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Burma's economic relations with various countries

Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar seeks new Dawei SEZ partners
Date of publication: 03 December 2013
Description/subject: "Myanmar is allowing international investors to bid for a mammoth project to develop a special economic zone in its southernmost region following the withdrawal of the sole developer, a Thai company, which had been unable to secure partners for the venture, an official said on Monday. Chairman of the Management Committee of Dawei SEZ Han Sein told a press conference in Yangon that developer Italian-Thai Development Pcl - Thailand's largest construction group - had terminated its work on the project in Myanmar's Tanintharyi region to make way for international bidders. "Myanmar Port Authorities [MPA] and Italian-Thai had an agreement in place to work on this project previously," Han Sein, who is also Myanmar's deputy minister of transport, said at the MPA office. "We ended this [agreement] because we want [to open the project up to] international investment," he said. Plans for the Dawei SEZ include a deep-sea port, industrial zone, steel plant, fertilizer plant, coal and natural gas-fired power plant and water supply system. The SEZ will have a motorway linked to Thailand's Kanchaburi province, as well as a railroad hub, links to oil and gas pipelines, and electrical cable lines..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Lwin Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


  • Burma/Myanmar's relationship with the Global Economy

    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar’s Integration with Global Economy: Outlook and Opportunities
    Date of publication: 05 March 2014
    Description/subject: Abstract: "The first phase of BRC Research Report was published in 2013 entitled “Economic Reforms in Myanmar: Pathways and Pro spects”. The book was very well received and widely circulated throughout the region. This is the second phase of BRC Report entitled “Myanmar’s Integration with Global Economy: Outlook and Op portunities” To report and analyse further Myanmar’s integration with global economy, BRC commissioned eight chapters written by well - known regional scholars who are very familiar with updated development in Myanmar, to assess the outlook and opportunities facing Myanmar of the second phase of its strategy. What is the prospect for Myanmar in developing export - driven growth strategy after the lifting of sanctions by major Western countries? Would foreign direct investment (FDI) come to Myanmar following the introduction of new Foreign Investment Law to generate a much needed capital and technology to stimulate economic growth and employment? Equally important are the analyses of high - valued food production and supply chains and the role of Myanmar business c onglomerates in the context of economic, trade, and investment liberalization. Would FDI and competition from multilateral companies in Myanmar domestic economy create the necessary economic benefits to generate economic competition and efficiency necessar y to accelerate the rate of economic development and employment? Chapters are intended to provide clear explanation s and analyse s of various interrelated changes that may have perceptible implications to the second phase of Myanmar economic reform. A chapt er on transition from informal to formal foreign exchange transactions was analy s ed based on evidence from export firm survey data. It is a bold attempt to provide clear implications to Myanmar’s fragile financial and banking sector as a result of liberali zation and deregulation of foreign trade and stabilization and the measured de - regulation of foreign exchange market. Two chapters were written on Myanmar’s changing external political and economic relations with China and India which would have important implications to the process of Myanmar’s economic reforms and development."
    Author/creator: Hank Lim and Yasuhiro Yamada
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO
    Format/size: pdf (246K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/13.html
    Date of entry/update: 16 June 2014


  • Burma's economic relations with the region

    Individual Documents

    Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 REGIONAL COOPERATION AND INTEGRATION (SUMMARY)
    Date of publication: September 2012
    Description/subject: Role of Regional Cooperation and Integration in Myanmar’s Development: 1. Myanmar is strategically located in Asia. Having the largest land area in mainland Southeast Asia, it shares borders with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) on the north and northeast, Lao PDR and Thailand on the east and southeast, and Bangladesh and India on the west and northwest. It has a long coastline of around 2,800 km which provides access to sea routes and deep-sea ports. It has the potential to serve as a land bridge between Southeast and South Asia, and between Southeast Asia and the PRC. Regional cooperation and integration (RCI), therefore, provides Myanmar with a great opportunity to secure benefits in terms of access to regional and global markets, technology, and finance and management expertise. It can also promote inflows of foreign direct investment which can enable Myanmar to link up with regional and global supply networks. Besides expanding employment opportunities, RCI can also help in addressing social and environmental concerns through cooperation with neighboring countries...II. The GMS Program... III. Myanmar and the GMS Program...IV. GMS Economic Corridors ...V. Myanmar’s Participation in BIMSTEC... VI. Issues facing the GMS Program including Myanmar...VII. RCI Opportunities in Myanmar...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (106K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-regional_cooperation.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


    Title: Trade Trumps Human Rights
    Date of publication: October 2008
    Description/subject: "Many countries have shown more interest in trading with Asean than in taking Burma's generals to task for trampling on citizens' basic rights... The more pressing needs of economic growth in East Asia appear to be overriding the issue of pressuring the Burmese military junta to reform. Economic giants China and India are on the verge of finalizing free trade agreements (FTAs) with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), to which Burma belongs, while both Australia and New Zealand have just formed closer trade pacts with the bloc..."
    Author/creator: William Boot
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2008


  • Burma's economic relations with Japan

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Japan Times
    Description/subject: Searchable archive from January 1999. 322 hits for "Myanmar" (May 2003) ... 472 for "Myanmar", 138 for "Burma" (Feb 2005); 1,740 for Burma OR Myanmar (August 2012)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Japan Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Japan-Myanmar Relations
    Description/subject: Diplomatic Relations, Number of Japanese Nationals residing in Myanmar, Number of Myanmar Nationals residing in Japan, Trade with Japan (1998) Direct Investment from Japan, Japan's Economic Cooperation, List of Grant Aid - Exchange of Notes in Fiscal Year 2002, VIP Visits. Statements by Japanese officials, Press Secretary's Press Conference on Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Search for Myanmar on the IDE/JETRO site
    Description/subject: Several Myanmar-Japan items
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE/JETRO
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Japan's Itochu joins the charge of the mining brigade in to Burma
    Date of publication: 04 May 2012
    Description/subject: "It is reported in the Japanese press today that Itochu Corp has begun a feasibility study in the country to isolate specialty metals including tungsten and molybdenum. This follows approaches by Japanese officials last year trying to get a deal with Burma for access to rare earths, the elements vital to Japanese industry’s high tech and hybrid car programs. South Korea has also been lobbying the Burmese over rare earths. Chinese companies have also been eyeing projects in the country. In 2008, China National Petroleum Corp signed a 30-year gas agreement covering production from three blocks in the Bay of Bengal. But this is only the beginning. The country will be a big target because it has bountiful resources in close proximity to resource-hungry India and China..."
    Author/creator: Robin Bromby
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Australian"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: Japan and the Myanmar Conundrum
    Date of publication: October 2009
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar, also known as Burma, is an exception to many of the success stories of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Throughout the postwar period the country has pursued a foreign policy line that has been obstinately indepen-dent, with a basic stance towards the outside world pervaded by a sense of noli me tangere. Once it was one of the key Asian countries convening the 1955 Bandung Conference at which the non-aligned movement was launched, but policies pursued since have made the country a peripheral member of the international community. One of the country’s key relationships in the postwar period has been with Japan. The beginning of this bilateral relationship goes back to the Second World War period. In December 1941, Japan began a mili-tary campaign into Southeast Asia and a puppet government for Burma under the Burmese nationalist Ba Maw was set up on August 1, 1942, which replaced British colonial rule. In May 1945, the British Army returned to Rangoon and the colonial masters regained power but two years later they agreed to hand over the ruling of the country to the Burmese, and Burma became independent in January 1948. In 1954, an agreement on war reparations was reached be-tween Japan and Burma totalling US$200 million over ten years, which began to be paid out the following year. Not only was aid from Japan forthcoming but it was increasing, from about US$20 million in the 1960s to around US$200 million in the 1970s. The aid amounted to a total of US$2.2 billion during 1962–1988. Japan became the largest aid donor to Burma. For Japan, the agreement with Burma was important in that a window of opportunity opened for Japan’s diplomacy towards Southeast Asian countries that had been at a standstill since the end of the Second World War. After a military coup in 1988, Japanese ODA to Burma was suspended‚ in principle,‛ and new aid was limited to projects that were of an ‚emergency and humanitarian nature.‛ Nevertheless, Japan was soon again accounting for the lion’s share of aid to the country. General elections took place in Myanmar in May 1990 and resulted in a serious setback for the military junta. The oppo-sition National League for Democracy (NLD) secured a landslide victory. The outcome did not result in a new government, since the ruling military ignored the election result of the NLD and refused to hand over power. In 1992 a shift of Japan’s ODA policy was announced with the adoption of Japan’s ODA Charter, which prescribed that decisions on ODA should be tak-en after taking into account the recipients’ record on military spending, de-mocracy, moves towards market economy, and human rights. From this pe-riod a carrot and stick policy as codified in the ODA Charter has been applied to Myanmar which represented a clear break with Japan’s previous ‚hands-off‛ stance. A bifurcated Myanmar policy pursued by the Japanese govern-ment emerged, resulting from its efforts to relate to the two important political forces confronting each other in Myanmar. Nevertheless, there has been a strong bias on part of the Japanese government towards favoring relations with the ruling military. Relations between Japan and Myanmar have been receding ever since the military junta took power in 1988 and Japan instituted its policy of carrots and sticks. For Myanmar’s ruling junta, Japan’s carrot and stick policy was unwel-come news when it was first introduced, and has been seen ever since as an attempt by Japan to interfere in what the junta considers Myanmar’s internal affairs. With the junta in Myanmar facing international isolation after its sup-pression of democracy, China’s exchanges with Myanmar increased drastically. Soon after the 1988 coup, China had become the main external supporter of the Myanmar junta. In order to coming to grips with the situation around Myanmar a proposal has been launched focusing on the formation of an international coalition strong and viable enough to institute change. Due to its strong historical ties and good relations inside and outside Myanmar, Japan is one candidate for playing a key role in such an endeavor. With its strong links with all major forces, Japan occupies a pivotal position with a viable chance of bringing to-gether critical actors into a process of dialogue and reform. Two recent devel-opments increase the possibility that Japan and China would cooperate in such an endeavor. During Prime Minister Abe Shinzō’s visit to China in 2006 after only one week in office, he admitted that China played the key role in the negotiations with North Korea and expressed hope that China would exercise its influence. It was in realization of the fact that, in dealing with North Korea, Japan’s strong-handed policy of ‚dialogue and pressure‛ had not worked, which made the Japanese government conclude that united international ac-tion was needed if negotiations were to progress, and that chances were great-er to reach results if the Chinese could be persuaded to use their influence to talk the North Koreans out of their provocative policies. The second move that has a bearing on Japan’s Myanmar policy are the events surrounding the cold-blooded killing of the Japanese photographer Nagai Kenji during demonstra-tions in Yangon on September 27, 2007. An important step taken by Japan was the fact that Prime Minister Fukuda Yasuo brought up Myanmar in talks over the phone with Prime Minister Wen Jiabao of China the day after the fatal shooting, and asked that China, given its close ties with Myanmar, exercise its influence and Premier Wen said he will make such efforts. Abe’s visit to Beijing broke the ice between China and Japan, and a series of top-level meetings have followed. The two countries have clarified that they seem themselves to bear a responsibility for peace, stability, and development of the Asia-Pacific region and have agreed to together promote the realization of peace, prosperity, stability, and openness in Asia. Not only that, the two governments pledged to together forge a bright future for the Asia-Pacific re-gion. If Japan and China see themselves as bearing a responsibility for the peace, stability, and development of the Asia-Pacific region, it is hard to see how they can avoid being annoyed by the existence in their immediate neigh-borhood of a country that is widely treated an international outsider, especial-ly if they want to live up to their declared aim of aligning Japan–China rela-tions with the trends of the international community."
    Author/creator: Bert Edström
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
    Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2010


    Title: China and Japan's Economic Relations with Myanmar: Strengthened vs. Estranged
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: "China has historically been the most important neighbor for Myanmar, sharing a long 2185 km border. Myanmar and China call each other "Paukphaw," a Myanmar word for siblings that is never used for any country other than China, reflecting their close and cordial relationship. The independent China-Myanmar relationship is premised on the five principles of peaceful co-existence, including mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty and mutual non-aggression. Japan and Myanmar have also had strong ties in the post-World War II period, often referred to as a "special relationship", or a "historically friendly relationship."! That relationship was established through the personal experiences and sentiments ofNe Win and others in the military and political elite of independent Myanmar. Aung San, Ne Win and other leaders of Myanmar's independence movement were members of the "Thirty Comrades," who were educated and trained by Japanese army officers.2 However, China's and Japan's relations with Myanmar have developed in contrast to one another since 1988, when the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), later re-constituted as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), took power by military coup. The military government in Myanmar has improved and strengthened its relations with China, while their relationship with Japan has worsened and cooled. What accounts for the differences in China's and Japan's relations with Myanmar? The purpose of this chapter is to examine the development and changes in China-Myanmar and Japan-Myanmar relations from historical, political, diplomatic and particularly economic viewpoints. Based on discussions, the author evaluates China's growing influences on the Myanmar government and economy, and identifies factors that, on the contrary, have put Japan and Myanmar at a distance since 1988..."
    Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization
    Format/size: pdf (201K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


    Title: Review of Donald Seekins': "Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ "
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: "...The book looks at Burma’s ‘tragedy’ as being a result of both internal and external factors, thus placing the country’s history in a global context. It demonstrates that Japanese attitudes and actions towards the country throughout different periods were mainly guided by Japanese self-interest and lacked a deeper understanding of Burma’s ‘real’ problems. Japan did not liberate Burma in 1942, nor did it do so later. This thesis might also be applicable to the relations of other countries with Burma. The country was and is a fine projection screen for fantasies about what Burma ‘is’ in connection with practical self-interests of varying kinds – economic as well as humanitarian. The book also provides detailed facts and figures on Japanese investment in Burma, as well as the cultural background behind Japanese perceptions of the country and its protagonists. What is missing, however, is an evaluation of the activities of the many Japanese NGOs working in post-1988 Burma; these provided help for many projects in the country and thus contributed to the emergence of segments of civil society in Myanmar..."
    Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 1/2009
    Format/size: pdf (84K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


    Title: Myanmar and Japan: How Close Friends Become Estranged
    Date of publication: August 2007
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Independent Myanmar and Japan had long held the strongest ties among Asian countries, and they were often known as having "special relations" or a "historically friendly relationship."Such relations were guaranteed by the sentiments and experiences of the leaders of both countries. Among others, Ne Win, former strongman throughout the socialist period (1962-1988), was educated and trained by the Japanese army officers of the Minami Kikan, leading to the birth of the Burma Independence Army (BIA). Huge official development assistance provided by the Japanese government also cemented this special relationship. However, the birth of the present military government (SLORC/SPDC) in 1988 drastically changed this favorable relationship between the two countries. When the military seized power in a coup, Japan was believed to be the only country that possessed sufficient meaningful influence on Myanmar to encourage a move toward national reconciliation between the junta and the opposition party led by Aung San Suu Kyi. In reality, Japan failed to exert such an influence due to its sour relations with the military government and reduced influence in the new international and regional political landscape. What is worse, Japan seems to be losing its say on Myanmar issues in the international political arena, as it has been wavering in limbo between the sanctionist forces, such as the United States and the European Union, and engagement forces, such as China and ASEAN."... Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), Japan, China, ODA, Foreign Relations, Cold War JEL classification:F14, F35, N45
    Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE Discussion Paper 118)
    Format/size: pdf (233K)
    Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008


    Title: Japan Envoy Visits Northern Arakan
    Date of publication: 31 July 2004
    Description/subject: Maung Daw, July 31: "A Japanese envoy visited Northern Arakan from the 23rd to the 27th of July, according to our correspondent. The envoy led by Masache O’ Jawa, Business attachée of the Japanese Embassy in Rangoon, also included Taka Hiro Susu Ki, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)’s regional representative to Burma as well as Choche Yo Ho Rekie, a chief engineer of JICA office in Cambodia. The purpose of the foreign envoy's visit to Maung Daw was to inspect a damaged road that was constructed by the British government during the Second World War. The Japanese government may assist in the rebuilding of the road in the near future..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Narinjara News
    Format/size: html (6K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 August 2004


    Title: Japan Vows Aid to Burma Despite Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's Detention
    Date of publication: 19 July 2004
    Description/subject: Chittagong, July 19: "Japan is to provide 344 million yen (3.1 million dollars) in aid to help Burma battle environmental deprivation, regardless of the ongoing detention of opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, according to Myanmar Times..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kaladan News
    Format/size: html (11K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 August 2004


    Title: Is Japan Really Getting Tough on Burma? (Not likely)
    Date of publication: 28 June 2003
    Description/subject: "There was a flurry of articles last week about how Japan plans to suspend, or in fact suspended, economic aid (ODA: Official Development Assistance, which is comprised mainly of yen loans, grants and technical assistance) to Burma, thereby stepping up the pressure on the military junta to release Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Most news reports say that the aid that is being frozen is further, or new, ODA. Given that Japan has long pursued an engagement policy with Burma, and is the largest provider of economic aid to Burma (2.1 billion yen of grants-in-aid was provided in fiscal year 2002), a suspension would carry a certain weight with the military regime. ...Japan's engagement policy with Burma has always been based on a gcarrot and stickh approach, which traditionally has involved far more "carrots" than gstick.h Notwithstanding the uncertainties surrounding the suspension of new ODA, Japan's freeze is a rare, and probably short-term, application of a gstick.h The Japanese governmentfs preference has been, and will continue to be, for gcarrots,h a posture that is due in part to apparent concern about China replacing Japan as a likely source of economic assistance to, and political influence on, Burma. In this context, therefore, it is essential that governments and non-governmental groups monitor Japan's Burma policy -- and be wary of overly optimistic or inaccurate news accounts concerning that policy. There is little doubt that, without pressure from other countries (notably the U.S.) and interested citizens, even a decision to suspend new ODA would likely have been much slower in coming. Such pressure must continue."
    Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Information Network - Japan
    Format/size: html (18K); pdf (16k)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/oda/analyseGOJpolicy20030628.pdf (pdf)
    Date of entry/update: 30 June 2003


    Title: JAPAN URGED TO AID MYANMAR DEVELOPMENT
    Date of publication: 10 January 2002
    Description/subject: Kuala Lumpur; jan 10; "UN envoy Razali Ismali is expected to urge Japan to play a larger role in developing Myanmar s education, health and energy sector, a Malaysian official said Thursday, reports AFP..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Narinjara news
    Format/size: html (6K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Development, Environment and Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar ~Examining the Impacts of ODA and Investment~Public Symposium Report, Tokyo, Japan
    Date of publication: 15 December 2001
    Description/subject: Chapter 1: ODA and Foreign Investment p7; Chapter 2: Japanese Policy Towards Myanmar p14; Chapter 3: Baluchaung Hydropower Plant No 2 p19; Chapter 4: Tasang Dam and Yadana Gas Pipeline p22; Chapter 5: The UNOCAL Case p26; Chapter 6: Panel Discussion p30; Chapter 7: Development in Other Countries 40; Chapter 8: Reviewing Development p43; References: p45. "...One objective of the symposium was to examine how development has affected people and the environment in Burma. Another objective was to examine the roles of the Japanese government, of private companies, and of individuals in development in Burma. Each speaker had his or her own ideas about what is best for Burma. Does Burma need development? If so, what kind of development does it need? For development, is it necessary for other countries to give Official Development Assistance (ODA)? Should ODA be given under the current military regime? Should companies invest in Burma now? Do ODA and investment help the people of Burma? ..."
    Author/creator: (Speakers): Ms. Taeko Takahashi, Mr. Teddy Buri, Ms. Hsao Tai, Ms. Yuki Akimoto, Mr. Nobuhiko Suto, Mr. Shigeru Nakajima
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mekong Watch, Japan
    Format/size: PDF (640K) 45pg
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Japan errs again
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: "The surest sign that the talks between Burma�s ruling junta and the democratic opposition were in serious trouble came in early April, when Japan�s then-Foreign Minister Yohei Kono announced that his country was ready to "reward" the regime to the tune of $28 million for repairs to a hydroelectric power station in Karenni State..."
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 9, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Gambling on Japan
    Date of publication: April 2000
    Description/subject: In recent years Japan has attempted to assert itself as a major player on the Asian political stage, only to have its efforts rebuffed by its neighbors and its major strategic partner, the United States. But, writes Neil Lawrence, Asian countries struggling out of a major economic crisis may finally be ready to give Japan the leading role it has long coveted. But doubts remain about Japan's political values.
    Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The North Wind and the Sun: Japan's Response To The Political Crisis in Burma, 1988-1998
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: "Japan's response to the political crisis in Burma after the establishment of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in September 1988 reflected the interests of powerful constituencies within the Japanese political system, especially business interests, to which were added other constituencies such as domestic supporters of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's struggle for democracy and those who wished to pursue 'Sun Diplomacy,' using positive incentives to encourage democratization and economic reform. Policymakers in Tokyo, however, approached the Burma crisis seeking to take minimal risks--a "maximin strategy"--which limited their effectiveness in influencing the junta. This was evident in the February 1989 "normalization" of Tokyo's ties with SLORC. During 1989-1998, Japanese business leaders pushed hard to promote economic engagement, but "Sun Diplomacy" made little progress in the face of the junta's increasing repression of the democratic opposition." Online publication with kind permission of the author and the Journal of Burma Studies
    Author/creator: Donald M. Seekins
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies, Vol. 4 (1999)
    Format/size: html (237K); pdf (2.17MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol4/index.shtml
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Japan Seeks Respect - But from Whom?
    Date of publication: April 1998
    Description/subject: Japan's resumption of ODA to Burma's junta begs questions about its motives and what its political values really are.
    Author/creator: LJN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burma's economic relations with ASEAN

    Individual Documents

    Title: COUNTRY REPORT OF THE ASEAN ASSESSMENT ON THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS: MYANMAR
    Date of publication: July 2010
    Description/subject: I. The Social Impact of the Financial Crisis and the Government’s Responses... II. Social Protecti on Programmes... III. P Policy Iss ues... References
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN
    Format/size: pdf (773K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 October 2012


    Title: Analysis on International Trade of CLM Countries
    Date of publication: August 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Since their accession to AFTA, trade volumes of CLM countries have being grown rapidly while their trade patterns and directions have significantly changed. Recognizing the importance of international trade in CLM [Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar]economies, this study attempts to analyze the trade patterns of CLM countries based the gravity model. The empirical analysis is conducted to identify the determining factors of each country's bilateral trade flows and policy implications for promoting their trade. The results indicate that CLM's trade patterns are mainly affected by partner country's GDP, the difference between per capita GDPs of two countries, distance, common border, and presence in particular FTA. Their trade relations with East Asian countries mainly China, Japan and Korea have yet to be exploited to their full potential. These findings suggest that CLM countries needs to promote their bilateral trade with countries in close proximity and having large economic size and high consumers' purchasing power through accelerating their trade liberalization efforts in FTAs in progress."..... Keywords: CLM countries, ASEAN, East Asia, FTA, Bilateral trade
    Author/creator: Nu Nu Lwin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO
    Format/size: pdf (589K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 January 2010


