VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Economy > Industry > Extractive industries
Hide Links
Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Extractive industries

  • Extractive industries - general

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Publications on "Extractive industries"
    Description/subject: Study "Human Rights Impact Assessment on the Tampakan Copper-Gold Project" (pdf, 4,4 MB) The Zug-based group Glencore-Xstrata is showing insufficient respect for the rights of the affected population with its plans to exploit one of the world’s biggest open-pit mines in the Philippines. Because the project threatens the livelihood of tens of thousands of people, tensions are rising and the first deaths have occurred. That is shown by a study commissioned by the Swiss Lenten Fund, MISEREOR and Bread for All. Read more... Position paper "Mining in developing countries – challenges and approaches" (2011) Only available in German (pdf, 4,3 MB) and Spanish (pdf, 960 KB) Concluding document "Extractive Industries (Mining and Hydrocarbons), the issue of non-renewable natural resources in Latin America and the Mission of the Church" (pdf, 110 KB) International Conference of CELAM and MISEREOR, Lima, July 14-16, 2011 This document is available in Spanish (pdf, 125 KB), French (pdf, 130 KB) and German (pdf, 140 KB)... Film "Brazil’s "radiant" future – uranium mining in Caetité" Caetité, Brazil, hosts the uranium mine of Brazilian company INB. It is here that the fuel for Brazil’s nuclear programme is extracted. Two nuclear power plants are already feeding into the grid, and a third is under construction with German assistance. Further nuclear plants are planned for the near future. Yet the mining operations have severe impacts on the people living around the mine, and INB fails to inform them about the hazards. Father Osvaldino Barboso is working for change – for more awareness and transparency, for clean water, and for the protection of human health.... A film on Father Osvaldino’s work, produced with support from MISEREOR. View film in Portuguese View film in German...
    Source/publisher: Misereor
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 March 2014


    Individual Documents

    Title: Indigenous Peoples and the Extractive Sector - Towards a Rights-Respecting Engagement
    Date of publication: 2014
    Description/subject: "Indigenous peoples throughout the world have historically suffered from the most profound impacts of the extractive industry sector. In many instances the sector has been responsible for the destruction of their territories, lead to displacement, undermined governance structures and resulted in the loss of traditional livelihoods, with devastating effects on their self-determination, territorial and cultural rights. These impacts, which commenced in the colonial era, continue to the present day. This report provides an overview of the present state of play of the extractive industries in relation to indigenous peoples, taking as its point of departure the adoption of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) in 2007, together with the 2009 UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues International (UNPFII) Expert Group Meeting on Extractive Industries, Indigenous Peoples’ Rights and Corporate Social Responsibility, and the 2009 International Conference on Indigenous Peoples and the Extractive Industries..."
    Author/creator: Cathal M. Doyle and Andrew Whitmore
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Tebtebba Foundation
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-reduced version; 1.8MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.piplinks.org/system/files/IPs-and-the-Extractive-Sector-Towards-a-Rights-Respecting-Enga...
    http://www.tebtebba.org/
    Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


  • Mining

    • Mining - international standards, mechanisms and guidelines

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: IRMA Standard for Responsible Mining
      Description/subject: "The IRMA Standard for Responsible Mining is currently under development. We have recently completed the first draft of the Standard and are seeking stakeholder input on the draft. Please visit our Stakeholder Feedback page to find out how to become involved. Also, you can find out more about IRMA and how we developed the Standard by visiting the IRMA Standard Development Process page or our Frequently Asked Questions..."
      Language: English (Spanish available)
      Source/publisher: Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance (IRMA)
      Format/size: html, pdf (2.4MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.responsiblemining.net/images/uploads/IRMA_Standard_Draft_v1.0%2807-14%29.pdf (Standard for
      Responsible Mining, Draft v1.0 - 2.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


    • US Geological Survey/Bureau of Mines annual reports on the mineral industry of Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Map and key of mineral deposits in Burma (Myanmar)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: GIF, html
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/maps/mapkey.html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Minerals Yearbook
      Description/subject: Online reports on mining and minerals in Burma from 1963 to 1993 can be found in the Bureau of Mines Minerals yearbook area reports: international. As time permits, we will place them in the Library.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: [US] Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: US Geological Survey (USGS) - Asia and the Pacific
      Description/subject: The USGS "Minerals Yearbook" contains an annual report on the minerals industry of Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2012)
      Date of publication: 21 November 2014
      Description/subject: "In April 2012, Burma (also known as Myanmar) started seeing the easing and, in some cases, the suspension of decades of sanctions imposed by Western countries after more than 50 years of military rule in Burma. The countries that agreed to suspend sanctions were the United States, Australia, Canada, the European Union (EU), and Japan. The decision was made as Burma’s Government started to implement democratic reforms. With the suspension of sanctions, companies from the countries mentioned above were allowed to start investing in Burma. The United States suspended the sanctions in July 2012 (Pawlak and Moffett, 2012; Spetalnick, 2012). In 2012, Burma produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. On November 11, 2012, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake struck the country. The epicenter was located in central Burma near the town of Shwebo, 60 kilometers (km) northwest of Burma’s second largest city, Mandalay. Damage to many buildings was reported, including hospitals, monasteries, and schools, mainly in the villages of Male, Mandalay, Mogok, and Shwebo. Reports also indicated that miners were trapped in a gold mine in the Singgu area in Mandalay. On March 24, 2011, a previous earthquake of 6.9 magnitude had struck the eastern part of the country just north of Tachileik town in Shan State close to the border with Laos and Thailand. Production of such commodities as brine salt and some semiprecious stones dipped during the period following the 2011 earthquake, but the mineral industry in general was not affected (table 1; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, 2012; Tun, 2012b). Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes concerning their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. For many years, these countries had attempted to negotiate and delimit their claims in the disputed area. In December 2009, Bangladesh and Burma accepted the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for the settlement of their boundary delimitation. ITLOS is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that has jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Law of the Sea. UNCLOS establishes a legal framework to regulate ocean space and its resources and uses (International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2010). In September 2011, representatives from Bangladesh and Burma met with the ITLOS in Germany for a final round of pleadings regarding the maritime boundary. The final ITLOS judgment of March 14, 2012, dealt with the delimitation in three parts—the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zones and continental shelf within 200 nautical miles, and the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. ITLOS rendered its judgment in relation to the territorial sea by drawing an equidistant line from the countries’ baselines. For the exclusive economic zones and continental shelf within 200 nautical miles, the tribunal decided to draw a provisional equidistant line that adjusts to the concavity of the coast of Bangladesh. For the delimitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles, the tribunal concluded that it should not differ from that of within the 200 nautical miles and should continue in the same direction beyond the limit of Bangladesh (International Law Observer, 2012; International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2012)..."
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (325K) xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2012/myb3-2012-bm.xls
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2011)
      Date of publication: July 2013
      Description/subject: "In 2011, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. On March 24, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake struck the eastern part of the country just north of Tachileik town in Shan State close to the border with Laos and Thailand. Production of such commodities as brine salt and some semiprecious stones dipped during the period following the earthquake, but the mineral industry in general was not affected, and mineral production overall increased for the year (table 1; CNN.com, 2011; Huffington Post, 2011). Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes concerning their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. For many years, these countries had attempted to negotiate and delimit their claims in the disputed area. In December 2009, Bangladesh and Burma accepted the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for the settlement of the dispute concerning their maritime boundary delimitation. at the time, although accepting ITLOS jurisdiction, the countries had not agreed on a bilateral solution regarding the delimitation principle to be used, and negotiations continued between the countries. ITLOS is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that has jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Law of the Sea. UNCLOS establishes a legal framework to regulate ocean space and its resources and uses. In meetings held in January 2010, Bangladesh and Burma agreed to delimit the area by combining the equidistance and equity demarcation principles. In October, Burma and India reached an informal understanding to cooperate with each other on the settlement of their maritime dispute with Bangladesh (Durham University, 2010; International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2010; Priyo.com, 2010). In September 2011, representatives from Bangladesh and Burma met with the ITLOS in Germany for a final round of pleadings regarding the delimitation of the maritime boundary between the two countries. ITLOS determined that a final judgment would be delivered by March 14, 2012. Burma’s border-dispute points with neighboring Bangladesh meet at Rakhine State (Xinhuanet.com, 2011b). although Bangladesh and Burma’s maritime border dispute had gone on for several years, bilateral trade between the countries has remained at an estimated $140 million per year. The boundary delimitation dispute affected the ability of either country to grant exploration permits for oil and gas in the disputed area, however (Xinhuanet.com, 2011b). In May 2011, Italian-Thai Development Plc. (ITD), which was a construction company based in Thailand, announced that it had started to build a deep-sea port and industrial estate at a cost of $10 billion. The port was to be located in a 40,000-hectare area in Dawei, Tanintharyi Division, in southern Burma, which is located about 186 kilometers (km) west of Thailand’s capital city of Bangkok. The industrial facilities were to include oil and gas pipelines, railways, and roads. The expected commissioning date of the project was not available. In November 2010, the Government of Burma signed a 75-year concession contract with ITD, although no further details were available. The Governments of Burma and Thailand declared the project to be significant for international trade, as it would serve not only countries of Southeast Asia, but also other countries of the Asia and the Pacific region, as well as the countries of Africa, Europe, and the Middle East (BBC News, 2011). By the end of 2011, the Burmese Government announced that it was suspending the construction of the Myitsone Dam, which was originally proposed to be built in Kachin State and was to become part of a network of dams that would have provided power to southern China. The dam had a projected cost of $3.6 billion, which was to be covered by Chinese investors. The suspension of the project was mainly because of environmental concerns and pressure by the communities that would be directly affected by the structure. China had numerous contracts and investments already in place in Burma; however the Government of Burma was concerned that the suspension of the construction of the dam not affect other projects (Irrawaddy, The, 2011b; International Cement Review, 2012, p. 120)..."
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (141K) xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2011/myb3-2011-bm.xls
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2010)
      Date of publication: August 2012
      Description/subject: "In 2010, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. During 2010, Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes over their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. For many years, these countries had attempted to negotiate and delimit their claims in the disputed area. In December 2009, Bangladesh and Burma accepted the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for the settlement of the dispute concerning their maritime boundary delimitation. Although accepting ITLOS jurisdiction, the countries had not agreed on a bilateral solution regarding the delimitation principle to be used, and negotiations continued between the countries. ITLOS is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that has jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Law of the Sea. UNCLOS establishes a legal framework to regulate ocean space and its resources and uses. In meetings held in January 2010, Bangladesh and Burma agreed to delimit the area by combining the equidistance and equity demarcation principles. In October, Burma and India reached an informal understanding to cooperate with each other on the settlement of their maritime dispute with Bangladesh (Durham University, 2010; International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2010; Priyo.com, 2010)..."
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
      Format/size: pdf (193K), xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2010/myb3-2010-bm.xls
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma 2009
      Date of publication: September 2011
      Description/subject: In 2009, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. In 2009, Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes over their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. In October, Bangladesh claimed its maritime boundary before the United Nations courts, under the arbitration of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982. The dispute amongst the three countries limits further exploration of resources in the disputed area. At the end of 2008, the situation intensified when Daewoo International Corp. of the Republic of Korea, which has a gas sale and purchase agreement with Burma, started oil and gas exploration in the disputed maritime zone, and Bangladesh and Burma each stationed naval warships and troops along their coastal borders. Daewoo was exploring offshore Burma at Block AD-7 as part of the agreement with Burma in which Daewoo was the main operator of a three-block project (Blocks A-1, A-3, and AD-7) (Burma News International, 2008; Choudhury, 2009). According to UNCLOS, a nation can claim 12 nautical miles of territorial sea, 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, and 200 nautical miles of continental shelf (United Nations, 1982). In the case of Bangladesh, Burma, and India, their coastlines follow a curve, which causes overlaps in their maritime territories and makes it difficult to delimit their maritime boundary. Since 1974, Burma and India had aggressively explored their coasts, which resulted in the discovery of significant petroleum resources, including Burma’s discovery of 7 trillion cubic feet (198 billion cubic meters) of gas and India’s discovery of 100 trillion cubic feet (2 .8 trillion cubic meters) of gas in 2005-06 (Mizzima News, 2008; Choudhury, 2009). In 1974, after Bangladesh declared its jurisdiction with respect to territorial waters, exclusive economic zone, and continental shelf as outlined in the Territorial and Maritime Zones Act of 1974, Burma held negotiation meetings with Bangladesh and India and subsequently with Bangladesh in 1986 but no consensus was reached. In December 1986, Burma and India signed a maritime territory agreement, which was later implemented in September 1987, that established the line of demarcation between the two countries’ territories based on the principal of an equidistant boundary. In 2008, the three countries met again to settle the boundary dispute, but little progress was achieved, and the meetings ended inconclusively. In October 2009, Bangladesh submitted a notification requesting arbitration under the UNCLOS and was due to file a formal objection claim or a resolution claim before the United Nations by July 27, 2011, to contest Burma’s and India’s line of demarcation. Bangladesh demanded that the demarcation of the boundary be based on the equity principle, which results in overlapping maritime areas. Burma also holds maritime boundary agreements with Thailand that were signed in October 1980 and implemented in April 1982, and additional agreements between Burma, India, and Thailand that that were signed in October 1993 and implemented in May 1995 (Mizzima News, 2008; Choudhury, 2009)..."
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (170K), xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2009/myb3-2009-bm.xls
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2008)
      Date of publication: August 2010
      Description/subject: "In 2008, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc.... Production: On May 2, 2008, tropical storm Nargis caused extensive damage, especially in southwestern Burma, and flooding as much as 50 kilometers (km) inland. The storm was considered the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of the country. During 2008, most of Burma’s mining sector experienced a significant decline in mineral production. Copper production decreased by about 54%; spinel production, by 32%; coal, 12%; crude petroleum, 5%; and petroleum products, 4.6%. On the other hand, significant increases in production were reported for zinc (100%) and sapphire (86%). Other mineral commodities for which production increases were reported were jade (54.5%), ruby (34%), refined lead (22.4%), and cement (11%) (table 1; Thaindian News, 2009). Burma’s sole copper mine (the Monywa copper project) halted operations in April 2008 for undisclosed reasons. Operations were expected to restart in the second quarter of 2009 (Intellasia.net, 2009)..."
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (276K), xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2008/myb3-2008-bm.xls
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2007)
      Date of publication: December 2009
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line... OUTLOOK: "During 2007, the mineral production of Burma decreased significantly following a similar decrease in 2006. Mineral production is expected to continue to decrease in 2008 as well. Copper production was to remain at a reduced level as a result of Ivanhoe Mine’s assets in the Monywa Copper Project being transferred to an independent third party for sale."
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (265K), xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2007/myb3-2007-bm.xls
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2006)
      Date of publication: April 2009
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "During 2006, the mineral industry of Burma underwent a significant setback in production, which would be noticeable in early 2007. The copper industry was to be particularly affected given Ivanhoe’s decision to sell its Monywa Copper Project assets, which were transferred to an independent third party while awaiting the sale. Natural gas exploration activities in Burma are expected to continue to increase during 2007, mainly as a result of the many exploration projects that were started and the discoveries that were made in 2005 and 2006."
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (114K), xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2006/myb3-2006-bm.xls
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2005)
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "By 2006, trade between Burma and India is expected to increase as a result of the MOU signed in 2004. Production in the mining sector will likely follow the trend of recent years in which the mining sector was dominated by the copper, natural gas, and petroleum industries. Natural gas exploration activities in Burma are expected to continue to increase during 2006 mainly as the result of the many exploration projects and discoveries that were started in 2005. In 2006, the Indo-Korean consortium that holds interests in offshore natural gas Blocks A1 and A3 plans to start appraisal wells in Block A1 and to begin an exploration drilling program in Block A3 (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Videsh Ltd., 2005§). Expansion and development plans in the S&K Mine is expected to increase annual copper production capacities within the next few years. In the meantime, a decline in copper production is expected during 2006 owing to decreased copper grades encountered in the Sabetaung deposit in 2005."
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (120K), xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2005/bmmyb05.xls
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2004)
      Date of publication: March 2007
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line... OUTLOOK: "Burma’s economy is expected to grow in 2005 and 2006 at a rate of 6% and 5%, respectively, on the basis of GDP at purchasing power parity. By 2006, trade between Burma and India is expected to increase by 134% following an MOU signed in 2004. Production in the mining sector will likely follow the trend in recent years and continue to be dominated by the copper, natural gas, and petroleum industries. Exploration activity in Burma will have a tendency to continue to increase mainly as the result of the many exploration projects that started in 2004; these included two gold deposits, Modi Taung and Set Ga Done, and the developments that involve natural gas and petroleum, both onshore and offshore. Preliminary exploration that shows high-grade discoveries of nickel and zinc could also open Burma’s doors to new markets within the next few years. Burma could become a leading mineral producer in Asia if ongoing explorations are proven to be feasible and profitable to develop. Expansion and development plans in the S&K Mine and the Lepadaung deposit will increase annual copper production capacities within the next 4 years. The S&K Mine is expected to achieve production of from 50,000 to 80,000 t/yr, and Letpadaung, to reach copper production of from 125,000 to 150,000 t/yr. In addition, the discovery of a potentially significant high-grade copper zone in the Sabetaung area could increase the production of copper even more and transform the Monywa Copper Project into the leading SX-EW copper producer in Asia. The development of interregional gas pipelines, increases in natural gas consumption in Asia and the Pacific region, and the discovery of new gasfields in Burma are circumstances that will place Burma as a key producer in the region. Also, recent gas discoveries in Burma could increase gas exports to Thailand, which is Burma’s main natural gas importer."
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (115K), xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2004/bmmyb04.xls
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2003)
      Date of publication: May 2006
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 2003, Burma’s gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was estimated to be $73 billion (International Monetary Fund, 2004§). Burma’s economy is based primarily on agriculture, including fisheries, forestry, and livestock, which accounts for nearly 54% of the GDP. The country’s mineral resources include antimony, coal, copper, gemstones, lead, limestone, marble, natural gas, petroleum, precious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Burma’s export market totaled about $2.6 billion during 2003 and included natural gas (23.3%), forest products (14.8%), garments (14.4%), beans (about 11.7%), marine products (6.8%), and other products (27%). Imports totaled about $2.4 billion and included machinery and transport equipment (20.2%), refined mineral oil (12.3%), base metals and manufactures (9.4%), fabrics (about 8.8%), plastic (4.6%), and other products (44.7) (U.S. Department of State, 2004). In 2003, Burma hosted the second annual meeting of the Joint Economic Quadrangle Committee in the capital city of Yangon. The meeting, which was attended by representatives of Burma’s Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry and the counterpart organizations from China, Laos and Thailand, supported increased trade and investment in Burma from the neighboring countries of the Mekong region (Cambodia, China, Laos and Thailand). Thailand, which was the third leading investor in Burma, invested $1.29 billion in Burma in 2002, and China, about $64 million. Burma’s 2002 border trade with China was valued at $276 million, which was an increase of 35% compared with that of 2001. Trade with Thailand totaled $170 million in 2002 (Myint, 2003). Major events in early 2003 that disrupted Burma’s economy included a major banking crisis that shut down 20 private banks in the country, followed by a Japanese freeze on new bilateral economic aid. The decline in foreign investment that had taken place since 1999 continued owing to an unfriendly business climate, political pressure from Western consumers and shareholders, and the effect of U.S. economic sanctions on the country’s economy (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2004; U.S. Department of State, 2004).
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (148K), xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2003/bmmyb03.xls
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2002)
      Date of publication: December 2004
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) for Burma grew by 5.5%, which was about one-half the growth achieved in 2001 (10.5% revised) (International Monetary Fund, 2003§). Flooding during 2002 and agricultural shortages of, for example, fertilizers and pesticides affected the agricultural output, which accounted for more than 40% of the country’s GDP, thus causing a significant decrease in GDP when compared with that of 2001 (Asian Development Bank, 2003§). In 2002, the mining sector represented only 0.8% of the GDP; in 2001, it had represented 2%. The decrease was principally a consequence of a decline in foreign investment for exploration and mining projects (Than Htay, 2002). Price inflation dropped to below 4% in 2001 after an economic slowdown during fiscal year 2000, but it increased rapidly, and by the end of December 2002, inflation had risen to 56.8%. The main reason for the high rate of inflation was the increase in salaries of public sector employees, which was financed by the Central Bank (Asian Development Bank, 2003). According to the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (DGSME), which reports to the Ministry of Mines of Burma, only four foreign exploration companies remained in Burma and invested $217,0003 during fiscal years 2001 and 2002. In general, mineral production in 2002 was lower than that of 2001.
      Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (149K), xls
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2002/bmmyb02.xls
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB2002.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) - 2001
      Date of publication: October 2002
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (DGSME) under the Ministry of Mines, the output share of the mining sector by the state-owned mining enterprises decreased to 5.5% in 2001 from 11.6% in 1998, and the output share by the privately owned companies increased to 93.4% in 2001 from 85.8% in 1998. In 2001, only one gold mine (the Kyaukpahtoe), three nonferrous metals mines (the Bawdwin, the Bawsaing, and the Yadanatheingi), and two coal mines (the Kalewa and the Namma) were still operated by the state-owned mining enterprises; and only one foreign mining company had committed to invest $6.12 million in 2001 compared with $18.5 million committed by three foreign mining companies in 2000. Of the four active foreign exploration companies in 2000, only two were active in 2001. As a result of decreased exploration and development, export earnings from the mining sector dropped in 2001.
      Author/creator: John C. Wu
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (147K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB2001.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2000
      Date of publication: November 2001
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Government’s provisional statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed 1.7% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product (GDP), which was estimated to be $14.2 billion in fiscal year 1999-2000. The country’s GDP was estimated to have grown by 10.9%, and the mining sector, 29.5% in fiscal year 1999-2000. In July, the Deputy Minister of the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, however, revealed that the official data for economic growth had been grossly and deliberately exaggerated. A report that was published by the Asian Development Bank in May also pointed out that Myanmar’s economic growth had slowed down for the third consecutive year since 1996. In fiscal year 1999-2000, Myanmar's total exports were estimated to be $1,132 million, of which export earnings from base metals adn ores were $20.7 million. Myanmar's total exports were estimated to be $2,539 million, of which base metals and babricated products were $275 millions. In the same fiscal year, the state-owned companies produced only 5.6% o the total output of the mining sector; the privately owned companies, 92.8% and the cooperatives, 1.6%. According to the latest available data, the mining industry's work force was about 121,000 in fiscal year 1997-98, which accounted for 0.66% of Myanmar's total employment.
      Author/creator: John C. Wu
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (132K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB2000.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1999
      Date of publication: August 2001
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to Government statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.6% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product, which was estimated to be $14.2 billion in fiscal year 1998/99. In fiscal year 1998/99, the state-owned companies produced only 10.8% of the total output of the mining sector; the privately owned companies, 88.2%; and the cooperatives, 1%. As a result of substantial private domestic and foreign investment, the output of the mining sector registered an overall growth rate of 17% despite a significant decline in mine output of the state-owned enterprises owing to the lack of spare parts caused by the foreign exchange shortage and other factors. In fiscal year 1998/99, Myanmar’s total exports were estimated to be $1,134 million, of which export earnings from base metals and ores were only $2.5 million. Myanmar’s exports of gemstones were estimated to be $20 million. Exports of major mineral commodities included ores and concentrates of chromium, manganese, tin, tungsten, and zinc; refined metal of copper, lead, silver and tin; and crude and polished precious and semiprecious stones. Myanmar’s total imports were estimated to be $2,480 million, of which 11.6% was base metals and fabricated products; 2.3%, cement; 0.9%, fertilizer materials; and 0.7%, chemical elements and compounds. Additionally, Myanmar imported about 5 million barrels (Mbbl) of crude petroleum and 3.6 Mbbl of refined petroleum products, such as diesel fuel, with a total cost of more than $162 million. Most of Myanmar’s mineral trade was with Asian and European countries. The total number of employees in the mining industry declined from 132,00 in 1998 to 121,00 in 1999, which accounted for about 0.66% of Myanmar's total employment.
      Author/creator: John C. Wu
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (118K)
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1999/9306099.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1998
      Date of publication: December 2000
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 1998, most mineral production remained at low level owing to the lack of spare parts, outdated technology, and declining ore grades. Myanmar became a producer of refined copper in 1998 with the help of foreign capital and technology. According to Government statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.3% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product. Of the total output of the mining sector, 52% was produced by the state-owned companies; 47%, by privately owned companies; and 1%, by cooperatives (Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, 1997). Mineral commodities exports accounted for about 6% of the total export earnings and mineral commodities imports accounted for about 22% of total imports. Exports of major mineral commodities included ores and concentrates of chromium, copper, manganese, tin, tungsten, and zinc; refined metal of copper, lead, and silver; and crude and polished precious and semiprecious stones. Imports of mineral commodities included cement, refined petroleum products, base metals, and steel mill products. Most of Myanmar’s mineral trade was with Asian and European countries. Mineral trade with the United States was small and limited to imports of various chemical compounds and exports of gemstones to the United States. Myanmar’s exports of gemstones earned about $23 million in 1998.
      Author/creator: John C. Wu
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (35K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB1998.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1997
      Date of publication: August 1998
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 1997, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.7% to Myanmar's gross domestic product. Exports of mineral commodities accounted for about 5% of the total export earnings and imports of mineral commodities accounted for about 20% of total imports. In 1997, imports of refined petroleum products, cement,and steel mill product were higher than those of 1996 because of a stonger demand for these mineral commodities. The total number of employees in the mining industry was about 120,000, accounting for about 0.8% of Myanmar's total employment.
      Author/creator: John C. Wu
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (32K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB1997.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1996
      Date of publication: May 1997
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. Exports of mineral commodities accounted for about 5.4% of the total export earnings, which are estimated at $867 million in 1996. Imports of mineral commodities for about 18% of total imports, which were estimated at $1.5 billion in 1996. The copper ore production averaged about 8,000 metric tons (t) per day and the mill produced about 24,000t of copper concentrate in 1996. State-owned companies, 40% by the privately owned companies, and 1% by the so-called cooperatives in 1996. The total number of employees in the mining industry was about 116,000, accounting for about 0.7% of Burma's total employment in 1996.
      Author/creator: John C. Wu
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (38K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB1996.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1995
      Date of publication: 1996
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Developement, the total work force in the mining sector was about 105,000, accounting for 0.61% of Burma's labor force in 1995. The total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers prices, was estimated at $141 million, or about 1.3% of Burma's gross domestic product, which was estimated at $10.8 billion in 1995.
      Author/creator: John C. Wu
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: pdf (36K)
      Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1995/9306095.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1994
      Date of publication: June 1995
      Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. This important document features how Burma expanded its mining industry for both trading and domestic use. The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC),which is now known as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), enacted the Myanmar Mining Law replacing all the existing regulations - The Upper Myanmar Ruby Regulation of 1887, the Mines acts of 1923, and the Union of Myanmar Mines and Mineral Acts of 1961. According to an estimate by the Ministry of Mines, the total work force in the mining sector was about 83,000 of which about 21, 000 were in metallic mining. The total output of the mining sector, in million capacity was rated at 40,000 metric tons per year (mt/a), compared with the designed capacity of 65,000 mt/a. Copper ore was mined from an open pit mine at Sabetaung deposit in the western bank of Chindwin River, about 11 km west of Monywa in Salingyi Township, Sagaing Division. According to the No.1 Mining Enterprise, the metal content of copper and gold in copper concentrate was about 19.2% and 1.5 grams per metric ton (g/mt), respectively. Most exports of copper concentrate went to Japan in 1994. According to Japanese trade statistics, Japan imported from Burma 24,768 metric tons (mt) of copper concentrate, valued at $6.2 million in 1994.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey
      Format/size: pdf (35K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB1994.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1993
      Date of publication: 1994
      Description/subject: "This edition of the Minerals Yearbook records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry including Burma’s mineral industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, Area Reports contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. The reports also incorporate location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section. According to the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, the estimated employment in the mining sector was 83,000 in fiscal year 1993 or about 0.5 % of Burma's estimated total employment of 16.5 million. The total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers' prices, was estimated at $120 million or 1.2% of Burma's gross domestic product (GDP) (the total value of net output and services), which was estimated at $10 billion for fiscal year 1993. Of the total output of the mining sector, about 73 % was produced by the State-owned enterprises, 26 % by the private enterprises, and 1 % by cooperatives. 14 Minerals production in Burma had been declining since the 1960's. In 1989, the Government adopted an open-door policy and a liberal foreign investment law to encourage participation of foreign mining companies in exploration and development of Burma's mineral resources. According to the Burmese Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration, since 1988 no substantial foreign capital had been invested in the Burmese mining industry, especially in the non-fuel minerals sector. According to a local press report, 75 direct foreign investments were made in Burma with a total value of $956.3 million since the Government began implementing the new investment law in 1988. Of this total, only nine investments were in the mining sector. Burma's mining industry suffered a steady decline because no new mines were developed while many of the old mines were left to deteriorate without the much needed renovation in the past years. However, because of increased contribution by the private sector, production of gemstones, gold, jade, tin, and tungsten reportedly showed some improvements in fiscal year 1993. Burma's mineral trade involved mainly exporting jade, gems, and some amounts of copper concentrate, chromates, manganese ores, tin and tungsten concentrates, and importing some amounts of ferrous and nonferrous metals and an increasing amount of crude petroleum..."
      Author/creator: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, VIII (1993)
      Format/size: pdf (185K)
      Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1992
      Date of publication: 1993
      Description/subject: This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry including Burma’s Mineral industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, Minerals Yearbook International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, this volume has been presented as six reports: Mineral Industries of the Middle East, Mineral Industries of Africa, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, Mineral Industries of Latin America and Canada, Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia, and Minerals in the World Economy. The total work force of the mining sector was estimated at 83,000 or about 0.5% of Burma's labor force in 1992. According to the Burmese Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, the total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers' prices, was valued at $76 million' or 0.89 % of Burma's gross domestic product (the total value of net output and services), which was valued at $8.5 billion for fiscal year 1992. Of the total output of the mining sector, about 73% was produced by the State-owned enterprises, 26% by the private enterprises, and 1% by cooperatives. In fiscal year 1992, export earnings from jade and gems alone amounted to about $23.5 million and accounted for more than 60% of Burma's minerals exports. Additionally, a considerable amount of high-quality jade and gems reportedly are smuggled annually to China and Thailand. Exports of copper concentrate in 1992 were estimated at $3.5 million and accounted for 10% of total minerals exports.
      Author/creator: John C. Wu
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, V III (1992)
      Format/size: pdf (203K)
      Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1991
      Date of publication: 1992
      Description/subject: This report on the performance of the mining industry of Burma forms part of the worldwide minerals review in the 1991 edition of Minerals Yearbook of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. This useful report includes information about surveying, mapping, exploration, mineral exports and imports and the operations of mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. Most of Burma's foreign trade is conducted on a barter basis and valued on an inflated currency exchange rate. In September 1991, the black-market exchange rate was Kyat 100 to US$ 1. This compares with an official average rate of Kyat 6.25 to US$1 in 1991. Based on this rate, total exports were valued at $421 million and imports at $649 million, a net trade deficit of $228 million in 1991. Burma is an agrarian-based economy, and naturally its principal exports are agricultural products. The value of base metals and ores exported totaled only $4.2 million in 1991. The most valuable mineral shipment is gemstones, which either are exported officially or are smuggled out of the country. Value data for these exports are not available. Imports are comprised of consumer and capital goods that are not manufactured locally.
      Author/creator: Pui-Kwan Tse
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asian and the Pacific, VIII (1991), p 60-68
      Format/size: pdf (313K)
      Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
      Date of entry/update: 10 September 2005


