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Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups
See also "Federalism, ethnic conflict and the politics of national reconciliation" under Politics and Government. For human rights violations against ethnic groups in Burma, see the Civil War section, "Ethnic Discrimination" and other areas of the Human Rights section, and "Internal Displacement" and "Refugees".

  • Periodicals and news services covering several non-Burman groups

    • Myanmar Ethnic State News

      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar Ethnic State News (Issue No. 2)
      Date of publication: 27 August 2012
      Description/subject: EDITORIAL: Vital Need for a Peace Monitoring Mission...ARAKAN STATE NEWS: Government Suspends ALP Liaison office in Kyauktaw; Lawsuit against Officials Accused of Taking Farmers Compensation Resubmitted; 63 Arakanese Sentenced to 6 months Imprisonment for Breaking Section 144...CHIN STATE NEWS: CNF leaders attend workshop by Geneva Call; KACHIN STATE NEWS: Hundreds of refugees sent back from China, more deportations expected; 500 civilians flee Kachin state’s Hpakant area as Burma army moves in... KAREN STATE NEWS: Ethnic political parties want news in their language; Leading NGO warns Burma’s peace process still fragile, despite signs of change...KAYAH STATE NEWS: Ethnic groups pledge not to use child soldiers; Govt troops deploy tanks in Karenni...MON STATE NEWS: Mon political parties to fight land confiscation; Trade Fair Marks Drive toward Cross- Border Commerce...SHAN STATE NEWS: Shan survey finds people want peace process to go on; About 10 government battalions surrounding Shan base; Government army increasing pressure on ceasefire army to withdraw from base; United Wa State Army (UWSA) payroll still going Communist way.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma News International (BNI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 September 2012


      Title: Myanmar Ethnic State News (Issue No. 1)
      Date of publication: 19 August 2012
      Description/subject: EDITORIAL: Dictated Peace won’t bring Eternal Peace...ARAKAN STATE NEWS: Five detained NGO aid workers released in Rakhine State; 87 people dead, over 5,300 houses destroyed in Rakhine State: gov’t; Burma’s president proposes opening schools for Rohingya children; 18 Hindu Families Move to Downtown Sittwe From Refugee Camps; Islamic group to take Rohingya issue to the UN; Authorities advise public not to gather together due to the news about the possibility of terrorist bomb attack in Maungdaw...CHIN STATE NEWS: CNF forms public consultation committee in northern Chin State; Chin civil society groups meet to discuss human rights violations; Improved electricity supply in Matupi...KACHIN STATE NEWS: Chinese medics battle to contain measles outbreak in Kachin refugee camp; Kachin MP calls for repeal of act targeting the KIO; Mekong godfather’s lieutenant set to be free; Intl media mostly ignores Kachin conflict...KAREN STATE NEWS: KNLA’s General Johnny to attend Liaison Office opening; 62nd Karen Martyr’s Day commemorated widely; KNU to open the fourth liaison office in Myawaddy; Karen youth hold historic meeting in govt-controlled zone; Villagers being taxed by all armies; Burma Army’s ‘shoot on sight’ order still in use...KAYAH STATE NEWS: Ceasefire gives Karenni language a chance to be heard; Residents gather prayer ceremony for losing land; KNPP completes the opening of its three liaison offices...MON STATE NEWS: Remembrance for Mon leader Nai Non Lar organized by Mon youth groups; NMSP and KNPP signed Deep of Commitment for Protection of Children in Conflict; Mon language instruction impeded in government schools...SHAN STATE NEWS: Over 400 people attended 41st anniversary of the Shan State Progress Party (SSPP); Elected Shan leader calls for more power to the states; Traffic police officer arrested for smuggling tons of jade; Drug abuse free-for-all on the Chinese border.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma News International (BNI)
      Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 September 2012


  • Ethnic groups in Burma: general studies and articles

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "Myanmar (Burma) bibliography"
    Date of publication: 24 October 2004
    Description/subject: An annotated bilbliography of more than two dozen books published over the last twenty years on minority ethnic groups in Burma. Although the main interest of the compiler, Pamela Cross, is on textiles, the list iteself provides a very useful introduction to a broad range of information about these groups. Similar bibliographies for minority groups in adjoining countries are easily accessible from the same site. The most recent item dates from 2003.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: tribaltextiles.info
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 January 2005


    Individual Documents

    Title: Excluded - Burma’s Ethnic Nationalities on the Margins of Development & Democracy
    Date of publication: December 2012
    Description/subject: "This report presents documented evidence that ethnic nationalities directly affected by development projects in Burma are systematically denied their right to free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC). While development related abuse has been well documented, no report has shed light on the staggering scale of the widespread denial of participation rights in Burma...Our research shows that: • Close to 90% of those surveyed did not receive any information about the development project before it was started by a decision maker. In all but 2 sites, not one person was given any information. • Approximately 80% of the total survey population did not know who to contact or where to go to find out more information about the project. In 3 sites, the figure soared to 100%. • Less than 1% said a public forum was held by a project decision maker where the local community could attend. • Of the total sample population, less than 2% felt they would not be punished if they sought information about the project. • Close to half (44.1%) felt unsafe seeking further information about the project, while 45.2% were not sure whether it was safe or unsafe. • Less than 1% experienced positive impacts from the development project... This report is meant to serve as a warning of the risks entailed in denying participation rights as well as a reminder to potential investors of their human rights obligations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Nationalities Youth Forum (NY-Forum) and Students Youth Congress of Burma (SYCB)
    Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
    Date of entry/update: 15 May 2013


    Title: MYANMAR: Census offers hope to ethnic groups
    Date of publication: 16 May 2012
    Description/subject: CHIANG MAI, 16 May 2012 (IRIN) - "A recent decision to undertake a national census could prove key to empowering Myanmar’s more than 100 ethnic groups, provided it is inclusive and conducted to international standards. “Potentially, the census would have a very positive affect on the ethnic areas and could serve to support claims for ethnic rights in education, language and culture that in some areas is repressed by the state and military,” David Scott Mathieson, a senior researcher in the Asia division of Human Rights Watch (HRW), told IRIN. The government lists 135 ethnic groups, comprising more than a third of Burma’s 55 million inhabitants, which are grouped into eight national races: Burman, Kachin, Kayah, Karen, Chin, Mon, Rakhine and Shan. The United Nations agreed on 30 April 2012 to assist the Burmese government in conducting its first census in 31 years. The project will start in April 2014, ahead of the next general election in 2015..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IRIN
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 May 2012


    Title: Burma's New Government: Prospects for Governance and Peace in Ethnic States
    Date of publication: 29 May 2011
    Description/subject: Conclusions and Recommendations: * Two months after a new government took over the reins of power in Burma, it is too early to make any definitive assessment of the prospects for improved governance and peace in ethnic areas. Initial signs give some reason for optimism, but the difficulty of overcoming sixty years of conflict and strongly-felt grievances and deep suspicions should not be underestimated... * The economic and geostrategic realities are changing fast, and they will have a fundamental impact – positive and negative – on Burma’s borderlands. But unless ethnic communities are able to have much greater say in the governance of their affairs, and begin to see tangible benefits from the massive development projects in their areas, peace and broadbased development will remain elusive... * The new decentralized governance structures have the potential to make a positive contribution in this regard, but it is unclear if they can evolve into sufficiently powerful and genuinely representative bodies quickly enough to satisfy ethnic * There has been renewed fighting in Shan State, and there are warning signs that more ethnic ceasefires could break down. Negotiations with armed groups and an improved future for long-marginalized ethnic populations is the only way that peace can be achieved.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI) & Burma Centrum Nederland (BCN). Burma Policy Briefing Nr 6, May 2011
    Format/size: pdf (352K - OBL version; 1.1MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/bpb6.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 May 2011