    Title: Foreign Direct Investment Relations between Myanmar and ASEAN
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: Abstract: Myanmar highly appreciates foreign direct investment (FDI) as a key solution reducing the development gap with leading ASEAN countries. Accordingly, it is welcomed by the government. Myanmar's Foreign Investment Law was enacted in 1988 soon after the adoption of a market-oriented economic system to boost the flow of FDI into the country. Foreign investors positively responded to these measures in the early years and FDI inflow into Myanmar gradually increased during the period from 1989 to 1996. However, after 1997, FDI inflow was dramatically reduced and markedly declined until 2004. In 2005, FDI inflow increased at an unprecedented rate and reached the highest level in the country's history. However, this growth was not sustainable in the subsequent years, as it declined again and turned stagnant at the previous level. In terms of source regions, ASEAN is a major investor in Myanmar, which investment is significantly exceeds the combined investment of other regions of the world. Among top ten countries, Thailand's investment alone is significantly more than combined total investments of the other nine countries. Next to Thailand in terms of investments in Myanmar are Singapore and Malaysia among ASEAN, at second and third places, respectively. The combined total FDI inflows into the power and oil and gas sector represent about 65 percent of the total investment. There are many opportunities for foreign investment in other sectors, which are not, yet exploited. ASEAN countries will certainly be source countries of Myanmar FDI in the future, and Myanmar should expand to other Asian countries like Japan, India, China, Korea, and Hong Kong where its FDI portfolio is concerned. To effectively attract FDI into the country, Myanmar needs to minimize the effect of policy while opening and encouraging other potential sectors of FDI to foreign investors in ASEAN and Asian countries.... Keywords: foreign direct investment (FDI), Myanmar, ASEAN, Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC)... JEL classification: F21, L10, O11
    Author/creator: Thandar Khine
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No. 149
    Format/size: pdf (580K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


  • Burma's economic relations with Australia

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Australia: Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Description/subject: 454 search results for "Burma". (August 2003)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australia: Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Australia: Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Burma page)
    Description/subject: * Country Brief - December 2002; * Burma Country Fact Sheet (PDF); * THE NEW ASEANS: Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia and Laos - Report by the East Asia Analytical Unit; Travel information; * Travel advice for Burma | See also our Travel Information page; * Before you travel: Passports Australia | Visa information | Top 10 travel tips; * Assistance to Australian travellers: FAQ | Consular Services Charter; Representation:P * Australian Representation in Burm; o Australian Embassy in Burma; + Ambassador to Burma; + Accreditation; * Burmese Representation in Australia; o Embassy of the Union of Myanmar... Media: * Renewed call for Aung San Suu Kyi's release 22 July; * Visit to Burma by UNSG Special Envoy 5 June; * Downer calls for release of Aung San Suu Kyi 2 June; * Diplomatic Appointment - Ambassador to Burma 5 March; * Media releases from the Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Minister for Trade on Burma... Related links: * AusAID Burma page; * IMF Burma page; * World Bank Burma page; * ADB Burma page;
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 August 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: The New ASEANS: Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia & Laos.
    Date of publication: 20 June 1997
    Description/subject: This 1997 report was published by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The 70-page section on Burma is divided into 3 chapters: "Perpetuating the Military State" which among other things contains a few pages on the legal system which provide good background for the economics section; "Arrested Economic Development" and "Politicised business". The latter looks at trade, in particular between Australia and Burma. The analysis is useful but, given the 4-5 years since it was written, somewhat outdated.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australian Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Format/size: PDF (2943K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


    Title: The New ASEANS: Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia & Laos (Executive Summary)
    Date of publication: 1997
    Description/subject: A useful overview of the longer PDF document of the same name.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australian Fept of Foreign Arffairs and Trade
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Fact Sheet (Australian Govt.)
    Description/subject: One-pager. Some general country info and recent economic indicators but the main focus is on Australia-Burma trade.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australia: Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burma's economic relations with Canada

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Government of Canada
    Description/subject: Search for Burma
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://canada.gc.ca/main_e.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


    Title: Major Canadian Exports to Burma
    Description/subject: 1999, 2000 - March 2001
    Language: English
    Alternate URLs: http://www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca/Entry.jsp
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Major Canadian Imports from Burma
    Description/subject: 1999, 2000 - March 2001
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Forgotten Workforce: Experiences of women migrants from Burma in Ruili, China (Burmese)
    Date of publication: February 2012
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma’s continuing political repression and economic deterioration, coupled with China’s rapid growth, have caused a new phenomenon over the past few years: large-scale northward migration from Burma to China. The Yunnanese border town of Ruili (called Shweli in Burmese) has seen an estimated tenfold increase in the number of migrants from Burma since 2006, with numbers now exceeding 100,000. Formerly mainly employed in the jade, transport and sex industries, migrants are now working in a range of sectors, including domestic work, restaurants and hotels, sales, construction and manufacturing industries. Migrants are arriving from all parts of central and eastern Burma, particularly from the central dry zone, where continuing drought has deprived farmers of their traditional livelihoods. In Sagaing and Magwe, whole villages are draining of young people coming to find work in China. A large proportion of the migrants are women. During 2010 the Burmese Women’s Union (BWU) conducted in-depth interviews with 32 of these women from various work sectors. Most were from Burma’s central divisions. About half were high school graduates, and some had even graduated from university, but none had been able to find jobs inside Burma. The migrant women interviewed by BWU in Ruili revealed persistent patterns of work exploitation, occupational health and safety hazards and mistreatment by employers throughout different work sectors. A particularly dangerous kind of work being carried out by migrant women in Ruili is processing of petrified wood, imported from Mandalay Division and sold as highly valued home ornaments throughout China. In hundreds of small workshops, women are paid a pittance to sit for long hours sanding and polishing wood, using hazardous electric equipment and chemical solvents, without protective clothing or health insurance. On top of general exploitative work conditions, women also face gender discrimination, receiving lower pay than men in most sectors, no maternity leave and benefits, and suffering sexual harassment from employers. Health and safety risks are particularly high for the several hundred Burmese women working in the sex industry in Ruili and Jiegao, who are often forced to have unprotected sex, and face violence from clients, especially those who are drug users There are no existing mechanisms for foreign migrant workers to seek redress for cases of exploitation and infringement of their rights. They also forbidden from organising any workers’ committees or unions. This has occasionally caused workers’ pent-up resentment to erupt into violence against employers. There are no signs that the migration from Burma will ease in the foreseeable future. Burma’s November 2010 elections were neither free nor fair, and power remains constitutionally firmly in the hands of the military, which continues to receive the lion’s share of the national budget, while health and education needs remain critically underfunded. During 2011 the Burma Army has launched fierce new offensives against ethnic resistance groups seeking to protect their communities and environment from damaging resource exploitation. The military mismanagement at the root of Burma’s economic woes thus looks sets to continue, together with the outflow of migration to neighbouring countries, including China. Mechanisms to protect the rights of foreign migrant workers and prevent further injustices, particularly against women in China are thus urgently needed."
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Burmese Women's Union (BWU)
    Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmesewomensunion.org
    Date of entry/update: 24 February 2012


    Title: Forgotten Workforce: Experiences of women migrants from Burma in Ruili, China (English)
    Date of publication: February 2012
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma’s continuing political repression and economic deterioration, coupled with China’s rapid growth, have caused a new phenomenon over the past few years: large-scale northward migration from Burma to China. The Yunnanese border town of Ruili (called Shweli in Burmese) has seen an estimated tenfold increase in the number of migrants from Burma since 2006, with numbers now exceeding 100,000. Formerly mainly employed in the jade, transport and sex industries, migrants are now working in a range of sectors, including domestic work, restaurants and hotels, sales, construction and manufacturing industries. Migrants are arriving from all parts of central and eastern Burma, particularly from the central dry zone, where continuing drought has deprived farmers of their traditional livelihoods. In Sagaing and Magwe, whole villages are draining of young people coming to find work in China. A large proportion of the migrants are women. During 2010 the Burmese Women’s Union (BWU) conducted in-depth interviews with 32 of these women from various work sectors. Most were from Burma’s central divisions. About half were high school graduates, and some had even graduated from university, but none had been able to find jobs inside Burma. The migrant women interviewed by BWU in Ruili revealed persistent patterns of work exploitation, occupational health and safety hazards and mistreatment by employers throughout different work sectors. A particularly dangerous kind of work being carried out by migrant women in Ruili is processing of petrified wood, imported from Mandalay Division and sold as highly valued home ornaments throughout China. In hundreds of small workshops, women are paid a pittance to sit for long hours sanding and polishing wood, using hazardous electric equipment and chemical solvents, without protective clothing or health insurance. On top of general exploitative work conditions, women also face gender discrimination, receiving lower pay than men in most sectors, no maternity leave and benefits, and suffering sexual harassment from employers. Health and safety risks are particularly high for the several hundred Burmese women working in the sex industry in Ruili and Jiegao, who are often forced to have unprotected sex, and face violence from clients, especially those who are drug users There are no existing mechanisms for foreign migrant workers to seek redress for cases of exploitation and infringement of their rights. They also forbidden from organising any workers’ committees or unions. This has occasionally caused workers’ pent-up resentment to erupt into violence against employers. There are no signs that the migration from Burma will ease in the foreseeable future. Burma’s November 2010 elections were neither free nor fair, and power remains constitutionally firmly in the hands of the military, which continues to receive the lion’s share of the national budget, while health and education needs remain critically underfunded. During 2011 the Burma Army has launched fierce new offensives against ethnic resistance groups seeking to protect their communities and environment from damaging resource exploitation. The military mismanagement at the root of Burma’s economic woes thus looks sets to continue, together with the outflow of migration to neighbouring countries, including China. Mechanisms to protect the rights of foreign migrant workers and prevent further injustices, particularly against women in China are thus urgently needed.
    Language: English and Burmese
    Source/publisher: Burmese Women's Union (BWU)
    Format/size: pdf (764K-English; 2.95-Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://womenofburma.org/Report/Forgotten-workforce-Bur.pdf
    http://www.burmesewomensunion.org
    Date of entry/update: 24 February 2012


  • Burma's economic relations with China

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Chinese Government Guidelines for Overseas Investment
    Date of publication: 18 April 2013
    Description/subject: "On February 28th, 2013, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Environmental Protection released its “Guidelines for Environmental Protection in Foreign Investment and Cooperation” (“Guidelines”), which are based on recommendations by the Chinese NGO, Global Environmental Institute (GEI). These Guidelines provide civil society groups with a new source of leverage when it comes to holding Chinese companies responsible for their environmental and social impacts overseas... View the “Guidelines for Environmental Protection in Foreign Investment and Cooperation” in Burmese | Chinese | English | Spanish... Read an analysis of the Guidelines by Grace Mang, China Program Director... Read a comparison of the Guidelines with international standards by Policy Director Peter Bosshard (also available in Chinese on chinadialogue)... Read interviews with Mr. Ren Peng of Global Environmental Institute and Dr. Hu Tao of the World Resources Institute... The Guidelines cover key issues, including legal compliance, environmental policies, environmental management plans, mitigation measures, disaster management plans, community relations, waste management, and international standards... While the Guidelines are non-binding, they are still government policy and can thus be a useful tool for civil society seeking to hold Chinese companies to account. Even though it is unlikely that the Guidelines will translate into immediate changes at project sites, the Guidelines create a new window for civil society to engage with Chinese companies abroad, obtain project information and documents, and hold them to a higher level of responsibility around mitigating damages."
    Language: English (links to docs in Burmese, Chinese, Spanish)
    Source/publisher: International Riivers
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/article/policyrelease/bbb/201303/20130300043226.shtml (Guidelines in English)
    http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/attached-files/guidelines_on_environmental_policies_of_chinese_overseas_investment.feb2013_burmese_0.pdf (Guidelines in Burmese)
    http://hzs.mofcom.gov.cn/article/zcfb/b/201302/20130200039909.shtml (Guidelines in Chinese)
    http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/attached-files/guidelines_on_environmental_policies_of_chinese_overseas_investment.feb2013_esp_0.pdf (Guidelines in Spanish)
    http://www.internationalrivers.org/blogs/262/beijing-sends-a-signal-to-chinese-overseas-dam-builders (Analysis - English)
    http://www.internationalrivers.org/blogs/227/holding-chinese-investors-to-account
    http://www.internationalrivers.org/resources/interview-with-ren-peng-on-china-s-overseas-investment-guidelines-7943
    Date of entry/update: 24 April 2013


    Title: Company responses (and non-responses) to "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" published by EarthRights International in March 2011
    Description/subject: "On 29 March 2011 EarthRights International released a report, entittled "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" [PDF], which "link[ed] major Chinese and Korean companies to widespread land confiscation, and cases of forced labor, arbitrary arrest, detention and torture, and violations of indigenous rights connected to the Shwe natural gas project and oil transport projects in Burma." The companies named in the report are: China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Daewoo International [part of POSCO], GAIL (India), Korean Gas Corporation (KOGAS), ONGC Videsh, and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE)"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Business & Human Rights Resource Centre
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 September 2011


    Title: Dams and other hydropower projects
    Description/subject: Link to the dams material in the Water section
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: OnlineBurma/Myanmar Library
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: China, Myanmar: stop that train
    Date of publication: 14 August 2014
    Description/subject: "Since reports about the cancellation of a proposed US$20 billion railway line connecting China's southern Yunnan province with Myanmar's Rakhine western coast emerged in late July, conflicting accounts about the 1,200 kilometer project's status have raised new questions about the neighboring countries' commercial relations. The controversy erupted with a local news report quoting Myint Wai, director of Myanmar's Ministry of Rail Transportation, saying that the project had been "cancelled" after over three years of inaction on a 2011 agreement. A DPA report furthered the story by quoting an anonymous Myanmar government official saying the Kyaukpyu-Kunming railway was popularly perceived as having "more disadvantages than advantages" and was cancelled in line with the "people's desires". Yang Houlan, China's Ambassador to Myanmar, contradicted that report, saying China had not abandoned the project. The state mouthpiece China Daily underscored that official line, reporting that an "unidentified Myanmar economic official" said that the project only needs "continued coordination". The China Railway Engineering Corporation (CREC), the original Chinese investor in the project, meanwhile has been reluctant to respond to the conflicting reports... the railway is of strategic importance to China: it had been regarded as a key component of China's Trans-Asia railway network and a critical element for developing a southwest strategic corridor to the Indian Ocean, a route for crucial imports that bypassed the congested Malacca Strait and hotly contested South China Sea... cancellation of the multi-billion dollar railway project would indicate a further deterioration of Sino-Myanmar ties, despite Beijing's sustained bid to portray the relationship as strong and healthy..."
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


    Title: China, Myanmar face Myitsone dam truths
    Date of publication: 19 February 2014
    Description/subject: "Debate between China and Myanmar over the suspended US$3.6 billion Myitsone hydro-electric dam project recently reached a new pitch. A war of words between their governments erupted after China Power Investment launched a renewed public relations campaign to promote the mega-project. This included a corporate social responsibility report released in December beautifying the dam and its supposed wondrous contributions to local livelihoods and development..."
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


    Title: China, the United States and the Kachin Conflict
    Date of publication: January 2014
    Description/subject: KEY FINDINGS: 1. The prolonged Kachin conflict is a major obstacle to Myanmar’s national reconciliation and a challenging test for the democratization process. 2. The KIO and the Myanmar government differ on the priority between the cease-fire and the political dialogue. Without addressing this difference, the nationwide peace accord proposed by the government will most likely lack the KIO’s participation. 3. The disagreements on terms have hindered a formal cease-fire. In addition, the existing economic interest groups profiting from the armed conflict have further undermined the prospect for progress. 4. China intervened in the Kachin negotiations in 2013 to protect its national interests. A crucial motivation was a concern about the “internationalization” of the Kachin issue and the potential US role along the Chinese border. 5. Despite domestic and external pressure, the US has refrained from playing a formal and active role in the Kachin conflict. The need to balance the impact on domestic politics in Myanmar and US-China relations are factors in US policy. 6.A The US has attempted to discuss various options of cooperation with China on the Kachin issue. So far, such attempts have not been accepted by China.
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Stimson Center (Great Powers and the Changing Myanmar - Issue Brief No. 2)
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research-pdfs/Myanmar_Issue_Brief_No_2_Jan_2014_WEB.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2014


    Title: Chinese Investment in Myanmar: What Lies Ahead?
    Date of publication: 16 September 2013
    Description/subject: This issue brief examines reasons for the sharp drop in Chinese investment in Myanmar since 2011, the impact of the reduced investment, and the prospects for future Chinese investment in the nation, formerly known as Burma..... Key Findings: 1. After a reformist government replaced a military junta in Myanmar in 2011, Chinese investment in the nation plummeted – approximately $12 billion from 2008 to 2011 to just $407 million in the 2012/2013 fiscal year.... 2. The three largest Chinese investments in Myanmar – the Myitsone Dam, the Letpadaung Copper Mine and the Sino-Myanmar oil and gas pipelines – have sparked local opposition and criticism in Myanmar to varying degrees, creating problems and uncertainties for Chinese investors... 3. China perceives that Myanmar is now a more unfriendly and risky place to invest and is displeased that the Myanmar government is not doing more to protect Chinese interest in the country.... 4. In a move to gain greater acceptance of its investments in Myanmar, China is improving its profit-sharing, environmental and corporate social responsibility programs in the nation... 5. China has learned important lessons about investing in other countries from the problems it has encountered in Myanmar... 6. Reduced Chinese investment in Myanmar could hurt Myanmar’s economy in unexpected ways. Greater foreign investment is needed in Myanmar, particularly in the nation’s underdeveloped and inadequate infrastructure that is acting as an obstacle to industrialization... 7. Chinese investors and the government of Myanmar should work together to reduce distrust and hostility on both sides and increase responsible and mutually beneficial investment in Myanmar to benefit both nations.
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Stimson Center (Great Powers and the Changing Myanmar - Issue Brief No. 1)
    Format/size: pdf (386K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs16/2013-09-Stimson-Yun.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 17 September 2013


    Title: India-China make a Myanmar tryst
    Date of publication: 13 August 2013
    Description/subject: "As India and China have emerged as major powers in Asia, their interests and concerns have transcended their geographical boundaries. There is particularly the case in Myanmar, where those interests have converged. This is largely due to the fact that Myanmar shares common borders with both the countries. Myanmar shares a 2,185-kilometer border with China, and 1,643-kilometer border with India. It has long been argued that Myanmar has always been a strategic concern for governing the dynamics of India-China relations. Myanmar's strategic location is considered as an important asset for India and China that offers tremendous opportunities for the countries of the region. Therefore, recent developments in Myanmar are a matter of concern for both India and China..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: China Moves to Dam the Nu, Ignoring Seismic, Ecological, and Social Risks
    Date of publication: 25 January 2013
    Description/subject: "In a blueprint for the energy sector in 2011-15, China’s State Council on Wednesday lifted an eightyear ban on five megadams for the largely free-flowing Nu River [Salween], ignoring concerns about geologic risks, global biodiversity, resettlement, and impacts on downstream communities. “China’s plans to go ahead with dams on the Nu, as well as similar projects on the Upper Yangtze and Mekong, shows a complete disregard of well-documented seismic hazards, ecological and social risks” stated Katy Yan, China Program Coordinator for the environmental organization International Rivers. Also included in the plan is the controversial Xiaonanhai Dam on the Upper Yangtze. A total of 13 dams was first proposed for the Nu River (also known as the Salween) in 2003, but Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao suspended these plans in 2004 in a stunning decision. Since then, Huadian Corporation has continued to explore five dams – Songta (4200 MW), Maji (4200 MW), Yabiluo (1800 MW), Liuku (180 MW), and Saige (1000 MW) – and has successfully lobbied the State Council to include them in the 12th Five Year Plan..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Rivers
    Format/size: pdf (71K)
    Date of entry/update: 26 January 2013


    Title: Danger Zone - Giant Chinese industrial zone threatens Burma’s Arakan coast (English and Burmese)
    Date of publication: 17 December 2012
    Description/subject: "China’s plans to build a giant industrial zone at the terminal of its Shwe gas and oil pipelines on the Arakan coast will damage the livelihoods of tens of thousands of islanders and spell doom for Burma’s second largest mangrove forest. The 120 sq km “Kyauk Phyu Special Economic Zone” (SEZ) will be managed by Chinese state-owned CITIC group on Ramree island, where China is constructing a deep sea port for ships bringing oil from the Middle East and Africa. An 800-km railway is also being built from Kyauk Phyu to Yunnan, under a 50 year BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) agreement, forging a Chinese-managed trade corridor from the Indian Ocean across Burma. Investment in the railway and SEZ, China’s largest in Southeast Asia, is estimated at US $109 billion over 35 years. Construction of the pipelines and deep-sea port has already caused large-scale land confiscation. Now 40 villages could face direct eviction from the SEZ, while many more fear the impacts of toxic waste and pollution from planned petrochemical and metal industries. No information has been provided to local residents about the projects. It is urgently needed to have stringent regulations in place to protect the people and environment before projects such as these are implemented in Burma."
    Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: pdf (810K-English; 1MB-Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Danger-Zone-bu-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 December 2012


    Title: APPETITE FOR DESTRUCTION - China’s trade in illegal timber (text, video and Burmese press release)
    Date of publication: 29 November 2012
    Description/subject: This report covers several countries in Asia and Africa....."Myanmar contains some of the most significant natural forests left in the Asia Pacific region, host to an array of biodiversity and vital to the livelihoods of local communities. Forests are estimated to cover 48 per cent of the country’s land. Yet other recent estimates put forest cover at just 24 per cent. These vital forests are disappearing rapidly. Myanmar has one of the worst rates of deforestation on the planet, with 18 per cent of its forests lost between 1990 and 2005. Myanmar’s forest sector is rife with corruption and illegality, leading to over-harvesting and smuggling. Natural teak from Myanmar is especially sought after on the international market for its unique characteristics and availability. Since the late 1990s, neighbouring China has imported large volumes of timber from Myanmar, the bulk of which have been logged and traded illegally. In 1997, China imported 300,000 cubic metres of timber from Myanmar; by 2005 this had risen to 1.6 million cubic metres....In April 2012, EIA investigators travelled to the southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Yunnan to examine current dynamics of the illicit cross-border trade in logs from Myanmar, especially Kachin State. The investigation involved monitoring crossing points on the Yunnan-Kachin border, surveying wholesale timber markets to assess the origin of wood supplies, and undercover meetings with Chinese firms trading and processing timber from Myanmar. The investigation revealed continuing transport of logs across the border, despite the 2006 agreements between the two countries to halt such trade. Chinese traders confirmed that as long as taxes are paid at the point of import, logs are allowed in despite a commitment from the Yunnan provincial government to allow in only timber accompanied by documents from the Myanmar authorities attesting to its legal origin. As the authorities dictate that all wood exports must be handled by the Myanmar Timber Enterprise and shipped via Rangoon, logs moving across the land border to Yunnan cannot possibly be legal. Field visits uncovered movement of temperate hardwood timber species from the mountains of Kachin State into central Yunnan via several crossing points, with trade in teak and rosewood centred around the border town of Ruili further south. The contrast in the condition of the forests along the border was striking; while forests in the mountainous region on the Chinese side of the border are relatively intact, with large areas protected in the Gaoligong Nature Reserve, across the border in Kachin the devastation wreaked by logging is clearly visible. Chinese wood traders confirmed that supplies were coming from further inside Kachin, as timber within a hundred kilometres of the border has been logged out, and told how deals are done with insurgent groups to buy up entire mountains for logging. One local community elder in Kachin interviewed by EIA summed up the situation: “Myanmar is China’s supermarket and Kachin State is their 7-11.”..."
    Language: English; (Burmese press release)
    Source/publisher: Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA)
    Format/size: pdf (1.42MB), 142K-Burmese press release; Adobe Flash (- 16 minutes, video)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/EIA-Appetite_for_Destruction-PR-bu.pdf (Press release, Burmese)
    http://vimeo.com/54229395 (video)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/EIA-Appetite_for_Destruction.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2012