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1990)
      Date of publication: 1990
      Description/subject: "The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), indistinguishable from an ordinary military junta, continued to dominate the political scene of Burma. It failed to recognize legitimate national elections during the year, continued its repression of the civil population, and, with one exception, did little to foster the growth and development of Burma’s mineral industry. The exception was the decision by SLORC to open certain areas of the country to petroleum exploration by foreign firms..."
      Author/creator: David B. Doan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (422K-reduced version; 2MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1990v3Asia/reference/econatres....
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1989)
      Date of publication: 1989
      Description/subject: "Amidst growing political and social turmoil in many parts of the country, Burma’s various mineral industries shrank, weakened or, in some cases, even disappeared as investment capital, technical expertise, equipment replacement, and labor availability all became increasingly scarce. After years of self-imposed isolation from the mainstream of international investment, development, and trade, Burma’s centrally planned economy unraveled to the point of crisis in 1987 when the Government repudiated and demonetized all banknotes over 15 kyat, nominally about $2.34. The real or black-market rate was about $0.30 to $0.35, however, and the citizens of Burma found their savings destroyed. This was the final event in General Ne Win’s “Burmese Way To Socialism,” begun in 1962, which turned a comparatively rich nation into one of the world’s poorest. Amidst intense civil unrest and brutal suppression of demonstrations, Ne Win stepped down in July 1988. By September of that year, after chaos and bloodshed, General Saw Maung emerged as the leader of a military junta that established itself as the Government of Burma. With an economy in shambles, a 30% inflation rate, a foreign debt of $5.3 billion, and a debt-service ratio of nearly 100%, the various ethnic areas such as the Shan State of eastern Burma and the Kachin State of northern Burma took issue with the junta’s attempts to govern and began to behave independently. Karen rebels, for example, announced the prohibition of mining or logging by the Government in Rangoon or its contractors in Karen territory. A provisional alliance of several ethnic and territorial groups has joined forces, such as they are, to resist the Rangoon junta. Meanwhile the Government, after announcing that democratic elections were to be held in May 1990, had not only detained and imprisoned prominent opposition leaders and supporters, but so proscribed the conditions of the election as to probably throw the results into limbo. The single factor for potential redemption of the country was finally invoked by the junta in 1989, more or less as a last-ditch attempt to retain power by abruptly abandoning its isolationist policies. With little or no idea as to how business actually works, the leaders of the junta were reported as believing Burma to be rich on the basis of its natural resources. This belief was without regard to the fact that in the ground such resources produce no wealth, no capital flow, and no prosperity..."
      Author/creator: David B. Doan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (175K-reduced version; 1.5MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1989v3Asia/reference/econatres....
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1988)
      Date of publication: 1988
      Description/subject: "The Government’s main objectives for the mining sector during the fifth 5-year plan were as follows: to expand mineral surveys and prospecting to increase production of crude oil, natural gas, and major raw materials for the development of heavy industry; to increase production and quality of concentrates that have the highest potential on the export market; to carry out research for the extraction of new minerals; and to emphasize those projects with the potential for the highest rate of return on investment. In addition, various incentives and amenities were to be provided workers with a view to enhancing mine productivity. Toward the above goal, the Government of Burma’s investment in the mining sector during fiscal year (FY) 1987 was $82 million or 6.7% of total public investment, substantially exceeding the originally planned allotment. Approximately 30 minerals or mineral-related commodities were produced during 1988. The most important were barite, cement, copper concentrates, crude oil, gypsum, lead, natural gas, nitrogen fertilizer, silver, steel, and concentrates of tin, tungsten, and zinc. In value, crude oil was by far the most important followed by natural gas, copper concentrates, nitrogen fertilizer, and tin metal and concentrates. The longstanding policy of not importing crude oil was reversed during 1988. The shortage of foreign exchange was surpassed by the economic problems caused by the gradual but continued decline in domestic crude oil production. None of the minerals was produced in large enough quantity to be a major factor in the world market. The usually important tin and tungsten output dropped after midyear, probably losing several places in the world output standing..."
      Author/creator: John C. Wu, Gordon L. Kinney, David B. Doan, Travis Q. Lyday, Chin S. Kuo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (104K-Burma only, reduced, cropped version; 13.2MB-original - whole of SE Asia)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1988v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1987)
      Date of publication: 1987
      Description/subject: "Burma produced at least 30 minerals in commercial amounts during 1987. The most important nonfuel minerals were barite, cement, copper, gem stones, gypsum, lead, silver, steel ingot, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Burma attained world-class production in two minerals. It was 6th in tungsten and 10th in tin output during 1987. Of the minerals, fuels were most important to the Burmese economy. In value, crude oil production was by far the most important mineral, followed by natural gas. An insignificant amount of poor-grade anthracite coal was mined...he mining sector employed 90,000 workers in 1987, which was 0.6% of the active labor force. Of these, 77,000 were employed by Government-owned mining companies. Mining accounted for 1.8% of the country’s net output of goods and services. Public investment in the mining sector totaled $34 million in FY 1986..."
      Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (104K-reduced version; 458K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1987v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1986)
      Date of publication: 1986
      Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral output was small by world standards but important to its domestic economy. Its most important mineral or mineral-related production was cement, copper, natural gas, nitrogen fertilizer, gem stones, lead, crude oil, silver, tin, and tungsten. By far the most valuable was oil and gas, its dollar value being several times the combined value of the other minerals. Burma was one of the few South or East Asian nations that has been self-sufficient in crude oil. That enviable position, however, was in danger of changing as energy needs have increased while crude oil production has at best shown no real gain in the last few years. As such, Burma has had an increasingly severe shortage of petroleum that has affected all segments of the economy. A firm policy of not importing oil, mainly because of a severe shortage of foreign exchange, was exacerbating the problem. The Government has set the highest priority on finding additional onshore crude oil reserves. Burma was a major producer of lead and silver before World War II and in 1986 was still considered to have good potential for developing or expanding the production of antimony, copper, lead, tin, tungsten, and zinc among the metals and barite, fluorite, and several other industrial minerals. About 74,000 persons were employed in state-owned mining activities and another 13,000 by the cooperative and private sectors. In all, 0.6% of the labor force was employed in the mining sector..."
      Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (88K-reduced version; 491K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1986v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1985)
      Date of publication: 1985
      Description/subject: "Burma continued with a mineral development program that was constrained mainly by the country’s paucity of capital funds and the policy of not allowing foreign private investment. Mineral development projects under way for many years, in most cases, have been completed and have resulted in increased production of minerals or in lower unit costs because of the renovation and improved technology. Burma is well endowed with a variety of mineral resources. About 30 different minerals were produced in commercial quantities in 1985. Barite, cement, copper, gem stones, gypsum, lead, silver, steel ingots, tin, tungsten, and zinc were the most important of the nonfuel minerals. The most critical mineral-related problem in the country has been inadequate crude oil production. A modest amount of development drilling has been under way for years by the Government-owned Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC). The level of exploration drilling, however, has increased considerably in recent years. Crude oil production peaked in 1980 and has generally declined slowly since then, giving the exploration drilling a sense of urgency as MOC tries to find new deposits. Also, since 1980, increased industrialization has forced the demand for petroleum to climb steadily. The Government has a policy of not importing crude oil, which has heightened the energy shortage and hindered economic progress..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (120K-reduced version; 621K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1985v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1984)
      Date of publication: 1984
      Description/subject: "Burma continued its development activities in the mineral field with the assistance of foreign loan and aid programs. Overall, the mining sector grew by 24% in fiscal year (FY) 1982, with export earnings rising 45% to $41 million. In FY 1983, copper ore production led in tonnage of metallic minerals, while tin ore was first in value. Ores of lead, silver, tungsten, zinc, and a number of industrial minerals also were produced in amounts economically significant to the Government, which owns and operates all the important mines. In all, about 30 minerals were produced in commercial quantities during 1984. Only the tin and tungsten output, however, could be considered as being of consequence on the world market. Burma continued to allocate about 10% of its capital budget to the mining sector and planned to continue with this policy. The capital budget for FY 1984 was targeted at $137 million including local currency expenditures, but because of a tight foreign exchange situation, expenditures were probably closer to $100 million with foreign exchange requirements of $50 to $60 million..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (99K-reduced version; 791K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1984v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1983)
      Date of publication: 1983
      Description/subject: Read online/page views only. Read and go to next page
      Author/creator: Kinney, Gordon L.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1982)
      Date of publication: 1982
      Description/subject: "Burma was not a major world producer of any mineral commodity in 1982. At least 30 minerals, however, were exploited commercially during the year. Most of these were consumed domestically. The most important minerals or mineral-based commodities to the Burmese economy were crude oil, natural gas, tin, gem stones, tungsten, fertilizer, cement, lead, and silver. Approximately 71,000 persons were employed in the mining industry at the beginning of 1982. Only 2,000 were employed by the private or joint private-government sector; the remaining 69,000 were employed in state-owned mining operations. Mining personnel were 0.5% of the country’s active labor force. They accounted for 2.2% of the net output of goods and services, contributing to one of the most efficient sectors of the economy. The main objectives set by the Government for the mining sector during the third 4-year plan, fiscal year (FY) 1977 through FY 1980, were to exploit mineral resources to the optimum, extend mineral exploratory surveying, prepare to supply the primary raw materials required for establishing a mineral-based heavy industry, boost crude oil and industrial mineral production to save foreign exchange, and minimize losses and waste. The production of crude oil was given top priority. The public investment in the mining sector increased annually during the third 4-year plan from $45 million in the base year to $129 million in the final year. The aggregate investment for the third 4-year plan was $415 million, more than double the planned amount, and constituted 12.4% of the public investment during the period. The planned public investment in the mining sector for FY 1982 was $137 million or 11.5% of total investment. Only the processing-manufacturing sector surpassed that percentage in the Government's plan. Between FY 1975 and FY 1981, Burma’s economy grew at an average annual rate of 7%, after over a decade of economic stagnation. Changes in Government policies since 1975 have been instrumental in that growth..."
      Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (118K-reduced version; 784K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1982v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1981)
      Date of publication: 1981
      Description/subject: "Burma’s most important mineral production during 1981 was crude oil and natural gas. Production was sufficient for Burma to maintain petroleum self-sufficiency albeit at the cost of some consumer shortages. In addition to the mineral fuels, Burma also produced economically important amounts of lead, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, barite, and precious stones. Nineteen other minerals were produced commercially, mostly for domestic consumption. Prior to World War II, Burma was an important supplier of metals and ores to the world economy. Subsequently, Burma’s mineral sector underwent a decline which was only arrested in the last 5 years. Since 1975, Burma’s Ministry of Mines has successfully stimulated a major recovery of the mining sector through new investments and rehabilitation of old facilities. Significant loans from bilateral and multilateral sources have been the chief catalysts in the process. The Burmese plan for fiscal year (FY) 1980-813 called for an allocation of $107 million4 in the mining sector. According to provisional data, however, $161 million was actually spent during the year, exceeding the original allotment by $54 million. The reason for the excess was an increase in expenditure for oil exploration and development, the Monywa copper project, the direct-reduction iron project, and the new Metallurgical Research and Development Center (Ela) of the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. The mining expenditure accounted for 15.8% of total public investment in FY 1980-81.5 The FY 1981-82 plan allocated 14% of capital investment for the mining industry. In spite of these very significant investments, the Ministry of Mines was unable to maintain the momentum of the general recovery in FY 1980-81. As a result, the overall production results were mixed. Some of the major mining operations still suffer from inefficiency and energy shortages, particularly since the last quarter of 1980. Some of the mining sector renovation projects were slow to come online and delayed expected production increases. The mining sector employed about 69,000 persons, or 0.5% of the active labor force in 1981. Less than 3% of the total mining work force were employed in private or cooperatively owned mines. The remaining 97% worked in the state-owned mining companies. Mining accounted for just over 2% of the net output of goods and services..."
      Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (107K-reduced version; 919K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1981v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1980)
      Date of publication: 1980
      Description/subject: "Burma’s most significant mineral production included lead, zinc, tin, tungsten, barite, jadeite, and petroleum. By far the most valuable product was petroleum, its dollar worth being several times the combined value of all of the nonfuel minerals produced during the year. The petroleum production had the added advantage of making Burma one of the few Southeast Asian countries that was self-sufficient in energy needs. Burma’s current mineral output is small by world standards, although it was a major producer of lead before World War II. It is still considered to have a good potential for expansion. Detailed geologic exploration is needed in several areas believed favorable for mineral occurrences. The unstable security situation, however, has been a detrimental factor for a number of years. Detailed ground surveys and drilling needed for deposit evaluations have been delayed or canceled in some remote areas. About 68,000 persons, or 0.5% of the active labor force, were employed in mining activities during 1979. During 1980, the mining sector probably accounted for about 2% of the net output of goods and services. Burma’s mineral industry was managed primarily by four government-owned corporations. The No. 1 Mining Corp. controlled the lead, zinc, and silver output, which came mostly from the historic Bawdwin mining operations. The No. 1 Mining Corp. will also run the Monywa copper enterprise. The No. 2 Mining Corp. ran all the major tin and tungsten operations and the Heinze dredging project. The No. 3 Mining Corp. mainly was in charge of the Kalewa and Namma coal mines, the Moulmein and Loikaw antimony mines, and the planned direct-reduction steel plant. Industrial minerals such as barite, limestone, and gypsum were managed by the No. 4 Mining Corp. The Burmese press reported that the fiscal year 1980-81 State budget showed that of a total planned investment of $832 million, $95 million, or 11.0% was allocated to the mining sector. In addition, $270 million was to go to the industrial sector, some of which would involve mineral-related projects. The $56 million earmarked for the electric power sector would also indirectly benefit some of the mineral sectors..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (107K-reduced version; 667K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1980v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1978-79)
      Date of publication: 1979
      Description/subject: "Burma’s current mineral output was small by world standards, although Burma was a producer of some consequence before World War II and still is considered to have a good potential for expansion. Burma’s major minerals included lead and zinc, which came mostly from the famed Bawd-win mine, once the richest lead-zinc lode mine in the world but now mining much lower grade material. Tin and tungsten production was important and came from a variety of small-scale placer and lode mines and few larger Government-owned mines. Burma was one of the few Southeast Asian countries to produce sufficient petroleum and natural gas to meet its domestic needs, and there was a small amount of crude oil exported in 1979. Burma also produced excellent quality jade and other gem minerals. About 67,000 persons, or 0.5% of the active labor force, were employed in mining activities at the beginning of 1978, and 68,000 during 1979. These miners accounted for approximately 1.8% of the net output of goods and services. Burma’s mineral industry was managed primarily by four state-owned corporations. The No. 1 Mining Corp. controlled the lead, zinc, and silver output, which came mostly from its Bawdwin mining operation. It will also run the Monywa copper enterprise. The No. 2 Mining Corp. ran all the major tin and tungsten operations and the Heinze dredging project. The No. 3 Mining Corp. mainly was in charge of the Kalewa and Namma coal mines and the Moulmein and Loikaw antimony mines. The industrial minerals such as barite, limestone, and gypsum were managed by the No. 4 Mining Corp. The No. 3 Corp. was given the responsibility for the planned direct-reduction steel plant in 1979. The Government’s policy in running these mines was that no foreign investment was accepted, and the mines would have no special marketing arrangements with foreign corporations or governments. As a result, very little foreign capital has been available for developing new mines or for modernizing or expanding old ones..."
      Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (110K-reduced version; 760K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB197879v3/reference/econatres.mi...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1977)
      Date of publication: 1977
      Description/subject: "The gross domestic product (GDP) of Burma for 19772 was estimated at just over $4.0 billion at current prices. Revised GDP figures for 1975-76 were $3,510 million for 1975 and $3,996 million for 1976. The GDP at constant 1969 prices was $1,839 million in 1976 and estimated at $1,842 million in 1977. One encouraging sign was the taming of the chronically high inflation rate. The revised Rangoon consumer price index (1972=100) increased about 14% during the year to 256, a smaller increase than in previous years. The balance-of-payments deficit was again held to a very manageable level—$29 million (revised) in 1976 and $22 million in 1977. Exports totaled an estimated $240 million, and imports increased to an estimated $312 million during 1977. The latest figures show that the population increased 2.2% in 1977 to 31.5 million. The total active labor force was 12.4 million, with 66,000, or 0.53%, engaged in mining activities. These miners produced about 1.7% of the net 1977 output of goods and services. The value of the output of the mineral sector for 1976 was $69 million at current prices, a 31% increase over the 1975 figure. Value figures for 1977 were not available but will probably be between the 1975 and 1976 levels at constant prices and could show a modest increase at current prices. The overall physical output of mineral products during 1977 was only slightly greater than in 1976, but the long-term trend is one of gradual decline, primarily owing to lack of new investment and failure to bring any significant new mines into production. Although its current output is small, Burma was a mineral producer of some consequence before World War II and still is considered to have a good potential for expansion. At present, however, no foreign investment is allowed in mining. All important mining operations are conducted by the Government-owned mining corporations. Foreign participation has been limited to technical assistance and financial aid. Small-scale, family-operated mines are still privately owned, with most of the output being sold to the Government. The major aim of the Government’s mining policy at present is to modernize or reopen existing mines that were in production before World War II but are now operating at reduced production levels or have closed because of deteriorated equipment and/or a lack of investment capital. Despite Burma’s favorable mineral potential, many of the most promising areas for exploration have not been mapped or prospected in any detail because of security problems..."
      Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (146K-reduced version; 874K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1977v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1976)
      Date of publication: 1976
      Description/subject: "Burma’s economic situation showed a modest but encouraging upswing in fiscal 1976. The gross domestic product (GDP) in 1976 was estimated at $3.7 billion in current dollars. At constant 1969 prices the GDP rose an estimated 5.6% to $1.8 billion. This was a considerable improvement over Burma’s 10-year average growth rate of less than 3%, which had barely exceeded the population growth, leaving per capita GDP growth negligible during the decade. Per capita income at current prices rose an estimated 15% during 1976 to about $118, over twice the 1975 gain of 7%. The balance of payments showed a $28 million deficit in 1975, and estimates for 1976 indicated a slight increase in the deficit to around $30 million. Inflation was still the main economic problem as the amount of currency in circulation continued to increase and bottlenecks in production, transportation, and distribution kept the supply of goods low. Speculators, hoarders, smugglers, and black marketeers added to inflation. In recent years, the inflation rate has been well over 20%. The consumer price index in Rangoon (1972 = 100) was at 222 in 1975, an increase of nearly 35% over that of the previous year. In 1976, however, consumer prices were held to a 20% increase, closing the year at about 266. Similarly, the wholesale agricultural price index climbed 20% in 1976. The major bright spot in the economic picture was the vital agricultural sector, which had an increase in output of about 7% over that of 1975, the largest increase in the past 15 years. Production of all major crops except jute rose for the 1975-76 crop season, mainly because of excellent climatic conditions during the year. These favorable conditions continued throughout the 1976-77 crop season, and Burma was expected to have a record harvest for the second consecutive year. Rice production in 1976 could be over 9 million tons and again contribute the major portion of Burma’s export income. Burma’s mineral production was mixed during the year, with some products making modest gains. These included antimony, copper, mixed tin-tungsten concentrates, gypsum, limestone, and crude petroleum. A number of the minerals most important to the economy, however, showed declines in production. Foremost among these were the products from the famed Bawdwin mine—lead, zinc, and silver. Silver was particularly disappointing, with production falling 73% to 211,000 troy ounces..."
      Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (150K-reduced version; 908K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1976v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1975)
      Date of publication: 1975
      Description/subject: "Burma’s 1975 mineral production remained essentially unchanged from that of 1974. Lack of modem equipment, prohibition of foreign investment, student unrest, and insurgent activity combined to prevent any really significant improvements in the mining sector. The high rate of inflation continued, with 1975 prices more than 300% above the 1969-70 level. The inflation was fueled by an expanded money supply, which was used to finance successive years of large budget deficits. The Ministry of Mines was reorganized in April 1975. The new organization comprised the Minister’s Office, Planning and Inspection Department, Geological Survey and Exploration Department, and five state-owned mineral corporations. The major producing mines were under these corporations, but the Myanma Oil Corporation Refinery and Petroleum Products Sales Corporation were moved to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Industry. Small-scale, family-operated mines are still privately owned, with most of the output being sold to the Government. The Government intends to step up production of minerals during the second 4-year plan (to start in 1975-76) and envisions an annual 4% growth. During this period, Burma also hopes to achieve self-sufficiency in crude oil production and to begin exporting small amounts. Overall economic growth in 1975 was slow, the gross domestic product (GDP) increased 3.5% for the year at constant 1969-70 prices. Although this was well short of the targeted 6+% growth rate, and a little below the previous year’s 4%, it was more than the 2.7% average annual growth rate for the past decade. Considering that Burma had an estimated population growth of 2.2% per annum, real gains in the per capita GDP were not encouraging. Gross national product (GNP) was reported at about $3 billion. Metallic ores production in 1975 remained little changed from that of 1974. Industrial minerals increased in most cases in 1975, but as their unit values were generally low, the increases did little to bolster the overall economy..."
      Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (147K-reduced version; 793K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1975v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1974)
      Date of publication: 1974
      Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry again stagnated, mainly because of the lack of modern equipment and insurgent activity. Exports of base metals and ores were approximately the same as in 1973. Burma will continue to .export as much of its mineral output as possible to earn foreign exchange. With technical and financial assistance from U.S. and other bilateral sources, Burma moved to renovate existing mines and explore for new mineral resources. An important agreement was signed with the Federal Republic of Germany to modernize the Bawdwin-lead-zinc mines. Capital allocations for the project were $11 million for open pit improvements, $19 million for the flotation mill, and $4 million for support facilities which include a 5,000-kilowatt hydroelectric plant. However, a West German mining technician was kidnapped near the Bawdwin mine in March. As a result, the Ministry of Mines recalled all foreign mineral experts under its jurisdiction to Rangoon and foreign assistance for Burma’s mineral industry came to a virtual standstill..."
      Author/creator: Timothy Adams
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (141K-reduced version; 801K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1974v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1973)
      Date of publication: 1973
      Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry had a disappointing year during 1973. Oxe production from the Bawdwin non ferrous metal mine near Lashio recorded a substantial increase over 1972 output; however, production of refined lead and silver from this mine again declined owing to the continuing decline in the ore grade. Production of tin and tungsten increased over that of 1972. A 53% increase in output from the Mawshi tin-tungsten mine accounted for much of the increase. The Burmese Government’s decision to invite foreign participation in offshore oil exploration, on a profit-sharing basis, was the highlight of 1973. At yearend, a decision was expected shortly on which firms would be awarded contracts. Meanwhile Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC) continued its own exploratory drilling program, drilling four more holes offshore without any finds. In July, new commodity and project agreements were signed with Japan. The project agreement provided for a long-term loan of $26.9 million to finance construction of a new oil refinery at Syriam with a throughput capacity of about 1 million tons per year. This would roughly double existing Burmese refining capacity. The Government reorganization of April 1972 provided for six agencies under the Ministry of Mines as follows: Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC); Myanma Bawdwin Corp. (MBC), to operate Bawdwin and other mines producing lead, zinc, and silver; Myanma Tin and Wolfram Corp.; Myanma Mineral Development Corp. (MDC), to supervise production of copper, antimony, and other minerals not falling under the previous two agencies; Mineral Industrial Raw Materials Corp., to produce limestone, barite, industrial clays, and related items; and the Geological Survey and Exploration Department. These agencies are responsible for general control and supervision of the mining sector, as well as direct operation of the larger and more productive mines. Smaller, mainly tin, mines operate on a tribute system, with miners, registered by the Government, working largely by hand and delivering their output to government purchase depots at fixed prices. In practice, however, much of the output is probably smuggled into Thailand, where it can be sold more conveniently and usually at higher prices. Minerals occupy a prominent place in Burmese economic planning. However, the mineral sector has not received a corresponding share of capital investment. In fiscal year 1972-73 (October through the following September) 6.1% of the Government capital expenditure was designated for the mining sector as follows: MOC, S14.7 million; MBC, $3.5 million; and MDC and others, $5.4 million..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (99K-reduced version; 540K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1973v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1972)
      Date of publication: 1972
      Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry showed moderate improvement during 1972. Production from the Bawdwin nonferrous metal mine near Lashio recorded a slight increase over 1971 output; however, production of refined lead and silver from this mine declined owing to the continuing decline in the grade of the ore. Production of tin and tungsten recorded a substantial increase in 1972. However, output from the Mawchi tin-tungsten mine declined during the year. The U.N. Development Program has provided $2 million to Burma to help reopen other tin and tungsten mines in southern Burma. Offshore exploratory drilling was begun during the year but was interrupted in September by a blowout in which the drilling rig was destroyed. External govern-ment-to-govemment assistance continued to be provided to the Burmese petroleum sector by Japan and West Germany, and by the Export-Import Bank (Eximbank). The mineral industry of Burma has become very much a government business. In fiscal 1971-72 (October through the following September), 11.5% of the Government capital expenditure was designated for the mining sector as follows: Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC), $17.9 million; 2 Myanma Bawdwin Corp. (MBC), $1.9 million; and Mineral Development Corp. (MDC), $5.7 million..."
      Author/creator: Donald C. Wininger
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (148K-reduced version; 770K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1972v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1971)
      Date of publication: 1971
      Description/subject: "Burma’s "hard rock” part of the mineral industry showed only moderate improvement during 1971. Production from the Bawdwin mine near Lashio and the Chinese border increased, but the grade of the ore continued to decline. Production of tin and tungsten recorded a substantial increase in 1971, which indicated that the overall rehabilitation program was making significant progress, although output from the Mawchi tin-tungsten mine achieved only modest gains. In February a cooperative agreement was signed with the West German Government regarding general exploration for mineral resources in Burma. An untied loan of $10 million 2 was negotiated with Japan to finance exploratory drilling for oil in the Gulf of Martaban. The drilling, scheduled to begin early in 1972, will be conducted by a U.S. contractor, which will be the first foreign firm to engage in drilling operations in Burma since nationalization of the oil industry in 1963. A loan was also received from the Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) to help finance the purchase of six more oil drilling rigs. The fertilizer plant being constructed by the West Germans to utilize local natural gas to make urea was nearing completion at year end. The mineral industry of Burma has become very much a government business. Various government corporations are assigned to manage the different mining sectors. In fiscal 1970-71,3 the national budget showed the following estimated capital expenditures: Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC), $14.6 million; Myanma Bawdwin Corp. (MBC), $2.3 million; and Mineral Development Corp. (MDC), $4.6 million..."
      Author/creator: Donald C. Wininger
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (136K-reduced version; 831K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1971v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1968)
      Date of publication: 1970
      Description/subject: "From the viewpoint of economics and industry, 1968 was another disappointing year for Burma. Production was low, prices soared, and exports continued their downward trend causing a worsening of the balance of payments position. The Government assumed control of more of the nation’s industry, the level of insurgency remained high, and managerial and technical talent continued to emigrate. During the year, the Government took over 169 additional industrial concerns, including 16 in “metals” and nine in “engineering.” Burma no longer produces quantitiwise any mineral of world consequence. Production from the historically famous Bawdwin mine near Lashio and the Chinese border dropped to the lowest level in a decade, partly because of conversion of operations to extract more low-grade ores. Tin and tungsten production was down slightly; some of these mines in Tavoy and Mergui may be closed. However, oil production increased, with discovery of new fields and completion of additional wells. In fact, the country claimed self-sufficiency for petroleum at yearend 1968. Cement output also increased. According to official Burma national budget estimates, total “mining” output in fiscal 1967-68 was $28.9 million. This figure includes crude oil and limestone, but not salt and value added from mineral and metal processing. Burma’s gross national product (GNP) for 1967-68 was reported at $2.06 billion at current prices. Targets for mineral output and GNP covering fiscal 1968-69 were $37.7 million and $2.24 billion, respectively. In recent years, targets have seldom been fulfilled, and value figures have been exaggerated because of inflation and free market rates. Only about 54,000 workers out of a labor force of 10 million and a population of some 26.4 million were said to be engage! in mining during 1968. Installed electric power capacity was only 196,300 kilowatts at yearend 1968; far from sufficient to supporting extensive mineral, and industrial development. Under the 4-year national economic plan ending 1969—70, special attention was to be given to mineral development. Financing was to come predominantly from domestic sources, since foreign aid is limited and foreign investment almost nonexistent. Outlays for mineral development by the Government of Burma have been modest, with expenditures approximating receipts. The national budget showed the following anticipated expenditures for fiscal 1967-68: People’s Oil Industry, $71.4 million; People’s Bawdwin Industry (PBI), $7.8 million; Mineral Development Corporation (MDC), $3.7 million; Ywama Steel Mill, $5.9 million; and Thayet Cement Factory, $3.3 million..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (75K-reduced version; 483K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1968v4/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1970)
      Date of publication: 1970
      Description/subject: "Burma’s "hard rock” part of the mineral industry had another lackluster year in 1970. Production from the Bawdwin enterprise near Lashio and the Chinese border remained at its lowest level within a decade, with the modernization program behind schedule. Tin and tungsten output also showed little i£ any improvement. Nothing was done on the Monywa copper deposit. A Soviet technical assistance team arrived in July to rehabilitate the Mawchi tin-tungsten mine and a West German team was assigned to help develop tin mines in the Heinda district. Antimony mining was resumed. Near yearend, a special technical aid agreement was being negotiated with the West German Government regarding exploitation of mineral resources in Burma in general. The West Germans were also active in oil and fertilizers. An agreement was signed to conduct seismic surveys for oil in the Gulf of Martaban. The Germans, who are to assist in onshore exploration as well, were negotiating for a production-sharing contract. The Japanese tried to negotiate a similar contract for the Arakan coast, which they have surveyed on a preliminary basis, with no success as yet. Meanwhile, the Burmese made some headway themselves in exploration and exploitation. The Mann oilfield near Minbu was discovered and brought into production. New oil rigs were purchased. However, the overall Burmese effort was small, because of limitations in domestic capital and technical capability. On a related front, one fertilizer plant had been completed by the Japanese and another (virtually the same size) was being constructed by the West Germans, both to utilize local natural gas to make urea. The mineral industry of Burma has become very much a government business. About 5 percent of the national budget in 1969, or $109 million, was allocated to the Ministry of Mines, which also runs the petroleum industry. Various government corporations are assigned to manage the different mining sectors. In fiscal 1969-70,3 the budget for national development showed the following anticipated capital expenditures: People’s Oil Industry (POI), $11.8 million; People’s Bawdwin Industry (PBI) , $2-1 million; and Mineral Development Corporation (MDC) , $1.7 million. In February 1970, the Myanma Oil Corporation (MOC) took over the duties of POI and the Myanma Bawdin Corporation (MBC) took over the duties of PBI and other organizations. The power of MDC had been reduced, although it still supervises tin, tungsten, coal, and certain nonmetallics. Even the precious stone industries have been nationalized."
      Author/creator: K. P. Wang
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (89K-reduced version; 648K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1970v3/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1967)
      Date of publication: 1969
      Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry in 1967 showed but little growth despite potentially significant resources of some commodities and government plans for development of the industry. Recent statistics on production, trade, and reserves of mineral commodities have been sketchy. However, there was an increase in output of crude oil, one of the more important mineral activities although it fell short of the planned target, and imports of crude oil as well as some products were necessary to meet domestic demand. The Bawdwin lead-silver-zinc enterprise was undergoing mine and plant modifications during 1966— 67 with a view towards increasing production and improving operations; meanwhile, output was at reduced levels. As a result of neglect of mining properties, tin and tungsten production continued to decline. Overall mineral output in 1967 contributed about 1.5 percent to Burma’s Gross National Product (GNP), compared with about 33 percent for agriculture. During fiscal 1966—67, the country’s GNP was estimated at $1,700 million.2 Tax returns from minerals have been small; for minerals, the annual sum has been consistently less than $1 million in recent years. Approximately 52,000 workers out of a labor force of 10 million and a population of 25.8 million were reportedly engaged in mining during 1967. Burma has little power to support mineral industry activities; installed capacity at yearend 1966 reportedly was only 191,000 kilowatts. Under the new 4-year national economic plan for 1966—67 to 1969—70, special attention was to be given to mineral developments, such efforts to be financed entirely from domestic sources. The outlook appeared uncertain, however, for any significant achievement in view of recent performance. The fiscal 1966—67 budget for national mineral development showed increased outlays by the Government: Expenditures planned for the People’s Oil Industry were estimated at $16.85 million in 1966-67 compared with $9.56 million in 1965—66; for People’s Bawdwin Industry Mines $2.48 million in 1966—67 compared with $270,000 in 1965—66; and for Mineral Development Corporation (MDC) $2.3 million compared with $1.18 million in 1965—66. A large proportion of Burma’s business sector is nationalized and only a little private foreign capital has been flowing into the country for industrial development. Nevertheless, the Government has shown a desire for foreign assistance, preferably multilateral aid under the Colombo Plan and/or from international organizations such as the United Nations, rather than bilateral aid. Total loans arranged for fiscal 1967—68 were reported at $11.6 million, compared with $6.66 million in 1966— 67; while grants were $1.85 million for 1967—68 compared with $1.88 million in 1966—67. In 1967—68, the principal loans were expected to come from mainland China, East Germany, West Germany, and United States, and grants, from international organizations and the United States. The Ministry of Mines formed a Geology, Petroleum, and Mining Advisory Council to last 2 years beginning January 2, 1967. Made up of the leading minerals men in Burma and headed by the Secretary of the Ministry of Mines, its primary functions are to advise the Minister of Mines on technical matters, submit long-and short-term plans for prospecting and extraction of oil, minerals and other resources, in accordance with available manpower, capital, and equipment..."
      Author/creator: Taber de Polo and John M. West
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (99K-reduced version; 696K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1967v4/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1969)
      Date of publication: 1969
      Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry had another lackluster year in 1969. Production from the historically famous Bawdwin lead-silver-zinc enterprise near Lashio and the Chinese border remained at its lowest level within a decade. Tin and tungsten output also remained at low levels. Development of the Monywa district’s copper deposits, with estimated reserves of 14 million tons of 0.5 to 1.0 percent copper ore, progressed very slowly. Although crude oil production increased, the planned self-sufficiency goal was not reached, and crude oil as well as some refinery products were imported to meet domestic demand. Onshore oil exploration activities were to be increased in 1969-70 and, for the first time, offshore activities were planned. The Burmese approached the West Germans for help in exploring areas off the Arakan coast. This was the first sign that Burma might be considering opening its oil industry to foreign participation, closed since the nationalization of the oil industry in 1963. Under the current 4-year national economic plan ending in 1969-70, special attention was given to mineral development, which was to be financed entirely from domestic sources. The fiscal 1969-702 budget for national development showed the following anticipated capital expenditures: People’s Oil Industry (POI), $11.8 million; People’s Bawdwin Industry (PBI), $2.1 million; and Mineral Development Corporation (MDC), $1.7 million. Although Burma no longer produces any mineral in quantities of world consequence, significant resources possibly exist. Little progress has been made toward their development, however, due to the shortage of managerial and technical talent in the country, lack of capital funds to purchase the required equipment, and Government policy against foreign private investment in the mineral industry. As a result, the Government in recent years has concentrated much of its efforts on less capital consuming ventures such as geological surveys and exploration work."
      Author/creator: Ta Li
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (60K-reduced version; 344K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1969v4/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1965)
      Date of publication: 1967
      Description/subject: "Burma has an agricultural economy, but has long been considered a potentially mineral rich region, with its oil, gas, lead, zinc, silver, tin, and tungsten resources in 1965 less than fully developed. Mineral output had fallen behind that of neighboring Thailand, whose production in 1964 was of about the same order of value. Production of crude oil, the major item, failed to keep pace and output declined in 1965, and petroleum refinery output, which was partly from imported crude oil, strained to supply domestic demand. At the same time, greater efforts went into increasing crude oil supplies by exploration and secondary recovery experiments. Cement and salt production continued at a steady level, but metallic output appeared to be declining. In trade, payments for some imports were withheld, which led to temporary constraints by suppliers, even though the Government’s Central Deposit financial reserves position appeared quite sound. Following completion of Japanese war reparations in April, Japan initiated a 12-year $140 million economic assistance program. Mainland China assisted Burma with the construction of bridges over the Salween River at Ta-Kaw, at Kunhing, and at Kunlong. The U.S.S.R. offered assistance in mining, was interested in a dam to be built on the Baluchaung River, near Mobye, Kayah State, and helped with the construction of the Kyetmauktaung dam. This assistance moved the anticipated completion date to August 1966. Burma’s gross national product was probably even lower in 1965 than the $1.63 billion reported in 1963-64, its mineral industry contributed an estimated 3 percent of the overall product. For this country of about 25 million people, only metallic lead and silver had international significance and the country’s output of each of these was less than 1 percent of world demand..."
      Author/creator: J. M. West
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (67K-reduced version; 424K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1965v4/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1966)
      Date of publication: 1967
      Description/subject: Only Table 1.—Burma: Production of mineral commodities
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (19K-reduced version; 89K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1966v1and2/reference/econatres....
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1964)
      Date of publication: 1966
      Description/subject: "Although long considered a rich mineral region, Burma re-mained only a small producer in 1964, with its mineral industry output worth on the order of $45 million, slightly less than that of neighboring Thailand. Oil was the mainstay, but even that fell short of supplying domestic energy demands. Oil production, dropping in 1964, could not keep pace with consumption, and the lack of new discoveries made the outlook discouraging. The future for base metals and tin-tungsten mining was somewhat poorer, because efficient extraction had been abandoned for highgrading practices, thus hastening early depletion. Compared with agriculture, minerals had a small place m the economy, but contributed about 3.5 percent to the gross national product. Several thousand of the country’s 24 million people were involved in mineral extraction, with facilities concentrated at only a few sites. Oil exploration was stepped up in 1964, largely with Rumanian help; expanded operations at the Syriam refinery made crude imports necessary, indicating the shortcomings in domestic supply. Burma Railways’ dieselization was nearly complete, reducing demand for imported coal but increasing diesel oil requirements. A tender was issued for construction of a Government fertilizer plant; meanwhile drilling to find adequate natural gas for the proposed plant proceeded in the Chauk area. Burma Corp., the big nonferrous metal producer, was seeking exemptions from taxation and stringent Government controls. Surveys at the company’s Bawdwin mines had disclosed large tonnages of lower grade multimetal ores, and plans were being made to expand output. The Mawchi tin-tungsten mines and Kalewa coal mines were small-scale developments in progress, and a large iron deposit near Pangpet was being studied. Gem mining was hard hit by insurgency. To stimulate the gem trade, the Government tried to take the traditional role of Hong Kong dealers in jade purchases but with little success. Offerings under Government supervised sales at the Rangoon Gem Fair in December fell short as producers balked at the new controls..."
      Author/creator: J. M. West
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (67K-reduced version; 711K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1964v4/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


      Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1963)
      Date of publication: 1964
      Description/subject: "BURMA, long believed to be a rich mineral province, has been only a minor producer in recent decades, even by Far East standards. Its 1963 mineral output value of roughly US$45 million was fax smaller than that of Thailand, Taiwan, and South Korea, countries not considered prominent in mining. The mineral industry is not of great consequence to Burma’s predominantly agricultural economy; the value or minerals in 1963 was 3.5 percent of the gross national product. However, under British rule before World War II, mineral products were extracted at several times the present level and constituted a significant item in the county’s export trade. Burma’s mineral industry has been concentrated in a few enterprises and mining districts. The leading mineral product, petroleum, came under control of the government enterprise People’s Oil Industry, which took over the Burma Oil Company in 1963. A specific development during the year was the completion of a new oil refinery at Syriam near Rangoon. The Burma Corp. (1951) , Ltd., producing lead, zinc, silver, and other metals at levels less than one-fourth of the historic peaks, was on the verge of becoming nationalized by yearend. The Government’s Petroleum and Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) planned in 1963 to reopen the Mawchi tin-tungsten mine, idle for many years except for small-scale tributary operations. The small Ywama steel mill in Insein near Rangoon continued to have problems with scrap shortages and high operating costs. The Thayetmyo cement plant increased production substantially without plant expansion, in order to take up the slack caused by import reductions. Plans were made to develop and nationalize the jade industry..."
      Author/creator: K. P. Wang
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
      Format/size: pdf (121K-reduced version; 674K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1963v4/reference/econatres.miny...
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


    • Myanmar Mining legislation (texts and commentary)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Mining Laws of Asian Countries
      Description/subject: Interesting to compare the Burmese 1994 Mining Law with those of other Asian countries (see analysis of the 1994 Mining Law in "Grave Diggers" by Roger Moody, which is on the OBL shelves).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Metal Mining Agency of Japan
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20041115084443/www.mmaj.go.jp/mmaj_e/services.html
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Mining law to mandate community development funds
      Date of publication: 13 February 2014
      Description/subject: "A new mining law will compel the government to put a proportion of profits from the sector into a development fund so that local communities benefit from mining projects, says Minister for Mines U Myint Aung. “The ministry is working to amend the by-laws so that there is a reserve fund for regional development. Income from the industry will go toward both corporate social responsibility projects and mine closure programs," U Myint Aung told the Pyithu Hluttaw on February 11..."
      Author/creator: Ei Ei Toe Lwin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Gold Diggers
      Date of publication: October 2005
      Description/subject: Big companies push small prospectors aside in hunt for Burma’s riches... "In Alice in Wonderland, the Red Queen tells Alice: “A word means what I want it to mean.” That sums up in one sentence the state of Burma’s statute books—particularly those decrees relating to mining the country’s rich resources. Robert Moody, in his 1998 “Report on Mining in Burma,” put it more directly. The law on mining passed by the Rangoon regime in 1994, he said, “is not just one, but a parade of farts in a bucket.” The law makes no provisions for holding mining companies responsible for failure to stabilize workings and waste piles, nor for rehabilitating closed mines. There are no requirements for an environmental and reclamation bond to be posted by a mining company, no need for an environment and social impact assessment, nor for an independent monitor to ensure compliance during mining and post-closure operations.The law allows private citizens to prospect for gold, but they are not permitted to use machinery. People granted permits must sign an agreement to turn over 30 percent of their refined gold to the Ministry of Mines. Citizens are also permitted to pan for placer gold found in streams, although they are increasingly being edged out by Chinese contractors dredging the Irrawaddy River..."
      Author/creator: Charles Large
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