    Title: Ethnic Politics in Burma: The Time for Solutions
    Date of publication: February 2011
    Description/subject: Conclusions and Recommendations: * An inclusive endgame has long been needed to achieve national reconciliation. But political and ethnic exclusions are continuing in national politics. If divisions persist, Burma’s legacy of state failure and national under-achievement will continue... * The moment of opportunity of a new government should not be lost. It is vital that the new government pursues policies that support dialogue and participation for all peoples in the new political and economic system. Policies that favour the armed forces and military solutions will perpetuate divisions and instability... * Opposition groups must face how their diversity and disunity have contributed to Burma’s history of state failure. If they are to support democratic and ethnic reforms, national participation and unity over goals and tactics are essential. All sides must transcend the divisions of the past... * As the new political era begins, the international community should prioritise policies that promote conflict resolution, political rights and equitable opportunity for all ethnic groups in national life, including the economy, health and education. Continued repression and exclusion will deepen grievances – not resolve them.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI) & Burma Centrum Nederland (BCN). Burma Policy Briefing Nr 5, February 2011
    Format/size: pdf (462K - OBL version; 1.26 - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/TNI-BCN%20Burma%20policy%20briefing%20no.%205.p...
    Date of entry/update: 30 May 2011


    Title: Listening to Voices from Inside: Ethnic People Speak
    Date of publication: June 2010
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Listening to Voices from Inside: Ethnic People Speak showcases the voices of people from civil society, and of different ethnic groups, who are rarely heard. Myanmar is an extremely ethnically diverse country. Regrettably, inter-ethnic conflict is a fundamental dynamic in Myanmar’s protracted civil war. Despite this, ethnic diversity and interethnic conflict seldom capture the attention of the international community who have a tendency to see inter-ethnic conflict as adjunct to the quest for peace and democracy in Myanmar. This publication, the result of a foundational study, presents the voices of eighty-seven civil society members from different ethnic groups who live in Myanmar. It documents their perceptions of opportunities and challenges in key areas of interactions with other ethnic groups, government and military relations, education, employment, health, and culture. It records their vision for the future and how external organisations can support that vision. Listening to Voices from Inside: Ethnic People Speak creates a channel for local people to be heard on inter-ethnic issues in Myanmar and is a resource to increase understanding of the issues among external and domestic actors. It brings inter-ethnic conflict back from the periphery to argue that transforming inter-ethnic conflict is central to building peace and democracy in Myanmar. The following summarises the key points under each section:..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies
    Format/size: pdf (1.43MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.centrepeaceconflictstudies.org/publications/
    Date of entry/update: 23 June 2010


    Title: Burma's Ethnic Jigsaw Puzzle
    Date of publication: October 2008
    Description/subject: "A new study on ethnic politics in Burma surveys a bewildering field and points the way forward...Whereas Smith's book was about conflict and ethnic identity, and Lintner's about conflict, state building and narcotics, Ashley South explores all these topics and then looks at contemporary debates on development and forced displacement, with a more academic discussion of shifting "identities" in Burma. Given the sheer range and depth of all these issues, South overviews them skillfully. The purpose of the book is to inject greater complexity and detail into the debates over ethnic politics: the role of resurgent civil society in ethnic ceasefire areas and the cities of Burma; the ethnic groups' constrained participation in the military government's national convention; and the uneven performance of local development projects. With a timely epilogue taking into account the effects of Cyclone Nargis, South suggests there are now opportunities in Burma for meaningful participation in national politics for Burma's long-suffering and splintered ethnic nationalities if they pursue a considerable strategic rethink -- what South calls "review, reform and re-engage..."
    Author/creator: Review by David Mathieson of Ashley South's "Ethnic Politics in Burma: States of Conflict"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2008


    Title: Bridging Cultures in Ethnic Burma: a review of "Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma"
    Date of publication: October 2007
    Description/subject: "Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma" by Mikael Gravers (ed.). Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Copenhagen, 2007. P283... ‘Unity in Diversity’ was Aung San’s dream, but can it be achieved?... "...The “Myanmarization,” or “Myanmarfication,” of the country—or the idea that all the various national groups of today’s Burma have a common “Myanmar” identity—has been promoted by Burma’s post-1988 military governments, replacing Aung San’s more realistic policy of “unity in diversity,” in accordance with which the Union of Burma was created in 1948. However, in spite of assurances that this volume contains “recurrent themes” such as “the dynamics of ethnicity and the formation of ethnic identity,” it is hard for the ordinary reader to detect any common approach to the question of ethnicity in Burma among this collection of papers originally presented at a Burma studies conference in Sweden in 2002. Some of the papers are interesting and informative — especially Karin Dean’s analysis of the Kachin political landscape and Ashley South’s account of the Mon national movement following a ceasefire agreement between the Mon rebels and the Rangoon government in the 1990s..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8903
    Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


    Title: The Cuckoo’s Song
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: Press freedom thrives in Burma’s exile ethnic communities... "Although they can’t qualify as mass media, Burma’s independent, ethnic news services are surprisingly active and resilient. They trumpet their defiant messages under titles like Guiding Star, Kao Wao (meaning cuckoo) and the Kantarawaddy Times, and reach small but loyal groups of readers in ethnic border regions, refugee camps and exile communities abroad..."
    Author/creator: Louis Reh
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Ethnic Minority Politics
    Date of publication: 07 May 2003
    Description/subject: "While the world's attention for the past decade has focused on the struggle between Myanmar's military government and the political opposition, the underlying conflicts between the central government and ethnic minority groups perhaps represent a more fundamental and intractable obstacle to peace, development and democracy. The basic grievance of ethnic minorities in Myanmar is their lack of influence on the political process. However, they also face a major challenge to build political and organisational capacity to ensure that they are not left out of potential negotiations on the future of the country and can continue to represent the interests of their communities... Myanmar is one of the ethnically most diverse countries in the world and throughout its existence as an independent state has experienced a complex set of conflicts between the central government and ethnic minority groups seeking autonomy. While the world's attention for the past decade has focused on the struggle between the military government and the political opposition over national power, these underlying conflicts perhaps represent a more fundamental and intractable obstacle to peace, development and democracy..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
    Format/size: pdf (645 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/052-myanmar-backgrounder-e...
    Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


    Title: Burma/Myanmar: Time for Change
    Date of publication: 17 July 2002
    Description/subject: "This timely report gives an overview of the major minority ethnic groups and their situation and prospects within Burma today. Major human rights issues are also discussed: extra-judicial killings, displacement of populations, forced labour, illegal use of landmines and child soldiers. The author considers the position of women, restrictions on freedom of expression and the challenges posed by HIV/AIDS and the trade in narcotics."
    Author/creator: Martin Smith
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
    Format/size: PDF (640K) 48 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.minorityrights.org/download.php?id=133
    Date of entry/update: 24 November 2010