    Title: Pipeline Nightmare (English and Burmese)
    Date of publication: 07 November 2012
    Description/subject: "Shwe Pipeline Brings Land Confiscation, Militarization and Human Rights Violations to the Ta’ang People. The Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) released a report today called “Pipeline Nightmare” that illustrates how the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, which will transport oil and gas across Burma to China, has resulted in the confiscation of people’s lands, forced labor, and increased military presence along the pipeline, affecting thousands of people. Moreover, the report documents cases in 6 target cities and 51 villages of human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army, police and people’s militia, who take responsibility for security of the pipeline. The government has deployed additional soldiers and extended 26 military camps in order to increase pressure on the ethnic armed groups and to provide security for the pipeline project and its Chinese workers. Along the pipeline, there is fighting on a daily basis between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army – North and Ta’ang National Liberation Army in Namtu, Mantong and Namkham, where there are over one thousand Ta’ang (Palaung) refugees. “Even though the international community believes that the government has implemented political reforms, it doesn’t mean those reforms have reached ethnic areas, especially not where there is increased militarization along the Shwe Pipeline, increased fighting between the Burmese Army and ethnic armed groups, and negative consequences for the people living in these areas,” said Mai Amm Ngeal, a member of TSYO. The China National Petroleum Corporation and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise have signed agreements for the Shwe Pipeline, however the companies have not conducted any Environmental Impact Assessments or Social Impact Assessments. While the people living along the pipeline bear the brunt of the effects, the government will earn an estimated USD$29 billion over the next 30 years. “The government and companies involved must be held accountable for the project and its effects on the local people, such as increasing military presence and Chinese workers along the pipeline, both of which cause insecurity for the local communities and especially women. The project has no benefit for the public, so it must be postponed,” said Lway Phoo Reang, Joint Secretary (1) of TSYO. TSYO urges the government to postpone the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, to withdraw the military from Shan State, reach a ceasefire with all ethnic armed groups in the state, and address the root causes of the armed conflict by engaging in political dialogue."
    Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO)
    Format/size: pdf (English, 2MB-OBL version; 6.77-original; 1.45-Burmese-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Pipeline%20Nightmare%20report%20in%20English%20version%20(Final).pdf (original)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Pipeline_Nightmare-bu-op--red.pdf (full report in Burmese)
    http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Immediate%20Release%207%20November%202012-in%20Burmese%20languages.pdf (Summary in Burmese)
    http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/For%20Immediate%20Release%207%20November%202012_Thai%20languages.pdf (Summary in Thai)
    http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/2012-11%20Shwe%20Pipeline%20impact%20to%20the%20Ta_ang%20People%20-%20Chinese%20languages.pdf (Summary in Chinese)
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


    Title: Blood and Gold: Inside Burma's Hidden War (video)
    Date of publication: 04 October 2012
    Description/subject: Deep in the wilds of northern Myanmar's Kachin state a brutal civil war has intensified over the past year between government forces and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). People & Power sent filmmakers Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza to Myanmar (formerly Burma) to investigate why the conflict rages on, despite the political reforms in the south that have impressed Western governments and investors now lining up to stake their claim in the resource-rich Asian nation.
    Author/creator: Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza
    Language: English, Burmese, Kachin, (English subtitles
    Source/publisher: People & Power (Al Jazeera)
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes), html
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2012


    Title: China’s Policy toward Myanmar: Challenges and Prospects
    Date of publication: October 2012
    Description/subject: PDFpdf(672KB) October, 2012 Ever since the military regime assumed power in Myanmar, during which time European Union (EU) and the United States began imposing sanctions on the country, Myanmar’s economic and political dependence on China—her guardian in the international society—began increasing. Myanmar had become more dependent on China than ever before. However, in March 2011, the transition from military rule to civilian rule was realized for the first time in 23 years when Thein Sein’s administration was born, and Myanmar seeks to adjust its relations with China. Now, the relationship between China and Myanmar is at a crossroads. In this paper, we would like to review the history of the relationship between China and Myanmar and the former’s strategic interests in and policy toward the latter; we will then consider the future prospects of the China-Myanmar relationship in the advent of the age of democratization in Myanmar.
    Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Column
    Format/size: pdf (672K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


    Title: Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Myanmar: Remarkable Trends and Multilayered Motivations
    Date of publication: 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Following the national responsibility theory in the school of international society which argues that national interest drives a state’s foreign policy, this thesis first attempts to deconstruct China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) in Myanmar since 2004 by picking apart and manipulating financial data in order to determine the resulting trends and developments. It then analyzes how Myanmar’s abundant natural resources could help alleviate China’s rising energy demands and how Chinese FDI can enhance China’s political security, reduce energy costs, diversify its imports, and mitigate mineral shortages. The United States’ marked presence in the region due to a transformation in foreign policy in the Obama administration, as well as the 2011 dissolution of military law in Myanmar, means that the motivation for Chinese FDI no longer solely revolves around the acquisition of natural resources and the previous lack of international competitors in the country. Nevertheless, I argue that China’s national economic interest will continue to serve as the primary incentive to invest billions of dollars into Myanmar, though political interest is beginning to factor more into China’s motivations."...Keywords: China, Myanmar, foreign direct investment, natural resources, national interest
    Author/creator: Travis Mitchell
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Lund University, Graduate School, Department of Political Science
    Format/size: pdf (1.17MB)
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


    Title: Realpolitik and the Myanmar Spring Wondering why Hillary Clinton is in Myanmar right now? Hint: it's all about China.
    Date of publication: 30 November 2011
    Description/subject: "... The two old adversaries, Myanmar and the United States, may have ended up on the same side of the fence in the struggle for power and influence in Southeast Asia. Frictions, and perhaps even hostility, can certainly be expected in future relations between China and Myanmar. And Myanmar will no longer be seen by the United States and elsewhere in the West as a pariah state that has to be condemned and isolated. Whatever happens, don't expect relations to be without some unease. Decades of confrontation and mutual suspicion still exist. And a powerful strain in Washington to stand firm on human rights and democracy will complicate matters for Myanmar's rulers -- who are still uncomfortable and unwilling to relinquish total control. And last of all, there's China. Myanmar may be pleased that the reliance on a dominant northern neighbor might be lessened shortly, but with so many decades of ties and real, on-the-ground projects underway, the relationship with Beijing isn't nearly dead yet."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Foreign Policy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2012


    Title: New balance in China, Myanmar ties
    Date of publication: 13 October 2011
    Description/subject: "Myanmar President Thein Sein's decision to suspend construction of the China-backed Myitsone dam project has surprised many observers and raised questions about the state of the two countries' bilateral ties. Civil society groups and other observers have celebrated the decision as a people power success under a new democratic regime and perhaps Myanmar's first overt rebuff of China's economic dominance. Different analyses have emerged as to why Myanmar has turned its back on its powerful and wealthier northern neighbor. Many believe that Thein Sein's government responded to public opposition to the US$3.6 billion project, which threatened environmental degradation and the livelihoods of local communities in the area. Some think Naypyidaw is catering to the West to show it is genuinely different from the outgoing military junta and deserves a more positive and welcoming treatment. Others have argued that the decision was the result of an internal power struggle among different factions inside the government. However, none seems to be asking the critical question: What happens next?..."
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 September 2013


    Title: Sold Out - Launch of China pipeline project unleashes abuse across Burma
    Date of publication: 07 September 2011
    Description/subject: "Construction of various project components to extract, process, and export the Shwe gas - as well as oil trans-shipments from Africa and the Middle East - is now well underway. Local peoples are losing their land and fishing grounds without finding new job opportunities. Workers that have found lowpaying temporary jobs are exploited and fired for demanding basic rights. Women face unequal wages, discrimination in the compensation process, and vulnerabilities in the growing sex industry around the project. Resentment against the so-called Shwe Gas Project is growing and communities are beginning to stand up against abuses and exploitation. Despite threats and risk of arrest, farmers and local residents are sending complaints to local authorities. Laborers are striking for better pay and working conditions and women running households are demanding electricity. Burma’s military government is exporting massive world-class natural gas reserves found off the country’s western coast, sacrificing the country’s future economic security and dashing chances of electrification and job creation. The “Shwe” offshore fields will produce trillions of cubic feet of natural gas that could be used to spur economic and social development in one of the world’s least developed nations. Instead it will be piped across the country to China, fuelling abuses and conflict along its path. Meanwhile active fighting has broken out between armed resistance groups and government troops in the area of the pipeline corridor in northern Burma. The Korean, Chinese and Indian companies involved in this project are taking tremendous risks with their reputations and investments. Social tensions, armed conflict, human rights abuses, and lack of project standards have raised concerns in investor circles and caused at least one pension fund to divest from the Korean fi rm Daewoo International, the main developer of the gas fields. Genuine development can only be achieved when community rights and the environment are protected, affected peoples share in benefits, and transparency and accountability mechanisms are in place. The Shwe Gas and China-Burma Pipelines projects must be suspended and all financing frozen or divested until such conditions exist..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
    Format/size: pdf (2.9MB - English; 4.2MB - Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/SoldOut(bu)-red.pdf
    http://www.shwe.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/SoldOut-Web-Verstoin.pdf
    http://www.shwe.org/campaign-update/sold-out-new-report/
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: The Kachin Conflict: Are Chinese Dams to Blame?
    Date of publication: 08 July 2011
    Description/subject: "More than 10 days have passed since the breakout of armed conflict between the Burmese military (tatmadaw) and the Kachin rebel group – the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). Many believe the fighting directly resulted from their struggle over the area where the Dapein dam is built, and blame the Chinese project for triggering the fight. Some speculate that Beijing’s pressure pushed Naypyidaw to use force against the KIA. This analysis is oversimplified, ignores the long standing hostility and complicated relations between Naypyidaw and the KIA, and will mislead key parties as they work toward a solution to the current quagmire..."
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Pacific Forum CSIS (PACNET No. 32)
    Format/size: pdf (69K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs16/Chinese_dams-Kachin_conflict-Yun_Sun.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 September 2013


    Title: The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy
    Date of publication: 29 March 2011
    Description/subject: "...This briefer focuses on the impacts of two of Burma’s largest energy projects, led by Chinese, South Korean, and Indian multinational corporations in partnership with the state-owned Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), Burmese companies, and Burmese state security forces. The projects are the Shwe Natural Gas Project and the Burma-China oil transport project, collectively referred to here as the “Burma-China pipelines.” The pipelines will transport gas from Burma and oil from the Middle East and Africa across Burma to China. The massive pipelines will pass through two states, Arakan (Rakhine) and Shan, and two divisions in Burma, Magway and Mandalay, over dense mountain ranges and arid plains, rivers, jungle, and villages and towns populated by ethnic Burmans and several ethnic nationalities. The pipelines are currently under construction and will feed industry and consumers primarily in Yunnan and other western provinces in China, while producing multi-billion dollar revenues for the Burmese regime. This briefer provides original research documenting adverse human rights impacts of the pipelines, drawing on investigations inside Burma and leaked documents obtained by EarthRights and its partners. EarthRights has found extensive land confiscation related to the projects, and a pervasive lack of meaningful consultation and consent among affected communities, along with cases of forced labor and other serious human rights abuses in violation of international and national law. EarthRights has uncovered evidence to support claims of corporate complicity in those abuses. In addition, companies involved have breached key international standards and research shows they have failed to gain a social license to operate in the country. New evidence suggests communities in the project area are overwhelmingly opposed to the pipeline projects. While EarthRights has not found evidence directly linking the projects to armed conflict, the pipelines may increase tensions as construction reaches Shan State, where there is a possibility of renewed armed conflict between the Burmese Army and specific ethnic armed groups. The Army is currently forcibly recruiting and training villagers in project areas to fight. EarthRights has obtained confidential Production Sharing Contracts detailing the structure of multi-million dollar signing and production bonuses that China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is required to pay to MOGE officials regarding its involvement in two offshore oil and gas development projects that, at present, are unrelated to the Burma- China pipelines. EarthRights believes the amount and structure of these payments are in-line with previously disclosed resource development contracts in Burma, and are likely representative of contracts signed for the Burma-China pipelines; contracts that remain guarded from public scrutiny. Accordingly, the operators of the Burma- China pipeline projects would have already made several tranche cash payments to MOGE, totaling in the tens of millions of dollars..."
    Language: English, Korean
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
    Format/size: pdf (1.23 - English; 1.9MB - Korean)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/documents/the-burma-china-pipelines-korean.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 March 2011


    Title: KIO Open Letter to the People's Republic of China
    Date of publication: 16 March 2011
    Description/subject: Text of the open letter sent to Chinese President Hu Jintao, in which the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) asks China to stop the planned Mali Nmai Concluence (Myitsone) Dam Project to be built in Burma’s northern Kachin state, warning that the controversial project could lead to civil war
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)
    Format/size: pdf (878K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 May 2011


    Title: China’s Myanmar Strategy: Elections, Ethnic Politics and Economics
    Date of publication: 21 September 2010
    Description/subject: OVERVIEW: Myanmar’s 2010 elections present challenges and opportunities for China’s relationship with its south-western neighbour. Despite widespread international opinion that elections will be neither free nor fair, China is likely to accept any poll result that does not involve major instability. Beijing was caught off-guard by the Myanmar military’s offensive into Kokang in August 2009 that sent more than 30,000 refugees into Yunnan province. Since then it has used pressure and mediation to push Naypyidaw and the ethnic groups that live close to China’s border to the negotiating table. Beyond border stability, Beijing feels its interests in Myanmar are being challenged by a changing bilateral balance of power due to the Obama administration’s engagement policy and China’s increasing energy stakes in the country. Beijing is seeking to consolidate political and economic ties by stepping up visits from top leaders, investment, loans and trade. But China faces limits to its influence, including growing popular opposition to the exploitation of Myanmar’s natural resources by Chinese firms, and divergent interests and policy implementation between Beijing and local governments in Yunnan. The Kokang conflict and the rise in tensions along the border have prompted Beijing to increasingly view Myanmar’s ethnic groups as a liability rather than strategic leverage. Naypyidaw’s unsuccessful attempt to convert the main ceasefire groups into border guard forces under central military command raised worries for Beijing that the two sides would enter into conflict. China’s Myanmar diplomacy has concentrated on pressing both the main border groups and Naypyidaw to negotiate. While most ethnic groups appreciate Beijing’s role in pressuring the Myanmar government not to launch military offensives, some also believe that China’s support is provisional and driven by its own economic and security interests. The upcoming 7 November elections are Naypyidaw’s foremost priority. With the aim to institutionalise the army’s political role, the regime launched the seven-step roadmap to “disciplined democracy” in August 2003. The elections for national and regional parliaments are the fifth step in this plan. China sees neither the roadmap nor the national elections as a challenge to its interests. Rather, Beijing hopes they will serve its strategic and economic interests by producing a government perceived both domestically and internationally as more legitimate. Two other factors impact Beijing’s calculations. China sees Myanmar as having an increasingly important role in its energy security. China is building major oil and gas pipelines to tap Myanmar’s rich gas reserves and shorten the transport time of its crude imports from the Middle East and Africa. Chinese companies are expanding rapidly into Myanmar’s hydropower sector to meet Chinese demand. Another factor impacting Beijing’s strategy towards Myanmar is the U.S. administration’s engagement policy, which Beijing sees as a potential challenge to its influence in Myanmar and part of U.S. strategic encirclement of China. Beijing is increasing its political and economic presence to solidify its position in Myanmar. Three members of the Politburo Standing Committee have visited Myanmar since March 2009 – in contrast to the absence of any such visits the previous eight years – boosting commercial ties by signing major hydropower, mining and construction deals. In practice China is already Myanmar’s top provider of foreign direct investment and through recent economic agreements is seeking to extend its lead. Yet China faces dual hurdles in achieving its political and economic goals in Myanmar. Internally Beijing and local Yunnan governments have differing perceptions of and approaches to border management and the ethnic groups. Beijing prioritises border stability and is willing to sacrifice certain local commercial interests, while Yunnan values border trade and profits from its special relationships with ethnic groups. In Myanmar, some Chinese companies’ resource extraction activities are fostering strong popular resentment because of their lack of transparency and unequal benefit distribution, as well as environmental damage and forced displacement of communities. Many believe such resentment was behind the April 2010 bombing of the Myitsone hydropower project. Activists see some large-scale investment projects in ceasefire areas as China playing into Naypyidaw’s strategy to gain control over ethnic group territories, especially in resource- rich Kachin State..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Briefing N° 112)
    Format/size: pdf (1.06MB)
    Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


    Title: De Kunming a Mandalay: la nouvelle "Route de Birmanie"
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: Développement des échanges commerciaux le long de la frontière sino-birmane depuis 1988... "Ce papier analyse les relations sino-birmanes et cherche à rendre compte de la vitalité et de la complexité des relations commerciales frontalières. Pour cela trois niveaux de réflexions doivent être mis en regard. Tout d'abord, l'engouement pour les échanges commerciaux est mis en perspectives avec les objectifs stratégiques plus larges de chacun des deux pays. Les relations bilatérales sont motivées par des intérêts économiques et sécuritaires tels que la sécurité énergétique, l'approvisionnement en matières premières, la coopération en faveur d'un développement régional ou encore le désenclavement des provinces de l'intérieur. Ensuite, il est essentiel de décrire la situation politique et la composition de la population dans les régions frontalières afin de comprendre la relative fluidité des biens, mais aussi des personnes dans ces régions. La seconde partie de cet article dressera donc un tableau détaillé des zones frontalières sino-birmanes. Enfin, dans une dernière partie, nous soulignerons le rôle important joué par la population d'origine chinoise en Birmanie (même s'il ne s'agit pas des seuls acteurs des échanges commerciaux). Aujourd'hui, le renouveau de l'identité chinoise et des communautés chinoises est à la fois un facteur et le résultat du rapide développement des échanges bilatéraux."
    Author/creator: Abel TOURNIER, Hélène LE BAIL
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: IFRI, Asie.Visions 25
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ifri.org
    Date of entry/update: 16 March 2010


    Title: From Kunming to Mandalay: The new "Burma Road"
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "Since the legalization of Sino-Myanmar border trade in 1988, flows of goods and persons have developed tremendously along the long frontier shared by these two countries. Reliable figures on bilateral trade, and to an even greater extent on migration, are scarce and contested. What is sure is that these exchanges are having deep consequences on both Yunnan and Myanmar. Some Chinese industries and workers, for example in mining, logging or jade trading, are dependent on access to primary resources across the border. A number of transnational issues affecting Yunnan province, such as drug trafficking and the spread of HIV/AIDS, have their roots in the Myanmar socio-political situation. With the planned completion of CNPC oil and gas pipelines in 2013, the strategic importance of the border will be further raised for China. Thus, China is expecting the upcoming legislative elections to bring about increased stability and development in Myanmar and the border areas while it tries to use its limited leverage to make that happen. China's relationship with Myanmar is often seen as unbalanced, with the former having the upper hand and being the only one benefiting from the relationship. As stated above, Chinese influence and presence in Myanmar is not only limited, it is also creating economic opportunities for Myanmar citizens, be they of Chinese descent or not. In fact, it is not on the border but at the central level that the problems created by Myanmar relations with China must be addressed. First, deep economic reforms are needed for Myanmar to move away from its overreliance on the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources to an improvement of agricultural, industrial and trade policies. Second, benefits stemming from ongoing projects between the Myanmar government and Chinese companies should be better shared with a Myanmar population that direly needs better health and education services."
    Author/creator: Abel TOURNIER, Hélène LE BAIL
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IFRI, Asie.Visions 25
    Format/size: pdf (1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ifri.org
    Date of entry/update: 16 March 2010


    Title: Corridor of Power - China’s Trans-Burma Oil and Gas pipelines
    Date of publication: 07 September 2009
    Description/subject: Introduction: "On June 16, 2009 China's Vice-President Xi Jinping and Burma's Vice-Senior General Maung Aye signed a memorandum of understanding relating to the development, operation and management of the "Myanmar-China Crude Oil Pipeline Projects." After years of brokering deals and planning, China has cemented its place not only as the sole buyer of Burma's massive Shwe Gas reserves, but also the creator of a new trans-Burma corridor to secure shipment of its oil imports from the Middle East and Africa. China's largest oil and gas producer -the China National Petroleum Corporation or CNPC - will build nearly 4,000 kilometers of dual oil and gas pipelines across the heartland of Burma beginning in September 2009. CNPC will also purchase offshore natural gas reserves, handing the military junta ruling Burma a conservative estimate of one billion US dollars a year over the next 30 years. Burma ranks tenth in the world in terms of natural gas reserves yet the per capita electricity consumption is less than 5% that of neighbouring Thailand and China. Burma already receives US$ 2.4 billion per year - nearly 50 percent of revenues from exports - from natural gas sales but spends a pittance on health and education; one reason it was ranked as the second-most corrupt country in the world in 2008. Entrenched corruption combined with energy shortages have led to social unrest in the conflict-ridden country; unprecedented demonstrations in 2007 were sparked by a spike in fuel prices. An estimated 13,200 soldiers are currently positioned along the pipeline route. Past experience has shown that pipeline construction and maintenance in Burma involves forced labour, forced relocation, land confiscation, and a host of abuses by soldiers deployed to the project area. A lack of transparency or assessment mechanisms leaves critical ecosystems under threat as well. Yet it is not only the people of Burma who are facing grave risks from these projects. The corporations, governments, and financiers involved also face serious financial and security risks. A re-ignition of fighting between the regime and ceasefire armies stationed along the pipeline route; an unpredictable business environment that could arbitrarily seize property or assets; and public relations disasters as a result of complicity in human rights abuses and environmental destruction all threaten investments. The Shwe Gas Movement is therefore calling companies and governments to suspend the Shwe Gas and Trans-Burma Corridor projects; shareholders, institutional investors and pension funds to divest their holdings in these companies; and banks to refrain from financing these projects unless affected peoples are protected."
    Language: English, Burmese (press releases in also in Chinese and Thai)
    Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
    Format/size: pdf (2.5MB, 2.3MB, English version; 7.7MB, Burmese version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.shwe.org/ (press releases in English, Burmese, Chinese and Thai)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Corridor_of_PowerSGM-bu.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/CorridorofPower-SGM-red.pdf (English)
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2009


    Title: China’s Chance
    Date of publication: June 2009
    Description/subject: How the global financial crisis has helped Beijing expand its influence in Southeast Asia
    Author/creator: Antoaneta Bezlova
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 June 2009


    Title: China-Burma Ties in 1954: The Beginning of the “Pauk Phaw” Era
    Date of publication: May 2009
    Description/subject: "Although Burma was the first non-socialist country to recognize new China, the favorable beginning failed to facilitate development of China-Burma relations in the early period (1949-1953). On the contrary, their relations were “noncommittal and very cold”.1 Both sides were suspicious and mistrustful to each other. China regarded Burma as an underling of imperialist countries. Burma feared that China would invade it and threaten its national security. The cold condition began to alter when two countries’ Premiers visited each other in 1954. After 1954, Beijing and Rangoon began to contact closely and frequently, and China-Burma relations entered the friendly “Pauk Phaw” (fraternal) era during the Cold War. Some have been written about general China-Burma relations in the Cold War, but little as yet has been done in the detail of their ties, particularly the shift in 1954. This study focuses on the manifestation, the causes and impact of the relations change. The turn of 1954 basically consisted of two dimensions: political and economic relations..."
    Author/creator: Fan Hongwei
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies University of Malaya - ICS Working Paper No. 2009-21
    Format/size: pdf (352K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 March 2010


