274K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 12 July 2003


      Title: UNESCAP Home Page
      Format/size: Big, slow site. There are search engines on one or two of the sections.
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Information Technology

      Individual Documents

      Title: DEVELOPMENT OF ENABLING POLICIES FOR TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN THE IT SECTOR OF THE GREATER MEKONG SUBREGION - CHAPTER 5: MYANMAR
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: Chapter 5: Myanmar: 5. 1 Introduction: The Background; 5. 2 Policies Governing the Production and use of IT; The Computer Science Law (1996); The Draft IT Master Plan; 5. 3 Present state IT Use and Production; ICT use: Selected old Technology Indicators; Use of New Technology: Telecommunication; Mobile Telephone; Computers and Internet; Present state of IT Production; Human Resource Development in IT; 5. 4 Investment in IT: Policies, Performance and Challenges Investment Policies; Trend in Foreign Direct Investment; Role of FDI in Myanmar Economy; Working with Constraints: Promoting Investment in the IT Sector; 5. 5 Trade in IT: Policy, Performance and Challenges; Trends in the External Sector; Trade Policy: Present Scene; Structure and Direction of Trade; Promoting Trade: the Role of IT; Implications of e-ASEAN and ITA; 5. 6 Concluding Observations and Reflections on Policy Options; Tables; References .
      Author/creator: K J Joseph
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNESCAP
      Format/size: pdf (589K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/tid/projects/gms.asp
      Date of entry/update: 10 April 2004


    • Trans Asia Transport Infrastructure

      • The Asian Highway

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: About the Asian Highway
        Description/subject: The Asian Highway network is a network of 141,000 kilometers of standardized roadways crisscrossing 32 Asian countries with linkages to Europe. The Asian Highway project was initiated in 1959 with the aim of promoting the development of international road transport in the region. During the first phase of the project (1960-1970) considerable progress was achieved, however, progress slowed down when financial assistance was suspended in 1975. Entering into the 1980s and 1990s, regional political and economic changes spurred new momentum for the Asian Highway Project. It became one of the three pillars of Asian Land Transport Infrastructure Development (ALTID) project, endorsed by ESCAP Commission at its forty-eight session in 1992, comprising Asian Highway, Trans-Asian Railway and facilitation of land transport projects. The Intergovernmental Agreement on the Asian Highway Network was adopted on 18 November 2003 by an intergovernmental meeting held in Bangkok, was open for signature in April 2004 in Shanghai and entered into force on 4 July 2005. A total of US$26 billion has already been invested in the improvement and upgrading of the Asian Highway network. However, there is still a shortfall of US$18 billion. UNESCAP secretariat is now working with its member countries to identify financial sources for the development of the network to improve their road transport capacity and efficiency.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNSCAP
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


        Individual Documents

        Title: India-Myanmar-Thailand Highway
        Date of publication: 06 May 2010
        Description/subject: "The Trilateral Highway project is an ambitious undertaking which was initially launched under the vestiges of the Mekong Ganga Cooperation (MGC) and later incorporated into the transport sector of Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC); but it has not yet fructified. What are the bottlenecks in terms of financial, security and regional concerns? How will this affect India’s Look East Policy (LEP)? What is needed to get this crucial project executed? With the aim to begin the project in early 2004, the construction of the 1360kms highway at the cost of US$700 million was distributed in three phases so as to connect Moreh (India), Mae Sot (Thailand) through Bagan in Myanmar. The inherent logic of the road was to fulfil the ambition of creating a ‘link’ between Northeast India and Southeast Asia..."
        Author/creator: Tanvi Pate
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


        Title: Asian Highway Network in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: Asian Highway Database (Myanmar)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/common/TIS/AH/files/Myanmar.xls
        http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/common/tis/ah/maps/myanmar.jpg
        http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/common/tis/ah/Member%20countries.asp
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


        Title: Map of the Asian Highway Network
        Date of publication: 27 September 2007
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: jpeg
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


      • Trans Asian Railway

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Trans-Asian Railway
        Description/subject: 1. Network identification Why and how UNESCAP and its member countries decided in the early 1990s to identify an international network of railway lines traveling across the Asian continent. 2. Network operationalization How UNESCAP and a group of countries went about showing the relevance of railways to serve the movement of international trade flows within Asia and between Asia and Europe. 3. Network formalization The Intergovernmental Agreement on the Trans-Asian Railway Network was signed at Busan, Republic of Korea, on 10 November 2006 during the Ministerial Conference on Transport that took place in the port city from 6 to 11 November 2006. The Agreement was recognized as an example of successful regional cooperation in the Busan Declaration on Transport Development in Asia and the Pacific adopted by the Ministers on 11 November 2006. See which countries signed and how UNESCAP and its member countries got to this point.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNSCAP
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/index.asp?MenuName=TheTrans-AsianRailway
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


        Individual Documents

        Title: Trans-Asian Railway (TAR) in Myanmar (map)
        Date of publication: 13 February 2002
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UN ESCAP
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


        Title: Development of the Trans-Asian Railway: Trans-Asian Railway in the Southern Corridor of Asia-Europe Routes
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: Substantial report. Contains a lot of information about the rail situation and projects in Burma/Myanmar. Go section by section or download the 5MB pdf file. "The principal objective of this study is to identify, and to evaluate the development and operation of a network of routes allowing through railway transport of containers between South Asia and Europe, southern China and Europe and Thailand and Europe. These routes would run via Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, and Turkey..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UN ESCAP
        Format/size: PDF (5MB) 172 pages
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