    Title: Burmese Politics and the Broken Unity
    Date of publication: May 2002
    Description/subject: "Recognizing Burma's diversity is the first step to achieving real unity. "I have always wanted to see unity," declared Burma's opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi in a recent interview with The Irrawaddy shortly after her release from house arrest. She was addressing the notion of unity among opposition groups within and outside the country, which in her eyes, are in disarray. Certainly, the current fragmentation among opposition groups does not bode well for democracy in Burma..."
    Author/creator: Aung Naing Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar’s Minority Conundrum: Issues of Ethnicity and Authority
    Date of publication: 07 July 2001
    Description/subject: Paper given in Tokyo at the Japan Institute of International Affairs, in the lecture series ‘At the Front Lines of Conflict Prevention in Asia’. "The issue of the status and authority of the one-third of the population of Myanmar (Burma), composed of diverse indigenous non-Burman peoples, remains the most intractable of the problems facing the Burmese state since independence in 1948.1 The sharing of political power in some manner acceptable to the local populations, and social and economic equity among these diverse peoples are all related to, but even more fundamental and difficult of solution than, the issue of the political form of government that has bedeviled the state for decades. Burma-Myanmar has been on the brink of fragmentation because of the diffuse, often antithetical, perceptions of these issues by one or more ethnic groups since independence..." David I. Steinberg Georgetown University
    Author/creator: David Steinberg
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Japan Institute of International Affairs
    Format/size: html (167K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Breaking Through the Clouds: A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Project with Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: 1. Introduction; 1.1. Background; 1.2. Project Profile; 1.3. Project Objectives; 2. The Participatory Action Research (PAR) Process; 2.1. Methods of Working with Migrant Children and Youth; 2.2. Implementation Strategy; 2.3. Ethical Considerations; 2.4. Research Team; 2.5. Sites and Participants; 2.6. Establishing Research Guidelines; 2.7. Data Collection Tools; 2.8. Documentation; 2.9. Translation; 2.10Country and Regional Workshops; 2.11Analysis, Methods of Reporting Findings and Dissemination Strategy; 2.12. Obstacles and Limitations; 3. PAR Interventions; 3.1. Strengthening Social Structures; 3.2. Awareness Raising; 3.3. Capacity Building; 3.4. Life Skills Development; 3.5. Outreach Services; 3.6. Networking and Advocacy; 4. The Participatory Review; 4.1. Aims of the Review; 4.2. Review Guidelines; 4.3. Review Approach and Tools; 4.4. Summary of Review Outcomes; 4.4.1. Myanmar; 4.4.2. Thailand; 4.4.3. China; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations; 6. Bibliography of Resources.
    Author/creator: Therese Caouette et al
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
    Format/size: pdf (191K) 75 pages
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: A Participatory Action Research Project of Save the Children(UK)... 1. Introduction; 2. Background; 2.1. Population; 2.2. Geography; 2.3. Political Dimensions; 2.4. Economic Dimensions; 2.5. Social Dimensions; 2.6. Vulnerability of Children and Youth; 3. Research Design; 3.1. Project Objectives; 3.2. Ethical Considerations; 3.3. Research Team; 3.4. Research Sites and Participants; 3.5. Data Collection Tools; 3.6. Data Analysis Strategy; 3.7. Obstacles and Limitations; 4. Preliminary Research Findings; 4.1. The Migrants; 4.2. Reasons for migrating; 4.3. Channels of Migration; 4.4. Occupations; 4.5. Working and Living Conditions; 4.6. Health; 4.7. Education; 4.8. Drugs; 4.9. Child Labour; 4.10. Trafficking of Persons; 4.11. Vulnerabilities of Children; 4.12. Return and Reintegration; 4.13. Community Responses; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations... Recommendations to empower migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region... "This report provides an awareness of the realities and perspectives among migrant children, youth and their communities, as a means of building respect and partnerships to address their vulnerabilities to exploitation and abusive environments. The needs and concerns of migrants along the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand are highlighted and recommendations to address these are made. The main findings of the participatory action research include: * those most impacted by migration are the peoples along the mountainous border areas between China, Myanmar and Thailand, who represent a variety of ethnic groups * both the countries of origin and countries of destination find that those migrating are largely young people and often include children * there is little awareness as to young migrants' concerns and needs, with extremely few interventions undertaken to reach out to them * the majority of the cross-border migrants were young, came from rural areas and had little or no formal education * the decision to migrate is complex and usually involves numerous overlapping factors * migrants travelled a number of routes that changed frequently according to their political and economic situations. The vast majority are identified as illegal immigrants * generally, migrants leave their homes not knowing for certain what kind of job they will actually find abroad. The actual jobs available to migrants were very gender specific * though the living and working conditions of cross-border migrants vary according to the place, job and employer, nearly all the participants noted their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse without protection or redress * for all illnesses, most of the participants explained that it was difficult to access public health services due to distance, cost and/or their illegal status * along all the borders, most of the children did not attend school and among those who did only a very few had finished primary level education * drug production, trafficking and addiction were critical issues identified by the communities at all of the research sites along the borders * child labour was found in all three countries * trafficking of persons, predominantly children and youth, was common at all the study sites * orphaned children along the border areas were found to be the most vulnerable * Migrants frequently considered their options and opportunities to return home Based on the project’s findings, recommendations are made at the conclusion of this report to address the critical issues faced by migrant children and youth along the borders. These recommendations include: methods of working with migrant youth, effective interventions, strategies for advocacy, identification of vulnerable populations and critical issues requiring further research. The following interventions were identified as most effective in empowering migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region: life skills training and literacy education, strengthening protection efforts, securing channels for safe return and providing support for reintegration to home countries. These efforts need to be initiated in tandem with advocacy efforts to influence policies and practices that will better protect and serve migrant children and youth."
    Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
    Format/size: pdf (343K) 145 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/54_5205.htm
    http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/small_dreams.pdf
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: Ghost Dancing in the Darkest Hour
    Date of publication: 31 October 2000
    Description/subject: "...Ethnic cleansing has been carried out in much of the Shan and Karenni states. Since 1989 the AIDS virus has spread and the junta is still in denial about it. In the past ten years, new drug routes, heroin refineries, shooting galleries, and amphetamine production have penetrated the mountains. Forced labor is the norm throughout Burma, not only for army portering, but now formilitary profiteering schemes such as logging and mining as well..."
    Author/creator: Edith Mirante
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Cultural Survival Quarterly" Issue 24.3
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/ghost-dancing-darkest-hour
    Date of entry/update: 20 July 2010