    Title: Myanmar-PRC sign agreements
    Date of publication: 27 March 2009
    Description/subject: 4 PRC-Myanmar agreements on: (1) the Myanmar-China Oil and Gas Pipelines; (2) the Development of Hydropower Resources; (3) Buyer's Credit for Construction Projects; and (4) Economic and Technical Cooperation...pictures of the signing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 27 March 2009


    Title: China and Japan's Economic Relations with Myanmar: Strengthened vs. Estranged
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: "China has historically been the most important neighbor for Myanmar, sharing a long 2185 km border. Myanmar and China call each other "Paukphaw," a Myanmar word for siblings that is never used for any country other than China, reflecting their close and cordial relationship. The independent China-Myanmar relationship is premised on the five principles of peaceful co-existence, including mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty and mutual non-aggression. Japan and Myanmar have also had strong ties in the post-World War II period, often referred to as a "special relationship", or a "historically friendly relationship."! That relationship was established through the personal experiences and sentiments ofNe Win and others in the military and political elite of independent Myanmar. Aung San, Ne Win and other leaders of Myanmar's independence movement were members of the "Thirty Comrades," who were educated and trained by Japanese army officers.2 However, China's and Japan's relations with Myanmar have developed in contrast to one another since 1988, when the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), later re-constituted as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), took power by military coup. The military government in Myanmar has improved and strengthened its relations with China, while their relationship with Japan has worsened and cooled. What accounts for the differences in China's and Japan's relations with Myanmar? The purpose of this chapter is to examine the development and changes in China-Myanmar and Japan-Myanmar relations from historical, political, diplomatic and particularly economic viewpoints. Based on discussions, the author evaluates China's growing influences on the Myanmar government and economy, and identifies factors that, on the contrary, have put Japan and Myanmar at a distance since 1988..."
    Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization
    Format/size: pdf (201K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


    Title: Regional Political Economy of China Ascendant:- Pivotal Issues and Critical Perspectives. Chapter 4: China Engages Myanmar as a Chinese Client State?
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Introduction: The Role of Energy in Sino-Myanmar Relations; Myanmar Plays the China Card; China Engages Myanmar in the ASEAN Way; Conclusion: Norms, Energy and Beyond: "Conclusion: Norms, Energy and Beyond This chapter has demonstrated two points. First, although ASEAN, China, India, and Japan form partnership with Myanmar for different reasons, interactions among the regional stakeholders with regard to Myanmar have reinforced the regional norm of non-intervention into other states’ internal affairs. Both India and Japan, the two democratic countries in the region, have been socialized, though in varying degrees, into the norm when they engage Myanmar as well as ASEAN.67 The regional normative environment or structure in which all stakeholders find themselves defines or constitutes their Asian identities, national interests, and more importantly, what counts as rightful action. At the same time, regional actors create and reproduce the dominant norms when they interact with each other. This lends support to the constructivist argument that both agent and structure are mutually constitutive.68 This ideational approach prompts us to look beyond such material forces and concerns as the quest for energy resources as well as military prowess to explain China’s international behaviour. Both rationalchoice logic of consequences and constructivist logic of appropriateness are at work in China’s relations with Myanmar and ASEAN. But pundits grossly overstate the former at the expense of the latter. To redress this imbalance, this chapter asserts that China adopts a “business as usual” approach to Myanmar largely because this approach is regarded as appropriate and legitimate by Myanmar and ASEAN and practised by India and Japan as well, and because China wants to strengthen the moral legitimacy of an international society based on the state-centric principles of national sovereignty and nonintervention. As a corollary, we argue that regional politics at play have debunked the common, simplistic belief that Myanmar is a client state of China and that China’s thirst for Myanmar’s energy resources is a major determinant of China’s policy towards the regime. A close examination of the oil and gas assets in Myanmar reveals that it is less likely to be able to become a significant player in international oil politics. Whereas Myanmar may offer limited material benefits to China, it and ASEAN at large are of significant normative value to the latter. Ostensibly China adopts a realpolitik approach to Myanmar; however, the approach also reflects China’s recognition of the presence and prominence of a regional normative structure and its firm support for it.".....11 pages of notes and bibliographic references
    Author/creator: Pak K. Lee, Gerald Chan and Lai-Ha Chan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies, University of Malaya
    Format/size: pdf (892K - OBL version; 1.2MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/China_engages_Myanmar_as_client_state.pdf-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 17 September 2011


    Title: CHINA IN BURMA: THE INCREASING INVESTMENT OF CHINESE MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN BURMA’S HYDROPOWER, OIL AND NATURAL GAS, AND MINING SECTORS
    Date of publication: September 2008
    Description/subject: Updated September 2008...INTRODUCTION: Amidst recent international interest in China’s moves to secure resources throughout the world and recent events in Burma1, the international community has turned its attention to China’s role in Burma. In September 2007, the violent suppression of a peaceful movement led by Buddhist monks in Burma following the military junta’s decision to drastically raise fuel prices put the global spotlight on the political and economic relationships between China and neighboring resource-rich Burma. EarthRights International (ERI) has identified at least 69 Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs) involved in at least 90 hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma. These recent findings build upon previous ERI research collected between May and August 2007 that identified 26 Chinese MNCs involved in 62 projects. These projects vary from small dams completed in the last two decades to planned oil and natural gas pipelines across Burma to southwest China. With no comprehensive information about these projects available in the public domain, the information included here has been pieced together from government statements, English and Chinese language news reports, and company press releases available on the internet. While concerned that details of the projects and their potential impacts have not been disclosed to affected communities of the general public, we hope that this information will stimulate additional discussion, research, and investigation into the involvement of Chinese MNCs in Burma. Concerns over political repression in Burma have led many western governments to prohibit new trade with and investment in Burma, and have resulted in the departure of many western corporations from Burma; notable exceptions include Total of France and Chevron3 of the United States. Meanwhile, as demand for energy pushes many Asian countries to look abroad for natural resources, Burma has been an attractive destination. India, Thailand, Korea, Singapore, and China are among the Asian countries with the largest investments in Burma’s hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining sectors. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Burma’s oil and natural gas sectors, for example, more than tripled from 2006 to 2007, reaching US$ 474. million, representing approximately 90% of all FDI in 2007. While China has embraced a foreign policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, the line between business and politics in a country like Burma is blurred at best. In pursuit of Burma’s natural resources, China has provided Burma with political support, 6 military armaments,7 and financial support in the form of conditions-free loans.8 Investments in Burma’s energy sectors provide billions of US dollars in financial support to the military junta, which devotes at least 40% of its budget to military spending, 9 only slightly more than 1% on healthcare, and around 5% on public education.10 These kinds of economic and political support for the current military regime constitute a concrete involvement in Burma’s internal affairs. The following is a brief introduction to and summary of the major completed, current and planned hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma with Chinese involvement. All information is based on Chinese and English language media available on the internet and likely represents only a fraction of China’s actual investment.
    Language: English, Burmese, Chinese, Spanish
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (825K; 3.22MB- original, Alternate URL; 1.85MB - Burmese; 1.3MB - Chinese; 3.52MB - Spanish)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/publication/china-burma-increasing-investment-chinese-multinational-corporations-burmas-hydropower-o
    http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-English.pdf (English)
    http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Burmese.pdf (Burmese)
    http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Chinese.pdf (Chinese)
    http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Spanish.pdf (Spanish)
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


    Title: « Le nouveau partenariat commercial sino-birman de 1988 et ses effets en Birmanie : Illustration à la lumière du cas de Mandalay »
    Date of publication: August 2008
    Description/subject: TABLE DES MATIERES:-- PREMIÈRE PARTIE- 1. INTRODUCTION: 1.1 La Birmanie, un état méconnu: l’isolationnisme en cause; 1.2. Les relations sino-birmanes comme cadre d’analyse; 1.3. Problématique : Mandalay et sa nouvelle population chinoise: Illustration des effets « pervers » des relations commerciales sino-birmanes; 1.4. Structure du texte et méthodologie... DEUXIEME PARTIE:- 2. LE PARTENARIAT ECONOMIQUE ET COMMERCIAL SINO-BIRMAN: 2.1. Les relations sino-birmanes avant 1988 : une amitié sous tension; 2.2. L’économie birmane à la veille de la prise de pouvoir du SLORC en septembre 1988; 2.3. Le commerce frontalier sino-birman et ses enjeux en Birmanie... TROISIEME PARTIE:- 3. ILLUSTRATION DES EFFETS PERVERS DU COMMERCE SINO-BIRMAN: 3.1. Le cas de Mandalay : les conséquences de l’immigration chinoise; 3.2. Vérification de l’hypothèse de départ et conclusion générale... BIBLIOGRAPHIE:- 1. Ouvrages de référence; 2. Articles de journaux et revues périodiques; 2.1. Sur la Birmanie de manière générale; 2.2. Au sujet des relations sino - birmanes; 3. Sources Internet (documents en ligne); 3.1. Sur la Birmanie de manière générale; 3.2. Sur les relations sino - birmanes; 3.3. Articles de presse en ligne traitant des relations sino - birmanes; 3.4. Autres Sources de presse en ligne
    Author/creator: Charles APOTHEKER
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: UNIVERSITE DE LAUSANNE FACULTE DES SCIENCES SOCIALES ET POLITIQUES INSTITUT D’ETUDES POLITIQUES INTERNATIONALES
    Format/size: pdf (232K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 November 2009


    Title: Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in Myanmar
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) share the biggest part in Myanmar economy in terms of number, contribution to employment, output, and investment. Myanmar economic growth is thus totally dependent on the development of SMEs in the private sector. Today, the role of SMEs has become more vital in strengthening national competitive advantage and the speedy economic integration into the ASEAN region. However, studies show that SMEs have to deal with a number of constraints that hinder their development potential, such as the shortage in power supply, unavailability of long-term credit from external sources and many others. Among them, the financing problem of SMEs is one of the biggest constraints. Such is deeply rooted in demand and supply issues, macroeconomic fundamentals, and lending infrastructure of the country. The government's policy towards SMEs could also lead to insufficient support for the SMEs. Thus, focusing on SMEs and private sector development as a viable strategy for industrialization and economic development of the country is a fundamental requirement for SME development. This paper recommends policies for stabilizing macro economic fundamentals, improving lending infrastructures of the country and improving demand- and supply-side conditions from the SMEs financing perspective in order to provide a more accessible financing for SMEs and to contribute in the overall development of SMEs in Myanmar thereby to sharpen national competitive advantage in the age of speedy economic integration."... Keywords: small and medium enterprise (SME), financing, competitiveness... JEL classification: G20, G30, L60, M10
    Author/creator: Aung Kyaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE)...IDE Discussion paper No, 148
    Format/size: pdf (590K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


    Title: China's Opening-up Strategy and Its Economic Relations with ASEAN Countries -- A Case Study of Yunnan Province
    Date of publication: February 2008
    Description/subject: Concllusion: "The report approaches China's opening-up strategy and China's economic relations with ASEAN countries, meanwhile it takes Yunnan province as a case, analyzes Yunnan's economic cooperation with Southeast Asian countries. We can draw some conclusion from the analysis 1. Opening-up is China's basic state policy. Since 1978 when China started reform and opening-up, its economy has been developing rapidly and the living standards of the Chinese people have been notably improved. The unprecedented social changes and expanding liberalization have injected great vigor into China's development and vitality into the global economy. China's sustained and rapid economic growth is attributed to opening-up. Facts have proven that China's opening up strategy steered China towards to the right course. China will firmly implementing an opening up strategy for mutually beneficial and win-win nature, intensifying trade and economic cooperation and realizing common development with other countries. 2. Though economic strength constantly increased, China is still a developing country. As a world's largest developing country, China and other developing countries have much common interests. To consolidate and develop friendly and cooperative relations with developing countries remain as the base stone in China's foreign policy. To strengthen South- South cooperation, raising South- South cooperation level, and expanding assistance to the developing countries will probably be the focal point of China's South-South cooperation in the future. 3. Southeast Asian countries are China's neighboring countries, the bilateral friendly tie goes back to the ancient times. At present, the relationship between China and Southeast Asian countries is in the best stage after founding of the People's Republic China. Establishment of China-ASEAN FTA, the GMS cooperation are the remarkable symbol of good neighbourly and friendly relations development between China and Southeast Asian countries in new historical stage, and it is also a good example of South- South cooperation. The neighborhood policy of building friendship and partnership with our neighboring countries will not only become China's guiding principle for handling foreign political relations, but also become the guiding principle for handling economic cooperation with neighbouring countries. 4. In China's economic relations with Southeast Asian countries, trade occupies the most important position. In recent years China's trade deficit has been higher than favourable balance of trade in its trade with Southeast Asia. China has become the third largest worldwide importer, creating more manufacture and job opportunities for many trade partners. Interdependence between China and Southeast Asian countries deepens. Two sides become the other's major market each other. China cannot develop without the world, while the world needs China for its prosperity. this tendency is more and more apparent in economic relations between China and Southeast Asia. As one of the two important sides of China's basic state policy of opening-up, "going global" has been identified as a major national strategy by Chinese government. In the wake of economic development, China's investment in Southeast Asian countries and project contracts will further increase. The forms of investment may be diversified from the simple business establishment to cross-border mergers and acquisitions, equity swap, overseas listing, R&D centers and industrial parks. 5. The Southwest China regions neighboring on Southeast Asian countries play a important role in China's economic relations with Southeast Asia. Of which Yunnan province borders three countries, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam, and it has kept close economic and cultural ties with neighbouring countries. Yunnan province has an obvious advantage in the establishment of China-ASEAN FTA. Yunnan's sustained and rapid economic growth is attributed to opening-up, especially opening up to Southeast Asian countries. Yunnan made great progress through border trade, participation in the GMS cooperation, and building China-ASEAN FTA. However, as to China's trade with Southeast Asia, and also as to China's investment in Southeast Asia, Yunnan is not accounted for more than 1 percent, almost has no status. As a result, Yunnan still has long way to go for catching up advanced coastal and inland regions of China. 6. The GMS cooperation is a multilateral cooperation mechanism. The GMS represents a correct direction of cooperative development in developing countries and it establishes some commonly accepted principles which have gradually developed from the cooperation of member countries throughout the GMS process. Its successful experience of GMS is worth summing up and spreading. Yunnan plays a constructive role in the GMS cooperation. It is important task to continue pushing forward development of the GMS for both China and other countries."....Some useful trade figures in the appendices.
    Author/creator: Zhu Zhenming
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (VRF paper 435)
    Format/size: pdf (542K)
    Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008


    Title: Myanmar’s economic relations with China: who benefits and who pays?
    Date of publication: January 2008
    Description/subject: "Against the background of closer diplomatic, political and security ties between Myanmar and China since 1988, their economic relations have also become stronger throughout the 1990s and up to the present. China is now a major supplier of consumer and capital goods to Myanmar, in particular through border trade. China also provides a large amount of economic cooperation in the areas of infrastructure, state-owned economic enterprises (SEEs) and energy. Nevertheless, Myanmar’s trade with China has failed to have a substantial impact on its broad-based economic and industrial development. China’s economic cooperation apparently supports the present regime, but its effects on the whole economy are limited. At worst, bad loans might need to be paid off by Myanmar and Chinese stakeholders, including taxpayers. Strengthened economic ties with China will be instrumental in regime survival, but will not be a powerful force affecting the process of economic development in Myanmar. Myanmar and China call each other ‘paukphaw’, a Myanmar word for siblings. Paukphaw is not used for any other foreign country, reflecting Myanmar and China’s close and cordial relationship.1 For Myanmar, China has historically been by far its most important neighbour, sharing the longest border, of 2227 kilometres. Myanmar regained its independence in 1948 and quickly welcomed the birth of the People’s Republic of China in the next year. The Sino–Myanmar relationship has always been premised on five principles of peaceful coexistence, which include mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty and mutual non-aggression (Than 2003). Nevertheless, independent Myanmar has been cautious about its relationship with China. In reality, Sino–Myanmar relations have undergone a series of ups and downs and China has occasionally posed a real threat to Myanmar’s security, such as the incursion of defeated Chinese Nationalist (Kuomintang or KMT) troops into the northern Shan State in 1949, overt and covert Chinese support for the Burmese Communist Party’s insurgency against Yangon up until 1988 and confrontations between Burmese and resident overseas Chinese, including militant Maoist students in 1967. Indeed, the Myanmar leadership, always extremely sensitive about the country’s sovereignty, independence and territorial 87 integrity, had long observed strict neutrality during the Cold War, avoiding obtaining military and economic aid from the superpowers. Dramatic changes have emerged since the birth in 1988 of the present government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), originally called the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). The United States, the European Union, Japan and multilateral aid organisations all withheld official development assistance and some Western countries imposed political sanctions and weapons embargoes after 1990. Under mounting international pressure, the military regime in Yangon had no choice but to approach Beijing for help. As diplomatic, political and security ties between the two countries grew closer, economic relations also strengthened. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the development of and changes in Myanmar–China economic relations since 1988 and to evaluate China’s growing influence on the Myanmar economy. It seeks to answer the question of whether or not the Myanmar economy can survive and grow with reinforced economic ties with China. In other words, can China support the Myanmar economy against the imposition of economic sanctions by Western countries? This question is relevant to assess the impact and effectiveness of sanctions. The chapter also tries to answer another question—namely, who benefits in what ways and who pays what costs as the two countries strengthen their ties, in spite of Myanmar’s isolation from the mainstream of the international community. The second section introduces a brief history of how the two countries have become the closest of allies since 1988. The third section examines trade relations between Myanmar and China, while the fourth section describes Chinese economic and business cooperation with Myanmar. The last section summarises the author’s arguments and answers the research questions..."
    Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
    Format/size: pdf (252K)
    Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
    http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


    Title: Ein Freund und Helfer - China unterstützt aus strategischen und wirtschaftlichen Gründen das Militärregime in Myanmar
    Date of publication: December 2007
    Description/subject: Staaten wie Russland, Indien, Serbien und die Ukraine liefern bedenkenlos militärische Güter in das Land, dessen Bevölkerung seit Jahrzehnten brutal unterdrückt wird. Insbesondere China verkauft der Junta Waffen in großem Stil: Die Volksrepublik hat sich in den letzten Jahren zu einem der weltweit größten Rüstungsexporteure entwickelt, und auch Myanmar steht auf der Empfängerliste. Waffenlieferungen aus China; Interessen Chinas in Burma; Rolle der UN; Rolle der EU; Military support from China; chinese ambitions in Burma; role of UN; role of EU;
    Author/creator: Verena Harpe
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: Html (21kb)
    Date of entry/update: 27 May 2008


    Title: Where Money Grows on Trees
    Date of publication: August 2007
    Description/subject: Getting to the roots of Burma’s latest timber export trade... They had been rooted in Burma’s soil for many years, some of them for more than a century. Then the heavy excavation machinery moved in—and the trees moved out, across the border to China. Some Burmese nature lovers say the trees will be homesick, but for Burmese and Chinese entrepreneurs they just represent money. Lots of money..."
    Author/creator: Khun Sam
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: Why China?
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: "To support its growing Economy, China has been exploiting Burma's natural resources cheaply by strongly pleasing the corrupted and incompetent dictators; China is also largest arm supplier, border trader and investor; China's support effectively water down the US and western sanctions. China refuse to condemn the recent killing; blocking stronger sanctions by UNSC; refuse to ask for the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the release of all political prisoners; has vetoed a Burma Resolution at the UNSC in January. China is also using Burma as its door to Indian Ocean as part of its so called "string of pearls" strategy that aims to project Chinese power overseas and protect China's energy security at home. "..... Letter to President Hu Jintao on Burma... Chinese dilemma over Burma protests... UNSC asks Burma's Neighbour to use influence on Myanmar... China's crucial role in Burma crisis... Myanmar and the world (Destructive engagement):The outside world shares responsibility for the unfolding tragedy in Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


    Title: The Ecology of Strategic Interests: China’s Quest for Energy Security from the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea to the Caspian Sea Basin
    Date of publication: November 2006
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: This article attempts to explore the ecological dimensions of strategic interests by examining China’s Asia-wide quest for key natural resources and safe seaways for their shipment. It takes a close look at three cases – one in the Indian Ocean region, the South China Sea region, and the Caspian Sea region – to explain interaction between natural resources and China’s emerging strategic interests in Asia. The article shows that Beijing’s quest for key natural resources underlies its economic and strategic alignments with the respective nations of Indian Ocean, South China Sea and Caspian Sea regions. The article implies that International Relations (IR) Theory and policy makers pay very close attention to the anchorage of strategic interests in the struggles over access and control of critical natural resources.... Keywords • Energy Security • China • South Asia • Caspian • Central Asia • East Asia • International Relations Theory
    Author/creator: Tarique Niazi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program
    Format/size: pdf (88MB)
    Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


    Title: Myanmar’s Economic Relations with China: Can China Support the Myanmar Economy?
    Date of publication: July 2006
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Against the background of closer diplomatic, political and security ties between Myanmar and China since 1988, their economic relations have also grown stronger throughout the 1990s and up to 2005. China is now a major supplier of consumer and capital goods to Myanmar, in particular through border trade. China also provides a large amount of economic cooperation in the areas of infrastructure, energy and state-owned economic enterprises. Nevertheless, Myanmar’s trade with China has failed to have a substantial impact on its broad-based economic and industrial development. China’s economic cooperation apparently supports the present regime, but its effects on the whole economy will be limited with an unfavorable macroeconomic environment and distorted incentives structure. As a conclusion, strengthened economic ties with China will be instrumental in regime survival, but will not be a powerful force affecting the process of economic development in Myanmar."...Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), China, trade, border trade, economic cooperation, energy, oil and gas
    Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No. 66
    Format/size: pdf (510K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2007


    Title: A Choice for China: Ending the destruction of Burma's frontier forests
    Date of publication: 18 October 2005
    Description/subject: (Press release): "... Ending the destruction of Burma’s northern frontier forests" , details shocking new evidence of the massive illicit plunder of Burma’s forests by Chinese logging companies. Much of the logging takes place in forests that form part of an area said to be “very possibly the most bio-diverse, rich, temperate area on earth.” In 2004, more than 1 million cubic meters of timber, about 95% of Burma’s total timber exports to China were illegally exported from northern Burma to Yunnan Province. This trade, amounting to a $250 million loss for the Burmese people, every year, takes place with the full knowledge of the Burmese regime, the government in Beijing and the rest of the international community. Chinese companies, local Chinese authorities, regional Tatmadaw and ethnic ceasefire groups are all directly involved. “On average, one log truck, carrying about 15 tonnes of timber, logged illegally in Burma, crosses an official Chinese checkpoint every seven minutes, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year; yet they do nothing.” Said Jon Buckrell of Global Witness. In September 2001 the government of the People’s Republic of China made a commitment to strengthen bilateral collaboration to address violations of forest law and forest crime, including illegal logging and associated illegal trade. However, since then, illegal imports of timber across the Burma-China border have actually increased by 60%. “A few Chinese businessmen, backed by the authorities in Yunnan Province, are completely undermining Chinese government initiatives to combat illegal logging. Not only are the activities of these loggers jeopardising the prospect of sustainable development in northern Burma they are also breaking Chinese law.” Said Buckrell."... Download as Word (english 2.0 Mb) | PDF (english - low resolution 6.9 Mb) | PDF (english - low resolution - part 1 1.6 Mb) | PDF (english - low resolution - part 2 1.5 Mb) | PDF (english - low resolution - part 3 1.2 Mb) | Word (chinese 2.5 Mb) | PDF (chinese - low resolution 7.8 Mb) | PDF (chinese - low resolution - part 1 4.0 Mb) | PDF (chinese - low resolution - part 2 2.9 Mb) | PDF (chinese - appendices 2.1 Mb) | Word (burmese - press release 47 Kb) | Word (chinese - press release 29 Kb) | Word (burmese - executive summary 51 Kb) In September 2004 EU member states called for the European Commission to produce “…specific proposals to address the issue of Burmese illegal logging…” Later, in October, the European Council expressed support for the development of programmes to address, “the problem of non-sustainable, excessive logging” that resulted in deforestation in Burma. To date, the EU has done next to nothing. “Like China, the EU has so far failed the Burmese people. How many more livelihoods will be destroyed before the Commission and EU member states get their act together?” Asked Buckrell. It is essential that the Chinese government stops timber imports across the Burma-China border, with immediate effect, and until such time sufficient safeguards are in place that can guarantee legality of the timber supply. The Chinese authorities should also take action against companies and officials involved in the illegal trade. Global Witness is calling for the establishment of a working group to facilitate measures to combat illegal logging, to ensure equitable, transparent and sustainable forest management, and to promote long-term development in northern Burma. “It is vitally important that all stakeholders work together to end the rampant destruction of Burma’s forests and to ensure that the necessary aid and long-term investment reach this impoverished region.” Said Jon Buckrell.
    Language: Burmese, Chinese, English,
    Source/publisher: Global Witness
    Format/size: pdf, Word
    Alternate URLs: http://globalwitness.org
    Date of entry/update: 18 October 2005