      Title: Grave Diggers: A report on Mining in Burma
      Date of publication: 14 February 2000
      Description/subject: A report on mining in Burma. The problems mining is bringing to the Burmese people, and the multinational companies involved in it. Includes an analysis of the SLORC 1994 Mining Law.... 'Grave Diggers, authored by world renowned mining environmental activist Roger Moody, was the first major review of mining in Burma since the country's military regime opened the door to foreign mining investment in 1994. Singled out for special attention in this report is the stake taken up by Canadian mining promoter Robert Friedland, whose Ivanhoe Mines has redeveloped a major copper mine in the Monywa area in joint venture enterprise with Burma's military regime. There are several useful appendices with first hand reports from mining sites throughout the country. A series of maps shows the location of the exploration concessions taken up almost exclusively by foreign companies in the rounds of bidding that took place in the nineties.
      Author/creator: Roger Moody
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Various groups
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB) html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/grave-diggers-report-mining-burma
      http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/miningwatch.ca/files/Grave_Diggers.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


      Title: The 1994 Mines Law - SLORC Law No. 8/94 (English)
      Date of publication: 06 September 1994
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Myanmar Mines Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No 8/94)... The 2nd Waxing Day of Tawthalin, 1356 M.E. (6th September, 1994) "The objectives of this Law are as follows: a.to implement the Mineral Resources Policy of the Government; b.to fulfil the domestic requirements and to increase export by producing more mineral products; c.to promote development of local and foreign investment in respect of mineral resources; d.to supervise, scrutinize and approve applications submitted by person or organization desirous of conducting mineral prospecting, exploration or production; e.to carry out for the development of, conservation, utilization and research works of mineral resources; f.to protect the environmental conservation works that may have detrimental effects due to mining operation..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: html, pdf (82K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/1994-SLORC_Law1994-08-The_%20Myanmar_Mines_Law-en.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Minerals and Mining - Burma (general articles and analyses)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Myanmar: Extractives in Ten Minutes : No. 1
      Date of publication: September 2012
      Description/subject: FIVE FEATURES: China; Sanctions; Extractives mix; Political dynamics; Ethnic overlay...FIVE UNANSWERED QUESTIONS: Is Myanmar ready for EITI? What if the Burmese want more electricity? Could narco-dollars be recycled in a new investment wave? Is there a plan B? How could investment policy reform impact artisanal mining?...FIVE MAJOR PLAYERS: Aung San Suu Kyi; President Thein Sein; Myanmar Armed Forces; Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE); China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)...KEY LINKS: .• Arakan Oil Watch • Shwe Gas Movement • The Irrawaddy • Mizzima News • Democratic Voice of Burma • BurmaNet News ....ABOUT OPENOIL.....A snapshot guide to the rapidly developing extractive industries of Myanmar. The attached two-pager is designed as a quick read, covering five major features of the industry, posing five unanswered questions, and profiling the five biggest players in the sector. The "Ten Minutes" guide is the first in a planned series on Myanmar; OpenOil is currently developing similar snapshots of extractive industries in other countries such as Mongolia.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Open Oil
      Format/size: pdf (315K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 September 2012


      Title: Google site-specific search for "mining" on mmtimes.com
      Description/subject: 658 results (December 2014)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times" via Google
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Mines and Communities Burma page
      Description/subject: 295 results, December 2012; 327 results, December 2014
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mines and Comminities
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 December 2012


      Title: Mines and Communities Website
      Description/subject: The Mines and Communities Website ("MAC") was initiated by members of the Minewatch Asia-Pacific London support group. Its main aim is to ensure easy access to materials published by the group, as well as partner organisations and individuals. We want to make information on mining impacts, projects, and the corporate sector more widely available. Above all, we hope to empower mining-affected communities, so that they can better fight against damaging proposals and practices. The website is supported by: JATAM (Mining Advocacy Network, Indonesia), Mines, Minerals and People (India), Minewatch Asia Pacific Project (Philippines), Partizans (People against Rio Tinto Zinc and Its Subsidiaries, UK), Philippine Indigenous Peoples Links (UK), the Society of St. Columban (UK) and Third World Network Ghana. These organisations are also represented on the editorial group which will submit and monitor new information and contacts on which this website can build......See the Country page for several dozen articles and reports on mining in Burma. MAC is one of the homes of "Grave Diggers: A Report on Mining in Burma" by Roger Moody.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mines and Communities
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar Ministry of Mines
      Description/subject: Situated in South East Asia Peninsula, covering an area of 676578 sq km, Myanmar is endowed with rich mineral resources in which mining of precious minerals date as for back as second century BC. Myanmar Rubies, Sapphires and Jade are admired around the world. Silver Lead and Zinc were extracted since 15 century AD and Myanmar stood as one of the leading exporters of tin and tungsten in the world market during 1930's. "Ministry of Mines is responsible for Formulation of Mining Policy, Exploration and Extraction of Minerals and Gems. Department of Mines is responsible for Mining Policy Formulation, Granting of Mineral Permits and Coordination of Mining Sector. Mining Enterprise No. 3 is responsible for production of Coal. Department of Geological Surveys and Mineral Exploration is responsible for exploration of Coal Deposits."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Mines
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


      Title: Results of a Google site-specific search for "Mining" on dvb.no
      Description/subject: 650 results (December 2014)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma via Google
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Results of a Google site-specific search for "mining" on irrawaddy.org
      Description/subject: 3,730 results (December 2014)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" via Google
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: US Geological Survey (USGS) - Asia and the Pacific
      Description/subject: The USGS "Minerals Yearbook" contains an annual report on the minerals industry of Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Individual Documents

      Title: Shan Organizations Call for Mining Moratorium
      Date of publication: 12 September 2014
      Description/subject: A coalition of Shan community based organizations has said a moratorium on resource extraction is urgently needed until there is nationwide peace and a discussion on the control and management of the country’s natural resources, much of which are in ethnic areas. The Shan CBOs referred to an anti-mining protest held on 5th September by 3,000 villagers in the town of Namkham, which lies near the border of China in northern Shan State, as one example of how ethnic communities felt they were being negatively affected by the resource extraction industry...Muay Noom Hom, a spokesperson for the Shan CBOs, said that the government’s decision to engage in resource extraction before a peace settlement with ethnic armed groups was irresponsible. “Naypyidaw is selling off all our valuable resources even before getting to the negotiating table. By the time a settlement is reached, there will be nothing left,” she said..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: KIC via BNI
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Myanmar considers the EITI
      Date of publication: 13 July 2012
      Description/subject: "U Soe Thane, Minister of Industry...during the Myanmar Forum in Singapore...announced that “in time, we plan to introduce and practice Extractive Industries Transparency Initiatives (EITI)”. As part of its broader reform efforts, the government of Myanmar is now exploring the benefits of EITI implementation. “We are preparing to be a signatory to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative to ensure that there is maximum transparency in these sectors and try to make sure the benefits go to the vast majority of the people and not to a small group”, said President Thein Sein..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://eiti.org/
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


      Title: Obama Administration declares Burma open to U.S. mining investment
      Date of publication: 18 May 2012
      Description/subject: U.S. mining and exploration companies can now officially join their Australian, Canadian, Chinese, European, French, Thai and Korean counterparts in the rush to develop Burma's mineral riches. RENO (MINEWEB) -
      Author/creator: Dorothy Kosich
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mineweb
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


      Title: US greenlights investment by energy, mining, banking firms
      Date of publication: 17 May 2012
      Description/subject: "...Clinton said Washington would issue a general license to permit U.S. investments across Myanmar's economy, and U.S. energy, mining and financial service companies were all now free to look for opportunities in the nation formerly known as Burma..."
      Author/creator: Andrew Quinn and Paul Eckert
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Reuters
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


      Title: Japan's Itochu joins the charge of the mining brigade in to Burma
      Date of publication: 04 May 2012
      Description/subject: "It is reported in the Japanese press today that Itochu Corp has begun a feasibility study in the country to isolate specialty metals including tungsten and molybdenum. This follows approaches by Japanese officials last year trying to get a deal with Burma for access to rare earths, the elements vital to Japanese industry’s high tech and hybrid car programs. South Korea has also been lobbying the Burmese over rare earths. Chinese companies have also been eyeing projects in the country. In 2008, China National Petroleum Corp signed a 30-year gas agreement covering production from three blocks in the Bay of Bengal. But this is only the beginning. The country will be a big target because it has bountiful resources in close proximity to resource-hungry India and China..."
      Author/creator: Robin Bromby
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Australian"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: Burma bans mining on four major rivers
      Date of publication: 30 March 2012
      Description/subject: (Mizzima) – Burma has banned mining of mineral resources along the country's four major river courses or near the river banks in a bid to preserve the natural environment, according to an order of the Ministry of Mines made public Thursday.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 March 2012


      Title: GEOMYANMAR 2012
      Date of publication: March 2012
      Description/subject: First International Conference on Regional Geology, Stratigraphy and Tectonics of Myanmar and neighbouring countries and Economic Geology (petroleum and mineral resources) of Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Myanmar Geosciences Society (MGS)
      Format/size: pdf (1.12MB)
      Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


      Title: Turning Treasure Into Tears - Mining, Dams and Deforestation in Shwegyin Township, Pegu Division, Burma
      Date of publication: 20 February 2007
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report describes how human rights and environmental abuses continue to be a serious problem in eastern Pegu division, Burma – specifi cally, in Shwegyin township of Nyaunglebin District. The heavy militarization of the region, the indiscriminate granting of mining and logging concessions, and the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam have led to forced labor, land confi scation, extortion, forced relocation, and the destruction of the natural environment. The human consequences of these practices, many of which violate customary and conventional international law, have been social unrest, increased fi nancial hardship, and great personal suffering for the victims of human rights abuses. By contrast, the SPDC and its business partners have benefi ted greatly from this exploitation. The businessmen, through their contacts, have been able to rapidly expand their operations to exploit the township’s gold and timber resources. The SPDC, for its part, is getting rich off the fees and labor exacted from the villagers. Its dam project will forever change the geography of the area, at great personal cost to the villagers, but it will give the regime more electricity and water to irrigate its agro-business projects. Karen villagers in the area previously panned for gold and sold it to supplement their incomes from their fi elds and plantations. They have also long been involved in small-scale logging of the forests. In 1997, the SPDC and businessmen began to industrialize the exploitation of gold deposits and forests in the area. Businessmen from central Burma eventually arrived and in collusion with the Burmese Army gained mining concessions and began to force people off of their land. Villagers in the area continue to lose their land, and with it their ability to provide for themselves. The Army abuses local villagers, confi scates their land, and continues to extort their money. Commodity prices continue to rise, compounding the diffi culties of daily survival. Large numbers of migrant workers have moved into the area to work the mining concessions and log the forests. This has created a complicated tension between the Karen and these migrants. While the migrant workers are merely trying to earn enough money to feed their families, they are doing so on the Karen’s ancestral land and through the exploitation of local resources. Most of the migrant workers are Burman, which increases ethnic tensions in an area where Burmans often represent the SPDC and the Army and are already seen as sneaky and oppressive by the local Karen. These forms of exploitation increased since the announcement of the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam in 2000, which is expected to be completed in late 2006. The SPDC has enabled the mining and logging companies to extract as much as they can before the area upstream of the dam is fl ooded. This situation has intensifi ed and increased human rights violations against villagers in the area. The militarization of the region, as elsewhere, has resulted in forced labor, extortion of money, goods, and building materials, and forced relocation by the Army. In addition to these direct human rights violations, the mining and dam construction have also resulted in grave environmental degradation of the area. The mining process has resulted in toxic runoff that has damaged or destroyed fi elds and plantations downstream. The dam, once completed, will submerge fi elds, plantations, villages, and forests. In addition, the dam will be used to irrigate rubber plantations jointly owned by the SPDC and private business interests. The Burmese Army has also made moves to secure the area in the mountains to the east of the Shwegyin River. This has led to relocations and the forced displacement of thousands of Karen villagers living in the mountains. Once the Army has secured the area, the mining and logging companies will surely follow..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
      Format/size: pdf (632K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 March 2007


      Title: Mining, Gender, and the Environment in Burma
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: "...Women’s groups and environmental groups have much to gain by collaborating with one another on mining in Burma. To this end, this article offers additional background information that will be of interest to groups concerned with either women’s rights or the environment. Each section summarizes areas where these respective issues overlap..." "...I found this report to be particularly useful for the information and insights it provides into artisanal mining in Burma, especially the more recent developments in the Hukanwng valley in Kachin State that Alan Rabinowitz came across in his travels in the area. There are some tantalizing references to the Northern Star Co in Myitkyina which apparently controls all mining operations in the state. Also very useful for the discussion of the various extractive methods used in artisanal mining and in particular the "cooking" process (referred to as "dohtar" in Burmese), used to extract small amounts of copper from mining residue and which the report describes as a a "less technologically sophisticated version of the copper solvent extraction and electrowinning pilot plant built by Ivanhoe in Monywa". This article is very well researched. There are also updates in the same Earthrights report to the proposed pipeline to India from the offshore gas field in near Sittway and to continuing use of forced labour in the Yadana pipeline corridor in northern Tenasserim ..." - Eric Snider... Extractive Industries in Burma: Mining in Comparative Context; Challenges to Studying Mining in Burma; International Women and Mining Conference; Case study: The Gendered Impacts of Gold Mining Operations in Kachin State, Burma; Key Health and Safety Issues for Burmese Women; Recommendations and Areas for Future Research.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (66K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/burmareports/mining_gender_and_the_environment_in_burma_3.html
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2004


      Title: Capitalizing on Conflict: How Logging and Mining Contribute to Environmental Destruction in Burma.
      Date of publication: October 2003
      Description/subject: "'Capitalizing on Conflict' presents information illustrating how trade in timber, gems, and gold is financing violent conflict, including widespread and gross human rights abuses, in Burma. Although trade in these “conflict goods” accounts for a small percentage of the total global trade, it severely compromises human security and undermines socio-economic development, not only in Burma, but throughout the region. Ironically, cease-fire agreements signed between the late 1980s and early 1990s have dramatically expanded the area where businesses operate. While many observers have have drawn attention to the political ramifications of these ceasefires, little attention has been focused on the economic ramifications. These ceasefires, used strategically by the military regime to end fighting in some areas and foment intra-ethnic conflict in others and weaken the unity of opposition groups, have had a net effect of increasing violence in some areas. Capitalizing on Conflict focuses on two zones where logging and mining are both widespread and the damage from these activities is severe... Both case studies highlight the dilemmas cease-fire arrangements often pose for the local communities, which frequently find themselves caught between powerful and conflicting military and business interests. The information provides insights into the conditions that compel local communities to participate in the unsustainable exploitation of their own local resources, even though they know they are destroying the very ecosystems they depend upon to maintain their way of life. The other alternative — to stand aside and let outsiders do it and then be left with nothing — is equally unpalatable..." Table of Contents: Map of Burma; Map of Logging and Mining Areas; Executive Summary; Recommendations; Part I: Context; General Background on Cease-fires; Conflict Trade and Burma; Part II: Logging Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Papun Districut (Karen State); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Part III: Mining Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Mogok (Mandalay Division); Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Conclusion.
      Author/creator: Ken MacLean
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI), Karen Environnmental & Social Action Network (KESAN)
      Format/size: pdf (939K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


      Title: Grave Diggers: A report on Mining in Burma
      Date of publication: 14 February 2000
      Description/subject: A report on mining in Burma. The problems mining is bringing to the Burmese people, and the multinational companies involved in it. Includes an analysis of the SLORC 1994 Mining Law.... 'Grave Diggers, authored by world renowned mining environmental activist Roger Moody, was the first major review of mining in Burma since the country's military regime opened the door to foreign mining investment in 1994. Singled out for special attention in this report is the stake taken up by Canadian mining promoter Robert Friedland, whose Ivanhoe Mines has redeveloped a major copper mine in the Monywa area in joint venture enterprise with Burma's military regime. There are several useful appendices with first hand reports from mining sites throughout the country. A series of maps shows the location of the exploration concessions taken up almost exclusively by foreign companies in the rounds of bidding that took place in the nineties.
      Author/creator: Roger Moody
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Various groups
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB) html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/grave-diggers-report-mining-burma
      http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/miningwatch.ca/files/Grave_Diggers.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


    • Coal mining

      Individual Documents

      Title: KNU defends coal mining project despite local opposition
      Date of publication: 20 November 2014
      Description/subject: "Despite local opposition, the Karen National Union has deployed its staff to secure the area in Dawei Township, Taninthayi Region, where the Banchaung mining project is located, according to locals. On November 15, ethnic Kayin locals from Thabyuchaung, Kyaukhtoo, Kahtaungni and Kunchaungyi attempted to block the roads – Kunchaungyi Amara Road and Dawei-Myeik Union Road – which are used as transportation routes for the project. “Locals do not approve of the project at all. They voiced their objections at the company’s meeting last month. Nonetheless, the company keeps going. Therefore, the locals blocked two roads that link the project to surrounding towns. However, KNU soldiers cleared the path that leads to Thailand for coal transport. The KNU continues to provide security for the project,” said Naw Pi Tha Law, a member of a group working for the social welfare for Kayin people..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Eleven Media"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: SAVE MONG KOK FROM COAL
      Date of publication: July 2011
      Description/subject: "Only 40 kms north of the Thai border in the mountains of eastern Shan State, Thai investors are poised to begin mining and burning large reserves of coal at Mong Kok. Ihis project — which will ravage a pristine valley and poison the Kok River, impacting countless Shan and northern Thai communities downstream - must be stopped immediately. The Italian-Thai Power Company has entered into agreements with the Burmese military regime to develop an open-pit coal mine and power plant at Mong Kok in eastern Shan State, to export both coal and power to Thailand. Home to over a thousand Shan, Lahu and Akha farmers, Mong Kok lies in a conflict zone, where troops of the Burmese junta clash regularly with ethnic resistance forces, and commit systematic abuses against the local peoples. The regime has poured troops into the area to secure the mining site. Villagers have been forced to sell their farmlands for a pittance, and are being forced into a resettlement site directly adjacent to the mining area. Many have fled to the Thai border. Conducted in secrecy and with armed intimidation, this project blatantly contradicts any standards of responsible investment. But if Thai investors think the project's impacts are going to stay safely outside their borders, they should think again. Hundreds of coal trucks a day and huge new power pylons will be blighting the scenic Chiang Rai landscape, while the mine and power plant will be flushing poisons into the Kok River - harming an ecosystem that sustains countless communities downstream in Thailand, and threatening the lucrative tourist trade along with it..."
      Author/creator: Hark Mong Kok
      Language: English, Shan, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/save_mong_kok_from_coal_eng.pdf-red.pdf
      Format/size: pdf (English - OBL version-2.6MB, original, 3.12MB; Shan - OBL version, 2.8MB, original, 3.34MB; Burmese - OBL version, 2.8MB, original, 3.37MB; Thai, OBL version, 2.7MB, original, 3.29MB
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/save_mong_kok_from_coal_shan.pdf-red.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/save_mong_kok_from_coal_burmese.pdf-red.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/save_mong_kok_from_coal_thai.pdf-red.pdf
      http://shansapawa.org/images/stories/publication/save_mong_kok_from_coal_eng.pdf
      http://shansapawa.org/images/stories/publication/save_mong_kok_from_coal_shan.pdf
      http://shansapawa.org/images/stories/publication/save_mong_kok_from_coal_burmese.pdf
      http://shansapawa.org/images/stories/publication/save_mong_kok_from_coal_thai.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 August 2011


      Title: Poison Clouds: Lessons from Burma’s largest coal project at Tigyit
      Date of publication: January 2011
      Description/subject: Summary: "• Although Burma is rich in energy resources, the ruling military regime exports those resources, leaving people with chronic energy shortages. The exploitation of natural resources, including through mining, has caused severe environmental and social impacts on local communities as companies that invest in these projects have no accountability to affected communities. • There are over 16 large-scale coal deposits in Burma, with total coal resources of over 270 Million tons (Mt). Tigyit is Burma’s biggest open pit coal mine, producing nearly 2,000 tons of coal every day. • The Tigyit coal mine and coal-fi red power plant are located just 13 miles from Burma’s famous Inle Lake, a heritage site of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Water polluted by the mine and waste from the power plant fl ow into the Lake via the Balu Creek but no study of the impact of the project on the Lake has been made public. • Coal from the mine is transported to Burma’s only operating coal-fi red power plant in Tigyit. The plant uses 640,000 tons of coal per year to produce 600 Gigawatts of power with a capacity of 120 Megawatts. 100-150 tons of toxic fl y ash waste is generated per day. The majority of power from the plant is slated for use at an iron mining factory that will be operated by Russian and Italian companies. • Implementation of the mine and power plant began in 2002 by the China National Heavy Machinery Corporation (CHMC) and the Burmese companies Eden Group and Shan Yoma Nagar. • Two nearby villages of Lai Khar and Taung Pola were forced to relocate for the project and over 500 acres of farmlands have been confi scated. Farming families facing eviction and loss of lands are going hungry and have turned to cutting down trees to sell for fi rewood or migrated in order to survive. Explosions from the mine have destroyed local pagodas. • Air and water pollution is threatening the agriculture and health of nearly 12,000 people that live within a fi ve mile radius of the project who may eventually have to move out. Currently 50% of the local population is suffering from skin rashes. • The Pa-Oh Youth Organization and Kyoju Action Network have been monitoring the project since February 2010 and urges the companies and government to suspend operations pending full environment, social and health impact assessments. The organization also urges local communities not to sign documents without understanding them and to oppose corruption and exploitation which harms the communities’ livelihoods and natural resources."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pa-Oh Youth Organization (PYO), The Kyoju Action Network (KAN)
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB - English; 2.2MB - Burmese; 2.3MB - Thai))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/PoisonClouds(bu).pdf (Burmese)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/PoisonClouds(th).pdf (Thai)
      Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


    • Copper mining

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burma mine protest (Google search results)
      Description/subject: About 23,400,000 results (15 December 2012)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Various sources via Google
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 December 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Resumption of the Sino-Myanmar Letpadaung project proceeds smoothly
      Date of publication: 29 November 2014
      Description/subject: "Reporters learned from Wanbao Mining Myanmar Copper LTD recently that the Letpadaung copper mine project jointly financed by China and Myanmar has resumed orderly development and begun to move forward. At the same time, the “unemployment assistance plan” has received a positive response from local villagers..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "People's Daily" (unofficial translation)
      Format/size: pdf (62K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Letpadaung Mine Development Risks Further Abuses: Amnesty
      Date of publication: 28 November 2014
      Description/subject: "Plans for the development of the Letpadaung copper mine in Sagaing Region pose a serious threat of human rights abuses and environmental risk, Amnesty International said in a statement on Thursday. Ahead of the two-year anniversary of a violent attack on protestors, Amnesty drew also attention to the fact that no one has been brought to account for the incident. At least 99 monks and nine other protestors were injured in the attack, with many suffering permanent scarring and injuries from white phosphorous burns, the use of which is prohibited by international weapons conventions. “Two years after this brutal attack, it is completely unacceptable that the scores of people injured while protesting are still waiting for justice and reparations,” said Audrey Gaughran, Amnesty International’s director of global issues..."
      Author/creator: Sean Gleeson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Amnesty International via "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: BURMA/MYANMAR: Activist sentenced to eleven years' jail for opposing army copper mine
      Date of publication: 12 August 2013
      Description/subject: "...The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) has previously issued a statement on the ongoing targeting and arrests of activists and farmers opposed to the expansion of an army-backed copper mining operation in the Letpadaung Hills of Sagaing Region (AHRC-STM-108-2013). In this appeal we bring you the full details of the numerous charges brought against one of those activists, Ko Aung Soe, who was arrested with two other persons for working with farmers organising against the mining operation. Aung Soe has now been sentenced to eleven-and-a-half years in jail in patently unfair trials that closely resemble those of the decades of military rule in Burma..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2013


      Title: Mergui-Tavoy Photo Set: Dam, logging and mining operations negatively impact communities in K'Ser Doh Township, January to April 2012
      Date of publication: 16 July 2013
      Description/subject: "This photo set includes 49 still photographs selected from images taken by a KHRG community member between January and April 2012. They were taken in K'Ser Doh Township, Mergui-Tavoy District, and show images of a dam project in A'Nyah Pyah, logging in A'Nya Pyah, U Yay Kyee and Htee Ler Klay villages and mining operations in Hkay Ta Hpoo that have caused a variety of problems for the villagers in the in the areas, such as loss of land from flooding and water pollution. The mining company prevented villagers from protecting themselves from further damage from the chemical flows when they sought to drain a contaminated stream. This photo set was originally published in the appendix of KHRG's thematic report, Losing Ground: Land confiscation and collective action in eastern Myanmar..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (633K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b46.html
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


      Title: BURMA: Criminalization of rights defenders and impunity for police
      Date of publication: 29 April 2013
      Description/subject: The Asian Human Rights Commission condemns in the strongest terms the announcement of the commander of the Sagaing Region Police Force, Myanmar, that the police will arrest and charge eight human rights defenders whom it blames for inciting protests against the army-backed copper mine project at the Letpadaung Hills, in Monywa. The commission also condemns the latest round of needless police violence against demonstrators there.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
      Format/size: html (45K)
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2013