    Title: Ethnic issues in Burma: Part 1, The Fourth Burman Empire
    Date of publication: April 2000
    Description/subject: "...Burma is composed of various ethnic nationalities, including the majority Burman people. The situation of the non-Burman ethnic nationalities has been a political issue in Burma for hundreds of years. The struggle for democracy and human rights in Burma cannot be separated from the struggle for the self-determination by the non-Burman ethnic peoples. Long-term peace, freedom and justice for all people in Burma will never be realised unless the issue of non-Burman ethnic peoples is properly resolved and their rights are guaranteed in accordance with the constitution and other laws. To appreciate the importance of the ethnic issue and the need for its proper political resolution, it is necessary to examine it in depth..."
    Author/creator: Aung Htoo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 5 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Problems of Myanmar and Myanmar's Problems
    Date of publication: 17 March 2000
    Description/subject: Asia Regional Consultation on Social Cohesion and Conflict Prevention, March 16-17, 2000; Manila. David I. Steinberg, Georgetown University. Table of Contents: I Introduction: The Contextuality of Social Cleavages. II Cohesion and National Unity: Cleavages, Tensions, and Confrontations: 1. Nationalism and Ethnicity: The Unity of the Union of Burma/Myanmar; 2. The Military-Civil Nexus; 3. Globalization and Nationalism; 4. Centralism and Pluralism; 5. On Orthodoxy; 6. Religious Tension; 7. Geo-Political Issues. III State-Sponsored Attempts at Cohesion: 1. Nationalism; 2. Burman Control; 3. Buddhism; 4. Socialism; 5. The Military. IV The Tatmadaw: Cohesion and Division? V Past Approaches to, and Perceptions of, the Myanmar Miasma. VI Possibilities for Change. VII Lessons Learned. VIII Possibilities for Future Action. IX Coda. Appendices. "Myanmar is an 'imagined community' - state that is not yet a cohesive nation, an entity created sequentially through three 19th century wars evolving out of colonial economic and geo-political interests. The internal bonds that seemed to cement that country before independence in 1948 were based on the exercise of colonial power, serving both to force an artificial internal cohesion while simultaneously creating detached and separate ethnic groups, some of which were governed under a different British administration. Governments since independence in 1948 have, sometimes unintentionally, exacerbated existing cleavages and created new ones, thus reducing national cohesiveness even as it was titularly strengthened under a unitary state and creating divisive forces that will be difficult to re-meld. The rhetoric of national cohesion must be analytically examined in the light of the reality of its attempted enforcement..."
    Author/creator: David Steinberg
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank-World Bank
    Format/size: HTML (447K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Ethnic Groups in Burma: Development, Democracy and Human Rights
    Date of publication: November 1994
    Description/subject: "...For a generation Burma languished behind closed doors. Then suddenly, in the summer of 1988, the doors burst open as angry protests were violently put down by the security forces and the chilling scenes made headline news around the world. 'In-depth pieces' reported on the political and civil repression that had been going on for years. But there was little examination then, and there has been little since, of the targeted repression which had been going on, and is continuing, against whole groups of people - Burma's ethnic minority groups. Burma is a country of proud cultural and historic traditions, and it is rich in natural resources. But nearly half a century of conflict has left Burma with a legacy of deep-rooted problems and weakened its ability to cope with a growing host of new ones: economic and social collapse; hundreds of thousands of refugees and displaced people; environmental degradation; narcotics; and AIDS. These problems touch on the lives of all Burmese citizens. But it is members of ethnic minority groups who have suffered the most, and who have had even less say over their lives and the destiny of their peoples than the majority 'Burmans'. Many minorities claim that a policy of 'Burmanisation' is manifest. Amidst the upheavals, gross human rights abuses have been committed, including the conscription, over the years, of millions into compulsory labour duties, the ill-treatment or extrajudicial executions of ethnic minority villagers in war-zones, and the forcible relocation of entire communities..."
    Author/creator: Martin Smith
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Anti-Slavery International
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
    Date of entry/update: 18 November 2005


    Title: HISTORISCHE ENTWICKLUNG DER ETHNISCHEN KONFLIKTE IN MYANMAR / BURMA
    Description/subject: Vor der Ankunft der britischen Kolonialmacht waren die burmanischen Königreiche zwar die dominierende politische Kraft, ihre Herrschaft über die Minderheiten blieb aber beschränkt. Zu keinem Zeitpunkt in der vorkolonialen Geschichte bemühten sich die Monarchen darum, die Minderheiten unter Zwang zu assimilieren. Politisch relevant wurde die ethnische Zugehörigkeit erst unter der britischen Kolonialherrschaft, als das Land in das direkt verwaltete Burma proper (Burma an sich) und in die indirekt verwalteten frontier areas (Grenzgebiete), das vornehmliche Siedlungsgebiet der Minderheiten, geteilt wurde. Karen (KNU); Panglong-Abkommen; Waffenstillstandsabkommen; History of ethnic conflicts in Burma; Karen (KNU); Panglong-Agreement; Ceasefire Agreements;
    Author/creator: Heike Löschmann
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung
    Format/size: html (25k)
    Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


  • Ethnic groups in Burma: agreements and statements

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: The Panglong Conference - Wikipedia page
    Description/subject: Includes a lot of reference llinks
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma's Ethnic Ceasefire Agreements (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 31 January 2012
    Description/subject: "Since implementing recent political reforms, the Thein Sein government has attempted to make a number of state level ceasefire agreements with both previous ceasefire groups and other anti-government forces. On the 13 January 2012, the Burmese government signed an intial peace agreement with the Karen National Union. The agreement, the third such agreement with ethnic opposition forces within two month, signals a radical change in how previous Burmese governments have dealt with ethnic grievences. Up until the recent negotiations and the outbreak of hostilities in Kachin State, there had been three main ethnic groups with armies fighting against the government. These armies are the Karen National Liberation Army, which has between three and four thousand troops, the Shan State Army – South, which has between six and seven thousand troops, and the Karenni Army, fielding between eight hundred to fifteen hundred troops. In addition to the three main groups there are also the Chin National Front (Chin National Army) with approximately two hundred troops3 and the Arakan Liberation Army with roughly one hundred troops.4 Under previous military regimes, the ethnic question had been dealt with as a military matter and not as a political or constitutional issue. Consequently, the failure of the Burmese government to recognize the true nature of the ethnic struggle resulted in constant civil war. As a result, over a hundred and fifty thousand refugees have been forced to shelter in neighbouring countries due to a conflict that has been charecterized by it myriad human rights abuses. Recent negotiations have changed significantly due to the fact that the Thein Sein government has dropped a number of requirements that previous regimes had made in relation to setting conditions for talks. One of the most important was the fact that a ceasefire must be agreed to prior to discussions taking place. Recent talks have taken place without this condition and unlike previous attempts at peace the Burmese authorities have not demanded weapons to be surrendered first. Another previous condition was the insistence that all talks must take place inside Burma. This was also recently negated with exploratory talks taking place in Thailand with the Restoration Council of Shan State/Shan State Army – South (RCSS/SSA), The Chin National Front (CNF) and the Karen National Union (KNU) and also in China with the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO). According to media reports5 the Burmese government has set the following conditions in relation to conducting agreements with the ethnic groups:..."
    Author/creator: Paul Keenan
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 1)
    Format/size: pdf (184K)
    Date of entry/update: 07 February 2012


    Title: Burma’s Ethnic Ceasefire Agreements (English)
    Date of publication: 31 January 2012
    Description/subject: "Since implementing recent political reforms, the Thein Sein government has attempted to make a number of state level ceasefire agreements with both previous ceasefire groups and other anti-government forces. On the 13 January 2012, the Burmese government signed an intial peace agreement with the Karen National Union. The agreement, the third such agreement with ethnic opposition forces within two month, signals a radical change in how previous Burmese governments have dealt with ethnic grievences. Up until the recent negotiations and the outbreak of hostilities in Kachin State, there had been three main ethnic groups with armies fighting against the government. These armies are the Karen National Liberation Army, which has between three and four thousand troops, the Shan State Army – South, which has between six and seven thousand troops, and the Karenni Army, fielding between eight hundred to fifteen hundred troops. In addition to the three main groups there are also the Chin National Front (Chin National Army) with approximately two hundred troops3 and the Arakan Liberation Army with roughly one hundred troops.4 Under previous military regimes, the ethnic question had been dealt with as a military matter and not as a political or constitutional issue. Consequently, the failure of the Burmese government to recognize the true nature of the ethnic struggle resulted in constant civil war. As a result, over a hundred and fifty thousand refugees have been forced to shelter in neighbouring countries due to a conflict that has been charecterized by it myriad human rights abuses. Recent negotiations have changed significantly due to the fact that the Thein Sein government has dropped a number of requirements that previous regimes had made in relation to setting conditions for talks. One of the most important was the fact that a ceasefire must be agreed to prior to discussions taking place. Recent talks have taken place without this condition and unlike previous attempts at peace the Burmese authorities have not demanded weapons to be surrendered first. Another previous condition was the insistence that all talks must take place inside Burma. This was also recently negated with exploratory talks taking place in Thailand with the Restoration Council of Shan State/Shan State Army – South (RCSS/SSA), The Chin National Front (CNF) and the Karen National Union (KNU) and also in China with the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO). According to media reports5 the Burmese government has set the following conditions in relation to conducting agreements with the ethnic groups:..."
    Author/creator: Paul Keenan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Peace and Reconciliation (Briefing Paper No. 1 January 2012)
    Format/size: pdf (558K)
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2012