    Title: ‘Going Out’: The Growth of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Southeast Asia and Its Implications for Corporate Social Responsibility
    Date of publication: June 2005
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: Analysts have finally started to pay increasing attention to the rapidly rising levels of Chinese investment abroad. Deals such as Lenovo’s purchase of IBM’s PC production arm have sparked interest in a quiet revolution. The story now is not just about the flow of foreign investment in China, but also of the flow of China’s investment into other countries. However, most interest so far has concentrated on big ticket investments in the West and the consequences for European and particularly US geopolitical interests. Of less concern thus far have been the implications of Chinese investment on corporate social responsibility. This paper is a preliminary assessment of the potential implications of Chinese investments: in particular, the effect on sanctions designed to improve human rights (with specific reference to Myanmar), and whether pressure can be maintained on foreign investors to comply with international standards and norms in the face of Chinese investment...".....Keywords: China; Southeast Asia; foreign direct investment (FDI); outward direct investment (ODI); corporate social responsibility (CSR); investment
    Author/creator: Stephen Frost and Mary Ho
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management
    Format/size: pdf (118K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


    Title: An Overview of the Market Chain for China's Timber Product Imports from Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2005
    Description/subject: This article on China's forest trade with Myanmar builds on an earlier study by the same authors: “Navigating the Border: An Analysis of the China-Myanmar Timber Trade” [link]. The analysis in this study moves on to identify priority issues along the market chain of the timber trade from the Yunnan-Myanmar border to Guangdong Province and Shanghai on China’s eastern seaboard. Give the increased intensity of logging in northern Myanmar after the introduction of stringent limits on domestic timber production in China in 1998, the authors argue it is now downstream buyers on China’s eastern seaboard who are driving the timber business along the Yunnan Myanmar border. While the boom in the timber business has provided income generating opportunities for many, from villagers in Myanmar to Chinese migrant businessmen, forests that can be cost-effectively harvested in Myanmar along its border with Yunnan are in increasingly short supply. This entails a need to explore priority areas such as transitioning border residents away from a reliance on the timber industry, assessing and mitigating the cross-border ecological damage from logging in Kachin and Shan States, and developing a more sustainable supply of timber in Yunnan through improving state plantations and collective forest management.
    Author/creator: Fredrich Kahrl, Horst Weyerhaeuser, Su Yufang
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Forest Trends, Center for International Forestry Research, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
    Format/size: pdf (1.05 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_152.pdf
    http://www.forest-trends.org/publication_details.php?publicationID=152
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


    Title: The 'Made in China' Syndrome - Chinese goods flood Burma—but is that good for the Burmese?
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: "Win Hlaing looked around his home in Rangoon and made a list of the household items imported from China. Finally, he gave up—there were just too many. The bathroom was scrutinized first all in this unusual accounting exercise. Toothpaste, toothbrush, towel—“Made in China”. High road from China via Muse, a border town in Burma’s northeastern Shan State. Then came an inventory of the rest of Win Hlaing’s home: flashlight, light bulbs, switches, radio, VCD player, rice cooker and other kitchen accessories, children’s toys. All made in China..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12,. No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


    Title: Chinese Outward Direct Investment in Southeast Asia: How much and What are the Regional Implications?
    Date of publication: July 2004
    Description/subject: CONCLUSION: RAMIFICATIONS OF CHINESE ODI IN ASEAN: "I want to flag two major issues with regard to Chinese ODI in ASEAN. The first concerns Burma and the issue of human rights and sanctions. The second, which is related, is the issue of labour rights and international labour norms. The issue of human rights and sanctions in Burma is a troublesome one. Although Burma Economic Watch (2001) disputes the claim that Asian (and particularly Chinese) companies are filling gaps left by departing European or US companies under pressure from a regime of sanctions, it is too early to say whether this is true. We know so little about Chinese ODI in the country that further research is desperately needed. However, my initial and preliminary research suggests that Burma is attracting more Chinese investment than most people realise. If this is indeed the case, then what role does a sanctions regime play? Will those pushing for sanctions, for instance, be able to pressure Chinese companies, especially SOEs, to disengage from the Burmese economy? It is almost certain that in the current environment Chinese companies will not withdraw investment as a result of pressure from the international community over Burmese human rights abuses. It is impossible to argue that China’s investment in Burma comes with no strings attached, but the government attaches little or no importance to the issue of human rights abuses committed by the military regime.16 In the longer term, China is building a considerable bank of goodwill with Burmese businesspeople and other sectors in the community. The question that now confronts the international community is not so much whether European investment outweighs Chinese (or Asian), but what role the Chinese will play in a post-junta Burma. For instance, it might now be worthwhile to start considering the question of how Chinese goodwill in the form of aid and investment might play out if the junta falls. Will Europe and the US find themselves marginalised in a rebuilding process, or at the very best having to deal with the Chinese state and SOEs to play a significant role?..."
    Author/creator: Stephen Frost
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SEARC Working Paper No. 67
    Format/size: pdf (213K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


    Title: One Way Ticket
    Date of publication: January 2004
    Description/subject: Whether seeking a spouse or a job, there is no turning back for many Burmese women who journey to China By /Ruili, China... "Nandar faces a tough time in Ruili, a Chinese town close to Burma. She has no money and lives in a small, messy room in an apartment building that doubles as a brothel. But her face shows no fear. She looks like many of the Burmese girls who hang out in Ruili at night, their faces painted a ghostly white, sporting tight skirts or jeans, and soliciting men along a busy, shadowy street corner in the town center. But Nandar is not among them—yet..."
    Author/creator: Naw Seng
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2004


    Title: Navigating the Border: An Analysis of the China-Myanmar Timber Trade
    Date of publication: 2004
    Description/subject: Summary: China’s trade in timber products with Myanmar grew substantially from 1997-2002, from 295,474 m3 (round wood equivalent, RWE) in 1997 to 947,765 m3 (RWE) in 2002. Despite increased volume, timber product imports from Myanmar comprised only 2.5% of China’s total timber product imports from 1997-2002. However, the small fraction of total imports masks two important features: i) timber imports from Myanmar are primarily logged in slow-growing natural forests in northern Myanmar; and ii) logging activities that support the China-Myanmar timber trade are increasingly concentrated along the border in northern Myanmar’s Kachin State. This greater concentration of the timber trade has begun to have substantial ecological and socio-economic impacts within China’s borders. The majority of China’s timber product imports from Myanmar are shipped overland through neighboring Yunnan Province – 88% of all imports from 1997-2002 according to China’s national customs statistics. Of these, more than 75% of timber product inflows passed through the three prefectures in northwest Yunnan that border Kachin State. Most of these logging activities are currently concentrated in three areas — Pianma Township (Nujiang Prefecture), Yingjiang County (Dehong Prefecture), and Diantan Township (Baoshan Municipality). Logging that sustains the timber industry along Yunnan’s border with Kachin State is done by Chinese companies that are operating in Myanmar but are based along the border in China. Logging activities in Kachin State, from actual harvesting to road building, are almost all carried out by Chinese citizens. Although the volume of China’s timber product imports from Myanmar is small by comparison, the scale of logging along the border is considerable, and border townships and counties have become over-reliant on the timber trade as a primary means of fiscal revenue. As the costs of logging in Myanmar rise, this situation is increasingly becoming economically unsustainable, and shifts in the timber industry will have significant implications for the future of Yunnan’s border region. Importantly, a large proportion of logging and timber processing along the border is both managed and manned by migrant workers. Because of companies’ and workers’ low level of embeddedness in the local economy, border village communities are particularly vulnerable to swings in the timber trade. More broadly, timber trade has done little to promote sustained economic growth along the China-Myanmar border as profits, by and large, have not been redirected into local economies. In addition to socio-economic pressures, the combination of insufficient regulation in China and political instability in northern Myanmar has exacted a high ecological price. The uncertain regulatory and contractual environment has oriented the border logging industry toward short-term harvesting and profits, rather than investments in longer-term timber production. Degradation in Myanmar’s border forests will have an impact on China’s forests, as wildlife, pest and disease management, forest fire prevention and containment, and controlling natural disasters caused by soil erosion all become increasingly difficult. While political reform in northern Myanmar is a precondition for improved regulation and management of Myanmar’s forests, the Chinese government has a series of economic, trade, security and environmental policy options that it could pursue to ensure its own ecological security and enhance the socio-economic benefits of trade. Potential avenues explored in this analysis include: i) promoting longer-term border trade and distributing benefits from the timber trade, ii) improving border control and industry regulation, iii) enhancing environmental security and strengthening environmental cooperation, and iv) exploring flexibility in the logging ban... TABLE OF CONTENTS: LOGGING IN MYANMAR: A BACKGROUND; MYANMAR’S FORESTS; BASIC TRADE; GEOGRAPHY; AN ANALYSIS OF AGGREGATE IMPORT STATISTICS, 1997-2002; THE LOGGING BAN IN YUNNAN; THE TIMBER PRODUCTION CHAIN: INTRODUCTION; THE TIMBER PRODUCTION CHAIN: EXTRACTION; THE TIMBER PRODUCTION CHAIN: PROCESSING; THE TIMBER PRODUCTION CHAIN: DISTRIBUTION AND EXPORT; TIMBER TRADE TRENDS BY PREFECTURE; BORDER AND TRADE ADMINISTRATION: CHINA; FOREST AND TRADE ADMINISTRATION: MYANMAR; DEVELOPMENTS WITH POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHINA-MYANMAR TIMBER TRADE; CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS; REFERENCES.
    Author/creator: Fredrich Kahrl, Horst Weyerhaeuser, Su Yufang
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Forest Trends, World Agroforestry Centre
    Format/size: pdf (1.28MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:x5pqY-71SO8J:147.202.71.177/~foresttr/publication_details.php%3FpublicationID%3D120+Navigating+the+Border:+An+Analysis+of+the+China-Myanmar+Timber+Trade&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=th&client=firefox-a
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


    Title: A CONFLICT OF INTERESTS: The uncertain future of Burma’s forests
    Date of publication: October 2003
    Description/subject: A Briefing Document by Global Witness. October 2003... Table of Contents... Recommendations... Introduction... Summary: Natural Resources and Conflict in Burma; SLORC/SPDC-controlled logging; China-Burma relations and logging in Kachin State; Thailand-Burma relations and logging in Karen State... Part One: Background: The Roots of Conflict; Strategic location, topography and natural resources; The Peoples of Burma; Ethnic diversity and politics; British Colonial Rule... Independence and the Perpetuation of Conflict: Conflict following Independence and rise of Ne Win; Burma under the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP); The Four Cuts counter – insurgency campaign; The 1988 uprising and the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC); The 1990 General Election and the drafting of a new Constitution; Recent Developments: The Detention of Aung San Suu Kyi... The Administration of Burma: Where Power Lies: The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); The Cabinet; The Three Generals; The Tatmadaw; Regional Commanders... Part Two: Logging in Burma:- The Economy: The importance of the timber trade; Involvement of the Army; Bartering; Burma’s Forests; Forest cover, deforestation rates and forest degradation... The Timber Industry in Burma: The Administration of forestry in Burma; Forest Management in Burma, the theory; The Reality of the SPDC-Controlled Timber Trade... Law enforcement: The decline of the Burma Selection System and Institutional Problems; Import – Export Figures; SPDC-controlled logging in Central Burma; The Pegu Yomas; The illegal timber trade in Rangoon; SLORC/SPDC control over logging in ceasefire areas... Ceasefires: Chart of armed ethnic groups. April 2002; Ceasefire groups; How the SLORC/SPDC has used the ceasefires: business and development... Conflict Timber: Logging and the Tatmadaw; Logging as a driver of conflict; Logging companies and conflict on the Thai-Burma border; Controlling ceasefire groups through logging deals... Forced Labour: Forced labour logging... Opium and Logging: Logging and Opium in Kachin State; Logging and Opium in Wa... Conflict on the border: Conflict on the border; Thai-Burmese relations and ‘Resource Diplomacy’; Thais prioritise logging interests over support for ethnic insurgents; The timber business and conflict on the Thai-Burma border; Thai Logging in Karen National Union territory; The end of SLORC logging concessions on the Thai border; The Salween Scandal in Thailand; Recent Logging on the Thai-Burma border... Karen State: The Nature of Conflict in Karen State; The Karen National Union (KNU); The Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA); Logging in Karen State; Logging and Landmines in Karen State; Charcoal Making in Nyaunglebin District... The China-Burma Border: Chinese-Burmese Relations; Chinese-Burmese relations and Natural Resource Colonialism; The impact of logging in China; The impact of China’s logging ban; The timber trade on the Chinese side of the border... Kachin State: The Nature of Conflict in Kachin State; The Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO); Jade and the KIA’s insurgent Economy; Dabak and Mali Hydroelectric Power Projects; The New Democratic Army (Kachin) (NDA(K)); The Kachin Defence Army (KDA); How the ceasefires have affected insurgent groups in Kachin State; HIV/AIDS and Extractive Industries in Kachin State ; Logging in Kachin State; Gold Mining in Kachin State; The N’Mai Hku (Headwaters) Project; Road Building in Kachin State... Wa State: Logging in Wa State; Timber Exports through Wa State; Road building in Wa State; Plantations in Wa State... Conclusion... Appendix I: Forest Policies, Laws and Regulations; National Policy, Laws and Regulations; National Commission on Environmental Affairs; Environmental policy; Forest Policy; Community Forestry; International Environmental Commitments... Appendix II: Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG): Ministerial Declaration... References. [the pdf version contains the text plus maps, photos etc. The Word version contains text and tables only]
    Language: English (Thai & Kachin summaries)
    Source/publisher: Global Witness
    Format/size: pdf (4 files: 1.8MB, 1.4MB, 2.0MB, 2.1MB) 126 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.globalwitness.org
    http://asiantribune.com/news/2003/10/10/conflict-interests-uncertain-future-burmas-forests
    Date of entry/update: 20 July 2010


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 3 - China–Burma relations
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Historical preface; II Strategic relations; III Drugs in the China–Burma relationship; IV China-Burma border: the HIV/AIDS nexus; V Chinese immigration: cultural and economic impact; VI Opening up southwest China; VII Gains and losses for various parties where Burma is (a) democratizing or (b) under Chinese “suzereinty”; VIII Possible future focus; IX Conclusions. " This paper has argued that China’s support for the military regime in Burma has had negative consequences for both Burma and China. The negative impact on Burma of its relationship with China is that it preserves an incompetent and repressive order and locks the country into economic and political stagnation. The negative impact on China is that Burma has become a block to regional development and an exporter of HIV/AIDS and drugs. China’s comprehensive national interests would be best served by an economically stable and prosperous Burma. China could help the development of such an entity by encouraging a political process in Burma that would lead to an opening up of the country to international assistance and a more competent and publicly acceptable administration..."
    Author/creator: David Arnott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (274K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2003


    Title: Jiang Visit Yields New Deals, But Tensions Persist
    Date of publication: December 2001
    Description/subject: "Seven new accords covering bilateral economic relations and border security were signed as Chinese President Jiang Zemin’s made his first-ever visit to Burma on Dec 12. But despite eagerness on both sides to profit more from closer ties formed over the past thirteen years, independent analysts and recent developments pointed to growing strains in the relationship, especially on the economic front..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burma's economic relations with Denmark

    Individual Documents

    Title: Special Economic Measures (Burma) Regulations, SOR/2007-285
    Date of publication: 13 December 2007
    Description/subject: INTERPRETATION [1.] -LIST [2.] 2.Designated person -PROHIBITIONS [3. - 13.] 3.Export 4.Import 5.Assets Freeze 6.Technical data 7.(1)Investment — property in Burma held by or on behalf of Burma or national of Burma not ordinarily resident in Canada 7.(2)Investment — property held by or on behalf of a person in Burma 7.(3)Property 8.Financial services 9.Docking — ship registered in Burma 10.Docking — ship registered under an Act of Parliament 11.Landing in Canada 12.Landing in Burma 13.Prohibition -DUTY TO DETERMINE [14.] 14.Determination -DISCLOSURE [15.] 15.(1)Report 15.(2)Immunity -APPLICATION TO NO LONGER BE A DESIGNATED PERSON [16.] 16.(1)Petition 16.(2)Decision 16.(3)Presumption 16.(4)Notice 16.(5)New application -APPLICATION FOR A CERTIFICATE [17.] 17.(1)Mistaken identity 17.(2)Certificate — time frame -EXCLUSIONS [18. - 19.] 18.Import and export 19.Financial services -APPLICATION PRIOR TO PUBLICATION [20.] 20.Application -COMING INTO FORCE [21.] 21.Registration SCHEDULE
    Language: English, Francais/ Français
    Source/publisher: Canadian Legal Information Institute
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.canlii.org/fr/ca/legis/regl/dors-2007-285/derniere/dors-2007-285.html (Français)
    http://canadagazette.gc.ca/archives/p2/2007/2007-12-26/html/sor-dors285-eng.html#tphp
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


  • Burma's economic relations with Germany

    Individual Documents

    Title: Außenhandel zwischen Burma und Deutschland im Steigflug
    Date of publication: 08 April 2001
    Description/subject: Obwohl Wirtschaftssanktionen als wichtiges politisches Druckmittel angesehen werden und das Auswärtige Amt seine Wirtschaftsbeziehungen auf ein Minimum reduziert, befindet sich der Außenhandel zwischen Burma und Deutschland im Aufschwung. Eine kurze Analyse der Beziehungen zwischen der Bundesrepublik und Deutschland, aber auch Nordrhein Westfalens und Burmas in den Jahren 1990 bis 1999. On foreign trade Germany-Burma: (statistics on import and export)
    Author/creator: Susanne Gotthart
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus, Essen
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burma's economic relations with India

    Individual Documents

    Title: New role for India in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 13 September 2013
    Description/subject: "Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing. With ongoing communal and ethnic violence on one hand and the implementation of bold reform initiatives on the other, Myanmar's transition from authoritarianism to democracy presents immense challenges as well as opportunities for neighboring India. How New Delhi reacts to these tests will have wide-ranging impacts on the future of India-Myanmar relations. The challenges are many. The diplomatic row over pillar number 76 in the northeastern Indian state of Manipur on the Indo-Myanmar border in Holenphai village near Moreh has added to long-running border problems. Although the two sides have agreed to negotiate the issue peacefully, past misunderstandings and alleged intrusions have raised alarm bells on both sides of the border..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2014


    Title: One cannot step into the same river twice: making the Kaladan Project people-centred
    Date of publication: 11 June 2013
    Description/subject: "The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project (hereafter “Kaladan Project”) will see the construction of a combined inland waterway and highway transportation system connecting Mizoram State in Northeast India with a Bay of Bengal deepsea port at Sitetway, Arakan State in Western Burma. The Indian government is entirely financing the Kaladan Project, and these funds are officially classified as development aid to Burma. Once completed, the infrastructure will belong to the Burma government, but the project is unquestionably designed to achieve India’s economic and geostrategic interests. The Kaladan Project - conceived in 2003, formalized in 2008 and slated for completion in 2015 - is a cornerstone of India’s “Look East Policy” aimed at expanding Indian economic and political influence in Southeast and East Asia. The Kaladan Project is being developed in Arakan and Chin States - Burma’s least-developed and most poverty-prone states - where improved infrastructure is badly needed. Yet it remains an open question whether the Kaladan Project will be implemented in a way that ensures the people living along the project route are the main beneficiaries of this large-scale infrastructure development. This report from the Kaladan Movement provides an update on the progress of the Kaladan Project; assesses the potential Project-related benefi ts and negative impacts for people living in the project area; provides an overview of the current on-the-ground impacts, focusing on the hopes and concerns of the local people; and makes a series of recommendations to the Burma and India governments......."Part 1: Introduction to the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project; 1.1 Specifications of the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project; 1.2 Context of the Kaladan Project: India-Burma relations; 1.3 Economies of Mizoram, Arakan, and Chin States; 1.4 The natural environment in the Kaladan Project area... Part 2: Potential Impacts of the Kaladan Project: 2.1 Potential beneficial impacts of the Kaladan Project; 2.2 Potential negative impacts of the Kaladan project... Part 3: Current Impacts of the Kaladan Project: 3.1 Lack of consultation; 3.2 Lack of information provided to the community and lack of government transparency; 3.3 Lack of comprehensive and public Environmental, Health and Social Impact Assessments; 3.4 Labour discrimination; 3.5 Land confi scation and forced eviction; 3.6 Destruction of local cultural heritage; 3.7 Riverine ecological destruction from aggregate mining and dredging..... https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/102872850/KM_Report_Eng.pdf
    Language: English (main text); Burmese (press release)
    Source/publisher: Kaladan Movement
    Format/size: pdf (4.8MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Kaladan_Movement-PR-2013-06-11-bu.pdf (Press Release - Burmese)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Kaladan_Movement-PR-2013-06-11-en.pdf (Press Release - English)
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


    Title: Prostration and Diplomacy
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: Junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe made a pilgrimage to India in search of bilateral accords, development aid, legitimacy and atonement. He got at least some of what he was after... "Burmese junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe’s five-day visit to India began with a pilgrimage to one of Buddhism’s most sacred shrines and ended with the signing of a wide range of agreements on finance, technology, arms and border issues.... As a result of these meetings, a series of bilateral treaties, memorandums of understanding and other agreements were signed..."
    Author/creator: Zarni Mann
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


    Title: India-Burma relations gaining momentum of its own
    Date of publication: 04 September 2008
    Description/subject: The Indo-Burmese relationship is acquiring a positive momentum of its own despite western rights groups' criticism of Myanmar 's handling of pro-democracy demonstrations some six months back. India had rolled out red-carpet for Burmese military junta’s top leadership who were on a five day visit to India that began from April 4, 2008.
    Author/creator: Syed Ali Mujtaba, Ph.D.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Global Politician
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


    Title: Why India?
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: Why is India responsible for continued dictatorship, prolong suffering and the repeated bloodshed in Burma! Why India: 1.India: Military Aid to Burma Fuels Abuses... 2.India unveils business proposals with Myanmar... 3.Business Week: India's Role in Burma's Crisis... 4.India Silent on Myanmar Crackdown... 5.India's foreign policy pragmatism
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