      Title: BURMA: Lawyers' report on Letpadaung released in English
      Date of publication: 10 April 2013
      Description/subject: "(Hong Kong, April 10, 2013) A Burma-based lawyers group has released its findings on the Letpadaung land struggle in English. The 39-page illustrated report was submitted by the Lawyers Network (Myanmar) and the Justice Trust in February to the government's investigation commission into events at Letpadaung, recounts the land struggle and subsequent crackdown on protestors. The Asian Human Rights Commission said that the report offered further evidence to support arguments that the mining operation ought to be halted, and criminal actions brought against police and other officials responsible for orders to disperse protestors through the use of incendiary weapons. "It is alarming that despite having such evidence available to it, not only did the investigation commission endorse the continuation of the mining project, but also said literally nothing about the criminal responsibility of the police and other authorities involved in the brutal attack on peaceful demonstrators," Bijo Francis, acting executive director of the Hong Kong-based regional rights group, said. .."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
      Format/size: html (49K)
      Date of entry/update: 11 April 2013


      Title: BURMA: Two sharply contrasting reports on the struggle for land at Letpadaung
      Date of publication: 03 April 2013
      Description/subject: "The Asian Human Rights Commission has since mid-2012 closely followed, documented and reported on the struggle of farmers in the Letpadaung Hills of central Burma against the expansion of a copper mining operation under a military-owned holding company and a partner company from China. After repeatedly being refused permission to demonstrate against the operation under the terms of the country's new antidemocratic public demonstration law, the farmers began public protests, which were met with a range of repressive measures, culminating in the night time attack on encamped protestors last November. The attack received international media coverage because the police fired white phosphorous into the protest camps causing extensive burns to protestors, the majority of them monks who had joined villagers in resistance to the mine project. In recent months two reports have been issued, in Burmese, on the struggle against the mine. The reports make interesting reading because they represent very different perspectives and understandings of the issues for the affected villagers in Letpadaung. One is the official report of an investigative commission headed by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, published in the 12 March 2013 edition of the state newspaper. The other is an unofficial report by the 88 Students Generation group and the Lawyers Network, Upper Burma, issued before the official report, on 21 January 2013. Whereas the latter report represents a genuine effort to identify the causes for the opposition to the mine and speak to the human rights questions concerned with events in Letpadaung of 2012, the former is little more than an exercise in playing at politics, and an attempt to sidestep and obfuscate the questions of human rights involved through the use of "information" that conceals more than it reveals..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
      Format/size: html (54K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 April 2013


      Title: Report of the Investigation Commission for Letpadaung Copper Mining Project
      Date of publication: 12 March 2013
      Description/subject: စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒသၾကီး မံုရြာခရိုင္၊ ဆားလင္းၾကီးျမိဳ႕နယ္ လက္ပန္ေတာင္းေတာင္ ေၾကးနီစီမံကိန္း စံုစမ္းစစ္ေဆးေရး ေကာ္မရွင္၏ အျပီးသတ္အစီရင္ခံစာ ... နိဒါန္း ၁။ ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ႏိုဝင္ဘာလ ၂၃ ရက္တြင္ က်င္းပေသာ ျပည္သူ႕လႊတ္ေတာ္ အစည္းအေဝး၌တင္သြင္းခဲ့သည့္ အေရးၾကီးအဆိုတြင္ စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းေဒ သၾကီး မံုရြာခရိုင္ ဆားလင္းၾကီးျမိဳ႕နယ္ လက္ပန္ေတာင္းေတာင္ ေၾကးနီစီမံကိန္းႏွင့္ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ ေၾကးနီမိုင္းလုပ္ငန္း ဆက္လက္ေဆာင္ရြက္ခြင့္ျပဳရန္ သင့္မသင့္ စံုစမ္းစစ္ေဆးေရး ေကာ္မရွင္ကို ျပည္ေထာင္စုသမၼတျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္၊ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္သမၼတရံုးမွ အမိန္႕ေၾကာ္ျငာစာအမွတ္ (၉၅/၂၀၁၂) အရ ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇင္ဘာလ ၃ ရက္ေန႕တြင္ ဥကၠ႒အပါအဝင္ အဖြဲ႕ဝင္ ၁၆ ဦးျဖင့္ ဖြဲ႕စည္းေပးခဲ့ပါသည္။ ၂။ စံုစမ္းစစ္ေဆးေရးေကာ္မရွင္အဖြဲ႕ဝင္မ်ားသည္ စီမံကိန္းႏွင့္ပတ္သက္၍ ေက်းရြာလူထု ခံစားေနရသည့္ ျပည္သူ႕အသံမ်ားအပါအဝင္ စီမံကိန္းႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္သည့္ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကို စံုစမ္းျပီး သံုးသပ္ခ်က္ႏွင့္တကြ တင္ျပႏိုင္ရန္ အဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား ဖြဲ႕စည္းေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ့ပါသည္။
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Letpadaung Investigation Commission via Burma Partnership
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 March 2013


      Title: Submission of Evidence to Myanmar Government’s Letpadaung Investigation Commission (full text - English)
      Date of publication: 14 February 2013
      Description/subject: Submission of evidence by Lawyers Network and Justice Trust to the Letpadaung Investigation Commission...(Submitted 28 January, 2013, re-submitted with exhibits 5 February, 2013)...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The evidence submitted in this report covers two main issues: 1) the circumstances and validity of contracts signed by local villagers in April 2011 to allow their farmlands to be used by a copper mining joint venture between Wanbao, a Chinese military-owned company, and U Paing, a Burmese military-owned company, and 2) the circumstances and validity of the police action used to disperse peaceful protesters at the copper mine site during the early morning hours of 29 November, 2013. This submission presents relevant laws and facts concerning the Letpadaung case; it does not draw legal conclusions or make specific policy recommendations. The evidence indicates that local government authorities, acting on behalf of the joint venture companies, used fraudulent means to coerce villagers to sign contracts against their will, and then refused to allow villagers and monks to exercise their constitutional right to peaceful assembly and protest. The evidence also indicates that police used military-issue white-phosphorus (WP) grenades (misleadingly termed smoke bombs) combined with water cannons to destroy the protest camps and injure well over 100 monks with severe, deep chemical burns. White phosphorus spontaneously ignites in air to produce burning phosphorous pentoxide particles and, when combined with water, super-heated phosphoric acid..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lawyers Network and Justice Trust via AHRC
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.humanrights.asia/news/press-releases/AHRC-PRL-007-2013
      http://justice-trust.org/wp-content/uploads/Letpadaungreportforpublicrelease.pdf (slightly different text)
      Date of entry/update: 11 April 2013


      Title: Progress stops at the Myanmar elite's door
      Date of publication: 04 December 2012
      Description/subject: "Freedom of speech will struggle to flourish in Myanmar as its economic interests are dominated by powerful neighbours...The protesters were given five minutes to leave. Police surrounded their camp close to the Letpadaung copper mine in northern Myanmar in the early hours of Thursday, armed with loudspeakers, water cannons and warnings of attack. First came the water, the force of which swept away dozens of flimsy structures used to shelter hundreds of Myanmarese angered at the damage wrought over more than a decade by the country's largest copper mine. What came next however struck fear into the heart of Myanmar's nascent environmental movement. Plumes of fire lit up the night sky as police and riot control units shot incendiary bombs into the clusters of tents. "They fired 10 rounds; five at a time," one protester told the Democratic Voice of Burma. "And the sparks that landed on people's clothing couldn't be shaken off; they burst into flames when they attempted to do so." Images that emerged following the crackdown showed hospital wards filled with burn victims - men, women and Buddhist monks. "I'd prefer to be dead now than suffering [from the burns] - the pain is too unbearable," a monk said. The brutality of the incident conjures memories of September 2007, when hundreds of pro-democracy protesters were shot dead by Myanmar troops. That crackdown was congruent with the reputation of the military junta that ruled Myanmar at the time. But 18 months into its experiment with democracy and wildly contradicting the progressive rhetoric of President Thein Sein, the attack last week has left many questioning the earnestness of the reforms. Moreover, the involvement of police, who operate under the auspices of the president, has cast a shadow over a leader preparing to accept a number of top peace awards. The Letpadaung incident goes beyond a simple bid to stifle dissent. While environmental damage and grievances over the confiscation of 7,800 acres of land were the key focus of the resistance to the mine, in the government's eye, these protests marked the intersection at which three hugely sensitive issues meet: The public's ability to exercise freedom of speech, China's influence over Myanmar and vested military interests in the country's natural resources. Put together, they indicate that at the core of government, there still exists the same fear over the standing of the elite that fuelled abuses by Myanmar's former rulers. Days into the protests, Aung Min, one of President Thein Sein's top cabinet members, was caught on camera saying that the mine would stay open because, "We are afraid of China"..."
      Author/creator: Francis Wade
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: AL Jazeera
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


      Title: Ceremony to receive Ovada from senior monks in Monywa held
      Date of publication: 02 December 2012
      Description/subject: "...The ceremony was opened with the recitation of Namo Tasa three times. Next, Commander of Sagaing Region Police Force Police Col San Yu supplicated the matters regarding the ongoing situations stemming from Latpadaungtaung copper mine project in Salingyi Township of Monywa District and religious matters. Please accept my apology. We are very disheartened by injuries of monks in the crackdown of boycott camps in Latpadaungtaung project in Salingyi Township..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
      Format/size: pdf (85K)
      Date of entry/update: 02 December 2012


      Title: Asia-Pacific Riot police break up Myanmar copper protest (video)
      Date of publication: 29 November 2012
      Description/subject: Security forces used a water cannon and other weapons to end the three-month protest, injuring 10 monks, two critically. Riot police fired water cannons and tear gas to break up a three-month protest against a vast copper mining project run by Myanmar's powerful military and its partner, a subsidiary of a Chinese arms manufacturer.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
      Format/size: Adobe Flash
      Date of entry/update: 29 November 2012


      Title: BURMA Monywa Copper Mining Protest Resumes
      Date of publication: 20 November 2012
      Description/subject: "More than 1,000 people demanding the closure of a copper mining project in the Letpadaung mountain range, Sagaing Division, held yet another demonstration in front of the company’s headquarters in Monywa’s Salingyi Township. Protesters have been disrupting project work since Sunday by linking arms and blocking the path of trucks and vehicles at the construction site while security officials looked on. Local residents and environmental activists have taken up two separate positions—a large gathering in front of the Myanmar-Wanbao Mining Company office on the Monywa-Pathein Road, and a smaller event at the Lelti Sayadaw Buddhist Building near Kyawyar Village, around five miles away from the protester’s main camp..."
      Author/creator: "The Irawaddy"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Nyein Nyein
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 November 2012


    • Gems and jade - mining and trade

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Gemstones and Burma (political and technical articles)
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


      Individual Documents

      Title: Gem traders in Mandalay oppose moving marketplace
      Date of publication: 15 December 2014
      Description/subject: Gem traders in Mandalay are gearing up in opposition to a government plan to relocate Burma’s biggest jade and gem market. Local traders, who have long opposed a relocation plan that would move them from downtown Mandalay to Amarapura, in the outskirts of the city, said they would submit a formal complaint to the divisional parliament while the issue is under debate by lawmakers. “We will submit a complaint to the divisional parliament and request that the market be upgraded instead of moved, as we all wish,” said Than Win, a trader and chairman of a community committee advocating for renovation
      Author/creator: Zarni Mann
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Will Myanmar’s Government walk its talk on extractive industries reform? Jade trade will be key test Myanmar
      Date of publication: 02 December 2014
      Description/subject: "Myanmar’s exports of the jade mined in northern Kachin State are estimated to be worth US$6-9 billion per year. But the government’s tax take is paltry and, as today’s New York Times article shows, the people of Kachin see few benefits. So where’s the money? And what can be done to ensure that it goes where it should? Myanmar’s exports of the jade mined in northern Kachin State are estimated to be worth US$6-9 billion per year. But the government’s tax take is paltry and, as today’s New York Times article shows, the people of Kachin see few benefits. So where’s the money? And what can be done to ensure that it goes where it should? Answering these questions is critical both to the government’s efforts to tackle corruption and the prospects for a lasting peace in Kachin State, the scene of Myanmar’s most serious armed conflict..."
      Author/creator: Mike Davis
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Global Witness
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 December 2014


      Title: Searching for Burmese Jade, and Finding Misery... Video Feature: Jade’s Journey Marked by Drugs and Death (video)
      Date of publication: 01 December 2014
      Description/subject: "As China grows, so does its appetite for jade. But the gemstone’s journey from Myanmar’s mines to China’s consumers follows a trail of addiction, infection and exploitation"....."MYITKYINA, Myanmar — At 16, the gem trader’s son set out for the jade mines to seek his fortune in the precious stone that China craves. But a month in, the teenager, Sang Aung Bau Hkum, was feeding his own addiction: heroin, the drug of choice among the men who work the bleak terrain of gouged earthen pits, shared needles and dwindling hope here in the jungles of northern Myanmar. Three years later he finally found what he had come for — a jade rock “as green as a summer leaf.” He spent some of the $6,000 that a Chinese trader paid him on a motorcycle, a cellphone and gambling. “The rest disappeared into my veins,” he said, tapping the crook in his left arm as dozens of other gaunt miners in varying states of withdrawal passed the time at a rudimentary rehabilitation clinic here. “The Chinese bosses know we’re addicted to heroin, but they don’t care. Their minds are filled with jade.”..."
      Author/creator: Dan Levin (article); Jonah M. Kessel (video)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New York Times"
      Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
      Date of entry/update: 03 December 2014


      Title: Myanmar's Jade Curse (video)
      Date of publication: 28 November 2014
      Description/subject: "China's jade obsession drives a multi-billion dollar black market that fuels a drug-infested jade mining industry....Gold is valuable but jade is priceless, so goes a Chinese saying. For centuries, the Chinese consider jade an imperial stone with mystical properties. Today it is coveted all over China as a status symbol, a collectible and an investment. Demand from increasingly wealthy Chinese drives the value of jade through the roof. At this year's Shanghai World Jewellery Expo, auctioneers put the opening bid for top grade jade items at more than $160 a gram, exceeding four times the price of gold. Intricately designed pieces, made from top grade jade known as jadeite, are viewed as attractive investments despite the lack of scientific valuation methods. In recent years, jadeite has provided better returns than real estate. But the imperial stone delivers a death sentence to treasure hunters in Myanmar, where China's jadeite comes from. Most of Myanmar's raw jade enters a murky black market. Its official revenue from jade exports over from 2011 to 2014 was $1.3bn. But Harvard University's Ash Center estimates total jade sales - including through unofficial channels - were $8bn in 2011 alone, suggesting most of the revenue does not go into government coffers. The Myanmar government will not speak to us on camera. But our investigations reveal a corrupt senior government official who works with businessmen in the illegal trade of raw jade, including helping to falsify tax documents. In northern Kachin state, we follow jade smugglers to the remote Hpakant mining town, the source of the world's best jade. The men are part of the government's border guard force. The officer in charge tells us how he pays off army and police commanders along the smuggling trail to China..."
      Author/creator: Chan Tao Chou
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aljazeera (101 East)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (28 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


      Title: Kachin protesters demand slice of mining wealth
      Date of publication: 22 November 2014
      Description/subject: "More than 2,000 residents joined a protest on November 20 in Phakant, Kachin State, demanding greater autonomy for the state government to enable it to administer resource extraction in the state and improve security and living standards. The protest is said to be connected with the death of a resident who was killed while solo gem mining on October 31 in Phakant with protesters saying that commercial mining provides no benefit for residents..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Eleven Media"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Picturing Poor Governance: The Lives of Myanmar's Illegal Jade Miners
      Date of publication: 17 October 2014
      Description/subject: "NRGI recently commissioned images by a Myanmar photographer, Minzayar, who has documented the lives of the illegal jade miners flowing into Kachin state in the north of Myanmar as they pursue higher incomes...ade mining, both legal and illegal, is an apt lens through which to view the very complex environment in Myanmar, and the political economy of extractives in particular. It reveals the numerous governance challenges and failures that have prompted efforts at reforming the sector since the opening of the country a short time ago. Given its high value and its abundance in Myanmar, jade has been a significant source of revenue for the country’s government; according to official statistics jade exports amounted to more than $1 billion in the 2013-2014 fiscal year. However, reports suggest that the state budget might actually be missing potentially huge sums from jade mining. A Harvard Kennedy School report from 2013 even argued that government jade revenue should possibly be much higher than that from oil and gas, with at least 50 percent of jade revenues escaping taxation..."
      Author/creator: Matthieu Salomon
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Natural Resource Goverance Institute (NRGI)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 December 2014


      Title: Army Orders 1,000 Villagers to Leave, As Tensions Rise Near Hpakant
      Date of publication: 15 October 2014
      Description/subject: "The Burma Army has ordered more than 1,000 Kachin villagers to leave three villages near the jade mining town of Hpakant, Kachin State, warning civilians that there be could fighting between the army and Kachin rebels soon, local sources said on Wednesday. Residents of the villages of Kanzihall, Aung Bar Lay and Tang Kaw, located about 16 km (about 10 miles) from Hpakant, were told by Light Infantry Division 66 to leave their homes by Tuesday 6 pm, according to Hla San, a National League for Democracy (NLD) member based in Hpakant town..."
      Author/creator: Lawi WAeng, May Kha
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Mining resumes in jade-rich area of Kachin State
      Date of publication: 07 October 2014
      Description/subject: "After a two-year suspension due to armed conflict in the area, jade mining has resumed in Kachin State’s Phakhant Township, but only large companies have re-entered the areas, local residents say..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Eleven"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: Kyauk Kyi Township, July 2012
      Date of publication: 05 September 2012
      Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in July 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Nyaunglebin District, during July 2012. It describes the Norwegian government's plans for a development project in Kheh Der village tract, which is to support the villagers with their livelihood needs. In addition, the legislator of Kyauk Kyi Township, U Nyan Shwe, reported that he was going to undertake a stone-mining development project in the township, which led the Burmese government to order a company, U Paing, to go and test the stone in Maw Day village on July 1st, 2012. U Paing had left the area by the 8th of July due to safety concerns after a landmine explosion occurred in the near vicinity. Also described are villagers' fears to do with such projects, particularly in regards to environmental damage that could result from mining.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html, pdf (263K),
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg12b74.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 November 2012


      Title: Blood Jade - Burmese Gemstones and the Beijing Games
      Date of publication: 04 August 2008
      Description/subject: "...Burmese jadeite is a global business predicated on human suffering and the absence of the rule of law, and is controlled with an iron grip by Burma’s military regime. The regime led by Senior General Than Shwe grew in notoriety in September 2007 when it violently suppressed peaceful protests led by Buddhist clergy in Burma. The regime’s status as an international pariah was further cemented when it obstructed humanitarian aid to 2.4 million people affected by Nargis, a class four cyclone that hit the Irrawaddy delta region on May 3, 2008, killing 150,000. Burma’s regime has effectively consolidated military control over the entire gems industry, including jadeite, by eliminating small and independent companies from mining and forcing all sales to go through national auctions held by official government ministries in Rangoon. Gems are now Burma’s third largest export and provide the regime with an important source of foreign currency1. Much of this cash comes from China, which has recently seen a dramatic rise in demand for Burmese jadeite due to its overall economic growth. On March 27, 2007, the Beijing Organizing Committee of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG) announced that the design for the medals of the Beijing Games included jade from China’s Qinghai province2. BOCOG has publicly stated that their officially licensed products are being made with Qinghai jade (or nephrite), not jadeite from Burma. However, many if not most of the jade products on the general market are from the abuse-ridden jadeite industry in Burma and profit Burma’s brutal military regime. The showcasing of jade on the world stage will further escalate the growth in demand3. Jadeite production comes at significant costs to the human rights and environmental security of the people living in Kachin state. Land confiscation and forced relocation are commonplace and improper mining practices lead to frequent landslides, floods, and other environmental damage. Conditions in the mines are deplorable, with frequent accidents and base wages less than US$1 per day. An environment of impunity and violence has been created by the military regime and its corporate partners, who inflict beatings on and even kill locals who are caught collecting stones cast off as trash by the mining companies. Mining company bosses and local authorities are complicit in a thriving local trade in drugs, which – when coupled with a substantial sex industry – has led to a generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic that has spilled over the border into China. While Burmese jadeite is only one part of China’s vast economic relationship to Burma’s military rulers, it is an industry on which individuals can have a direct and substantial impact, if they make conscientious decisions not to buy what can justifiably be called “blood” jade... The authors of this report call on individuals – global consumers, visitors to China, Olympic spectators, and Olympic athletes – to boycott the sale of Burma’s blood jade. The Beijing Organizing Committee of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG) and the government of the People’s Republic of China should take immediate action to curb the global trade in blood jade, beginning by ending their promotion of jade products from Burma..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 8808 For Burma & All Kachin Students and Youth Union
      Format/size: pdf (1.2MB - OBL version; 1.5MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.kdng.org/images/stories/publication/BloodJade.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 04 July 2010


      Title: Burma’s Gem Trade and Human Rights Abuses
      Date of publication: July 2008
      Description/subject: Burma’s Gem Trade and Human Rights Abuses Updated July 2008 Burma produces a variety of gems but is most famous for its rubies and jade. The vast majority of high-quality rubies on the world market originate from Burma. Burmese rubies are renowned for their dark “pigeon’s blood” color, which makes them more valuable than rubies produced elsewhere. According to industry estimates, Burma accounts for more than 90 percent of the global trade by value. Burma also dominates as the top producer of jadeite, the most expensive form of jade. Burma is especially well known for “imperial jade,” a gem-quality jade that is valued highly for its deep green hue. In addition, Burma produces and exports a variety of other precious and semi-precious stones, including sapphires and spinel. The color and quality of gems from Burma make them attractive for use in jewelry sold around the world, but the beauty of Burmese gems is marred by their association with serious human rights abuses. A growing number of governments, ethically-minded businesses, and civil society groups are working to curtail the international trade in Burmese gems through targeted sanctions and boycott campaigns. There are signs that these efforts are having an effect.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 August 2008


      Title: Mineralientatlas - Mogok
      Date of publication: 07 December 2007
      Description/subject: Arten, Geschichte, Geologie von Mineralien in Mogok (Sagaing Division);types, history, geology of minerals in Mogok (Sagaing Division)
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Mineralienatlas-Lexikon
      Date of entry/update: 10 May 2008


      Title: Rot wie Blut - Edelsteine aus Burma finanzieren diktatorisches Regime
      Date of publication: November 2007
      Description/subject: Burma verfügt über das weltweit größte Vorkommen von Rubinen. Unter unmenschlichen Bedingungen abgebaut, fließen die Erlöse direkt in die Taschen des diktatorischen Regimes, egal ob offiziell exportiert oder illegal gehandelt. Boykott von Rubinen; Kimberley-Prozess; Boykott of Rubins, Kimberley-Process
      Author/creator: Jolien Schure
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Fatal Transactions - Eine europäische Kampagne zur Rohstoffgerechtigkeit
      Format/size: pdf (402.75 KB)
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2010


      Title: Burmas Minderheiten leiden unter Raubbau an Edelsteinen und Gold - Kritik am Schweigen deutscher Juweliere
      Date of publication: 15 October 2007
      Description/subject: Allein der Handel mit Rubinen und anderen Edelsteinen habe der staatlichen Firma "Myanmar Gems Enterprise" nach offiziellen Angaben zwischen April 2006 und März 2007 Einnahmen in Höhe von 297 Millionen US-Dollars verschafft. Dreimal im Jahr lade Myanmar ausländische Händler zu Edelstein-Auktionen ein. Bei der letzten Versteigerung im März 2007 seien Steine im Wert von 185 Millionen US-Dollars umgesetzt worden. Damit sei die Ausfuhr von Edelsteinen neben dem Handel mit Teak-Holz sowie mit Erdöl und Erdgas, der bedeutendste Devisenbringer des Landes. Gemstones
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Capitalizing on Conflict: How Logging and Mining Contribute to Environmental Destruction in Burma.
      Date of publication: October 2003
      Description/subject: "'Capitalizing on Conflict' presents information illustrating how trade in timber, gems, and gold is financing violent conflict, including widespread and gross human rights abuses, in Burma. Although trade in these “conflict goods” accounts for a small percentage of the total global trade, it severely compromises human security and undermines socio-economic development, not only in Burma, but throughout the region. Ironically, cease-fire agreements signed between the late 1980s and early 1990s have dramatically expanded the area where businesses operate. While many observers have have drawn attention to the political ramifications of these ceasefires, little attention has been focused on the economic ramifications. These ceasefires, used strategically by the military regime to end fighting in some areas and foment intra-ethnic conflict in others and weaken the unity of opposition groups, have had a net effect of increasing violence in some areas. Capitalizing on Conflict focuses on two zones where logging and mining are both widespread and the damage from these activities is severe... Both case studies highlight the dilemmas cease-fire arrangements often pose for the local communities, which frequently find themselves caught between powerful and conflicting military and business interests. The information provides insights into the conditions that compel local communities to participate in the unsustainable exploitation of their own local resources, even though they know they are destroying the very ecosystems they depend upon to maintain their way of life. The other alternative — to stand aside and let outsiders do it and then be left with nothing — is equally unpalatable..." Table of Contents: Map of Burma; Map of Logging and Mining Areas; Executive Summary; Recommendations; Part I: Context; General Background on Cease-fires; Conflict Trade and Burma; Part II: Logging Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Papun Districut (Karen State); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Part III: Mining Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Mogok (Mandalay Division); Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Conclusion.
      Author/creator: Ken MacLean
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI), Karen Environnmental & Social Action Network (KESAN)
      Format/size: pdf (939K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