        Title: Trans-Asian Railway in the Southern Corridor of Asia-Europe Routes
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: A 1995 feasibility study, limited to Bangladesh, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, had identified a basic network of routes, recommended certain technical and operational standards for this network and provided a limited appraisal of the status of the existing routes in relation with these standards. In the light of the development of trade and economic exchanges between the countries belonging to subregional groupings in South and South-east Asia (Economic Cooperation Organisation, Bangladesh-India-Myanmar-Sri Lanka-Thailand Economic Cooperation), it was decided that the time had come to expand the scope of the study to include China, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Turkey and to (i) re-evaluate, and if necessary re-define, the network previously identified, (ii) assess the improvements required in institutional and commercial procedures to attract international traffic to the corridor, (iii) define an Action Plan for the development of the corridor to facilitate inter- and intra-regional trade and economic growth. The findings and recommendations of the study were considered by the representatives of all the countries concerned during a Policy-level Expert Group Meeting held in Dhaka (Bangladesh) in May 1999 during which the countries agreed on the establishment of Working Groups to study the gradual operationalisation of the corridors. Following the Meeting, the study was published as Trans-Asian Railway in the Southern Corridor of Asia-Europe Routes (ST/ESCAP/1980, New York, 1999).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UN ESCAP
        Format/size: pdf, html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/common/TIS/TAR/scorridormap.asp
        http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/common/TIS/TAR/scorridor.asp
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


  • India-Burma-China links

    Individual Documents

    Title: Strategic Memory Lane
    Date of publication: November 2005
    Description/subject: It is known as the “Road to Nowhere” or “Ghost Road,” but there are hopes that political and strategic problems can be sidetracked to resurrect the World War II-era Ledo Road, running between India and China through Burma..."...India and China have sometimes made calls to reopen the Ledo Road. They have come from a visiting delegation from the Yunnan Provincial Chamber of Commerce at an international trade fair in Guwahati, the capital of Assam; from the Federation of Indian Export Organizations in Calcutta; and increasingly from a number of individual politicians and members of state governments in India’s northeast, especially from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. Academics have also raised the issue. A handful of people are upbeat about the tourism prospects—of driving air-con jeeps across the mountains and through jungles and exotic places from India to China. China appears to be the most prepared. It has already greatly upgraded its section of the Burma Road, built in 1937-38, into a modern, partly six-lane mountain highway..."
    Author/creator: Karin Dean
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: GATEWAY TO THE EAST
    Date of publication: June 2005
    Description/subject: a symposium on Northeast India and the look east policy... The Problem: Posed by Sanjib Baruah, Visiting Professor, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi... NORTHEAST INDIA IN A NEW ASIA: Jairam Ramesh, Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha)... ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES OR CONTINUING STAGNATION: Sushil Khanna, Professor of Economics and Strategic Management, Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata... WATERS OF DESPAIR, WATERS OF HOPE: Sanjoy Hazarika, Managing Trustee, Centre for Northeast Studies and Policy Research, New Delhi and Guwahati... PROSPECTS FOR TOURISM: M.P. Bezbaruah, Former Secretary, Ministry of Tourism, Government of India... OPERATION HORNBILL FESTIVAL 2004: Dolly Kikon, Member, Working Group, Northeast Peoples' Initiative, Guwahati... GUNS, DRUGS AND REBELS: Subir Bhaumik, East India Correspondent, BBC, Kolkata... A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE: Jayeeta Sharma, Assistant Professor of History, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA... TERRITORIALITIES YET UNACCOUNTED: Karin Dean, Asia Correspondent, 'Postimees', Bangkok... COMMUNITY, CULTURE, NATION: Mrinal Miri, Vice Chancellor, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong... THE TAI-AHOM CONNECTION: Yasmin Saikia, Assistant Professor of History, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA... THE ETHNIC DIMENSION: Samir Kumar Das, Reader, Department of Political Science, Calcutta University... BOOKS: Reviewed by Nandana Datta, Dulali Nag, Bodhisattva Kar, Nimmi Kurian and M.S. Prabhakara... FURTHER READING: Compiled by Sukanya Sharma, Fellow, Centre for Northeast India, South and Southeast Asia Studies, Guwahati... COMMUNICATION: Received from C.P. Bhambhri and B.K. Banerji.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Seminar magazine
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


  • Kunming Initiative

    Individual Documents

    Title: China Cutting Through to Bengal
    Date of publication: June 2001
    Description/subject: Three Chinese-made dredgers worth US$ 8.9 million have been delivered to Burma as part of an effort to develop the Irrawaddy River waterway as a new trade route for China. "The neighbouring country expects to expand trade operations for its products, via the [Irrawaddy] river as a gateway to the Bay (of Bengal)", said a Rangoon-based shipping manager. The dredgers are being used to improve river transport from Bhamo, newr the Chinese border, to Minbe, which is to be connected to the Arakan coast by a new highway.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
    Format/size: This is the whole of the item, which has disappeared from the Irrawaddy website.
    Alternate URLs: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:ihMo_FzJljYJ:www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php%3Fart_id%3D746+%22China+Cutting+Through+to+Bengal%22&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=th&client=firefox-a
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010