  • Burma's economic relations with Russia

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Google search results for "Russia Myanmar"
    Description/subject: 34,200,000 results (March 2009)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Google
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Title: Why Russia
    Description/subject: * Russia to build atomic plant for Burmese junta * Weapons Sales by India, China and Russia Fuel Abuses, Strengthen Military Rule * Russia, China Veto Resolution On Burma * Human rights no barrier for Myanmar arms deals
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar, Russia to jointly explore oil, gas
    Date of publication: 09 September 2008
    Description/subject: "A Myanmar's oil company and a Russian one will jointly explore oil and gas in two onshore areas in Myanmar, the state-run newspaper New Light of Myanmar reported Tuesday. According to a production sharing contract signed last weekend between the state-operated Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) and the Closed Joint Stock Oil Company "Nobel Oil" of the Russian Federation, the exploration will be done in Hukaung and U-ru regions. Other three Russian oil companies have been engaged in oil and gas exploration in Myanmar under respective contracts since 2006. The first, which is JSC Zarubezhneft Iteraaws along with the Sun Group of India, has been exploring oil and gas at block M-8 lying in the Mottama offshore area..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Xinhua
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Title: Russian company gains right to explore for minerals in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 17 February 2008
    Description/subject: YANGON: "A Russian company has won exploration rights for gold and other minerals in Myanmar, the official media reported, in the latest business deal between the Southeast Asian nation's junta and one of its few international friends. The Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration Department of Myanmar and the Victorious Glory International of Russia signed a deal Friday for exploration for "gold and associated minerals" in the mineral-rich country, the New Light of Myanmar newspaper reported Saturday. The agreement covers an area along the Uru River in northern Myanmar, between Phakant in Kachin State and Homalin in Sagaing Division, the newspaper said, with no further details. Phakant is in a region known as the "Land of Jade," while the Homalin area is known for deposits of gold, which reached a record high level of $936.50 an ounce in early February..."
    Author/creator: Aung Hla Tun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Reuters via International Herald Tribune
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Title: Myanmar generals visit arms maker in Russia
    Date of publication: 12 October 2007
    Description/subject: MOSCOW (Reuters) - A Myanmar military delegation visited Russia on Friday, a day after the Asian state's military junta was deplored by the United Nations for crushing pro-democracy protests. Two leading Russian newspapers said the delegation was discussing buying missile systems from Russia, which has in the past sold fighter planes to Myanmar and has said it believes sanctions against the junta are premature. A Russian Air Force spokesman said the delegation was headed by Lieutenant-General Myint Hlaing, commander of Myanmar's air defense forces. The spokesman declined to specify whether the visitors were buying arms.
    Author/creator: Dmitry Solovyov
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Reuters
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Title: Moscow will offer Myanmar its first nuclear reactor
    Date of publication: 18 May 2007
    Description/subject: "Russia's federal atomic energy agency has signed an agreement with the Burmese regime to build its first nuclear power plant. The project aims to balance ex Burma's total dependence on neighbouring power China. The US protests: too high a risk..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: AsiaNews.it
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Title: Myanmar and Russia: Strengthening Ties
    Date of publication: 04 April 2007
    Description/subject: "On 20 March 2007, the oil and gas ministry of Kalmykia (a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) signed an agreement with Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) and Singapore's Silver Wave Energy for exploration and production of oil and gas from the B-2 onshore block, which borders India. According to reports quoting the Kalmykia republic's oil and gas minister, Boris Chedyrov, the participation will be "partial" with "only its specialists and drilling crews" taking part. Earlier in 2006, Russia's oil company Zarubezhneft and Myanmar's Energy Ministry signed a production-sharing contract for oil and gas exploration and production in Block M-8 of Mottama offshore fields in Southern Myanmar. Russia's importance for Myanmar was demonstrated earlier this year when it vetoed the US-sponsored resolution on Myanmar in the UN Security Council. Russia's veto (along with that of China's) was welcomed by Myanmar's junta. On several occasions its leadership has thanked Russia for vetoing the resolution, which from Myanmar's viewpoint, marks another cornerstone in its relations with Russia..."
    Author/creator: K Yhome
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi via Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Title: Myanmar: new field of Russia, China cooperation
    Date of publication: 04 May 2006
    Description/subject: "The Moscow visit of second in command in Myanmar Vice-Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council and Vice-Senior General Maung Aye is telling in many respects. Russian business and diplomacy have made a breakthrough in South-East Asia, a region where President Vladimir Putin attended the first ASEAN-Russia summit in Kuala Lumpur at the end of last year. ASEAN (the Association of South East Asian Nations), which unites the region's ten countries, conducts summits only with its closest partners. ASEAN's decision to make Russia a permanent participant of such summits (on a par with the heads of state or government of China, India and Japan, to name a few) reflected stronger political ties with Moscow and more active business contacts. Energy projects have always been Russia's obvious advantage. As for South East Asia, Moscow invests in oil and gas production in Vietnam and supplies Thailand with know-how and technologies. Now the Russian company Zarubezhneft has signed a memo of understanding in Moscow on strategic cooperation in the oil industry with the Myanmar Ministry of Energy..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: RIA Novosti
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Title: Russia, Myanmar to enhance oil cooperation
    Date of publication: 04 April 2006
    Description/subject: "Russia and Myanmar are to develop strategic cooperation, particularly in the oil sector, said Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov during his meeting with visiting Myanmar's Vice-Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Maung Aye in Moscow on Monday. "We have rubber, gas and oil. We have a lot of prospects for cooperation in this field," Fradkov was quoted by the Itar-Tass news agency as saying, "Russia seeks to expand its participation in the Asia-Pacific region. Thus, Russian-Myanmar relations have good and promising prospects."..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Xinhua
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


  • Burma's economic relations with Singapore

    Individual Documents

    Title: Why Singapore?
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: 1. U.S. Congress urges ASEAN to suspend Burma/Myanmar... 2. Singapore bans Myanmar protest at ASEAN summit.... 3. International students to attend forum to explain protest action... 4. Admin the peoples' uprising Singapore ship a weapons factory to Burma's Junta to seek economic favor... 5. Singapore PM Keep denying.....Singapore’s arms sales to Myanmar not substantial... 6. Reuters: Singapore under pressure to get tough with Myanmar... 7. Reuters: Singapore denies money laundering Myanmar leaders-AFP... 8. Asia Times: Singapore squirms as Burmese protest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


  • Burma's economic relations with South Korea

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Company responses (and non-responses) to "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" published by EarthRights International in March 2011
    Description/subject: "On 29 March 2011 EarthRights International released a report, entittled "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" [PDF], which "link[ed] major Chinese and Korean companies to widespread land confiscation, and cases of forced labor, arbitrary arrest, detention and torture, and violations of indigenous rights connected to the Shwe natural gas project and oil transport projects in Burma." The companies named in the report are: China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Daewoo International [part of POSCO], GAIL (India), Korean Gas Corporation (KOGAS), ONGC Videsh, and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE)"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Business & Human Rights Resource Centre
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 September 2011


    Individual Documents

    Title: The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy
    Date of publication: 29 March 2011
    Description/subject: "...This briefer focuses on the impacts of two of Burma’s largest energy projects, led by Chinese, South Korean, and Indian multinational corporations in partnership with the state-owned Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), Burmese companies, and Burmese state security forces. The projects are the Shwe Natural Gas Project and the Burma-China oil transport project, collectively referred to here as the “Burma-China pipelines.” The pipelines will transport gas from Burma and oil from the Middle East and Africa across Burma to China. The massive pipelines will pass through two states, Arakan (Rakhine) and Shan, and two divisions in Burma, Magway and Mandalay, over dense mountain ranges and arid plains, rivers, jungle, and villages and towns populated by ethnic Burmans and several ethnic nationalities. The pipelines are currently under construction and will feed industry and consumers primarily in Yunnan and other western provinces in China, while producing multi-billion dollar revenues for the Burmese regime. This briefer provides original research documenting adverse human rights impacts of the pipelines, drawing on investigations inside Burma and leaked documents obtained by EarthRights and its partners. EarthRights has found extensive land confiscation related to the projects, and a pervasive lack of meaningful consultation and consent among affected communities, along with cases of forced labor and other serious human rights abuses in violation of international and national law. EarthRights has uncovered evidence to support claims of corporate complicity in those abuses. In addition, companies involved have breached key international standards and research shows they have failed to gain a social license to operate in the country. New evidence suggests communities in the project area are overwhelmingly opposed to the pipeline projects. While EarthRights has not found evidence directly linking the projects to armed conflict, the pipelines may increase tensions as construction reaches Shan State, where there is a possibility of renewed armed conflict between the Burmese Army and specific ethnic armed groups. The Army is currently forcibly recruiting and training villagers in project areas to fight. EarthRights has obtained confidential Production Sharing Contracts detailing the structure of multi-million dollar signing and production bonuses that China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is required to pay to MOGE officials regarding its involvement in two offshore oil and gas development projects that, at present, are unrelated to the Burma- China pipelines. EarthRights believes the amount and structure of these payments are in-line with previously disclosed resource development contracts in Burma, and are likely representative of contracts signed for the Burma-China pipelines; contracts that remain guarded from public scrutiny. Accordingly, the operators of the Burma- China pipeline projects would have already made several tranche cash payments to MOGE, totaling in the tens of millions of dollars..."
    Language: English, Korean
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
    Format/size: pdf (1.23 - English; 1.9MB - Korean)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/documents/the-burma-china-pipelines-korean.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 March 2011


    Title: A Governance Gap: The Failure of the Korean Government to hold Korean Corporations Accountable to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises Regarding Violations in Burma
    Date of publication: 15 June 2009
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report is intended to inform the upcoming meetings of the OECD Investment Committee in Paris, France in 2009. It documents substantive errors in the Korean NCP’s interpretations of the OECD Guidelines, and its failure to achieve functional equivalence with other NCPs. EarthRights International (ERI) and the Shwe Gas Movement (SGM) request the Investment Committee to address the governance gap within the OECD Guidelines system of implementation by acknowledging the Korean NCP’s errors in interpretation, and by clarifying certain aspects of Guidelines with respect to the Korean NCP’s decision in the Shwe case. Chapter 1 provides an updated context of the situation in Burma, highlighting the environmental and human rights, political, and economic situations, with particular attention to updates on the impacts of natural gas development in the country. Chapter 2 describes the OECD Guidelines specific instance procedure and the complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. in October 2008. Chapter 3 explains structural shortcomings and conflicts of interest at the Korean NCP, noting that these are problems that appear to pervade the NCP system, raising important questions about the ability of the Guidelines to have their desired effect. Chapter 4 describes specific substantive problems with the Korean NCP’s decision in the Shwe case, noting how the NCP decided in favor of the companies on every count, concluding that the complaint did not merit further attention. Chapter 5 highlights the ways in which the Korean NCP’s decision is inconsistent with decisions of other NCPs, most notably with decisions by the French and UK NCPs. Chapter 6 makes specific requests of the OECD Investment Committee with respect to clarifying certain aspects of the Guidelines and taking effective action to improve the performance of the Korean NCP. Appendix A of this report is an unofficial English translation of the Korean NCPs decision. The text of the complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. is available at www.earthrights.org."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International, Shwe Gas Movement
    Format/size: pdf (496MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/A_Governance_Gap-ERI.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


  • Burma's economic relations with Thailand

    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar seeks new Dawei SEZ partners
    Date of publication: 03 December 2013
    Description/subject: "Myanmar is allowing international investors to bid for a mammoth project to develop a special economic zone in its southernmost region following the withdrawal of the sole developer, a Thai company, which had been unable to secure partners for the venture, an official said on Monday. Chairman of the Management Committee of Dawei SEZ Han Sein told a press conference in Yangon that developer Italian-Thai Development Pcl - Thailand's largest construction group - had terminated its work on the project in Myanmar's Tanintharyi region to make way for international bidders. "Myanmar Port Authorities [MPA] and Italian-Thai had an agreement in place to work on this project previously," Han Sein, who is also Myanmar's deputy minister of transport, said at the MPA office. "We ended this [agreement] because we want [to open the project up to] international investment," he said. Plans for the Dawei SEZ include a deep-sea port, industrial zone, steel plant, fertilizer plant, coal and natural gas-fired power plant and water supply system. The SEZ will have a motorway linked to Thailand's Kanchaburi province, as well as a railroad hub, links to oil and gas pipelines, and electrical cable lines..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Lwin Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: Dawei helps Thailand become auto hub
    Date of publication: 01 August 2012
    Description/subject: "The Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) has thrown its full support behind a rail network linking Laem Chabang with Dawei on Myanmar's eastern coast. The TDRI says the route will support Thailand's ambition of becoming the region's automotive and logistics hub. However, Narong Pomlaktong, the TDRI's research director of transport and logistics, said the 427-kilometre route should be extended by another 877 km to connect with Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 August 2012


    Title: Complaint letter to Burma government about value of agricultural land destroyed by Tavoy highway
    Date of publication: 24 July 2012
    Description/subject: "The complaint letter below, signed by 25 local community members, was written in July 2011 and raises villagers' concerns related to the construction of the Kanchanaburi – Tavoy [Dawei] highway linking Thailand and the Tavoy deep sea port. Villagers described concerns that the highway would bisect agricultural land and destroy crops under cultivation worth 3,280,500 kyat (US $3,657). In response to these concerns, local community members formed a group called the 'Village and Public Sustainable Development' to represent villagers' concerns and request compensation."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (96K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b69.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


    Title: ADB: Don't rush Dawei - Sufficient time needed to do it right
    Date of publication: 22 June 2012
    Description/subject: "The capital-intensive Dawei project in Myanmar needs time to ensure adequate preparation, while investment and assurance from relevant governments are also critical, says the Asian Development Bank. The ADB, which is part of the Greater Mekong Subregion secretariat, has concluded that the GMS's Southern Economic Corridor should be extended to include Dawei on Myanmar's eastern coast, said Arjun Goswami, the bank's director of regional cooperation and operations coordination in Southeast Asia. But he said this type of large infrastructure project requires time for good preparation and careful planning. For example, the preparation stage for the Nam Theun 2 hydropower project in Laos lasted 10 years. "The project needs to complete all feasibility studies including environmental and social impact assessments as well as due diligence. You should not rush into it," Mr Goswami told Euromoney's Greater Mekong Investment Forum..."
    Author/creator: Nareerat Wiriyapong
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 June 2012


    Title: NO RIGHTS TO KNOW: The Collective Voices of Local People from the Dawei Special Economic Zone
    Date of publication: April 2012
    Description/subject: "...The Dawei Special Economic Zone (Dawei SEZ) will be implemented with a joint venture between Thai companies and Burmese companies and business cronies close to the regime. Accordingly to the source from Rangoon (Yangon), one of the regime’s closest cronies, Max Myanmar Company headed by Zaw Zaw, have already been awarded huge contracts related to the Dawei project along with Italia-Thai company. Zaw Zaw also accompanied with Burma’s top generals on a tour of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in China in 2011...The Tavoy deep seaport and special industries lie in Yebyu township and is between Tavoy town in the south and Yatana pipeline in the north. 213.7 square meters comprises two town quarters in Yebyu Town, 11 village tracks in Yebyu Township and one village track in eastern part of project site in Long-lon Township. In the project site, a population of 30,000 will be directly affected, comprising of 21 communities and about 5,500 families. In order to go ahead with the project the Burmese government authorities and the companies will move the communities out to make way for the project site. The ethnic Tavoyan people are the majority affected population in coastal areas and many Karen communities in the eastern part of project site will be seriously affected by the dam construction and road construction to Thailand. However, when the Dawei Project Watch’s (DPW) field workers (reporters) traveled to the area and conducted interviews especially with the Tavoyan and Mon villagers they found that the villagers had no idea what would happen to them..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Dawei Project Watch
    Format/size: pdf (8.9MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/N0_Rights_to_Know-Dawei-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 June 2012


    Title: Boom or Bust?
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: The Burmese junta is moving ahead with the Myawaddy special economic zone, which may or may not benefit the DKBA... "The Burmese military regime has long talked about, but never implemented, a special economic zone (SEZ) near the Burma-Thailand border. But the junta’s cabinet recently approved the official creation of the SEZ, along with a plan to increase investment in the project. This could result in a business boom for Col. Chit Thu and his Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) cronies who control the area surrounding the SEZ and have already established their own commercial empire on the border. But if the project is too successful, it could turn into a bust for Chit Thu, because the junta might want to keep control in the hands of its own generals..."
    Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


    Title: Border Industry in Myanmar: Turning the Periphery into the Center of Growth
    Date of publication: October 2007
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "The Myanmar economy has not been deeply integrated into East Asia's production and distribution networks, despite its location advantages and notably abundant, reasonably well-educated, cheap labor force. Underdeveloped infrastructure, logistics in particular, and an unfavorable business and investment environment hinder it from participating in such networks in East Asia. Service link costs, for connecting production sites in Myanmar and other remote fragmented production blocks or markets, have not fallen sufficiently low to enable firms, including multi-national corporations to reduce total costs, and so the Myanmar economy has failed to attract foreign direct investments. Border industry offers a solution. The Myanmar economy can be connected to the regional and global economy through its borders with neighboring countries, Thailand in particular, which already have logistic hubs such as deep-sea ports, airports and trunk roads. This paper examines the source of competitiveness of border industry by considering an example of the garment industry located in the Myanmar-Thai border area. Based on such analysis, we recognize the prospects of border industry and propose some policy measures to promote this on Myanmar soil." Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), regional cooperation, border industry, cross-border trade, migrant workers, logistics, center-periphery JEL classification: F15, F22, J31, L67
    Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE Discussion Paper 122)
    Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
    Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008


    Title: Why Thailand?
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: Energy for Thailand, Tragedy for Burma: Looming Humanitarian Crisis in Burma... Main Expenses of the Military Regime... Main Sources of Regime's Income The Burma Connection...
    Author/creator: Sann Aung, ANDREW HIGGINS
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


    Title: Straining to Bridge the Divide
    Date of publication: February 2006
    Description/subject: In building a new “Friendship Bridge,” Thailand and Burma hope to consign their troubles to the past and increase cross-border trade... "Burma’s Foreign Minister Nyan Win and his Thai counterpart, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, shook hands and smiled warmly. The January 22 opening of the second “Friendship Bridge”—connecting the Thai town of Mae Sai and, across the river in Burma, Tachilek—would help promote cross-border contact and “alleviate” the tense relationship between the two countries, they said. It should also provide a massive boost to trade relations between the traditionally wary neighbors..."
    Author/creator: Clive Parker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No.2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: The Regional Development Policy of Thailand and Its Economic Cooperation with Neighboring Countries
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Thailand has recently strengthened its economic policy toward its neighboring countries in coordination with domestic regional development. It is widely recognized that economic cooperation with neighboring countries is essential in preventing the inflow of illegal labor and effectively utilizing labor and resources through the relocation of production bases. This direction is strengthened by elaborating the GMS-EC and the ECS (Economic Cooperation Strategy). In addition, economic dependency of the neighboring countries on Thailand is generally high. In this report, firstly, Thai regional development policy will be made clear in relation to its economic policy toward neighboring countries as well as the status quo of the industrial estates. Secondly, Thai policy toward the neighboring countries is examined referring to the concept of wide-ranging economic zones, regional economic cooperation and special border economic zones. Thirdly, the paper will discuss how closely the economies between Thailand and the neighboring countries are related through trade and investment. Lastly, some implications on Japan's economic cooperation will also be explored."...Keywords: industrial estates, GMS-EC, ECS, economic corridors, border zones
    Author/creator: Takao TSUNEISHI
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies, Discussion Paper No. 32
    Format/size: pdf (674K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Dp/pdf/032_tsuneishi.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 July 2006


    Title: The Burma-Thailand Gas Debacle
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: "Thailand’s state-controlled gas firm signed up for two expensive gas deals that it later realized it didn’t want. Burma has used the revenue to finance an arms build-up. In 1989 with the treasury bare, Burma’s ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC, as the junta then called itself, opened up petroleum exploration to foreign oil companies. In the short term Rangoon profited from signing bonuses paid for exploration blocks. If any of the firms struck commercially viable oil or gas, Burma would collect free rents from petroleum exports that would help maintain an unelected, unpopular administration in power..."
    Author/creator: Bruce Hawke
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


  • Burma's economic relations with Ukraine

    Individual Documents

    Title: The Kiev Connection
    Date of publication: April 2004
    Description/subject: "The former Soviet republic of the Ukraine is helping to satisfy the Rangoon regime’s apparently insatiable demand for modern weapon systems..." In May 2003 the Malyshev HMB plant in Kharkov reportedly signed a contract with Rangoon to provide the Burma Army with 1,000 new BTR-3U light armored personnel carriers, or APCs. The APCs will be supplied in component form over the next 10 years, and assembled in Burma. The size of the deal is estimated to be in excess of US $500 million. It is not known if it will be paid in hard currency, or whether an element of barter trade is involved. Some of Burma’s other arms suppliers—for example Russia and North Korea—have accepted part payment in rice, teak and marine products..."
    Author/creator: William Ashton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


  • Burma's economic relations with the European Union

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: EU-MYANMAR ECONOMIC INDICATORS
    Date of publication: 15 October 2010
    Description/subject: MYANMAR MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS; EU'S TRADE BALANCE WITH MYANMAR; MYANMAR'S TRADE BALANCE - MYANMAR, Trade with the European Union; EU TRADE WITH MAIN PARTNERS (2009); MYANMAR'S TRADE WITH MAIN PARTNERS (2009); EUROPEAN UNION, TRADE WITH THE WORLD AND MYANMAR, BY SITC SECTION (2009); European Union, Imports from... Myanmar; European Union, Exports to... Myanmar; RANK OF MYANMAR IN EUROPEAN UNION TRADE (2009); EU TRADE WITH THE WORLD AND EU TRADE WITH MYANMAR (2009)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EUROSTAT, IMF, DG Trade,
    Format/size: pdf (215K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Sanktionen zur Förderung von Frieden und Menschenrechten? Fallstudien zu Myanmar, Sudan und Südafrika
    Date of publication: 2006
    Description/subject: Eine kontroverse Diskussion zur Wirksamkeit internationaler Sanktionen (UNO; USA; EU; ILO) in Burma/Myanmar nach den Aufständen von 1988; der Einfluss Aung San Suu Kyis; die Rolle westlicher NGOs; Fallstudien zu Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, Südafrika A study on the efficacity of intnernational sanctions after the protests of 1988; the influence of Aung San Suu Kyi; the role of western NGOs; case studies of Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Africa
    Author/creator: Sina Schüssler
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Zentrum der Konfliktforschung der Philipps-Universität Marburg
    Format/size: PDF (890k)
    Date of entry/update: 21 September 2007


    Title: The European Union and Burma: The Case for Targeted Sanctions
    Date of publication: March 2004
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: The political stalemate in Burma will not be broken until the military regime considers it to be in its own self-interest to commence serious negotiations with the democratic and ethnic forces within the country. This paper outlines how the international community can bring about a political and economic situation which will foster such negotiations. Burma is ruled by a military dictatorship renowned for both oppressing and impoverishing its people, while enriching itself and the foreign businesses that work with it. The regime continues to ignore the 1990 electoral victory of Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. The regime has shown no commitment to three years of UN mediation efforts. It has failed to end the practice of forced labour as required by its ILO treaty obligations and demanded by the International Labour Organization. It continues to persecute Burma’s ethnic peoples. It continues to detain more than 1,350 political prisoners including Aung San Suu Kyi. Any proposal of a road map to political change in Burma will fail to bring about democracy in this country unless it is formulated and executed in an atmosphere in which fundamental political freedoms are respected, all relevant stakeholders are included and committed to negotiate, a time frame for change is provided, space is provided for necessary mediation, and the restrictive and undemocratic objectives and principles imposed by the military through the National Convention (ensuring continued military control even in a “civilian” state) are set aside.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK
    Format/size: pdf (120K)
    Date of entry/update: 28 March 2004