      Title: Life: Between Hell and the Stone of Heaven
      Date of publication: 11 November 2001
      Description/subject: "More than a million miners desperately excavate the bedrock of a remote valley hidden in the shadows of the Himalayas. They are in search of just one thing - jadeite, the most valuable gemstone in the world. But with wages paid in pure heroin and HIV rampant, the miners are paying an even higher price. Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark travel to the death camps of Burma...Hpakant is Burma's black heart, drawing hundreds of thousands of people in with false hopes and pumping them out again, infected and broken. Thousands never leave the mines, but those who make it back to their communities take with them their addiction and a disease provincial doctors are not equipped to diagnose or treat. The UN and WHO have now declared the pits a disaster zone, but the military regime still refuses to let any international aid in..." jade
      Author/creator: Adrian Levy & Cathy Scott-Clark
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Observer (London)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Gold mining and trade

      Individual Documents

      Title: Shan Farmers Say Gold Mining Is Wrecking Their Land
      Date of publication: 16 July 2014
      Description/subject: "Farmers from eastern Shan State’s Tachileik Township have called for an immediate end to gold mining operations in the area, which they say are seriously polluting water sources and causing other environmental damage. The ethnic Shan villagers from Na Hai Long, Weng Manaw and Ganna villages in Talay sub-township said that more than 300 acres of farmland can no longer be cultivated due to waste produced by gold-mining companies. A group of the farmers traveled to the Shan State capital of Taunggyi to give a press conference organized by the Shan Farmers’ Network on Wednesday..."
      Author/creator: Nyein Nyein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


      Title: Papun Situation Update: Dwe Lo Township, March 2012 to March 2013
      Date of publication: 16 July 2013
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in May 2013 by a community member describing events occurring in Papun District mostly between March 2012 and March 2013, and also provides details on abuses since 2006. The report specifically describes incidents of forced labour, theft, logging, land confiscation and gold mining. The situation update describes military activity from August 2012 to January 2013, specifically Tatmadaw soldiers from Infantry Battalion (IB) #96 ordering villagers to make thatch shingles and cut bamboo. Moreover, soldiers stole villagers' thatch shingles, bamboo canes and livestock. It also describes logging undertaken by wealthy villagers with the permission of the Karen National Union (KNU) and contains updated information concerning land confiscation by Tatmadaw Border Guard Force (BGF) Battalions #1013 and #1014. The update also reports on gold mining initiatives led by the Democratic Karen Benevolent Army (DKBA) that started in 2010. At that time, civilians were ordered to work for the DKBA, and their lands, rivers and plantations were damaged as a result of mining operations. The report also notes economic changes that accompanied mining. In previous years villagers could pan gold from the river and sell it as a hedge against food insecurity. Now, however, options are limited because they must acquire written permission to pan in the river. This situation update also documents villager responses to abuses, and notes that an estimated 10 percent of area villagers favour corporate gold mining, while 90 percent oppose the efforts..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (292K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b45.html
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


      Title: Thaton Photo Set: Gold mining in Bilin Township, January 2013
      Date of publication: 28 June 2013
      Description/subject: "This photo set includes 18 still photographs selected from images taken by a community member from Bilin Township, Thaton District in January 2013. These photographs depict gold mining in Baw Paw Hta village and show village lands that were bought by the Mya Poo Company and subsequently damaged because of mining."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (317K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b38.html
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


      Title: Mining, Plantations Affect Livelihoods of Kachin Villagers, NGO Says
      Date of publication: 28 May 2013
      Description/subject: "Unregulated gold mining, agro-industrial farming and hydropower development in Kachin State is affecting thousands of villagers, who are suffering from environmental destruction and a loss of farmland, a Kachin rights group warned. The People’s Foundation for Development, a NGO based in the Kachin state capital Myitkyina, launched a report in Rangoon on Monday that documented ten cases in which local villagers lost their land and livelihoods to large-scale investment projects and rampant gold mining. The group said that in recent years about 3,500 people had been forcibly evicted to make way for the suspended Myistone hydropower dam and for for the Yuzana Corporation’s massive cassava and sugarcane plantations in the remote Hukaung (also Hukawng) Valley. Since 2006, Yuzana, with the cooperation of local authorities, has been granted 81,000 hectares (200,000 acres) of land in the region. Much of it was reportedly confiscated from hundreds of Kachin families, while the firm allegedly also cleared large parts of a tiger reserve in the valley..."
      Author/creator: Lawi Weng
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 May 2013


      Title: Blood and Gold: Inside Burma's Hidden War (video)
      Date of publication: 04 October 2012
      Description/subject: Deep in the wilds of northern Myanmar's Kachin state a brutal civil war has intensified over the past year between government forces and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). People & Power sent filmmakers Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza to Myanmar (formerly Burma) to investigate why the conflict rages on, despite the political reforms in the south that have impressed Western governments and investors now lining up to stake their claim in the resource-rich Asian nation.
      Author/creator: Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza
      Language: English, Burmese, Kachin, (English subtitles
      Source/publisher: People & Power (Al Jazeera)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes), html
      Date of entry/update: 08 October 2012


      Title: Turning Treasure Into Tears - Mining, Dams and Deforestation in Shwegyin Township, Pegu Division, Burma
      Date of publication: 20 February 2007
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report describes how human rights and environmental abuses continue to be a serious problem in eastern Pegu division, Burma – specifi cally, in Shwegyin township of Nyaunglebin District. The heavy militarization of the region, the indiscriminate granting of mining and logging concessions, and the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam have led to forced labor, land confi scation, extortion, forced relocation, and the destruction of the natural environment. The human consequences of these practices, many of which violate customary and conventional international law, have been social unrest, increased fi nancial hardship, and great personal suffering for the victims of human rights abuses. By contrast, the SPDC and its business partners have benefi ted greatly from this exploitation. The businessmen, through their contacts, have been able to rapidly expand their operations to exploit the township’s gold and timber resources. The SPDC, for its part, is getting rich off the fees and labor exacted from the villagers. Its dam project will forever change the geography of the area, at great personal cost to the villagers, but it will give the regime more electricity and water to irrigate its agro-business projects. Karen villagers in the area previously panned for gold and sold it to supplement their incomes from their fi elds and plantations. They have also long been involved in small-scale logging of the forests. In 1997, the SPDC and businessmen began to industrialize the exploitation of gold deposits and forests in the area. Businessmen from central Burma eventually arrived and in collusion with the Burmese Army gained mining concessions and began to force people off of their land. Villagers in the area continue to lose their land, and with it their ability to provide for themselves. The Army abuses local villagers, confi scates their land, and continues to extort their money. Commodity prices continue to rise, compounding the diffi culties of daily survival. Large numbers of migrant workers have moved into the area to work the mining concessions and log the forests. This has created a complicated tension between the Karen and these migrants. While the migrant workers are merely trying to earn enough money to feed their families, they are doing so on the Karen’s ancestral land and through the exploitation of local resources. Most of the migrant workers are Burman, which increases ethnic tensions in an area where Burmans often represent the SPDC and the Army and are already seen as sneaky and oppressive by the local Karen. These forms of exploitation increased since the announcement of the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam in 2000, which is expected to be completed in late 2006. The SPDC has enabled the mining and logging companies to extract as much as they can before the area upstream of the dam is fl ooded. This situation has intensifi ed and increased human rights violations against villagers in the area. The militarization of the region, as elsewhere, has resulted in forced labor, extortion of money, goods, and building materials, and forced relocation by the Army. In addition to these direct human rights violations, the mining and dam construction have also resulted in grave environmental degradation of the area. The mining process has resulted in toxic runoff that has damaged or destroyed fi elds and plantations downstream. The dam, once completed, will submerge fi elds, plantations, villages, and forests. In addition, the dam will be used to irrigate rubber plantations jointly owned by the SPDC and private business interests. The Burmese Army has also made moves to secure the area in the mountains to the east of the Shwegyin River. This has led to relocations and the forced displacement of thousands of Karen villagers living in the mountains. Once the Army has secured the area, the mining and logging companies will surely follow..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
      Format/size: pdf (632K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 March 2007


      Title: Valley of Darkness - gold mining and militarization in Burma's Hugawng valley
      Date of publication: 09 January 2007
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The remote and environmentally rich Hugawng valley in Burma's northern Kachin State has been internationally recognized as one of the world's hotspots of biodiversity. Indeed, the military junta ruling Burma, together with the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society, is establishing the world's largest tiger reserve in the valley. However, the conditions of the people living there have not received attention. This report by local researchers reveals the untold story of how the junta's militarization and self-serving expansion of the gold mining industry have devastated communities and ravaged the valley's forests and waterways. The Hugawng valley was largely untouched by Burma's military regime until the mid-1990s. After a ceasefire between the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) and the junta in 1994, local residents had high hopes that peace would foster economic development and improved living conditions. However, under the junta's increased control, the rich resources of Hugawng valley have turned out to be a curse. Despite the ceasefire, the junta has expanded its military infrastructure throughout Kachin State, increasing its presence from 26 battalions in 1994 to 41 in 2006. This expansion has been mirrored in Hugawng valley, where the number of military outposts has doubled; in the main town of Danai, public and private buildings have been seized and one third of the surrounding farmland confiscated. Some of the land and buildings were used to house military units, while others were sold to business interests for military profit. In order to expand and ensure its control over gold mining revenues, the regime offered up 18% of the entire Kachin State for mining concessions in 2002. This transformed gold mining from independent gold panning to a large-scale mechanized industry controlled by the concession holders. In Hugawng valley concessions were sold to 8 selected companies and the number of main gold mining sites increased from 14 in 1994 to 31 sites in 2006. The number of active hydraulic and pit mines had exploded to approximately 100 by the end of 2006. The regime's Ministry of Mines collects signing fees for the concessions as well as 35% - 50% tax on annual profits. Additional payments are rendered to the military's top commander for the region, various township and local authorities as well as the Minister of Mines personally. The junta has announced occasional bans on gold mining in Kachin State but as this report shows, these bans are temporary and selective, in effect used to maintain the junta's grip on mining revenues. While the regime, called the State Peace and Development Council or SPDC, has consolidated political and financial control of the valley, it has not enforced its own existing (and very limited) environmental and health regulations on gold mining operations. This lack of regulation has resulted in deforestation, the destruction of river banks, and altering of river flows. Miners have been severely injured or killed by unsafe working practices and the lack of adequate health services. The environmental and health effects of mercury contamination have yet to be monitored and analyzed. The most dramatic effects of this gold mining boom, however, have been on the social conditions of the local people. The influx of transient populations, together with harsh working conditions, a lack of education opportunities and poverty have led to the expansion of the drug, sex, and gambling industries in Hugawng valley. In one mining area it was estimated that 80% of inhabitants are addicted to opium and approximately 30% of miners use heroin and methamphetamines. Intravenous drug use and the sex industry have increased the spread of HIV/AIDS. Far from alleviating these social ills, local SPDC authorities collect fees from these illicit industries and even diminish efforts to curb them. The SPDC continually boasts about how the people of Kachin State are benefiting from its border area development program. The case of Hugawng valley illustrates, however, the fundamental lack of local benefit from or participation in the development process. The SPDC is pursuing its interests of military expansion and revenue generation at the expense of social and environmental sustainability This report documents local people speaking out about this destructive and unsustainable development. Such bravery should be encouraged and supported.".......The main URL for this document in OBL leaqds to a 1.5MB version, obtained by passing the original through ocr software. The original and uthoritative version can be found as an alternate link in this entry.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin Development Networking Group (KDNG)
      Format/size: pdf (3.77MB - original and authoritative; 1.5MB - ocr version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.eldis.org/assets/Docs/24720.html
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


      Title: Gold Diggers
      Date of publication: October 2005
      Description/subject: Big companies push small prospectors aside in hunt for Burma’s riches... "In Alice in Wonderland, the Red Queen tells Alice: “A word means what I want it to mean.” That sums up in one sentence the state of Burma’s statute books—particularly those decrees relating to mining the country’s rich resources. Robert Moody, in his 1998 “Report on Mining in Burma,” put it more directly. The law on mining passed by the Rangoon regime in 1994, he said, “is not just one, but a parade of farts in a bucket.” The law makes no provisions for holding mining companies responsible for failure to stabilize workings and waste piles, nor for rehabilitating closed mines. There are no requirements for an environmental and reclamation bond to be posted by a mining company, no need for an environment and social impact assessment, nor for an independent monitor to ensure compliance during mining and post-closure operations.The law allows private citizens to prospect for gold, but they are not permitted to use machinery. People granted permits must sign an agreement to turn over 30 percent of their refined gold to the Ministry of Mines. Citizens are also permitted to pan for placer gold found in streams, although they are increasingly being edged out by Chinese contractors dredging the Irrawaddy River..."
      Author/creator: Charles Large
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


      Title: At What Price? Gold Mining in Kachin State, Burma
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: Contents:-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; MAP; EXECUTIVE SUMMARY; INTRODUCTION & METHODOLOGY;; BACKGROUND; UNEARTHING BURMA; ENVIRONMENT AND MINING LAWS; THE LAND OF THE KACHIN; GEOGRAPHY & BIODIVERSITY; HISTORY; GOLD IN THE KACHIN HILLS; CONCESSION POLICY; ROLE OF THE KIO; FOREIGN INVESTORS; CHINA; GOING FOR KACHIN GOLD: MINING TECHNIQUES; PLACER MINING; PANNING; BUCKET DREDGES; SUCTION DREDGES; HYDRAULIC MINING; GOLD ORE; OPEN-CAST MINES; SHAFT MINES; CHEMICALS IN THE MINING PROCESS; DANGER: MERCURY; ALTERNATIVES TO MERCURY; CYANIDE LEACHING; CASE STUDIES OF MINING AREAS IN KACHIN STATE; HUKAWNG; MALI HKA; N’MAI HKA; HPAKANT; GOLD AND THE ENVIRONMENT3; AFTER THE GOLD RUSH: TAILINGS AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE; LAND REHABILITATION; THE RIVER ECOSYSTEM; GOLD AND ITS SOCIAL IMPACT; SEEKING WORK, SEEKING GOLD; ENDANGERING MINERS; MINING AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS; RECOMMENDATIONS... APPENDICES: IVANHOE MINES LTD.; EXAMPLES OF MERCURY AND METHYLMERCURY POISONING; CASES OF CYANIDE POLLUTION; AGREEMENT BETWEEN MYITKYINA TPDC AND NORTHERN STAR MINERALS TRADING AND PRODUCTION CO.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Images Asia Environment Desk, Pan Kachin Development Society
      Format/size: pdf (3.4MB) 66 pages
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2004


    • Mining of iron and other metals
      Iron, tungsten (wolfram), molybdenum, titanium, platinum, antimony, chromite, nickel, tin etc

      Individual Documents

      Title: Chin urge transparency on Mwe Taung mining project
      Date of publication: 20 September 2014
      Description/subject: "Chin political parties and residents are calling for transparency over a Chinese-backed project, with some warning that the project could lead to a repeat of the unrest seen at the Letpadaung copper mine. Geological studies of the Mwe Taung Phar Taung area – on the border of Chin State’s Tiddim township and Sagaing Region’s Kale township – show three deposits of mixed nickel and iron capable of providing nearly 17,000 tonnes of pure nickel annually. A survey carried out by Chin political parties, civil societies and MPsfrom September 2 to 9, however, shows that many residents in the area are concerned about the potential impact on their businesses and the environment..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Dawei Village to Sue Thai Mining Firm Over Environmental Impacts
      Date of publication: 17 March 2014
      Description/subject: "Villagers in Tenasserim Division’s Dawei District announced they will file a legal complaint against a Thai company and a Burmese government firm operating the Heinda tin mine, in order to seek compensation for severe environmental damage to their farmlands caused by the mine’s wastewater. In a press release Sunday, disseminated by US campaign group Earth Rights International, residents of Myaung Pyo village said they would complain to Dawei District Court over the operations of Thailand’s Myanmar Pongpipat Company and state-owned Mining Enterprise 2, which falls under the Ministry of Mining. The inhabitants of the ethnic Dawei village said their lands have been affected by increasing amounts of wastewater ever since Myanmar Pongpipat took over the Heinda mine. The Thai firm signed a production-sharing contract with Mining Enterprise 2 in 1999 and reportedly holds rights to 65 percent of produced tin and tungsten, which is transported to nearby Thailand for processing..."
      Author/creator: Paul Vrieze
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Arakan State Govt Backs Mining Projects in Strife-Torn North
      Date of publication: 07 October 2013
      Description/subject: "A Chinese and a Luxembourg-registered firm have obtained Arakan State government approval to begin mining aluminum and titanium deposits located on beaches in the north of the state, said Arakan State Minister of Electricity and Industry Aung Than Tin. He added that final approval from Naypyidaw for the projects, which are located in strife-torn parts of the state, was expected soon..."
      Author/creator: Nyein Nyein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Karenni ceasefire fuels mining exploitation: NGOs
      Date of publication: 07 October 2013
      Description/subject: "Two Karenni NGOs have called on the Burmese government to suspend all mining licences issued since March 2012 for the eastern state until there is constitutional reform granting ethnic states the right to control and manage their own natural resources. In a joint-statement issued last week, the Molo Women Mining Watch Network and Karenni Civil Society Network (KCSN) strongly condemned the Burmese government’s practice of granting mining contracts in conflict zones in Karenni state. According to the groups, since the Karenni National Progressive Party signed a ceasefire with the Burmese government some 18 months ago, the number of mines in Karenni state has risen from three to 16. “Tin and tungsten mines in Mawchi mining town have been expanded, and new antimony, coal, galena and gold mines are being mined throughout Karenni state,” said the report.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Dooplaya Situation Update: Kya In Seik Kyi Township, September 2012
      Date of publication: 07 June 2013
      Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in September 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Dooplaya District, during September 2012. Specifically detailed is the situation and location of armed groups (Tatmadaw, DKBA and BGF); the villagers’ situation and opinions of the KNLA; and development projects in the area. This report also contains information about Tatmadaw practices such as the killing of villager’s livestock without permission or compensation; forcing villagers to be guides; and use of villagers’ tractors; villagers were however, given payment for this. The report also describes villagers’ difficulties associated with the payment of government-required motorbike licenses, as well as difficulties regarding the education system. The lack of healthcare in local villages is described, as well as the ailments that villagers suffer from. Further, this report includes information about antimony mining projects in the area carried out by companies such as San Mya Yadana Company and Thu Wana Myay Zi Lwar That Tuh Too Paw Yay owned by Hkin Zaw. Antimony mining is reported to have been going on for four years and the presence of mining companies is reported to have led to food price increases in the area. The community member describes how large mining companies have contributed water pipes and money to a village school. The biggest mining project in the region led by Hkin Maung is discussed and it is reported that mining companies working in the area have permission from the KNU and pay taxes to the KNU. This report and others, was published in March 2013 in Appendix 1: Raw Data Testimony of KHRG’s thematic report: Losing Ground: Land Conflicts and collective action in eastern Myanmar.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html, pdf (135K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b32.html
      http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b32.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 27 July 2013


      Title: Lost Paradise - Damaging Impact of Mawchi Tin Mines in Burma's Karenni State
      Date of publication: 11 December 2012
      Description/subject: This report documents the increased militarization around the Mawchi mines, as well as the different social and environmental impacts they have had on the local community...... 1. Introduction... 2. Ancestral lands and water sources to be lost from extension of Mawchi mines... 3. Tin production for export and domestic use... 4. Villagers suffer impacts of Heinda tin mine in Tenasserim... 5. Background history of Mawchi tin mine... 6. Timeline of Mawchi mines... 7. Relations between tin mining companies... 8. Military security for Mawchi mine... 9. Social impacts of tin mining: 9/1 . Health problems caused by tin mining; 9/2 . Pollution from mining waste; 9/3. Drinking water problems; 9/4. Health problems downstream from the mines; 9/5. Living conditions and safety of mine workers; 9/6 . Gender disparity... 10 . An old woman from the Mawchi area recounts her experience... 11 . Environmental impacts of tin mining: 11/1 . Deforestation; 11/2 . Landslides... 12 . Who benefits from tin mining?... 13. Conclusion and recommendations.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Molo Women Mining Watch Network
      Format/size: pdf (490K-OBL version; 757K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://karenniwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/LostParadise-MawchiMining-English-.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 December 2012