    Title: Mae Tha Raw Tha Statement and Agreement
    Date of publication: 14 January 1997
    Description/subject: "We, the ethnic nationalities of the Union of Burma held a seminar from January 7 to 14, 1997 at Mae Tha Raw Hta in the base area of the Karen National Union (KNU). The seminar was attended by 111 delegates and observers from the ethnic nationality organizations mentioned below...we unanimously adopted and affirmed the resolutions as follows...We, leaders of Arakanese, Chin, Kachin, Karen Karenni, Mon, Pa-O, Palaung, Lahu, Shan and Wa ethnic nationalities, representing the various organizations as well as the nationalities, attended the seminar held from January 7 to 14, 1997 at Mae Tha Raw Hta in Kawthoolei. We, leaders of nationalities mentioned above, after frank and cordial discussions in depth, have agreed upon the following terms..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Seminar (Mae Tha Raw Hta)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Panglong Agreement, 1947
    Date of publication: 12 February 1947
    Description/subject: Text of the Agreement signed at Panglong on the 12th February, 1947 by Shan, Kachin and Chin leaders, and by representatives of the Executive Council of the Governor of Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: India Office Records M/4/2811
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Alliances/Coalitions

    • United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Posts Tagged ‘United Nationalities Federal Council’ on the Burma Partnership site
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Partnership
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Ethnic minorities in Myanmar rally for Kachin (video)
      Date of publication: 11 January 2013
      Description/subject: "Kachin ... leaders in Myanmar say government forces are continuing to push towards their strongholds near the border with China. But other ethnic minorities are now rallying in support of the Kachin Independence Army. Myanmar’s ethnic minority and rebel army representatives met in the northern Thai city Chiang Mai. They did not agree on everything, but the United Nationalities Federal Council was indeed united when it came to the situation in Kachin State. Al Jazeera's Wayne Hay reports from northern Thailand..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (2 minutes 3 seconds)
      Date of entry/update: 15 January 2013


      Title: United Nationalities Federal Council Annual Meeting Statement
      Date of publication: 10 January 2013
      Description/subject: "The United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) herewith issue a statement on resolution adopted by the following member and affiliate organizations in the annual meeting held from the 7th to 10th of January 2013 in a place on Thai-Burma border...The member organizations of UNFC, as a united entity, have decided to have comprehensive cease-fire and peace-talks with the government of Myanmar/Burma and would not accept any cease-fire and peace talks between the government and individual member organizations from now on. The UNFC, therefore, officially notifies the government of Myanmar/Burma that the UNFC is a sole negotiation body to the government in terms of comprehensive cease-fire and peace talks with the UNFC member organizations..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nationalities Federal Council
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 15 January 2013


      Title: Military offensive in Kachin State could delay dialogue: UNFC General Secretary
      Date of publication: 07 January 2013
      Description/subject: Min Thu Ta – The General Secretary of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC), Nai Hong Sar, said that despite an agreement reached between Presidential Minister U Aung Min’s peace negotiating team and a UNFC delegation, political dialogue could be delayed due to the Burmese military offensive in Kachin State. IMG 0105 “Because [the government army] has escalated the fighting against the Kachin [troops], the [political] dialogue could be held up. It is also difficult to answer whether the dialogue will be held in the country or abroad. The government is doing the opposite of what it said [it would] and showing its dishonesty as its army has intensified the fighting,” said Nai Hong Sar in an interview with IMNA last Thursday.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IMNA News
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2013


      Title: Ethnic bloc calls for end to Kachin conflict
      Date of publication: 03 January 2013
      Description/subject: "The United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) issued a statement on January 1 calling for the Burmese government to order a halt to the Burmese army’s military offensive against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2013


      Title: United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) members that have signed ceasefire agreements with Naypyitaw “will be reviewing their agreements
      Date of publication: 11 May 2012
      Description/subject: United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) members that have signed ceasefire agreements with Naypyitaw “will be reviewing their agreements". United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) members that have signed ceasefire agreements with Naypyitaw “will be reviewing their agreements” unless the offensive against the Kachin Independence Organization / Kachin Independence Army (KIO/KIA) is suspended, according to a report coming out of the UNFC ad hoc meeting held on the Thai-Burmese border, 7-9 May. Out of the 11 members, 5 have concluded truce: Shan State Progress Party / Shan State Army (SSPP/SSA), Chin National Front (CNF), Karen National Union (KNU), Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) and New Mon State Party (NMSP). (SHAN)"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Democracy for Burma
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2012


      Title: Establishing a common framework: The role of the United Nationalities Federal Council in the peace process and the need for an all-inclusive ethnic consultation
      Date of publication: May 2012
      Description/subject: "While the Burmese Government continues to seek peace with the various ethnic resistance movements individually at the local levels, the United Nationalities Federal Council – Union of Burma (UNFC) is working in the political process to ensure that any state-level talks are held through a common framework. However, there remain a number of concerns to be addressed by member organisations in recognizing a common policy that will benefit all relevant ethnic actors..."
      Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 6 )
      Format/size: pdf (598K - original; 526K - OBL version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/BCES-BP-No.6(en)-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012


      Title: UNFC Forms Peace Group for Govt. Talks
      Date of publication: 31 August 2011
      Description/subject: "Leaders of an umbrella organization of ethnic parties, the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC), formed a peace talk group last week in preparation for future negotiations with the Burmese government. Speaking to The Irrawaddy on Wednesday, UNFC secretary Nai Hang Tha said, “There are eight representatives within the group which includes Mon, Shan, Karenni, Chin, Arakanese, Karen, Kachin and Pa-O people. Nai Hang Tha explained that he will head the group with Colonel Lapai Hla, from the Kachin Independent Army (KIA), acting as deputy. “We are prepared to talk about equal rights for ethnic people in the country. We will also talk about reforming the new constitution so that a genuine federal union will exist [in Burma],” he said. “We will ask [the government] to stop their military offensives launched in ethnic areas and announce a nationwide ceasefire. If possible, we will ask them to have tripartite dialogue,” he added..."
      Author/creator: Lawi Weng
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2013


      Title: United Nationalities Federal Council. (UNFC), the newest coalition formed in a 5-day conference last week on the Thai-Burma border
      Date of publication: 21 February 2011
      Description/subject: "United Nationalities Federal Council. (UNFC), the newest coalition formed in a 5-day conference last week on the Thai-Burma border could well become the only non-Burman ethnic alliance worth talking about, according to some co-founding members The Committee for the Emergence of Federal Union (CEFU), the core group that organized the conference, 12-16 February, declared its dissolution following the founding of UNFC. It was formed by three former ceasefire groups: Kachin Independence Organization (KIO), New Mon State Party (NMSP) and Shan State Army (SSA) ‘North’ plus three non-ceasefire groups: Karen National Union (KNU), Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) and Chin National Front (CNF) in November. By contrast, other existing coalitions, notably the National Democratic Front (NDF), formed since 1976, and the Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC), formed since 2001, are bound to be “history soon”, according to sources who request anonymity. For the NDF, the reason is all of its member organizations, except for Arakan Liberation Front (ALP), have decided to join the UNFC..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Democracy for Burma
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2012


    • Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC)

      • ENC website, statements, conference records etc.