    Title: The EU's relations with Myanmar / Burma
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: Overview lists Political Context; Legal basis of EU relations; Trade/Economic Issues; Community Aid, General data. Other sections include: Conclusions of the General Affairs & External Relations Council (GAERC), Updates on the EU position.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: European Commission
    Format/size: pdf (71.51 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.europarl.europa.eu
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: Calculations of imports from Burma to the EU
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: Tables and charts illustrating the accompanying document "The increasing imports from Burma to the EU". Tables showing value of imports to EU from Myanmar/Burma and exports from EU to Myanmar/Burma,1996-2001 and charts showing import and export between Burma and Denmark, Belgium-Luxumbourg France, Germany, Netherlands, Nordic countries, UK, and charts covering all EU countries.
    Author/creator: Bjarne Ussing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Danish Burma Committee Support Group
    Format/size: html (159K)
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: Den beskidte liste
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "En rapport fra Støttegruppen for Den Danske Burma Komité om den hastigt stigende tøjimport fra Burma...Danmark er det land i Vesteuropa, der trods massive krav om sanktioner slår både EU og Norden i Burma-import, målt pr. indbygger. Rekorden skyldes først og fremmest importen af tøj fra Burma til Danmark, der de seneste år er steget kraftigt og næsten nåede 100 millioner kroner i fjor. Hidtil har alle tøjfirmaer i Danmark, der handler med Burma, været hemmeligholdt, men research kan nu afdække en række af firmaerne. Et af firmaerne er Føtex, hvor Burma-tøj (Kappa) kan spores helt til bøjlestængerne. Andre firmaer er Brandtex og B&C Tekstiler, der, uanset afvisning fra deres danske hovedkontorer, har importeret tøj fra Burma ifølge norske toldpapirer. Bestseller er også Burma-importør, men overvejer at stoppe, mens IC Company og Lindon ifølge firmaerne har stoppet for deres Burma-import. Endelig er der mærkerne Fjällräven, Mexx og Mango, der også har import fra Burma..."
    Author/creator: Bjarne Ussing
    Language: Dansk, Danish
    Source/publisher: Støttegruppen for Den Danske Burma Komité
    Format/size: html (33K)
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: The increasing imports from Burma to the EU
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: …or how EU five-doubled their import from Burma after Aung San Suu Kyi asked for trade sanctions. A report from the Danish Burma Committee Support Group, September 2002..."Did European companies listen to Aung San Suu Kyi’s demand for sanctions against Burma from 1996? Did they reduce their import from Burma, after EU cancelled trade benefit with Burma from 1997, or after EU banned all visa for Burmese officials from the same year? Not at all. Since 1996, EU-countries has more than five-doubled their import from Burma, according to information from EU’s statistical office Eurostat. The total import from Burma to EU was almost 500 million € in 2001, so Europe has become a major trade partner for this Asian dictatorship. In the first chart, you can see how many € each EU-citizen has imported in average from Burma in the period 1996-2001. Second chart shows a big difference between the EU-countries: Worst country is Denmark, followed by The Netherlands, Belgium, United Kingdom and France..."
    Author/creator: Bjarne Ussing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Danish Burma Committee Support Group
    Format/size: html (200K)
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: Garment exports get new boost
    Date of publication: April 2001
    Description/subject: " Burma�s booming garment industry has received more good news, with a decision by the European General Affairs Council to include Burma on its list of 48 of the world�s least developed countries eligible for duty-free access to the European Union market. The move is not expected to seriously impact on Burma�s trade deficit with the EU, but should give a boost to the country�s garment exports, 60% of which already go to Europe..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 3 (Business section)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burma's economic relations with the USA

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Foreign Trade Statistics (USA)
    Description/subject: Search for Burma OR Myanmar. Otherwise, browse the Index (not for the faint-hearted)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Census Bureau
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: National Labor Committee
    Description/subject: "In support of human and worker rights". Documents on Burma-US trade, particularly US garment companies sourcing in Burma.
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.nlcnet.org/campaigns?id=0010
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: US-ASEAN Business Council (Myanmar page)
    Description/subject: Many useful links but there are no events to display for this time period.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Can we fine-tune the sanctions against Burma?
    Date of publication: 20 July 2012
    Description/subject: " Last week, the Obama Administration suspended some of the most important financial sanctions against Burma. U.S. companies are now allowed to invest in Burmese industries (including oil and gas) and to sell services. Yet on Wednesday of this week, the U.S. Senate Finance Committee took a decision that pointed in exactly the opposite direction. It voted to renew trade sanctions passed nine years ago in response to the military junta's attempted assassination of Aung San Suu Kyi. (She survived, but the attack resulted in scores of other deaths.) The renewal of the legislation -- if it passes a vote of the full Senate and the House, which still have to confirm the decision -- will technically ban all imports from Burma for another three years. Since the ban was first imposed in 2003, imports from Burma to the U.S. have fallen to almost zero, a sweeping prohibition that has done a lot of damage to Burma's nascent manufacturing industry. For that reason, Aung San Suu Kyi actually asked U.S. Senator Mitch McConnell to remove the remaining sanctions early last week. But her plea didn't seem to help..."
    Author/creator: Min Zin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Foreign Policy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 August 2012


    Title: Sanktionen zur Förderung von Frieden und Menschenrechten? Fallstudien zu Myanmar, Sudan und Südafrika
    Date of publication: 2006
    Description/subject: Eine kontroverse Diskussion zur Wirksamkeit internationaler Sanktionen (UNO; USA; EU; ILO) in Burma/Myanmar nach den Aufständen von 1988; der Einfluss Aung San Suu Kyis; die Rolle westlicher NGOs; Fallstudien zu Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, Südafrika A study on the efficacity of intnernational sanctions after the protests of 1988; the influence of Aung San Suu Kyi; the role of western NGOs; case studies of Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Africa
    Author/creator: Sina Schüssler
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Zentrum der Konfliktforschung der Philipps-Universität Marburg
    Format/size: PDF (890k)
    Date of entry/update: 21 September 2007


    Title: Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma
    Date of publication: 03 March 2004
    Description/subject: Free access not available anymore! The document needs to be purchased. Foreword: "An intellectual “tectonic shift” is underway, making a precarious policy even harder to justify. This rather unusual issue of the NBR Analysis does not stem from an NBR-sponsored project or study. Instead, it emerged as an initiative from an extraordinary assemblage of Burma scholars, all of whom regard last year’s announcement of a “road map” for constitutional change, the ongoing progress toward cease-fires with ethnic insurgents, and the worsening impact of sanctions on the general populace, as an opportunity to re-examine U.S. relations with Burma. Recognizing that the current situation may be conducive to taking a fresh perspective, and noting the significance of so many top Burma specialists reaching similar conclusions and working together, we decided to publish their essays. The scholars in this volume represent a range of perspectives. What is especially notable is that they collaborated in this enterprise and concur that the U.S. policy of sanctions is not achieving its worthy objective—progress toward constitutional change and democratization in Burma. Moreover, as some of these authors argue, viewing U.S.-Burma relations solely through this lens, important as it is, may be harming other U.S. strategic interests in Southeast Asia, both in terms of the ongoing war against terrorism and long-term objectives regarding the United States’ role as a regional security guarantor. The desperate humanitarian situation in the country, as detailed in many of these essays, and concerns about possible WMD-related activities only underscore the importance of looking at this issue again. U.S. policymakers in particular ought to consider whether it is now appropriate to take a more realistic, engaged approach, while easing restrictions on humanitarian assistance, programs to build civil society, and the forces of globalization that are needed for the Burmese peoples’ socio-economic progress and solid transition to civilian government and democracy..." Richard J. Ellings, President, The National Bureau of Asian Research... "Strategic Interests in Myanmar" - John H. Badgley; "Myanmar’s Political Future: Is Waiting for the Perfect the Enemy of Doing the Possible?" - Robert H. Taylor; "Burma/Myanmar: A Guide for the Perplexed?" - David I. Steinberg; "King Solomon’s Judgment" - Helen James; "The Role of Minorities in the Transitional Process" - Seng Raw; "Will Western Sanctions Bring Down the House?" - Kyaw Yin Hlaing; "The Crisis in Burma/Myanmar: Foreign Aid as a Tool for Democratization" - Morten B. Pedersen;
    Author/creator: John H. Badgley (Ed.); Robert H. Taylor, David I. Steinberg, Helen James, Seng Raw, Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Morten B. Pedersen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "NBR Analysis" Vol.15, No. 1, March 2004 (The National Bureau of Asia Research)
    Format/size: pdf (261K)
    Date of entry/update: 29 February 2004


    Title: Presidential Executive Order implementing the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003,
    Date of publication: 29 July 2003
    Description/subject: "...The United States has begun to implement the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003, which immediately prohibits financial transactions with entities of the ruling military junta in Burma and will bar the importation of Burmese products into the United States after 30 days, according to the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). OFAC issued a bulletin July 29 that includes the text of President Bush's July 28 Executive Order regarding the blockage of the Burmese junta's property, the prohibition of financial transactions with entities of the Rangoon regime, and the ban on Burmese imports into the United States. According to President Bush's executive order, such steps are necessary due to the military junta's "continued repression of the democratic opposition in Burma" and the national emergency declared in Executive Order 13047 of May 20, 1997. Following is the text of the OFAC bulletin:..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Office of Foreign Assets Control via US Dept of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 August 2003


    Title: Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act -- Text and associated links
    Date of publication: 28 July 2003
    Description/subject: This legislation was signed into law by the US President on 28 July 2003.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U S Government via Trillium Asset Management
    Format/size: pdf (42 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h2330rh.txt.pdf
    http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/legal/statutes/bfda_2003.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


    Title: BURMA COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE FY2002
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: "This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look at Burma's (Myanmar's) commercial environment, using economic, political and market analysis. The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force, to consolidate various reporting documents prepared for the U.S. business community. Country commercial guides are prepared annually at U.S. embassies through the combined efforts of several U.S. Government agencies..." 1. Executive Summary... 2 Economic Trends and Outlook -Government Role in the Economy -Major Trends and Outlook -Major Sectors -Balance of Payments -Infrastructure... 3 Political Environment � -Brief Synopsis of Political System -Nature of Bilateral Relationship with the United States -Major Political Issues -Business Policy -Scope of Sanctions... 4 Marketing US Products and Services � -List of Newspapers and Trade Journals -Advertising Agencies and Services -IPR Protection -Need for a Local Attorney... 5 Leading Sectors for US Exports and Investment... 6 Trade Regulations, Customs and Standards -Barriers to Trade and Investment -Trade Regulations... 7 Investment Climate/US Investment Sanctions -US Investment Subject to Sanctions -Status of Investment -Executive Order -Sanctions Regulations... 8 Trade and Project Financing -Description of Banking System -Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trade -Availability of Financing -List of Banks... 9 Business Travel -Travel Advisory -Visas, International Connections -Customs, Foreign Exchange Controls... 10 Economic and Trade Statistics: Appendix A: Country Data; Appendix B: Domestic Economy; Appendix C: External Accounts - Trade and Payments; Appendix D: Investment Statistics; 11 US and Country Contacts... Bibliography.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Commercial Service
    Format/size: html, pdf (276K)
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2003


    Title: U.S. Trade with Burma (Myanmar) in 2000
    Date of publication: 21 February 2001
    Description/subject: Import and export figures by month and for the year. The biggest import item, "Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles" is not broken down, which makes it less useful (most is garments (apparel) manufactured in Burma, but the tables do not say so).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Foreign Trade Division, US Census Bureau
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c5460.html
    http://censtats.census.gov/sitc/sitc.shtml
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


    Title: U.S. Trade with Burma (Myanmar) in 1999
    Date of publication: 18 February 2000
    Description/subject: Import and export figures by month and for the year.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Foreign Trade Division, US Census Bureau
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://censtats.census.gov/sitc/sitc.shtml
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


    Title: FOREIGN ECONOMIC TRENDS REPORT: BURMA, 1997
    Date of publication: September 1997
    Description/subject: "This report is a public document, prepared in June 1997 and released in September 1997 by American Embassy Rangoon. All statistics in this report are unofficial Embassy estimates, not official U.S. Government statistics. That is, they are compiled and reviewed only by Embassy officials, not by U.S. Government officials in Washington, even though they largely originate from the Government of Burma, from the governments of Burma's trading partners, or from such international financial institutions as the IMF and World Bank, as indicated by source notations in the appended statistical tables, and by the section on sources and data. Similar reports are prepared and distributed to the public annually, separately or as part of an annual Country Commercial Guide, by most American embassies throughout the world, in compliance with standing instructions from, and following a standard format specified by, the U.S. Departments of State and Commerce. This report is intended chiefly for economists and financiers; except for its first section, "Major trends and outlook," it is highly technical and sometimes redundant, intended to serve largely as a reference work...I. Economic trends and outlook:- -- Major trends and outlook: -- Major trends; -- 1996/97 economic performance; -- Economic outlook... -- Principal growth sectors: --Tourism; -- Defense; -- Agriculture: -- Paddy (unmilled rice) cultivation; -- State procurement of paddy; ; -- Rice exports; -- Beans and pulses... -- Remaining structural issues in the agricultural sector; -- Living conditions in the agricultural sector; -- The government's role in the economy: -- Historical background; -- The extent and limits of economic liberalization since 1988; -- Fiscal developments; --Non-financial expenditures; -- Non-financial receipts; -- Fiscal balances; -- External financing; -- Domestic financing; -- Errors and omissions; -- Monetary developments; -- The exchange rate regime; -- Exchange rate movements; -- Recorded money supply growth; -- Recorded money supply composition; -- Recorded domestic credit and domestic reserves; -- Recorded net foreign assets (foreign reserves); -- Aggregate price inflation; -- Balance of payments; -- Merchandise trade data and balances; -- Recorded merchandise exports; -- Recorded merchandise imports; ; -- Non-factor services trade; -- The overall trade balance; -- Unrequited private transfers (workers' remittances); -- Foreign direct investment; -- Other recorded cash financial inflows: grants, loans and other; -- External debt, debt service, arrears and debt relief; -- Aggregate external accounts: the flow of funds; -- Errors and omissions: unrecorded external flows; -- Narcotics exports and other foreign exchange rents and their real exchange rate effects; -- Infrastructure situation; -- Human infrastructure: education and health; -- Physical infrastructure; -- Use of uncompensated labor in infrastructure projects; -- Major infrastructural projects; II. Political environment; -- Nature of the bilateral relationship with the United States; -- American concerns: human rights violations, narcotics exports; -- U.S. Government activities and policies; -- Private investment, trade and travel; -- U.S. direct investment in Burma; -- U.S. exports to Burma ; -- U.S. imports from Burma; -- Travel and migration; -- Major political issues affecting the business climate ; -- Brief synopsis of the political system, schedule for elections, and orientation of major political parties; Note on sources, data and method; -- Recent improvements in publicly available economic data; -- Remaining flaws in the publicly available economic data; -- The statistical basis and methodology of this report; List of commonly used abbreviations... Appendix: Statistical Tables; --Table A: Socio-economic profile; -- Tables B.l.a - B.3.c: National income accounts (GDP and GNP); -- Table C: Aggregate price indicators; --Tables D l.a-D.6: Balance of payments accounts; -- Tables E.l.a - E.2: Monetary accounts; -- Tables F.I - F.2.b: Flow of funds accounts; -- Tables G.1.a-G.6: Public sector finance accounts.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon
    Format/size: pdf (979K) 152 pages
    Date of entry/update: 30 May 2005


    Title: Trade in Goods (Imports, Exports and Trade Balance) with Burma (Myanmar)
    Description/subject: Import and export and Trade Balance available by year. "Last updated on August 11, 2010."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Census Bureau (Foreign Trade Division)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


    Title: U.S. Trade with Burma (Myanmar) in 1998
    Description/subject: Import and export figures by month and for the year.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Foreign Trade Division, US Census Bureau
    Format/size: Undated, but most likely published in February 1999
    Alternate URLs: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c5460.html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Import/Export

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Culture for Sale
    Date of publication: January 2000
    Description/subject: "In one of the poorest countries in the world, people take solace in donating their gold and jewels to pagodas to become rich in the next life, according to their Buddhist beliefs..."
    Author/creator: Win Htein
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Customs Tariffs ASEAN
    Description/subject: Harmonized System for tariff and statistical nomenclature on April 1, 1992. After incorporating necessary changes in the Myanmar Customs Tariff, the 1996 Version of the Harmonized System was applied ...
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar Export Import Procedures
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Commerce
    Alternate URLs: http://www.commerce.gov.mm/eng/
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


    • Gems
      The articles in this section are largely technical and/or political. For sites dealing with sale of gems, do an Internet search for gems Myanmar etc (there are more than 40,000)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burmese Gems
      Description/subject: "Burmese Gems is one of the leading purveyors of rare, gem-quality rubies, sapphires, and diamonds. We carry both loose stones and custom-made finished jewelry for our clients. We have been in business for over eight decades and specialize mainly on gems from Burma as they are the most precious and rarest. We cater to customers who desire the best in life and who are unwilling to settle for second best. In essence, we are in the business of making beautiful people more beautiful..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burmese Gems
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


      Title: Ganoksin
      Description/subject: "The Gem and Jewelry World's foremost Resource on The Internet". A number of articles about gems in Burma (search Library or "Orchid" for Burma)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ganoksin
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Gemological Institute of America
      Description/subject: "...Established in 1931, GIA is the world’s largest and most respected nonprofit institute of gemological research and learning. Conceived 73 years ago in the august tradition of Europe’s most venerated institutes, GIA discovers (through GIA Research), imparts (through GIA Education), and applies (through the GIA Gem Laboratory and GIA Gem Instruments) gemological knowledge to ensure the public trust in gems and jewelry. With nearly 900 employees, the Institute’s scientists, diamond graders, and educators are regarded, collectively, as the world's foremost authority in gemology..." A search for "Burma" on the GIA site produced 47 results. For "Myanmar", 63.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Gemological Institute of America (GIA)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 November 2004


      Title: GRS (Gem Research Swisslab)
      Description/subject: Browse the site to find information on Burmese gems
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: GRS
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Myanmar Gems and Jewellery: Myanmar (Burma) Gems, Jade Jewellery
      Description/subject: ... Gems and Complete Database of Gems Emporiums held in Myanmar (Burma) in Yangon (Rangoon) Myanmar myanmar Gems gems, Myanmar myanmar Jade jade, Myanmar myanmar ... Online auction; sections on rubies, jade, pearls etc.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings Ltd.
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.maynmark.com/
      http://www.mvesjewelry.com.mm/
      http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/jewelry
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: Myanmar Gems Enterprise
      Description/subject: Scrutinising and issuing permits for gemstone mining to local private entrepreneurs; manufacturing and marketing of jewelry. ..Not much there apart from a few maps and pictures and contact information.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SPDC/Ministry of Mines
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: Professional Jeweller
      Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Professional Jeweler
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Ruby-sapphire.com
      Description/subject: A number of articles on gems and Burma
      Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ruby-sapphire.com
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: SSEF (Swiss Gemmological Insitute)
      Description/subject: Provides certificates of origin.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SSEF
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


      Title: THE GEMSTONE FORECASTER NEWSLETTERS
      Description/subject: The newsletters, from 1995, contain a number of articles on Burmese gems, including jade.
      Author/creator: Robert Genis
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: National Gemstone Corporation
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.preciousgemstones.com/index.html#Options
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Individual Documents

      Title: Burmas Minderheiten leiden unter Raubbau an Edelsteinen und Gold - Kritik am Schweigen deutscher Juweliere
      Date of publication: 15 October 2007
      Description/subject: Allein der Handel mit Rubinen und anderen Edelsteinen habe der staatlichen Firma "Myanmar Gems Enterprise" nach offiziellen Angaben zwischen April 2006 und März 2007 Einnahmen in Höhe von 297 Millionen US-Dollars verschafft. Dreimal im Jahr lade Myanmar ausländische Händler zu Edelstein-Auktionen ein. Bei der letzten Versteigerung im März 2007 seien Steine im Wert von 185 Millionen US-Dollars umgesetzt worden. Damit sei die Ausfuhr von Edelsteinen neben dem Handel mit Teak-Holz sowie mit Erdöl und Erdgas, der bedeutendste Devisenbringer des Landes. Gemstones
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: "New bonanza" jilted by specialists
      Date of publication: 25 February 2004
      Description/subject: "After spending nearly two weeks in October in the mountains where a rubymine was said to have been discovered, a 9-men team of gem specialists dispatched by Rangoon had finally decided that the rock formations there were still to young to be worthwhile, said gem traders close to the local militia. "Samples that the experts obtained melted when they were heated, unlike Monghsu stones," one of the gem traders who also occasionally deal in drugs told S.H.A.N..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: S.H.A.N.
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 February 2004