      Title: Grab for white gold - platinum mining in Eastern Shan State (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 08 May 2012
      Description/subject: အစီရင္ခံစာအက်ဥ္းခ်ဳပ္ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္ အေရွ႔ပိုင္း တာခ်ီလိတ္ၿမိဳ ၏႔ ေျမာက္ဖက္ ေတာင္တန္းေဒမ်ားတြင္ ေဒသခံမ်ားကို ထိခိုကေ္ စသည့္ ေရႊျဖဴတူးေဖာ္ျခင္းလုပ္ငန္းကို ၂၀၀၇ခုႏွစ္မွ စတင္ခဲ့ကာ ယင္းေၾကာင့္ လားဟူ၊ အာခါႏွင့္ ရွမ္းရြာ ၈ရြာမွာ လူေပါင္း ၂၀၀၀ေက်ာ္ကို ထိခိုက္ေစခဲ့သည္။ ေရႊျဖဴတူးေဖာ္မႈကို ျမန္မာကုမၸဏီမ်ားက ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနၿပီး တရုတ္ႏွင့္ ထုိင္းႏိုင္ငံသို႔ တင္ပို႔လွ်က္ရိွသည္။ တာခ်လီ တိ ၿ္မဳိ ႔ ေျမာကဖ္ က ္ ၁၃ကလီ မို တီ ာအကြာရ ွိအားရဲေခၚ အာခါရြာအနီးတငြ ္ကမု ဏၸ ၅ီ ခကု လပု င္ န္း လပု က္ ငို လ္ ်ွကရ္ သွိ ည။္ ထကို မု ဏၸ မီ ်ားက ရြာသားမ်ားပငို ဆ္ ငို သ္ ည ့္ပစညၥ ္းမ်ားႏငွ ့္ ေျမယာမ်ားက ိုအတင္းအက်ပဖ္ အိ ားေပး၍ ေစ်းႏမိွ ္ေရာင္းခ်ေစသကသဲ့ ႔ ို ေျမယာအခ်ိဳ က႔ ို ေလွ်ာ္ေၾကးမေပးဘဲ အဓမၼသိမး္ ယူ ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ေထာင္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာေသာ စိုက္ပိ်ဳးေျမဧကမ်ားႏွင့္ သစ္ေတာမ်ားကို ကုမၸဏီက သိမ္းယူေနၿပီး အခ်ိဳ႔ေသာေျမယာမ်ားသည္ သတၱဳတြင္းမွ အညစ္အေၾကးမ်ားစြန္႔ပစ္ေသာေၾကာင့္ ပ်ကဆ္ ီးလ်ွကရ္ သွိ ည။္ ရြာသရူ ြာသားမ်ား အသုံးျပဳသည ့္အေ၀းေျပးလမ္းသ ႔ိုသြားေရာကရ္ ာလမ္းမွာလည္း သတဳၱတူးေဖာသ္ ည ့္ ကုန္တင္ကားမ်ား၊ စက္ယႏၱယားႀကီးမ်ား ျဖတ္သန္းသြားျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ပ်က္ဆီးၾကရသည္။ သတဳၱတူးေဖာျ္ခင္းေၾကာင ့္ ရြာသားမ်ား အဓကိ အသုံးျပဳေနေသာ ေရအရင္းအျမစ ္ညစည္ မ္းလ်ွကရ္ ၿွိပီး ေရစီးေၾကာင္းမ်ားလည္း ေျပာင္းလဲကုန္သည္။ ယင္းအေျခအေနမ်ားက ေဒသခံအမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားကို ႀကီးမားေသာ အခက္အခဲမ်ားျဖစ္ေပၚေစသည္။ အေၾကာင္းမွာ ေရရရိွရန္အတြက္ အလြန္ေ၀းကြာေသာခရီးကို ေျခလ်င္ လမ္းေလွ်ာက္သြားရေသာေၾကာင့္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ထို႔အတူ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္ရာလုပ္ငန္းသို႔ အမ်ိဳးသားေရႊ႔ေျပာင္းအလုပ္သမားမ်ား အစုလုိက္အၿပံဳလုိက္ ေရာက္ရိွ လာျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ထိုေနရာတ၀ိုက္တြင္ေနထိုင္သည့္ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား၏ လံုၿခံဳေရးမွာ အႏၱရာယ္ က်ေရာက္ လွ်က္ရိွသည္။ စိုက္ခင္းသို႔ သြားသည့္အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားမွာ လိင္ပိုင္းဆုိင္ရာ ထိပါးေႏွာင့္ယွက္မႈမ်ားကို ႀကံဳေတြ႔ ေနရသည္။ အမ်ိဳးသမီးငယ္မ်ားမွာ သတၱဳတြင္းအလုပ္သမားမ်ား၏ မယားငယ္မ်ားအျဖစ္ သိမ္းယူခံရသကဲ့သို႔ အခ်ိဳ႔ အမ်ိဳးသမီးငယ္မ်ားမွာ ျပည္႔တန္ဆာမ်ား ျဖစ္ၾကရသည္။ သတၱဳတြင္း၀န္ထမ္းမ်ားက ေဒသခံ အမ်ိဳးသမီးငယ္မ်ားကို လူကုန္ကူးရာတြင္ ပါ၀င္ပတ္သက္ေနၾကသည္။ ရြာသ၊ူ ရြာသားမ်ား၏ အခငြ အ့္ ေရးက ိုကာကြယ္ေပးသည ့္ ဥပေဒစိုးမိုးမလႈ ည္း ကင္းမဲ့ေနသည။္ ျမနမ္ ာစစတ္ ပမ္ ွအရာရမွိ ်ားအား လာဘ္ထုိးျခင္းအားျဖင့္ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္သည့္ ကုမၸဏီမ်ားသည္ လူမႈေရးႏွင့္ သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ဆုိင္ရာ စံသတ္မွတ္ခ်က္မ်ားကို လိုက္နာရန္မလိုဘဲ လုပ္ငန္းလုပ္ကိုင္ႏိုင္ၾကသည္။ ထုိ႔ေၾကာင့္ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္သည့္ကုမၸဏီမ်ားႏွင့္ အိမ္နီးခ်င္းႏိုင္ငံမွ ေရႊျဖဴ၀ယ္ယူသူတုိ႔သည္ လူမႈေရးႏွင့္ သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ ထိန္းသိမ္းေရးဆုိင္ရာ တာ၀န္မ်ားကို ေရွာင္ရွားျခင္းျဖင့္ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္ျခင္း လုပ္ငန္းမွ အျမတ္ေငြ မ်ားႏိုင္သမွ် မ်ားမ်ားရေအာင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနၾကသည္။ ထုိ႔ေၾကာင့္ လားဟူ အမ်ိဳးသမီးအဖဲြ႔က ေဒသတြင္းဖံြ႔ၿဖိဳးတုိးတက္မႈကို မျဖစ္ေစဘဲ ဆင္းရဲမဲြေတမႈႏွင့္ သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ ပ်က္ဆီးမႈကိုသာျဖစ္ေစသည့္ သတၱဳတူးေဖာ္ျခင္းလုပ္ငန္းကို ခ်က္ခ်င္း ရပ္တန္႔ရန္ ျမန္မာအစိုးရအား ေတာင္းဆုိသည္။
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Lahu Women's Organization
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold-PR(bu).pdf (Press Release, Burmese)
      http://www.lahuwomen.org
      http://lahuwomen.org/press-release/lahu-women-demand-end-to-destructive-platinum-mining-in-burmas-s...
      Date of entry/update: 14 May 2012


      Title: Grab for white gold - platinum mining in Eastern Shan State (English)
      Date of publication: 08 May 2012
      Description/subject: Burmese and Chinese companies are pushing aside Akha, Lahu and Shan villagers in eastern Shan State in a grab for platinum (“white gold” in Burmese). Women are facing particular hardship due to the loss of livelihood and the contamination of water sources. The Lahu Women Organization is calling for an immediate halt to these damaging mining operations....Summary Since 2007, destructive platinum mining has been taking place in the hills north of Tachilek, eastern Shan State, impacting about 2,000 people from eight Lahu, Akha and Shan villages. The platinum is being extracted by Burmese mining companies and exported to China and Thailand. Five companies are currently operating around the Akha village of Ah Yeh, 13 kilometers north of Tachilek. They have forced villagers to sell property and land at cheap prices, and confiscated other lands without compensation. Hundreds of acres of farms and forestland have been seized, or destroyed by dumping of mining waste. The villagers’ access road to the main highway has been ruined by the passage of heavy mining trucks and machinery. The main water source for local villagers has been diverted and contaminated by the mining, causing tremendous hardship for local women, who must now walk long distances to do their washing. Women are also facing increased security risks from the influx of migrant male miners into the area. There is regular sexual harassment of women going to their fields. Young women are being taken as minor wives by the miners; some are also becoming sex workers. Mining staff have also been involved in trafficking of local women. There is no rule of law protecting the rights of the local villagers. By paying off the local Burmese military, mining companies are able to carry out operations without adhering to any social or environmental standards. The companies and platinum buyers in neighbouring countries are therefore maximizing profits by avoiding responsibility for the social and environmental costs of the mines. The Lahu Women’s Organisation therefore calls on the Burmese government to put an immediate stop to these destructive mining operations, which are not contributing to local development, but are causing poverty and environmental degradation..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lahu Women's Organization
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://lahuwomen.org/press-release/lahu-women-demand-end-to-destructive-platinum-mining-in-burmas-s...
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold-PR(th).pdf (Pres Release, Thai)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold-PR(ch).pdf (Press Release, Chinese)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold-PR(bu).pdf (Press Release, Burmese)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold(lahu).pdf (full text, Lahu)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Grab_for_White_Gold(bu)-op75mr-red.pdf (full text, Burmese)
      Date of entry/update: 14 May 2012


      Title: Grab for white gold - platinum mining in Eastern Shan State (Lahu)
      Date of publication: 08 May 2012
      Description/subject: Summary: Since 2007, destructive platinum mining has been taking place in the hills north of Tachilek, eastern Shan State, impacting about 2,000 people from eight Lahu, Akha and Shan villages. The platinum is being extracted by Burmese mining companies and exported to China and Thailand. Five companies are currently operating around the Akha village of Ah Yeh, 13 kilometers north of Tachilek. They have forced villagers to sell property and land at cheap prices, and confiscated other lands without compensation. Hundreds of acres of farms and forestland have been seized, or destroyed by dumping of mining waste. The villagers’ access road to the main highway has been ruined by the passage of heavy mining trucks and machinery. The main water source for local villagers has been diverted and contaminated by the mining, causing tremendous hardship for local women, who must now walk long distances to do their washing. Women are also facing increased security risks from the influx of migrant male miners into the area. There is regular sexual harassment of women going to their fields. Young women are being taken as minor wives by the miners; some are also becoming sex workers. Mining staff have also been involved in trafficking of local women. There is no rule of law protecting the rights of the local villagers. By paying off the local Burmese military, mining companies are able to carry out operations without adhering to any social or environmental standards. The companies and platinum buyers in neighbouring countries are therefore maximizing profits by avoiding responsibility for the social and environmental costs of the mines. The Lahu Women’s Organisation therefore calls on the Burmese government to put an immediate stop to these destructive mining operations, which are not contributing to local development, but are causing poverty and environmental degradation.
      Language: Lahu (Metadata: English)
      Source/publisher: Lahu Women's Organization
      Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://lahuwomen.org/press-release/lahu-women-demand-end-to-destructive-platinum-mining-in-burmas-shan-state'>http://lahuwomen.org/press-release/lahu-women-demand-end-to-destructive-platinum-mining-in-burmas-s...
      http://lahuwomen.org
      Date of entry/update: 14 May 2012


      Title: Japan's Itochu joins the charge of the mining brigade in to Burma
      Date of publication: 04 May 2012
      Description/subject: "It is reported in the Japanese press today that Itochu Corp has begun a feasibility study in the country to isolate specialty metals including tungsten and molybdenum. This follows approaches by Japanese officials last year trying to get a deal with Burma for access to rare earths, the elements vital to Japanese industry’s high tech and hybrid car programs. South Korea has also been lobbying the Burmese over rare earths. Chinese companies have also been eyeing projects in the country. In 2008, China National Petroleum Corp signed a 30-year gas agreement covering production from three blocks in the Bay of Bengal. But this is only the beginning. The country will be a big target because it has bountiful resources in close proximity to resource-hungry India and China..."
      Author/creator: Robin Bromby
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Australian"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: Pa-Oh youth launch campaign to oppose damaging impacts of Burma’s largest iron mine (text and video)
      Date of publication: 27 October 2010
      Description/subject: "Save our Mountain, Save out Future": Pinpet Iron Mine and Steel Mill plant, near Taunggyi..."The Pa-Oh Youth Organisation (PYO) has produced a video and leaflets showing the destruction already caused by the mining project, due to start next year, including loss of farmlands, pollution of waterways, and abuses committed by the Burmese regime’s troops providing security for the project. Hundreds of copies of the video have already been distributed in the affected areas. Construction of the massive iron factory, jointly funded by Russian state-owned Tyazhpromexport company, is almost complete. 100 villagers are now being ordered out of the project area, among 7,000 people slated for relocation once Pinpet mountain starts being leveled for open pit mining. A further 35,000 villagers will be impacted by pollution of the Thabet Stream, which has been diverted to clean and process the iron ore. Affected communities have appealed to local authorities to stop the land confiscation and forced relocation, but so far to no avail. “There is a news black-out about the Pinpet project in Burma. We want to raise awareness about the damage being caused and support community efforts to oppose the project,” said PYO spokesperson Khun Chan Khe..." To see the video and an update on the project, see http://pyo-org.blogspot.com/ ..... ပအိုဝ်းလူငယ်လှုပ်ရှားတက်ကြွသူများက ရှမ်းပြည်နယ် တောင်ကြီးမြို့နယ်ရှိ မြန်မာပြည်၏ အကြီးဆုံး ပင်းပက် သံသတ္တုမိုင်းမှ ထိခိုက်ဆိုးကျိုးများအား ဆန့်ကျင်ကန့်ကွက်နေသည့် ဒေသခံပြည်သူများ အားဝိုင်းဝန်း ထောက်ခံအားပေးရေးအတွက် ယနေ့ လှုပ်ရှားမှုကို ကျင်းပပြုလုပ်ခြင်း ဖြစ်ပါသည်။ လှုပ်ရှားမှုနှင့်ပတ်သက်၍သတ္တုမိုင်း စီမံကိန်းကြောင့် ထိခိုက်ဖျက်ဆီးခံရမှုများကို ဗွီဒီယို၊ လက်ကမ်းစာစောင်များ အား မှတ်တမ်းတင်ထုတ်ဝေသည်။ ထိခိုက်ဖျက်ဆီးခံရမှုတွင် စီမံကိန်းလုံခြုံရေးကြောင့် ဒေသခံအာဏာပိုင်များက ကျူးလွန်ခဲ့သည့် လူ့အခွင့်အရေး ချိုးဖောက်ခံရမှုများ၊ ဒေသခံပြည်သူများမှ လယ်ယာမြေများ လက်လွတ်ဆုံးရှုံးရမှု၊ ရေထုညစ်ညမ်းမှုများ ကြုံတွေ့နေရပါသည်။ ထို့သို့ ထိခိုက် နစ်နာခဲ့ရသည့် ဒေသခံပြည်သူများပုံရိပ်ကို ပအိုဝ်းလူငယ် အစည်းအရုံးမှ ဓါတ်ပုံဗွီဒီယိုမှတ်တမ်း အနေဖြင့် ဖြန့်ဖြူး ထုတ်ဝေပါသည်။
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Pa_Oh Youth Organization (PYO)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash; pdf (4K)
      Alternate URLs: http://pyo-org.blogspot.com/
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Pa-Oh-Pinpet_mine.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


      Title: Save our Mountain Save our Future -- an update from Burma’s largest iron mine
      Date of publication: October 2010
      Description/subject: Pinpet Mountain under imminent threat as iron project speeds ahead.... "Excavation of Burma’s second largest iron deposit located in southern Shan State is imminent as bulldozers begin preparatory clearing on the iconic Pinpet Mountain, home to 7,000 people. The 300 residents in Pang Ngo village are in immediate danger from falling rocks and landslides as machines uproot trees, clear brush and remove top soil on the west side of the mountain. Farm fi elds at the foot of the mountain may be covered with toxic waste soils once the excavation starts as ore samples at the site have tested high for arsenic content. Construction activities at the secretive iron factory compound are also racing ahead. Underground bunkers are now complete and a massive new crushing facility (see inside) now towers above the compound walls. Surveys for uranium conducted on the mountain in the past continue to fuel persistent concerns that this project is linked to Burma’s nuclear plans. Meanwhile according to authorities the forced relocation of nearby villages will begin after the military regime’s sham elections, beginning with the extraction of a community graveyard in December. Land confi scation continues unabated. Local villagers are calling to stop the project, protect the mountain and save the main waterway for the entire Hopone valley from toxic pollution before it’s too late..." This briefing is an update of PYO’s report, "Robbing the Future published in June 2009".
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Pa-Oh Youth Organization (PYO)
      Format/size: pdf (2.2MB - English; 2.2MB - Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Pinpet_Updated_Broucher(bu).pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 February 2011


      Title: Robbing the Future - Russian-backed Mining Project Threatens Pa-O Communities in Shan State, Burma
      Date of publication: June 2009
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The transformation of Mount Pinpet, or "Pine Tree Mountain," in Burma's war-torn Shan State, for the excavation and refinement of the country's second largest iron ore deposit is changing the very nature of life there, and if not stopped could permanently destroy the home of more than 7,000 primarily ethnic Pa-O residents. Since 2004 Russian and Burmese companies have been preparing to develop the deposit and are currently building an iron processing plant and a cement factory on a total of 11,000 acres of lands. An Italian company is also believed to be involved in the project. Although there has been a ceasefire in the area since 1991, the military ruling Burma has established three sizeable battalion camps and two military universities in or around the nearby towns of Taunggyi and Hopone. Fighting has flared up south of the project site and has led to recent torture and killing of villagers by the Burma Army. Twenty-five villages, a total of 7,000 people, could be permanently displaced from their homes and farmlands by the projects. A further 35,000 people rely on the watershed of the Thabet Stream in the valley east of the mountain. Fifty people have already been forced to move and were not adequately compensated. The confiscation of vital farmlands has begun, leaving over 100 families without the primary source of their livelihood and sustenance. Travel restrictions have closed down a major road and prohibited villagers from collecting firewood, food, and shelter materials on the mountain. The entire mountain of Pinpet will be excavated for this project, irrevocably changing the landscape and environment of the area. Pollution from mine tailings and erosion of mine heaps threaten the main water source of Hopone Valley. Ancient pagodas have been cracked and may be demolished altogether by explosions to prepare construction sites and begin excavation. Local communities have not been informed or consulted about project plans and complaints to authorities about the confiscation of lands and lack of compensation have not been addressed. No assessments of the projects have been made public and mining authorities are pushing ahead by using the force of armed local military to relocate families, confiscate lands, restrict movements, and intimidate communities. The lack of information is compounded by persistent speculation that the mining operation is in fact being set up to exploit and refine uranium, not only iron ore and limestone. These fears are fueled by Burma's announcement in 2007 that Russia is to build a nuclear reactor in the country. The companies responsible for these projects should stop all activity and first conduct thorough and transparent assessments of the projects' environmental and social impacts; adequate compensation should be provided for those who have already lost their homes and lands; to assuage fears, all nuclear and uranium mining plans should be made public; and, such projects should not be conducted under the force of military power. The Pa-O Youth Organization stands with its community to protect livelihoods, land ownership, and cultural heritage, and calls on regional and international actors to inspect the Pinpet projects and use their influence to ensure respect for the rights of affected communities."
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Pa-O Youth Organization (PYO)
      Format/size: pdf (English, 3.5MB; Burmese 4.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Robbing_the_Future(bu).pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 July 2009


    • Stone and silica mining

      Individual Documents

      Title: Thousands protest against mines in Namhkam
      Date of publication: 05 September 2014
      Description/subject: "Thousands gathered in Namhkam, Shan State, on Friday morning to protest against commercial mining operations. The locals said that large-scale silica mining projects have resulted in permanent damage to streams and farmlands, ultimately ruining the livelihoods of thousands of people in the township. Demonstrators convened at the Nam Seere bridge at around 8am, then marched to downtown Namhkam shouting slogans..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


      Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: Kyauk Kyi Township, July 2012
      Date of publication: 05 September 2012
      Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in July 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Nyaunglebin District, during July 2012. It describes the Norwegian government's plans for a development project in Kheh Der village tract, which is to support the villagers with their livelihood needs. In addition, the legislator of Kyauk Kyi Township, U Nyan Shwe, reported that he was going to undertake a stone-mining development project in the township, which led the Burmese government to order a company, U Paing, to go and test the stone in Maw Day village on July 1st, 2012. U Paing had left the area by the 8th of July due to safety concerns after a landmine explosion occurred in the near vicinity. Also described are villagers' fears to do with such projects, particularly in regards to environmental damage that could result from mining.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html, pdf (263K),
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg12b74.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 November 2012


  • Oil and gas

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Search results for "Myanmar" on OilOnline
    Date of publication: 01 February 2004
    Description/subject: Oil industry website
    Author/creator: NA
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: OilOnline
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.oilonline.com/
    Date of entry/update: 19 December 2004


    Title: Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) - upstream
    Description/subject: "Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) is the 100% State Owned Enterprise and is responsible for Upstream Petroleum Sub-sector". Paras and tables include: Oil and Gas Bearing Areas of Myanmar, Oil and Gas Fields of Myanmar, Natural Gas Pipelines of Myanmar, Capabilities of Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise, Onshore and Offshore Blocks of Myanmar. It invites cooperation in the sector, with paras on Objectives of Production Sharing Contract, Current Operating Multi-national Companies, Major Discoveries in Offshore Area (incl. paras on Yadana and Yetagun fields), Available Blocks, Exploration and Production of Crude Oil and Natural Gas with Multi-national Companies, Details of production-sharing contracts, Onshore Natural Gas Pipelines existing, under construction and planned.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


    Title: Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise (MPE) - downstream
    Description/subject: Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise ("MPE") is a "100% State Owned Economic Enterprise responsible for Downstream Petroleum Sub-sector". Lists its refineries and plants producing urea fertilizer, methanol, LPG, bitumen, carbon dioxide, lubricants etc. and invites cooperation in this sector
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.energy.gov.mm/downstreampetroleumsubsector.htm
    Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


    Title: Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise (MPPE) - downstream
    Description/subject: Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise is the State-owned Organization vested with authority and responsibility to carry out retail and whole sale distribution of Petroleum products in Myanmar. The Enterprise has conducted the effective and intensive distribution of Petroleum Products, dedicated to Agriculture, Fishery, Transport, Power Generation, Defense, Construction and Industries in the Government Sector and also to the Private Sector from the existing 4 Main Fuel Terminals, 26 Sub Fuel Terminals, 11 Aviation Depots and 256 Filling Stations." Lists its terminals and filling stations and carries an interesting little invitation regarding "Import of Crude Oil, Diesel Fuel and Motor Gasoline on a Deferred Basis
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Hunting for Myanmar's hidden treasure
    Date of publication: 17 October 2014
    Description/subject: " Ramree Island, Myanmar - Zaw Myint looked quizzical as he sniffed a handful of grey sludge. He had just pulled the mud up from the bottom of an oil well he's digging on Myanmar's impoverished western coastline, hoping for the sweet whiff of black gold. "The money I get working here is good," Zaw Myint said, standing in a shallow pool of water that glistened with the sheen of oil. However, Zaw Myint's success may soon change. Big Oil is hot on his trail. Companies from the United States, Europe, Japan and Singapore are elbowing their way into the country they turned their backs on during the past two decades because of its appalling human rights abuses. The country fell into China's less scrupulous embrace and, for two decades, Myanmar was the monogamous partner in a loveless marriage of convenience. Western nations are moving into the resource-rich country after decades of disinterest, challenging China's interests... In 2011, fearing the country was sliding towards Chinese client statehood, Myanmar began a process of liberalising the economy, releasing political prisoners, and rebalancing foreign relations. As Myanmar took its first baby-steps towards democracy, Western nations eased economic sanctions. Last year, Myanmar's President Thein Sein met with US President Barack Obama at the White House, the first such visit by a Myanmar head of state in almost 50 years. China is no longer Myanmar's only suitor; she's being courted, she's seeing other people. It's complicated... Burmah Oil: Myanmar is one of the world's oldest oil producers, exporting its first barrel in 1853. Its discovery by British colonisers prompted the creation of the Burmah Oil Company, an early shareholder of the company that would later become oil giant BP. ..."
    Author/creator: Hereward Holland
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Aljazeera
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 October 2014


    Title: The shell starts to crack? - Real owners of Myanmar’s oil and gas blocks come forward
    Date of publication: October 2014
    Description/subject: "Corrupt politicians all over the world use companies and trusts with hidden ownership to seize public property worth billions of dollars. This deprives ordinary citizens of money that should be spent on development and empowers unaccountable elites, often helping them gain and maintain power at the expense of democracy, human rights and peace. Revealing the real people behind companies is critical to achieving genuine reform in Myanmar, where military families and crony tycoons have long benefited from control of natural resources like gas and gemstones. This is a critical time—in July 2014, Myanmar became a candidate member of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), a global transparency standard which recommends that the identities of individuals who own and control oil, gas and mining companies are published. If Myanmar can meet the standard, it will go a long way to addressing the question of who really owns the companies that control the country’s most valuable natural assets. To test the waters, Global Witness asked each of the companies granted oil and gas blocks in Myanmar over the past 12 months to declare their ultimate beneficial ownership. These blocks were awarded in the wake of a public commitment by the Ministry of Energy to manage Myanmar’s energy sector in line with international best practices, and alongside the engagement of leading energy companies in Myanmar’s EITI process. As such, the willingness of block winners to open up their ownership is an important yardstick for progress on reform of Myanmar’s extractive industries..."
    Author/creator: NA
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Global Witness
    Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-reduced version; 2.29MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.globalwitness.org/sites/default/files/Global%20Witness%20-The%20shell%20starts%20to%20cr...
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2014


    Title: Myanmar Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA) - full text
    Date of publication: 04 September 2014
    Description/subject: " The Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA), developed by the Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB) in partnership with its co-founders, the Institute of Human Rights and Business and the Danish Institute of Human Rights, is intended to support responsible business practices in this growing sector of Myanmar’s economy. The Myanmar Oil & Gas SWIA puts detailed information on potential impacts of the sector into the public domain for uptake and use by a wide range of audiences. It assesses not only localised impacts on individuals and groups that may arise from projects in the sector, but also cumulative impacts and the sector’s potential impacts on Myanmar society as a whole. This is important because: Myanmar is currently facing a rapid increase in investment in its oil and gas (O&G) sector with the award of 16 onshore and 20 offshore blocks in the space of 12 months in 2013-2014 Even though the country is emerging from decades of ethnic conflict, authoritarian rule and economic isolation it is, and will remain for some time, a high-risk country with poor governance. An understanding of the potential impacts of the sector is necessary to improve the outcomes for Myanmar and its people. Responsible business conduct in the Oil & Gas sector in Myanmar therefore requires enhanced due diligence to determine what impacts business activities may have on society, including on human rights. This must include robust approaches to managing those impacts. The Oil & Gas SWIA is intended to be a resource for these efforts. The recommendations in the SWIA are directed towards government, businesses (and investors in those business), civil society and development partners for Myanmar, and are intended to support wider multistakeholder collaboration..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business
    Format/size: pdf (5.7MB), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/news/swia/oil-and-gas-swia.html
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2014