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Ethnic Nationalities Council (Union of Burma) website
        Description/subject: "The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) was originally established as the “Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee” (ENSCC) in August 2001. It was entrusted with the task of fostering unity and cooperation between all ethnic nationalities in preparation for a ‘Tripartite Dialogue” and a transition to democracy. The National Democratic Front (NDF) and the United Nationalities League for Democracy – Liberated Area (UNLD-LA) who co-founded the ENSCC, resolved that the ENSCC would: * Undertake pro-active and constructive actions to bring about a peaceful resolution to the political conflict in Burma through a dialogue process involving the SPDC, the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the ethnic nationalities, as dialogue partners; * Consult widely, cooperate, and work closely with all stakeholders in Burma and with the international community, international bodies and agencies, the United Nations, and humanitarian organizations, to resolve the grave humanitarian crisis in Burma, which most seriously effect the ethnic nationality populations; * Strive to facilitate an orderly and peaceful democratic transition in Burma, and to rebuild the country in accordance with the spirit of Panglong, based on the principle of Equality, Self-determination, Democracy, and Justice..." ... publicatoins, statments, fonts, draft constitutione, activities etc.
        Language: English, Burmese,
        Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC)
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 15 August 2006


        Individual Documents

        Title: Record of ENC 5th Conference 2008 (ပဉ္စမအကြိမ်မြောက် တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ညီလာခံမှတ်တမ်း)
        Date of publication: August 2008
        Description/subject: "ပဉ္စမအကြိမ်မြောက် တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ညီလာခံမှတ်တမ်း" ပဉ္စမအကြိမ်မြောက်ညီလာခံ၏အစီအစဉ်။ ပဉ္စမအကြိမ်မြောက်တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများညီလာခံသို့ တက်ရောက်လာသောကိုယ်စားလှယ်များ။ညီလာခံအဖွင့်မိန့်ခွန်း ဗဟိုအလုပ်အမှုဆောင်ကော်မတီ၏လုပ်ငန်းအစီရင်ခံစာ။ လုပ်ငန်းကော်မတီ၀င်များ၏အစီရင်ခံစာများ။ ။ (၁)နိုင်ငံတကာရေးရာကော်မတီ (၂)ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံရေးရာကော်မတီ (၃)မဟာဗျူဟာလေ့လာရေးကော်မတီ (၄)စီးပွားရေးနှင့်စီမံကိန်းရေးရာကော်မတီ (၅)စည်းရုံးရေးနှင့်ပြန်ကြားရေးကော်မတီ (၆)ဒီမိုကရေစီနည်းကျဦးဆောင်မှုအလုပ်ရုံ ဆွေးနွေးပွဲများ ၏အစီရင်ခံစာ။ ပြည်နယ်ကောင်စီများနှင့်State Coordinating Body များမှလက်ရှိနိုင်ငံရေးသုံးသပ်ချက်စာတမ်းများ။ ။ (၁)ကချင်ပြည်နယ် ပြည်နယ်ညှိနှိုင်းဆောင်ရွက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ (၂)ကရင်ပြည်နယ် ပြည်နယ်ညှိနှိုင်းဆောင်ရွက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ (၃)ကရင်နီပြည်နယ် ပြည်နယ်ညှိနှိုင်း ဆောင် ရွက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ (၄)ချင်းအမျိုးသားကောင်စီ (၅)မွန်ပြည်နယ် ပြည်နယ် ညှိနှိုင်းဆောင်ရွက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ (၆)ရခိုင်အမျိုးသားကောင်စီ။ ၂၀၀၆-၀၈ ခုနှစ်အတွင်းပုံမှန်အစည်းအဝေးဆုံးဖြတ်ချက်များ။ တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေ။ ပဉ္စမအကြိမ် တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများညီလာခံမှအတည်ပြု ထားသောရှေ့လုပ်ငန်းစဉ်များဆိုင်ရာ ဆုံးဖြတ်ချက်များ။ တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ဒုတိယအကြိမ်သက်တမ်း တွင်ထမ်းဆောင်ရန်တာဝန်ပေးခြင်းခံရသော ဗဟိုအလုပ်အမှု ဆောင်ကော်မတီဝင်များ။ နိုင်ငံတကာခေါင်းဆောင်များသို့ ပေးပို့သည့်စာများ။ ထုတ်ပြန်ကြေညာချက်များ။
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: ENC
        Format/size: pdf (1.45 MB) 200 pages
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2010


        Title: A STRUGGLE FOR SELF-DETERMINATION IN BURMA: Ethnic Nationalities Perspective
        Date of publication: 17 September 2004
        Description/subject: "... The ENC does not believe that the SPDC’s 7-stages “road map” and its National Convention will lead to democratization and establishment of a federal union. The sole purpose of SPDC’s National Convention is to sustain a military dictatorship and transform itself from De Facto Government to De Jure Government through constitution. The ENC, therefore, issued a statement on 14 May 2004, in support of CF groups’ letter to the SPDC. Part of the statement read as follows: (i) The National Convention procedural rules should be discussed and revised; (ii) Objective No. 6 of the National Convention (military role in politics) is not compatible with democracy. It should be discussed and revised; (iii) The 104 Articles adopted by the previous National Convention are not compatible with democracy. It should be discussed and revised. (iv) Law No. 5/96, which was enacted on 7 June 1996 to protect the 1993-96 National Convention, should be repealed. The ENC is willing to cooperate and find ways to bring about a transition if above are met. Politics is about making compromises and the ENC is willing to discuss options if the SPDC considers modifying its 7- points Road Map. And, the ENC still believes that the best means to solve our country problem is through a negotiated settlement; and we, therefore, strongly demands a tripartite dialogue as called for by the UNGA since 1994. In conclusion, I would like to stress again that the right of “self-determination” that we are struggling for is what we call “internal self-determination”: which will guarantees our collective rights; the right to rule our homeland by ourselves, the right to practice our religious teaching and culture freely, the right to teach, learn and promote our language freely, and the right to up-hold our identity without fear and live peacefully together with others. I can assure you that we are not separatists. We are for a united Union of Burma, but what we want is a genuine federal union where all ethnic groups in Burma can live peacefully together."... While this is not a formal ENC statement, Lian Sakhong is General Secretary of the ENC as well as of the United Nationalities League for Democracy, UNLD-LA.
        Author/creator: Lian H. Sakhong
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Speech delivered at “Conference on Indo-Burma Relation”, India International Centre on September 16-17, 2004
        Format/size: html (41K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 September 2004


        Title: Statement No. 3/2004 of the Ethnic Nationalilties Council: "The United Nations and the National Convention in Burma"
        Date of publication: August 2004
        Description/subject: "The Ethnic Nationalities Council warmly welcomed the 17 August 2004 statement of the United Nations Secretary General regarding the National Convention in Burma..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalilties Council (ENC)
        Format/size: html (9K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