      Title: Namya Rubies
      Date of publication: 04 February 2004
      Description/subject: Just when the U.S. government has halted America’s Ruby market from banning all imports from Burma, dealers are starting to see the best red corundum’s to come from that country in years. These stones were coming in form a promising trickle of good s from a vast untapped area called Namya, which is not too far away from Mogok the world’s most famous ruby district.
      Author/creator: By David Federman
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Modern Jeweler
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.airesjewelers.com/
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: Ready, Aim, Sanction!
      Date of publication: 20 November 2003
      Description/subject: 1 FOREWORD BY ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU; INTRODUCTION:- 3 FLAWED IMPLEMENTATION; 3 MOVING AHEAD; 4 RESISTANCE; 4 BROKEN PROMISES; 5 NO DELAY; 6 SMART SANCTIONS... PART 2: THE STORY SO FAR:- 7 CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS; 9 ROADMAPS LEADING NOWHERE: * Thai �road map' _ Much Ado About Nothing; * The SPDC Roadmap_ the Perfect Stalling Tactic; * National Convention background; * What's missing from the �road map'; * What the convention does offer; * NLD & ethnic nationality participation not required; 12 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS; 14 BROADER INDIRECT IMPACT OF SANCTIONS; 17 LIMITATIONS OF SANCTIONS: * �Carroty Sticks'; 18 SANCTIONS & THE ECONOMY... PART 3: CURRENT SANCTIONS:- 21 CANADA'S SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 22 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 23 JAPAN'S POLICY ON BURMA; 24 UNITED STATES SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 25 SANCTIONS & ACTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT; 25 IMPORT BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 26 BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 28 FOREIGN INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 30 ARMS EMBARGO / NON-PROVISION OF ARTICLES/SERVICES THAT COULD BE USED FOR REPRESSION * Direct Impacts: * Room For Improvement; 33 ASSETS FREEZE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 34 TRAVEL/VISA BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 35 BAN ON DIRECT FOREIGN ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; * Japan Suspends Aid to Burma; * Drug Eradication Assistance; * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 37 SUSPENSION OF MDB & IFI ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 38 TRADE PREFERENCE SUSPENSIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 40 DIPLOMATIC DOWNGRADES; 40 INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO): * A Model For Sanctions; 43 UNITED NATIONS: * SPDC Thumbing Their Nose At The UN; * UN Interventions; * Extreme Violations; * Broad Based Support; 46 WHAT ABOUT THE UNSC? 47 UN SECRETARY GENERAL'S SPECIAL ENVOY TO BURMA: * Turning of the Tide; * A New Strategy; * UN Special Envoy's Mandate; 49 THE UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR'S OBLIGATION: * A Different Tune; 50 UNDERMINING ITSELF; PART 4: RECOMMENDED ACTIONS & SANCTIONS:- 51 �RECIPE FOR RECONCILIATION'; 51 PRINCIPLED ENGAGEMENT: * Nominations for the Burma Diplomatic Squad; * Components of the Recipe; * Reconstruction of Burma; 54 NO MORE TOYS FOR THE BAD BOYS; 54 WIDEN BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA; 55 IMPORT BAN ON GOODS FROM BURMA: * 10% of Exports Profits Directly Fund the Regime; 58 BAN ON CONFLICT RESOURCES: * SPDC Involvement; * Examples of SPDC �unofficial' involvement in logging; * Local Communities – Logging often hurts more than it helps; * Gems; * Environmental Destruction; * Employment; * Forced Labor; * Ethnic Nationalities – Between A Rock & A Hard Place; * Drugs, HIV/AIDS & Money Laundering; * Resource Diplomacy; * Who's Operating? * Some of the Big Boys... 70 BAN ON NATURAL GAS IMPORTS FROM BURMA; 71 RESTRICTION ON FUEL SALES TO BURMA; 72 BAN ON OIL & GAS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI): * Oil & Gas; * New Pipeline Proposal; * Yadana Partners Strike Again; * Greater Mekong Subregion Project; 74 FULL INVESTMENT BAN: * Major FDI Players; * FDI 2001-2002; * Trade Fairs; * FDI Exposure to Money Laundering; * What About the Workers? 79 SPECIAL FOCUS: TENTACLES 'S HOLD ON THE FORMAL ECONOMY: * The BIG Tentacles – A Snapshot! * Ministry of Defense; * DDP: Directorate of Defense Procurement; * DDI: Directorate of Defense Industries; * MEC: Myanmar Economic Corporation; * UMEH (UMEHL): Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings; * MOGE/MPE/MPPE; * Ministry of Industry I; * Ministry of Industry II; * Myanmar Agricultural Produce Trading (MAPT); * Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE); * Myanmar Export-Import Services (MEIS); * Ministry of Post and Telegraphs (MPT); * Ministry of Hotels & Tourism; * Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE); * Directorate of Ordnance; * State-Owned/Controlled Banks; 86 A CLOSER LOOK: UNION OF MYANMAR ECONOMIC HOLDINGS LTD (UMEH/UMEHL/UMEHI): * Gems; * Jade; * UMEH Business Ventures; * Keeping It In The Family: Industrial Estates; * It Gets Worse; * Six Degrees Of Separation; * Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA); * Na Sa Ka: Making Human Rights Violations Profitable... 95 WIDEN THE ASSETS FREEZE; 95 IMPLEMENT FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) RECOMMENDATIONS; 98 WITHHOLD ASSISTANCE FROM IFI/MDBS: * Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS); * East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC); * Power Trade Operating Agreement (PTOA); * Technical Assistance; * Withhold GMS Funding For Projects In Burma... 102 SUSPEND JAPAN'S OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) TO BURMA: * Options; 105 PRESSURE ON JAPAN; 105 BOYCOTT AND DIVESTMENT CAMPAIGNS; 108 DELAY TOURISM: * Benefiting Whom? 109 ASEAN TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY: * The Reality; * Credibility on the Line; 111 INCREASE PRESSURE ON THE REGIME'S KEY PARTNERS; 112 SPORTS EMBARGO; 113 OFFICIAL RECOGNITION FOR THE CRPP; 113 INCREASE CAPACITY OF THE DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT; 114 PUT SPDC ON PROBATION; 114 TAKE BURMA TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC): * Rampant Military Growth; * Known weapons procurement during 2001-July 2003; * Civilian Military Porters; * Child Soldiers; * Drugs; * Civil War; * Displacement of People; * Systematic human rights abuses; * Failure to recognize democratic elections; * Regional Implications... PART 5: MYTHS & REALITIES:- 132 MYTH 1: Sanctions on Burma have not worked.; 133 MYTH 2: The effectiveness of sanctions is too limited to beconstructive; 134 MYTH 3: The SPDC is not influenced by international pressure; 135 MYTH 4: Sanctions can be used as a scapegoat by the SPDC for internal policy failures; 136 MYTH 5: Sanctions will alienate the �moderates' in the regime; 137 MYTH 6: Sanctions take away incentives for the regime to make progress; 138 MYTH 7: Constructive engagement would be successful in bringing reforms in Burma; 139 MYTH 8: Sanctions and principled engagement cannot work as complementary approaches; 141 MYTH 9: Western nations' economic stake in Burma is not large enough for sanctions to be effective; 142 MYTH 10: Sanctions will not impact the regime but will mostly hurt civilians: * Formal and Informal Economy; * Reality Check; * Jobs Lost? 146 MYTH 11: Sanctions are starving the population: * Very Low Nutrition and Life Expectancy Rates; * More Displacement in Ethnic and Central Areas; * Logging and Increased Poverty; * Military Forces and Arms Procurement Have Increased; * More Oppression; * Four-Cuts Program; * Mawchi Township: Impoverished by the SPDC; 151 MYTH 12: Investment and trade has brought better working conditions; 153 MYTH 13: Sanctions destroyed Burma's investment climate: * Mandalay Brewery: A Cautionary Tale; 156 MYTH 14: Sanctions created Burma's current financial crisis; * Foreign Exchange Certificates (FECs); 158 MYTH 15: Burmese people do not want sanctions; 159 MYTH 16: International pressure & sanctions will isolate the regime, push it closer to China; PART 6: IRREVERSIBLE STEPS FORWARD:- 162 LESSONS FROM AFGHANISTAN: * A Few Steps Behind; * Engagement & Reward – A Dangerous Game; * Transformation; 164 SANCTIONS FOR CHANGE: * Clear Recipe; * Period of Leverage & Enforcement Actions; * Timing & Strength; * Committee oversight; * Communication; * Moderates?; * Lose-Lose Situation; * Premature Action; 172 EU'S NEW STRATEGY APRIL 2003 – WHY IT DIDN'T MEASURE UP; 174 LESSONS FROM HAITI, NIGERIA, AND SOUTH AFRICA: * Haiti; * Nigeria; * South Africa; 179 RECIPE FOR SUCCESS: * A Non-Zero Sum View of the Conflict; * Sticks as Well as Carrots; * Asymmetry of Motivation Favoring the State Employing Coercive Diplomacy; * Opponent's Fear of Unacceptable Punishment for Noncompliance; * No Significant Misperceptions or Miscalculations; * Democracy Movement's Support For Sanctions; * Support on the Thailand-Burma Border; * What Armed Resistance & Ethnic Nationality Groups Think; * NCGUB; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION & OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES; 185 CHECKLIST FOR ASEAN; 185 CHECKLIST FOR CHINA; 185 CHECKLIST FOR JAPAN; 186 CHECKLIST FOR INDIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR AUSTRALIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR CANADA; 187 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED STATES; 187 CONCLUSION; 188 INDEX.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (ALTSEAN-Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (1.2MB) 212 pages
      Date of entry/update: 21 November 2003


      Title: Capitalizing on Conflict: How Logging and Mining Contribute to Environmental Destruction in Burma.
      Date of publication: October 2003
      Description/subject: "'Capitalizing on Conflict' presents information illustrating how trade in timber, gems, and gold is financing violent conflict, including widespread and gross human rights abuses, in Burma. Although trade in these “conflict goods” accounts for a small percentage of the total global trade, it severely compromises human security and undermines socio-economic development, not only in Burma, but throughout the region. Ironically, cease-fire agreements signed between the late 1980s and early 1990s have dramatically expanded the area where businesses operate. While many observers have have drawn attention to the political ramifications of these ceasefires, little attention has been focused on the economic ramifications. These ceasefires, used strategically by the military regime to end fighting in some areas and foment intra-ethnic conflict in others and weaken the unity of opposition groups, have had a net effect of increasing violence in some areas. Capitalizing on Conflict focuses on two zones where logging and mining are both widespread and the damage from these activities is severe... Both case studies highlight the dilemmas cease-fire arrangements often pose for the local communities, which frequently find themselves caught between powerful and conflicting military and business interests. The information provides insights into the conditions that compel local communities to participate in the unsustainable exploitation of their own local resources, even though they know they are destroying the very ecosystems they depend upon to maintain their way of life. The other alternative — to stand aside and let outsiders do it and then be left with nothing — is equally unpalatable..." Table of Contents: Map of Burma; Map of Logging and Mining Areas; Executive Summary; Recommendations; Part I: Context; General Background on Cease-fires; Conflict Trade and Burma; Part II: Logging Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Papun Districut (Karen State); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Part III: Mining Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Mogok (Mandalay Division); Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Conclusion.
      Author/creator: Ken MacLean
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI), Karen Environnmental & Social Action Network (KESAN)
      Format/size: pdf (939K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


      Title: Expedition to the Namya Mines in Northern Burma
      Date of publication: August 2003
      Author/creator: Peretti, A. and Kanpraphai, Anong
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Contributions to Gemology, No. 2, August 2003, p. 1-8.
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.gemresearch.ch/journal/No2/No2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: Spinel from Namya
      Date of publication: August 2003
      Author/creator: Peretti, A. and Günther D.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Contributions to Gemology, No. 2, August, p. 15-18.
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.gemresearch.ch
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: Burmese Gems in Dhaka, Bangladesh
      Date of publication: 03 February 2003
      Description/subject: Dhaka, 3 February: "The Burmese stall at the ongoing Dhaka International Trade Fair has become well-known for selling the most costly items, according to a stall-owner in the fair. The items to be found in the Burmese gems stall include gold jewellery with precious Burmese stones like emerald, ruby, jade, sapphire and diamonds as well as cultured pearls..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Narinjara news
      Format/size: html (9K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Banned! Burmese Gems in the Crossfire
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: "Note: On July 28th 2003, US President George W. Bush signed into law the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 (H.R. 2330). This act bans the importation into the United States of any article that is produced, mined, manufactured, grown or assembled in Burma. The following piece is actually two: 1. Thoughts on the US Embargo Against Burma by Richard W. Hughes; 2. How Sanctions Can Work by Brian Leber... In these two articles, Richard Hughes and Brian Leber examine the impact of these sanctions on the US gem trade, along with the entire issue of national sanctions, both pro and con."
      Author/creator: Richard Hughes and Brian Leber
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ruby-saffire.com
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Life: Between Hell and the Stone of Heaven
      Date of publication: 11 November 2001
      Description/subject: "More than a million miners desperately excavate the bedrock of a remote valley hidden in the shadows of the Himalayas. They are in search of just one thing - jadeite, the most valuable gemstone in the world. But with wages paid in pure heroin and HIV rampant, the miners are paying an even higher price. Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark travel to the death camps of Burma...Hpakant is Burma's black heart, drawing hundreds of thousands of people in with false hopes and pumping them out again, infected and broken. Thousands never leave the mines, but those who make it back to their communities take with them their addiction and a disease provincial doctors are not equipped to diagnose or treat. The UN and WHO have now declared the pits a disaster zone, but the military regime still refuses to let any international aid in..." jade
      Author/creator: Adrian Levy & Cathy Scott-Clark
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Observer (London)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: GEM ADVENTURES: A Journey to Mogok
      Date of publication: October 2001
      Description/subject: "This article is excerpted by the story written by Ted Themelis, an expert on Myanmar (Burmese) gem deposits, and it was published in the Gemkey Magazine (Dec. 1998-Jan.1999 issue). It was updated in October 2001 incorporating all the latest news and observations gathered during Ted's latest visit to Mogok in September 2001. This article represents the most updated and authoritative account on Mogok available anywhere..."
      Author/creator: Ted Themelis
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Gemlab Inc.
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://themelis.com/
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


      Title: Out of the black: Burmese gems & politics.
      Date of publication: October 2001
      Description/subject: Gems, drugs and conflict in Burma
      Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Guide, Vol. 20, No. 4, Issue 5, Part 1, Sept.–Oct 2001, pp. 8–14.
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Out of the Jungle
      Date of publication: 09 July 2001
      Description/subject: Out of the Jungle, Part I "Conversation with a Burmese gem smuggler in a Maesai snooker hall: "Can you get a big chunk of jade into Thailand?" "Sure, not a problem." "But we want a really big chunk ..." "It’s okay, the soldiers will deal with getting it across." We pump the smuggler for more information, but he senses that we’re more interested in who "the soldiers" are than in buying jade. He departs without making an arrangement. But you can be sure that along the porous Burmese-Thai border that night, several large pieces of jade and other goods ranging from the sacred to the profane crossed over rivers and through mountain passes into Thailand, to be distributed to the rest of the world..."...FOR PARTS 2 AND 3, CLICK ON "ARCHIVES" AND NAVIGATE.
      Author/creator: Damon Poeter, Ted Themelis
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Spleen
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


      Title: The fluid inclusions in jadeitite from Pharkant area,
      Date of publication: 20 October 2000
      Description/subject: "Abstract A lot of liquid-gas and liquid-gas-solid inclusions were found in Pharkant jadeitites, northwestern Myanmar and their characteristics, geological setting and porphyroclastic jadeites with inclusions in them were described in detail. The results analyzed by Raman spectrometer showed that the component of liquid-gas phase and solid phase (daughter minerals) in fluid inclusions is H2O + CH4 and jadeite separately. The results indicated that Pharkant jadeitites were crystallized from H2O + CH4 bearing jadeitic melt which may originate from mantle. The P-T conditions in which the jadeitites were crystallized were speculated to be T 650 , P 1.5 GPa..." Keywords: Pharkant Myanmar, jadeitite, jadeite, fluid inclusion, H2O + CH4, jadeitic melt, mantle.
      Author/creator: SHI Guanghai, CUI Wenyuan, WANG Changqiu & ZHANG Wenhuai
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Chinese Science Bulletin Vol. 45 No. 20 October 2000
      Format/size: pdf (406.03 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.springerlink.com/content/32m1m417gn4h3m41/
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: Burmese Jade, the Inscrutable Gem
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: Part 1: Burma's Jade MInes...Part 2: Jadeite Trading, Grading and Identification...Abstract: "The jadeite mines of Upper Burma (now Myanmar) occupy a privileged place in the world of gems, as they are the principal source of top-grade material. Part 1 of this article, by the first foreign gemologists allowed into these important mines in over 30 years, discusses the history, location, and geology of the Burmese jadeite deposits, and especially current mining activities in the Hpakan region. Part 2 will detail the cutting, grading and trading of jadeite – in both Burma and China – as well as treatments. The intent is to remove some of the mystery surrounding the Orient’s most valued gem".
      Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes, Olivier Galibert, George Bosshart, Fred Ward, Thet Oo, Mark Smith, Tay Thye Sun, George E. Harlow
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire.com
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/jade_burma_part_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: Burma's Jade Mines: An Annotated Occidental History
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: "The history of Burma’s jade mines in the West is a brief one. While hundreds of different reports, articles and even books exist on the famous ruby deposits of Mogok, only a handful of westerners have ever made the journey to northern Burma’s remote jade mines and wrote down their findings. Occidental accounts of the mines make their first appearance in 1837. Although in 1836, Captain Hannay obtained specimens of jadeite at Mogaung during his visit to the Assam frontier (Hannay, 1837), Dr. W.Griffiths (1847) was the first European to actually visit the mines, in 1837 (Griffiths, 1847). The following is his account, as given in Scott and Hardiman (1900–1901):..."
      Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of the Geoliterary Society (Vol. 14, No. 1, 1999). via ganoksin
      Format/size: html (55K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: Summary: "There are two major sources of rubies in Myanmar (Burma)—Mogok (Mandalay Division) and Mongshu (southern Shan State)—and several minor sources Nawarat/Pyinlon (near Namkhan, Shan State); Tanai and Nayaseik (Kachin State); Katpana (Kachin State); and Sagyin and Yatkanzin stone tracts (Madaya township) near Mandalay. Mogok and the smaller deposits are similarly hosted in white marble with considerable diversity among the rubies from each tract and strong similarities among the rubies between the tracts. Mongshu, although associated with metasediments and marbles, yields distinctly different rough and treated stones. Thus, stones from Mongshu are easily distinguished from those found at Mogok and the smaller deposits. These differences can be discerned using an optical microscope. Basic characteristics of stones from the minor sources are described, however further research is required to assess criteria for distinguishing among these sources and Mogok... Methodology: Several hundred rubies from these source areas in Myanmar were examined for features that could be recorded photographically using a Mark 6 Gemolite with a 10X eyepiece normally at maximum magnification (~60x). Images were recorded on 35 mm Ektachrome tungsten film (ASA 160) with an "eye-piece" camera and printed electronically on a FUJIX Pictography 3000 (TDT process printer). Images are presented here at relatively low resolution."
      Author/creator: Han Htun, George E. Harlow
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The American Museum of Natural History,
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: Diamonds from Myanmar and Thailand: Characteristics and Possible Origins
      Date of publication: 1998
      Author/creator: Griffin, W.L., Win, T.T., Davies, R., Wathanakul, P., Andrew, A. and Metcalfe, I.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Geochemical Evolution and Metallogeny of Continents (GEMOC)
      Format/size: html, MS 199 KB
      Alternate URLs: http://it.geol.science.cmu.ac.th/gs/courseware/218462/TEXT/Diamond/Diamond%20from%20Myanmar%20and%20Thailand.doc
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: Fracture healing/filling of Möng Hsu Ruby
      Date of publication: 1998
      Description/subject: "...Mogok is not the only active ruby mining area in Burma. Stones from the Möng Hsu (pronounced ‘Maing Shu’ by the Shan; ‘Mong Shu’ by the Burmese) deposit, located in Myanmar’s Shan State, northeast of Taunggyi, first began appearing in Bangkok in mid-1992. Since that time they have completely dominated the world’s ruby trade in sizes of less than 3 ct. Indeed, 99% of all the rubies traded today in Chanthaburi (Thailand) are from Möng Hsu..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australian Gemmologist (1998, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 70–74).
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Heaven and Hell - the quest for jade in Upper Burma
      Date of publication: April 1997
      Description/subject: "n a remote corner of Upper Burma, thousands are busy, seeking, searching, clawing at a mountain, prying loose boulders from the compact brown soil. Jack hammers pound out a rat-a-tat beat, punctuated by the occasional cymbal crash of pick and shovel, while a choir of coolies stand behind with baskets to carry the debris out of this earthen tomb. As each boulder is turned over, it is quickly examined, then discarded, along with the mounds of dirt that surround it. So the process is repeated. Over and over, again and again, hour after hour, day after day. The operation is a study in patience. Patience, patience – those who hurry lose, they make mistakes, they miss the prize, they don’t go to heaven. The construction of the Great Pyramids in Egypt was a study in patience; that in Upper Burma today is on no less a scale, but involves deconstruction, the dismantling of entire mountains, step by step, bit by bit, stone by stone, one pebble at a time. Like the builders of pyramids, all involved share a single-minded devotion to the task. Patience, patience – those who hurry lose, they miss something, they don’t go to heaven. Those who hurry don’t find jade..." .
      Author/creator: Richard Hughes, Fred Ward
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-toc.htm
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: "Ruby & Sapphire" - chapter 12, on Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: In four substantial parts, with text, pictures, maps, tables...
      Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire.com
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma2.htm (Part 2)
      http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma3.htm (Part 3)
      http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma4.htm (Part 4)
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Where the twain do meet: Thailand's border towns
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: "...Burma is home to one of the planet’s richest sources of gem wealth. Rubies and sapphires from Mogok, rubies from Möng Hsu, jade from Hpakan, pearls from the Mergui Archipelago, these are but a few of her treasures. But since 1962, Burma has also achieved notoriety of a different sort – home to one of the planet’s most repressive regimes.
      Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Momentum magazine (1997, Vol. 5, No. 16, pp. 16–19)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Pigeon's Blood: A Pilgrimage to Mogok - Valley of Rubies
      Date of publication: 1996
      Description/subject: "...Long before the Buddha walked the earth, the northern part of Burma was said to be inhabited only by wild animals and birds of prey. One day the biggest and oldest eagle in creation flew over a valley. On a hillside shone an enormous morsel of fresh meat, bright red in color. The eagle attempted to pick it up, but its claws could not penetrate the blood-red substance. Try as he may, he could not grasp it. After many attempts, at last he understood. It was not a piece of meat, but a sacred and peerless stone, made from the fire and blood of the earth itself. The stone was the first ruby on earth and the valley was Mogok..."
      Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire.com
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Tracing the Green Line - A journey to Burma's jade mines
      Date of publication: 1996
      Description/subject: "... This article resulted from the first visit by foreign gemologists to Burma’s jade mines in over thirty years. the mines are described in detail, along with the road to and from the area...For over thirty years, foreigners had petitioned the Burmese government to visit the jade mines. Due to the war which had raged between the central government and successionist rebels, the answer always came back no. But times had changed. The country was now called Myanmar. And the central government had recently made peace with the rebels. So, hat in hand, we went and asked again. And we received. They said we could go..." ... I did not see any publication date for the article, but the journey was in 1996, which I have therefore put as the date of the article.
      Author/creator: Richard Hughes, Oliver Galibert, Mark Smith & Dr. Thet Oo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ganoksin
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/burma_jade_journey2.htm (Part 2)
      http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/tracing-green-line.htm (Part 1)
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Burmese Sapphire Giants
      Date of publication: October 1995
      Description/subject: "...Introduction to Burmese sapphires Although it is rubies for which Burma (Myanmar) is famous, some of the world’s finest blue sapphires are also mined in the Mogok area. Today the world gem trade recognizes the quality of Burmese sapphires, but this was not always the case..."
      Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes, U Hla Win
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Gemmology (Vol. 24, No. 8, October, pp. 551–561)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Title: Gem Mining in Burma
      Date of publication: April 1957
      Description/subject: An engaging account of the historical, social and technical dimensions of gem mining and trading in Burma. "For many centuries, Burma has been one of the most important gem centers in the world. The Mogaung area, practically in the path of the famous World War II Burma Road, is the only commercial source of jadeite that produces qualities ranging from the finest gem emerald green to the cheapest utilitarian quality. The gem mines in Mogok are the only sources of fine gem rubies; Siam rubies are generally inferior. Only in rare cases is a fine Siam ruby found. Today, approximately eighty-five percent of all rubies and sapphires mined are of Burmese origin, especially since the Kashmir mines in India have ceased operations on any large scale. Despite sufficient time and adequate facilities for making a complete and thorough investigation, a superficial survey in the course of several trips during the past two years revealed the presence of immense wealth still hidden within Burma. Until a complete scientific investigation is made of the gem areas in Burma, it is hoped that this article will fill the interim gap..." (c) Gemological Institute of America. Reprinted by permission.
      Author/creator: Martin Ehrmann
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Gems and Gemology" Spring 1957
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB, 2.7MB- original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Ehrmann.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 November 2004


      Title: Short Description of the Mines of Precious Stones, in the District of Kyat-pyen, in the Kingdom of Ava
      Date of publication: 1833
      Description/subject: Editor’s note: This first-hand communication from Giuseppe d’Amato appears to have been written originally in Italian. It was translated for publication in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1833, although the translator’s name is not provided. However short this account, it provides valuable detailed information mining in royal Burma as well as a few hints concerning Chinese traders in Upper Burma. M.W.C.
      Author/creator: Père Giuseppe D’Amato
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
      Format/size: pdf (21K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010