    Title: Myanmar Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA) - in sections
    Date of publication: 04 September 2014
    Description/subject: " The Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA), developed by the Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB) in partnership with its co-founders, the Institute of Human Rights and Business and the Danish Institute of Human Rights, is intended to support responsible business practices in this growing sector of Myanmar’s economy. The Myanmar Oil & Gas SWIA puts detailed information on potential impacts of the sector into the public domain for uptake and use by a wide range of audiences. It assesses not only localised impacts on individuals and groups that may arise from projects in the sector, but also cumulative impacts and the sector’s potential impacts on Myanmar society as a whole. This is important because: Myanmar is currently facing a rapid increase in investment in its oil and gas (O&G) sector with the award of 16 onshore and 20 offshore blocks in the space of 12 months in 2013-2014 Even though the country is emerging from decades of ethnic conflict, authoritarian rule and economic isolation it is, and will remain for some time, a high-risk country with poor governance. An understanding of the potential impacts of the sector is necessary to improve the outcomes for Myanmar and its people. Responsible business conduct in the Oil & Gas sector in Myanmar therefore requires enhanced due diligence to determine what impacts business activities may have on society, including on human rights. This must include robust approaches to managing those impacts. The Oil & Gas SWIA is intended to be a resource for these efforts. The recommendations in the SWIA are directed towards government, businesses (and investors in those business), civil society and development partners for Myanmar, and are intended to support wider multistakeholder collaboration..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business
    Format/size: html, pdf (5.78MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs19/SWIA-Myanmar-Oil_and_Gas_Sector_Wide_Assessment-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2014


    Title: Burma’s Oil Production Tipped to Decline; Fuel Imports to Increase
    Date of publication: 17 July 2014
    Description/subject: "Burma will become increasingly dependent on imported crude oil and refined fuels over the next ten years because of a lack of planning and investment, an industry report has forecast. A rise in crude oil imports is highly likely in spite of an expected upsurge in onshore and offshore exploration in coming years, while underinvestment in refining capacity will necessitate more imports of petrol and diesel, said Business Monitor International (BMI) in a study of Burma’s energy resources. BMI is an international business risks analysis company based in London..."
    Author/creator: William Boot
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2014


    Title: Who are the real winners of Myanmar’s latest oil and gas block sales? - Tackling hidden company ownership in Myanmar
    Date of publication: June 2014
    Description/subject: Summary: "In October 2013 and March 2014, Myanmar awarded 36 major oil and gas blocks to 47 international and local companies. Global Witness has contacted each of these winning companies to ask simply: who owns and controls you? Getting full answers to this question is crucial to putting an end to the corruption which has kept Myanmar’s people in poverty for so long. Secret company structures enable powerful individuals to hide their identities and there are countless examples globally of corrupt officials awarding major deals to companies which they later turn out to own. Putting company ownership details into the public domain provides a crucial safeguard against corruption. Of the 47 companies contacted, only 13 provided responses to Global Witness’ ownership questions.1 Two private companies have set a positive precedent by revealing full details of the individuals who own and control them. Overall, however, these results reveal a high level of corporate secrecy which must be tackled if Myanmar’s oil and gas riches are to benefit its people..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Global Witness
    Format/size: pdf (819K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.globalwitness.org/sites/default/files/Myanmar/MBriefing.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 July 2014


    Title: Summary of March 2014 Consultation Meetings: Oil & Gas Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA)
    Date of publication: 16 April 2014
    Description/subject: Overview and links to pdf versions of individual reports..... "MCRB will carry out a series of SWIAs to help inform government policy, advance responsible business practice and build civil society capacity to strengthen accountability. MCRB held consultations in Yangon, 24-26 March 2014, on the findings and assessments from field work across Myanmar, forming part of the forthcoming Sector-Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA) on Myanmar’s Oil & Gas sector. Three sessions were convened: Business (English language) on 24 March 2014 Local civil society (Myanmar language) on 25 March 2014 The international NGO, Embassies and donor community (English language) on 26 March 2014..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/pdf/SWIA.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 May 2014


    Title: Draft not for citation or reference 1 Sector -­‐ Wide Impact Assessment (SWIA) of Myanmar’s Oil & Gas Sector:" Draft for Consultation March 2014
    Date of publication: March 2014
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB)
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 May 2014


    Title: กลุ่มเคลื่อนไหวเรียกร้องให้ยุติมรดกบาปด้านทรัพยากรของพม่า (Thai)
    Date of publication: 22 March 2012
    Description/subject: นักลงทุนเริ่มหลั่งไหลเข้าไปในพม่า ซึ่งยังขาดความโปร่งใสและการตรวจสอบได้เกี่ยวกับรายได้ ซึ่งจะยิ่งส่งผลให้เกิดมรดก บาปด้านทรัพยากรมากขึน้ ของประเทศนี ้กลุ่มเคลื่อนไหวเตือนในวันนี ้ จากข้อมูลในรายงานของกลุ่ม Arakan Oil Watch รายได้จากก๊าซธรรมชาติหลายพันล้านเหรียญไม่ได้รับการบันทึกข้อมูล อย่างเหมาะสมและไม่ได้เข้ากระเป๋าของรัฐ แต่กลับถูกโยกไปเข้ากระเป๋าของนายทหารที่ทุจริต ส่งผลให้พม่ายังคงเป็น ประเทศที่มีดัชนีชีวั้ดด้านสังคมเลวร้ายสุดในโลก และเต็มไปด้วยความขัดแย้งเนื่องจากทรัพยากรธรรมชาติ
    Language: Thai
    Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: pdf (74K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


    Title: ျမန္မာ့သယံဇာတက်ိန္စာ အဆံုးသတ္ရန္ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေရးအဖြဲ႔မွ ေျပာၾကား (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 22 March 2012
    Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံထဲသို႔ စီးပြားေရးရင္းႏွီးျမွဳပ္ႏွံသူမ်ား အလံုးအရင္းႏွင့္စတင္ဝင္ေရာက္ လာၾကေသာ္လည္း တိုင္းျပည္တြင္းတြင္ ဘ႑ာေငြဆိုင္ရာ ပြင့္လင္းျမင္သာမႈႏွင့္တာဝန္ခံမႈ ဆိတ္သုန္းကင္းမဲ့ေနျခင္းက တုိင္းျပည္၏ သဘာဝသယံဇာတက်ိန္စာအား ပို၍ပင္ဆိုးရြားသြားေစသည္ဟု ရခုိင့္ေရနံေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေရး အဖြဲ႔မွ ယေန႔ သတိေပးေျပာၾကားလိုက္သည္။ သဘာဝဓါတ္ေငြ႔တင္ပို႔ေရာင္းခ်ရာမွရရိွေသာ ဘ႑ာဝင္ေငြ ေဒၚလာဘီလီယံေပါင္းမ်ားစြာကို ျပည့္သူ႔ ေငြစာရင္းမ်ားထဲတြင္ ထည့္သြင္းျခင္းမရိွဘဲ အက်င့္ပ်က္ျခစားေနေသာ စစ္ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ားကသာ မတရား အလႊဲသုံးစားျပဳလုပ္ေနၾကေသာေၾကာင့္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသည္ ကမၻာေပၚမွာ အဆုးိ ရြားဆုံး လူမႈဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ ညႊန္းကိန္းမ်ားႏွင့္တိုင္းျပည္တစ္ခုျဖစ္ေနၿပီး၊ သဘာဝသယံဇာတဆုိင္ရာ ပဋိပကၡမ်ားႏွင့္ျပႆနာမ်ားကို လည္း ရင္ဆိုင္ေနရသည္ဟု အဆိုပါအဖြဲ႔က ေျပာၾကားသည္။
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: pdf (60K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


    Title: Burma’s Resource Curse The case for revenue transparency - A briefing by Arakan Oil Watch
    Date of publication: 22 March 2012
    Description/subject: "Burma is rich in natural resources. Exports of natural gas alone amount to approximately US$2.5 billion in annual revenues, and these are expected to increase by 60% as three additional production blocks come on line as early as next year. Yet despite this enormous wealth, Burma is one of the poorest countries in the world. A lack of transparency around revenues from the sale of oil, gas and other natural resources, a lack of an accountable system to manage revenues, and a lack of equitable benefit sharing of resource revenues are perpetuating a resource curse in Burma. It is a country crippled by corruption, censured for major human rights violations, and continuing to suffer from a decades-old civil war between the ruling government and ethnic peoples. The country’s major businesses are controlled by military companies and cronies. Projects which extract and export natural resources have directly led to human rights abuses such as forced labor, land confiscation, rape and displacement, as well as severe environmental degradation. The revenues from these projects have in turn helped prop up authoritarian rule and enrich top military generals. There is therefore an urgent need for Burma to manage oil and gas revenues with a greater transparency and accountability as well as to reform its military-dominated economy to ensure that the benefits of the country’s resources are shared more equitably among its people and for the country’s sustainable development. in the oil and gas sector"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: pdf (739K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


    Title: Burma’s Resource Curse The case for revenue transparency in the oil and gas sector (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 22 March 2012
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma is rich in natural resources, particularly natural gas and oil. Yet instead of using these resources for the country’s development through industry and job growth, military leaders have been exporting them for over a decade. This has generated huge revenue flows, but a lack of transparency and mismanagement of these revenues has left Burma with some of the worse development indicators in the world, creating a resource curse. Sales revenues of natural gas exports alone amounted to US$ 2.5 billion in 2010-11. It is estimated that this amount will increase by over 60% to US$ 4.1 billion starting from 2013 as three additional production blocks come on line. Further revenues will be generated from over 40 additional oil and gas blocks that are currently under exploration. Despite this enormous wealth, Burma remains extremely poor and its people live with chronic energy shortages. It is a country crippled by corruption, with its major businesses controlled by military companies and cronies. Burma is censured for major human rights violations, and continues to suffer from a decades-old civil war between the ruling government and ethnic peoples. Due to Burma’s lack of protection laws, projects which extract and export natural resources have directly led to human rights abuses such as forced labor, land confiscation, rape and displacement, as well as severe environmental degradation. The projects also fuel armed conflict as government and ethnic troops clash in order to access and control project areas. The revenues from resource extraction projects have in turn helped prop up authoritarian rule and enrich top military generals. The report analyzes the previous Than Shwe regime and new military-dominated government’s lack of transparency around oil and gas revenues, lack of an accountable system to manage revenue, corruption, and a lack of equitable benefit sharing of resource revenues. Although a new “civilian” government is now in place, under Burma’s new constitution, the military remains firmly outside the law and beyond civilian control. The role of military companies in Burma’s economy and in accessing and managing Burma’s massive oil and gas revenues remain unknown and unregulated. The government does not disclose how much it receives in gas revenues, or how those revenues are managed or spent. Foreign oil companies engaging in Burma’s oil and gas sector also refuse to publish how much and how they pay the military regime. There is therefore an urgent need for Burma to manage oil and gas revenues with greater transparency and accountability as well as to reform its military-dominated economy to ensure that the benefits of the country’s resources are shared more equitably among its people and for the country’s sustainable development. If Burma prioritizes the protection of peoples and the environment in extraction projects and manages the revenues from the sale of its resources transparently, the country’s non-renewable resources can be used sustainably for the benefit of current and future generations, decreasing the pace and need to extract resources from additional areas. Mechanisms and systems for public disclosure of money flows, independent revenue management and auditing, civil society input, and equal benefit sharing currently exist in international standards of revenue transparency and are put into practice in oil and gas producing countries around the world. This report provides key lessons from these countries that Burma can draw on to improve the management of its oil and gas revenues and work toward ending its resource curse."
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


    Title: Burma’s Resource Curse The case for revenue transparency in the oil and gas sector (English)
    Date of publication: 22 March 2012
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma is rich in natural resources, particularly natural gas and oil. Yet instead of using these resources for the country’s development through industry and job growth, military leaders have been exporting them for over a decade. This has generated huge revenue flows, but a lack of transparency and mismanagement of these revenues has left Burma with some of the worse development indicators in the world, creating a resource curse. Sales revenues of natural gas exports alone amounted to US$ 2.5 billion in 2010-11. It is estimated that this amount will increase by over 60% to US$ 4.1 billion starting from 2013 as three additional production blocks come on line. Further revenues will be generated from over 40 additional oil and gas blocks that are currently under exploration. Despite this enormous wealth, Burma remains extremely poor and its people live with chronic energy shortages. It is a country crippled by corruption, with its major businesses controlled by military companies and cronies. Burma is censured for major human rights violations, and continues to suffer from a decades-old civil war between the ruling government and ethnic peoples. Due to Burma’s lack of protection laws, projects which extract and export natural resources have directly led to human rights abuses such as forced labor, land confiscation, rape and displacement, as well as severe environmental degradation. The projects also fuel armed conflict as government and ethnic troops clash in order to access and control project areas. The revenues from resource extraction projects have in turn helped prop up authoritarian rule and enrich top military generals. The report analyzes the previous Than Shwe regime and new military-dominated government’s lack of transparency around oil and gas revenues, lack of an accountable system to manage revenue, corruption, and a lack of equitable benefit sharing of resource revenues. Although a new “civilian” government is now in place, under Burma’s new constitution, the military remains firmly outside the law and beyond civilian control. The role of military companies in Burma’s economy and in accessing and managing Burma’s massive oil and gas revenues remain unknown and unregulated. The government does not disclose how much it receives in gas revenues, or how those revenues are managed or spent. Foreign oil companies engaging in Burma’s oil and gas sector also refuse to publish how much and how they pay the military regime. There is therefore an urgent need for Burma to manage oil and gas revenues with greater transparency and accountability as well as to reform its military-dominated economy to ensure that the benefits of the country’s resources are shared more equitably among its people and for the country’s sustainable development. If Burma prioritizes the protection of peoples and the environment in extraction projects and manages the revenues from the sale of its resources transparently, the country’s non-renewable resources can be used sustainably for the benefit of current and future generations, decreasing the pace and need to extract resources from additional areas. Mechanisms and systems for public disclosure of money flows, independent revenue management and auditing, civil society input, and equal benefit sharing currently exist in international standards of revenue transparency and are put into practice in oil and gas producing countries around the world. This report provides key lessons from these countries that Burma can draw on to improve the management of its oil and gas revenues and work toward ending its resource curse."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: pdf (1MB)
    Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


    Title: 监察团体:结束缅甸的资源诅咒
    Date of publication: 22 March 2012
    Description/subject: 随着投资者开始涌入缅甸,收益透明度及问责机制的缺失正加剧该国的资源诅 咒,一个监察团体在今天发出警告。 由阿拉干石油观察发布的一份报告显示,数十亿美元的天然气销售收入没有记 录进缅甸的国家账户,而被腐败的军事统治者窃取,留给缅甸的只是一些世界最糟 糕的社会指标,并使其卷入自然资源的冲突中。
    Language: Chinese
    Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: pdf (66K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


    Title: End Burma’s Resource Curse Says Watchdog Group
    Date of publication: 22 March 2012
    Description/subject: As investors start flooding in to Burma, a lack of revenue transparency and accountability is set to exacerbate the country’s resource curse, warns a watchdog group today. According to a report by the Arakan Oil Watch, billions of dollars in revenues from the sale of natural gas have gone unrecorded in Burma’s public accounts and been siphoned off by corrupt military rulers, leaving Burma with some of the worst social indicators in the world and embroiled in conflicts over natural resources.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: pdf (12K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 March 2012


    Title: Oil and Politics Don’t Mix
    Date of publication: July 2009
    Description/subject: "The growing revenues from Burma’s oil and gas resources provide financial support to the Burmese military to the detriment of Burma and her peoples... AS the Burmese regime increases its isolation of opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy, the United Nations and Western governments, especially the US and the European Union, remain steadfast in applying diplomatic pressure on the junta. Burma’s stubborn military leaders can shrug off Western pressure, however, knowing they can rely on support from such friendly and powerful neighbors as China, India and some Southeast Asian countries, most of which have significant trade and investment links with Burma and which are inclined to follow an engagement-oriented policy towards the regime..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: Laid Waste: Human Rights along the Kanbauk to Myaing Kalay gas pipeline
    Date of publication: 01 May 2009
    Description/subject: "...Laid Waste documents the suffering of villagers along the 180-mile Kanbauk to Myaing Kalay gas pipeline. Ten years after the pipeline’s initial construction, villagers along its route continue to see their land seized and income taken as they are conscripted into work as forced laborers and subject to arbitrary detentions, torture and summary execution. This report is released at a time when international debate on appropriate responses to the situation in Burma appears to be renewing. The discussion is healthy and appreciated. But there should be no question: projects like the Kanbauk to Myaing Kalay gas pipeline do not benefit the people of our country."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM)
    Format/size: pdf (3.7MB; 12MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Laid-Waste.pdf (higher resolution)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Laid-Waste-smaller.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 May 2009


    Title: Energy Security: Security for Whom?
    Date of publication: 22 July 2008
    Description/subject: "In military-ruled Burma, also known as Myanmar, large-scale natural gas projects have directly and indirectly led to violations of basic human rights through the complicity of multinational corporate actors. These abuses are ongoing and there is an unreasonably high risk they will increase as more gas projects are developed. This paper assesses the past, present, and future human rights impacts of large-scale natural gas extraction in Burma, and the implications these impacts have in terms of corporate accountability. The paper provides background information regarding Burma’s government, economic policy, and the energy sector and considers past and present human rights abuses connected to the Yadana natural gas project, developed by a consortium including Chevron, Total, PTTEP, and MOGE. The authors argue that the companies are complicit in ongoing human rights abuses in connection to their investment. The paper then describes the threat of future human rights abuses in connection to the country’s largest offshore gas deposits, concluding that there is a high risk that current human rights abuses in the proposed project areas will be exacerbated by the new gas production, and that there will likely be abuses directly linked to the Shwe pipeline project. Finally, the authors assess the interests and actors involved in the Southeast Asia regional energy security dynamic as it relates to Burma’s fast growing oil and gas sector, human rights, and corporate accountability. They argue that the energy security strategies of China, Thailand, and India—and by association, the national oil corporations under those governments—relying on Burmese resources have paid dangerously inadequate attention to the protection of human rights."
    Author/creator: Matthew F. Smith and Naing Htoo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal
    Format/size: pdf (336K)
    Date of entry/update: 31 October 2008


    Title: Pipeline Politics
    Date of publication: October 2007
    Description/subject: "The Burmese junta controls huge natural resources but inefficiency and incompetence—and bizarre priorities—keep the rewards from reaching the people While most Burmese struggle daily with high fuel prices, commodity shortages and a lack of electricity, huge quantities of natural gas lie unexploited under the sea off the west coast of Arakan because of the military regime’s indecision or incompetence. A Burmese worker checks the level of gasoline being transported in drums for sale to roadside outlets [Photo: Yuzo/The Irrawaddy] Burma is rich in national energy resources—with gas, oil and hydroelectric power potential—but critics say the military government is too busy planning grandiose projects to make the best use of energy resources for the people’s benefit. Analysts who closely observe the regime say corruption and oftentimes strange priorities that are only apparent to the tight inner circle that controls the country’s decision-making process also account for the underdevelopment of the country’s money-making resources. Energy industry analysts say that the recoverable gas reserves that have been independently verified in just two blocks of the offshore Shwe field in the Bay of Bengal could bring in US $2 billion annually for at least the next 25 years..."
    Author/creator: William Boot
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8905
    Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


    Title: Energy Myanmar ("The Myanmar Times" Special Feature, August 2007)
    Date of publication: August 2007
    Description/subject: Daewoo’s massive gas strike puts Rakhine region in spotlight -- “The discovery of gas deposits in the A-1 block was one of factor that attracted international oil companies to this region; in the past gas deposits like this would not have interested oil companies,” said U Chan Mya, general manager of Smart technical services company...Nation set for huge increase in oil and gas investment “Daewoo and PTTEP both have to build platforms and pipelines to transport the gas from the A-1, A-3 and M-9 blocks. This kind of infrastructure investment will certainly boost FDI for the next two or three years at least,” ...The coloured history of the Burmah Oil Company » Asian explorers head for deep water » Why do we need oil and natural gas? » A study of abundance: major onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in Myanmar » Increased gas exports to underpin eco growth » Harnessing energy from the clouds » Energy sector’s ‘nuclear renaissance’ » Overview of major oil field service companies » Government speeds up CNG filling in Yangon » World looks green as local industry battles for life » Reality of US$100 oil not far off » Fuelling the future with Jatropha Curcas » Giving back through socioeconomic programs » Energy outlook grim: study » Negotiations for sale of Daewoo gas continuing » China seeks way around ‘Malacca Dilemma’.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


    Title: Step on the Gas
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: Asian nations are stumbling over each other in a rush to capture the concession rights to huge gas and oil resources controlled by the Burmese junta... "Despite the efforts of some Western governments to isolate the Burmese regime economically, the stark reality is that more private companies and countries than ever are courting the Burmese generals to obtain a share of the country’s vast oil and gas resources. International energy companies from nine countries are now competing for exploration or production rights for gas and oil both offshore and o­nshore in Burma. A Thai company recently discovered a huge offshore gas field that may harbor as much as two trillion cubic feet of gas..."
    Author/creator: William Boot
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: India Woos Burma with Weapons for Gas
    Date of publication: January 2007
    Description/subject: New Delhi's eagerness to supply Burma with weapons highlights new quid pro quo policies... "Increased contacts between senior military chiefs o­n both sides of the Burma-India border, involving Indian weapons sales, are believed by analysts to have two primary objectives: to help flush out Burma-based Indian insurgents and to counter growing Chinese influence in Naypyidaw. But the sale of arms and related technical equipment is also likely to be linked to New Delhi"Look East" economic policy, including ambitions to buy huge quantities of Burma's offshore gas in the Bay of Bengal. If the gas bid—against rivals China and Thailand—is successful, it will also involve building a costly pipeline through rebel-infested areas of northwest Burma and northeast India..."
    Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


    Title: Burma and Its Neighbours: The Geopolitics of Gas
    Date of publication: 24 August 2006
    Description/subject: "while countries in the neighbouring regions - particularly India and Thailand, but also Australia and Japan - may have important roles to play, China wields far more leverage. For those who wish to influence Burma in a positive direction, it is therefore essential to consider ways that change could be stimulated with the active participation of China, whether through sanctions, constructive engagement and/or any form of dialogue." The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Nautilus Institute. Readers should note that Nautilus seeks a diversity of views and opinions on contentious topics in order to identify common ground..."
    Author/creator: Ã…shild KolÃ¥s & Stein Tønnesson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Austral Policy Forum 06-30A 24 August 2006
    Format/size: html, pdf (137K)
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


    Title: Energy Security in Asia: China, India, Oil and Peace
    Date of publication: April 2006
    Description/subject: Report to the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs..."India and China are both characterized by a tremendous increase in energy consumption, of which an increasing share derives from imports. Very rapid economic growth always makes it difficult to arrive at a sound balance between demand and supply, and this tends to generate waste, bottlenecks and insecurity. Although both countries are trying hard to provide appropriate energy, increase their energy efficiency, and diversify their sources of supply, they are becoming increasingly dependent on imported oil, and the Persian Gulf is set to remain their predominant source of oil in the coming decades. Instability in the Middle East thus poses a serious challenge to the security of China and India, just as it does for Japan, the US and many European countries. The question of maintaining a stable supply of fossil fuels poses several security challenges. One is to boost one's own production, another to diversify one's sources of import, and a third to secure the transportation of oil and gas on vulnerable sea routes; or over land through pipelines that depend on long-term strategic relationships with the producing countries. In China and India a heightened awareness of the geopolitical implications of energy supply and demand has given energy issues an increasing prominence both in their domestic and foreign policies. However, it is difficult to say if this leads to more tension in their foreign relations or if instead it pushes them towards increased international cooperation. Plans are certainly being made for future possible ‘resource wars', but emphasis is presently being put on economic competition, and on seeking to maximise each country's position on the international energy market. Then again, such increasing resource competition may contribute to raising the stakes of conflict in areas where national jurisdiction has not been resolved (East China Sea, South China Sea), and also in some of the energy exporting countries. Burma is one such country, in which the energy security dynamics of India and China are played out, and this is detailed in an appendix to the report. The report is based on available literature, online energy data, and communication with Indian and Chinese researchers. We have used country reports and statistics provided by the International Energy Agency (IEA), statistics, forecasts and analyses by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), unpublished academic papers, books and articles by Indian and Chinese researchers, and reports by several European and American analysts. Based on our assessments of the energy security strategies and interests of the major players in the region, the report outlines three scenarios for the future of international relations in Asia. The first, called ' is the most positive and also, in our judgment, the most likely. The second scenario, ', presents a possible embargo against China, and is perhaps the least likely, at least in the near future. The third scenario, ' presents the nightmare scenario of a full scale ' with global impact and serious consequences for India and China. The situation in Iraq, and especially the ongoing developments with relation to Iran's nuclear programme, force us to say that this scenario is not just a fantasy fiction, but a real possibility, even in the short term. The final section of the report offers suggestions as to implications of the outlined scenarios for Norwegian foreign policy formulation. Four areas of cooperation that would improve energy security in China and India, as well as globally, are identified: 1) support for the promotion of energy efficiency, 2) assistance in the development of clean coal and gas technology for electricity production, 3) a campaign for engaging the world's great powers in a major research effort to develop transportation technologies that do not depend on oil, 4) assistance in the nomination and promotion of Indian and Chinese candidature for IEA membership..."
    Author/creator: Stein Tønnesson and Åshild KolÃ¥s
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)
    Format/size: pdf (185K)
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2007