        Title: Statement No. 4/2004 of the Ethnic Nationalities Council: "The European Union, ASEM and Burma"
        Date of publication: August 2004
        Description/subject: "1. The Ethnic Nationalities Council calls on the European Union not to accept Burma as a member in the upcoming ASEM (Asia Europe) meeting in Hanoi in October 2004. To do so without any political reforms by the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), or meeting any minimum human rights standards, would be tantamount to promoting a culture of impunity and a total disregard for the rule of law. Democracy and human rights are the two basic values dear to the heart of every citizen of the European Union, especially eight of the ten new member nations. They themselves have only recently freed themselves from tyranny. ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC)
        Format/size: html (9K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


        Title: Statement No. 1/2004 of the ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL
        Date of publication: 15 March 2004
        Description/subject: "1. The Ethnic Nationalities Council was established on March 12, 2004, in accordance with the 3rd Ethnic Nationalities Seminar, which was held from 28 January to 2 February 2004. The Council met from 12 to 14 March 2004. 2. (A) The political objectives of the Ethnic Nationalities Council are: (i) End the military dictatorship in Burma, (ii) Establish a democratic nation, (iii) Establish ethnic equality and self-determination, (iv) Establish a genuine federal union. (B) The Ethnic Nationalities Council’s strategy is to achieve its objectives through a “tripartite dialogue” to find political solutions to political problems. (C) The “tripartite dialogue” must include the SPDC military regime, the democratic forces led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the ethnic nationalities, as called for by the United Nations General Assembly resolutions since 1994. 3. The Ethnic Nationalities Council was established with three representatives from the National Democratic Front (NDF), two from the United Nationalities League for Democracy (UNLD-LA), one from the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), one from the National United Party of Arakan (NUPA), one from the Shan Democratic Union (SDU), and one from the Kachin National Organization (KNO) – in total nine council members..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalties Council (ENC)
        Format/size: html (16K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


        Title: Statement of The Third Ethnic Nationality Seminar
        Date of publication: 03 February 2004
        Description/subject: "(1) The Third Ethnic Nationality Seminar was successfully held from January 28, 2004 to February 2, 2004 at Law-hkee-la Camp in Kawthoolei. Sixty-one delegates and observers from the ethnic nationality alliances, parties and organizations attended the Seminar and participated in free and frank discussions..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Third Ethnic Nationality Seminar
        Format/size: html (33K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


      • ENSCC statements etc.
        The Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee (ENSCC) was reformed as the working committee of Ethnic Nationalities Council in March 2004

        Individual Documents

        Title: Road map for rebuilding the Pyi-Daung-Su Myanmar Naing-Ngan-Daw Union of Burma
        Date of publication: 02 September 2003
        Description/subject: "... in spirit of Panglong, we are committed to national reconciliation and to the rebuilding of the Union as equal partners in the process. We believe that in order to establish a stable, peaceful and prosperous nation, the process of rebuilding the Union must be based on a democratic process which includes the following basic principles: 1. A peaceful resolution of crisis in the Union 2. The resolution of political problems through political dialogue 3. Respect for the will of the people, 4. The recognition and protection of the rights of all citizens of the Union, 5. The recognition and protection of the identity,language, religion, and culture rights all of nationalities, 6. The recognition and protection of the rights of the constituent states of the Union through a federal arrangement. Therefore, in the interest of the nation, we recommend a two-stage process to generate confidence in the transition to democracy:..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee Union of Burma (ENSCC)
        Format/size: html (13K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 September 2003


        Title: ENSCC: Statement on the Release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi
        Date of publication: 09 May 2002
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC
        Format/size: html (10k)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: ENSCC : The Constitutional Crisis
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: "After the end of the Second World War, the leaders of the various ethnic nationalities met in 1946 in Panglong to deliberate the possibility of a future together after the proposed withdrawal of British protection. General Aung San, the Burman leader of the independence struggle in Ministerial Burma participated in the 2nd Panglong Conference in February 1947. He proposed that the separate ethnic homelands in the Frontier Areas be joined to Ministerial Burma as equal partners in a Union of Burma to hasten the process of achieving independence from Britain..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC
        Format/size: htmlo (14K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: ENSCC Mission Statement
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: 1. Background History, Mandate and Mission; 2. Dialogue Strategy; 2.1. Tripartite Dialogue; 2.2. Ethnic Nationalities Conference; 2.3. International Lobby Trips; 2.4.Panglong Initiative: More Concrete Plan (on Humanitarian Aid, Cease Fire, and Political Dialogue); 3.1. Tactics & Strategy : Federalism vs. Independence; 3.2. The Mode of Representation: States- or Ethnic-based?; 4. Statement on the Release of Daw Aung Suu Kyi(Date: 9 May 2002); 5. The ENSCC Committee Members; Appendix: SCC Position on Humanitarian Aid: Decision made at the SCC meeting held in January 2001.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee
        Format/size: html (77K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: ENSCC Policy paper: The New Panglong Initiative - Re-building the Union of Burma
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: "Preamble: Over five decades ago, while our leaders were meeting in Panglong to deliberate the possibility of a future together after the proposed withdrawal of British protection, General Aung San, the Burman leader of the independence struggle in Ministerial Burma arrived. He instead proposed that our separate homelands in the Frontier Areas be joined to Ministerial Burma as equal partners in a new Union of Burma to hasten the process of achieving independence from Britain. On 11 February 1947, he said: The dream of a unified and free Burma has always haunted me We who are gathered here tonight are engaged in the pursuit of the same dream. We have in Burma many indigenous peoples: the Karen, the Kachin, the Shan, the Chin, the Burmans and others In other countries too there are many indigenous peoples, many races. Thus races do not have rigid boundaries. Religion is no barrier either, for it is a matter of individual conscience If we want the nation to prosper, we must pool our resources, manpower, wealth, skills and work together. If we are divided, the Karen, the Shan, the Kachin, the Chin, the Burman, the Mon and the Arakanese, each pulling in a different direction, the Union will be torn, and we will come to grief. Let us unite and work together. Our forefathers agreed and the Panglong Agreement came into being, providing a legal framework within which the different ethnic peoples would cooperate as equals. The Aung San-Attlee Agreement, which paved the way for Burmas independence, had called for the unification of the Frontier Areas and Ministerial Burma with the free consent of those areas. The Panglong Agreement, therefore, became the basis for the 1947 Union Constitution and the Republic of the Union of Burma gained independence in 1948. We, the representatives of the Arakan, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon and Shan peoples, therefore, in the spirit of Panglong, are putting forward our vision of how our peoples can once again work together voluntarily as equals with the Burmans to rebuild the Republic of the Union of Burma, which has been devastated by five decades of war..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC
        Format/size: html (36K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: ENSCC: Humanitarian Aid
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: "In order to rebuild the Union of Burma, any Transitional Authority will face tremendous challenges. It cannot convene a new Panglong Conference or Constitutional Convention, without also dealing with the huge problems facing the nation both economic and social..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC
        Format/size: html (13K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: ENSCC: Tripartite Dialogue
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: "A 'Tripartite Dialogue' is usually understood to mean a dialogue amongst three parties: the military government (SPDC), the democracy forces (NLD) and the ethnic nationalities. The notion of 'Tripartite Dialogue', therefore, highlights the indispensable participation of the ethnic nationalities in political transition and national reconciliation processes..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC
        Format/size: html (14K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: ENSCC: Vision for the Future
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: "The ENSCC firmly believe that the crisis in the Union of Burma today is rooted in a political problem, specifically a constitutional one the non-adherence to the spirit of Panglong. The ENSCC believes that differences can be overcome through political means, i.e. through political dialogue, negotiations and compromise. The ENSCC, therefore, welcomes the current Talks between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC
        Format/size: html (13K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Co-operation Committee [history and composition]
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: 'The "Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Co-operation Committee" (ENSCC) was formed in August 2001 to co-ordinate the work of the following non-Burman political groupings: National Democratic Front (NDF), United Nationalities League for Democracy - Liberated Area (UNLD-LA), Non-ceasefire groups like the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), and Ceasefire groups...'
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC
        Format/size: html (39K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Law Khii Lah Statement (August 2001)
        Date of publication: 30 August 2001
        Description/subject: Law Khii Lah Statement - Translation ETHNIC NATIONALITIES SEMINAR 2001 (30 August 2001) "Ethnic nationalities leaders from major organizations met at Law Khii Lah, Kawthoolei, in August 2001, and discussed the need for unity and closer cooperation. The leaders agreed on the need to strengthen the unity of the ethnic nationalities and a working committee, the Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee (ENSCC), was established. The Committee was entrusted with the task of fostering unity and cooperation between all ethnic nationalities and to promote a peaceful political settlement in Burma through a Tripartite Dialogue..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC
        Format/size: html (26K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: ENSCC: Rationale for the New Panglong Initiative
        Date of publication: August 2001
        Description/subject: WHY REBUILD THE UNION OF BURMA?... Introduction: "Secret Talks between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the National League for Democracy (NLD), and the generals of the State peace and Development Council (SPDC) began in October 2000, and is still on-going. To date, no substantive matters have been discussed. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has in the past said that she will not make decisions without broader consultations and that she supports United Nations General Assembly resolutions calling for a Tripartite Dialogue involving the military, the democracy forces and the non-Burman ethnic peoples.1 The international community very much wants the Secret Talks to succeed and develop further into a political dialogue, which will bring about change in Burma. The UN Special Envoy has visited Burma four times since mid-2000 and is about to make another visit in August 2001. Most countries agree that a Tripartite Dialogue is needed. However, there is the possibility that the Secret Talks could break down. The fact that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi did not attend the 19 July Martyrs Day Ceremony signals that all is not well despite the SPDCs assurances to the contrary..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC
        Format/size: html (42K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Peaceful Co-existence - Towards Federal Union of Burma
        A series of books, papers, conference reports, draft state constitutions etc. published by the ENC, ENSCC and UNLD

        Individual Documents

        Title: Record of ENC 5th Conference 2008 (ပဉ္စမအကြိမ်မြောက် တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ညီလာခံမှတ်တမ်း)
        Date of publication: August 2008
        Description/subject: "ပဉ္စမအကြိမ်မြောက် တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ညီလာခံမှတ်တမ်း" ပဉ္စမအကြိမ်မြောက်ညီလာခံ၏အစီအစဉ်။ ပဉ္စမအကြိမ်မြောက်တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများညီလာခံသို့ တက်ရောက်လာသောကိုယ်စားလှယ်များ။ညီလာခံအဖွင့်မိန့်ခွန်း ဗဟိုအလုပ်အမှုဆောင်ကော်မတီ၏လုပ်ငန်းအစီရင်ခံစာ။ လုပ်ငန်းကော်မတီ၀င်များ၏အစီရင်ခံစာများ။ ။ (၁)နိုင်ငံတကာရေးရာကော်မတီ (၂)ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံရေးရာကော်မတီ (၃)မဟာဗျူဟာလေ့လာရေးကော်မတီ (၄)စီးပွားရေးနှင့်စီမံကိန်းရေးရာကော်မတီ (၅)စည်းရုံးရေးနှင့်ပြန်ကြားရေးကော်မတီ (၆)ဒီမိုကရေစီနည်းကျဦးဆောင်မှုအလုပ်ရုံ ဆွေးနွေးပွဲများ ၏အစီရင်ခံစာ။ ပြည်နယ်ကောင်စီများနှင့်State Coordinating Body များမှလက်ရှိနိုင်ငံရေးသုံးသပ်ချက်စာတမ်းများ။ ။ (၁)ကချင်ပြည်နယ် ပြည်နယ်ညှိနှိုင်းဆောင်ရွက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ (၂)ကရင်ပြည်နယ် ပြည်နယ်ညှိနှိုင်းဆောင်ရွက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ (၃)ကရင်နီပြည်နယ် ပြည်နယ်ညှိနှိုင်း ဆောင် ရွက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ (၄)ချင်းအမျိုးသားကောင်စီ (၅)မွန်ပြည်နယ် ပြည်နယ် ညှိနှိုင်းဆောင်ရွက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ (၆)ရခိုင်အမျိုးသားကောင်စီ။ ၂၀၀၆-၀၈ ခုနှစ်အတွင်းပုံမှန်အစည်းအဝေးဆုံးဖြတ်ချက်များ။ တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေ။ ပဉ္စမအကြိမ် တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများညီလာခံမှအတည်ပြု ထားသောရှေ့လုပ်ငန်းစဉ်များဆိုင်ရာ ဆုံးဖြတ်ချက်များ။ တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ဒုတိယအကြိမ်သက်တမ်း တွင်ထမ်းဆောင်ရန်တာဝန်ပေးခြင်းခံရသော ဗဟိုအလုပ်အမှု ဆောင်ကော်မတီဝင်များ။ နိုင်ငံတကာခေါင်းဆောင်များသို့ ပေးပို့သည့်စာများ။ ထုတ်ပြန်ကြေညာချက်များ။
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: ENC
        Format/size: pdf (1.45 MB) 200 pages
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2010


        Title: ENC Policy Papers, Letters and Statement
        Date of publication: 2006
        Description/subject: "PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE: Towards Federal Union of Burma [ Series No.12 ]" PART ONE:Policy Papers... 1. ENC Policy Statement 2. The New Panglong Initiative:Rebuilding the Union of Burma 3. The Road Map for Rebuilding the Union of Burma 4. Our future in the 21st Century 5. ENC Policy Statement on Humanitarian Aid..... PART TWO:ENC Statements and Letters... 1. ENC Open Letter to Gen. Than Shwe 2. ENC Open Letter to Kofi Annan 3. ENC Open Letter to Kofi Annan 4. Statements..... PART THREE(Burmese section):၁။ ဥက္ကဌ စောဘသင်စိန်.မိန်ဏခွန်း... ၂။စတုတဦအကြိမ်မြောက်ညီလာခံသို့အထွေထွေအတွင်းရေးမှူး၏လုပ်ငန်းအစီရင်ခံစာ...၃။ စတုတဦအကြိမ်မြောက်ညီလာခံဆုံးဖြတ်ချက်များ...၄။လက်ရှိနိုင်ငံရေးအခြေအနေ များကို သုံးသပ်သည့်စာတမ်း... ၅။မဟာဗျူဟာညှိနှိုင်းအစည်းအဝေးသို့တင်သွင်းသော အထွေထွေအတွင်းရေးမှူး၏လုပ်ငန်းအစီရင်ခံစာ..... PART FOUR:၁။ တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေ
        Author/creator: Lian H. Sakhong (editor)
        Language: English/ မြန်မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Council (Union of Burma)
        Format/size: pdf (759.96 K)
        Date of entry/update: 29 September 2010


        Title: "ပြည်ထောင်စုစစ်စစ်မူ"
        Date of publication: 2005
        Description/subject: ENC "PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE: Towards Federal Union of Burma [Series No.9]" "၁၉၆၂ ဖေဖေါ်ဝါရီလ (၂၄) ရက်နေ့တွင် ရန်ကုန်မြို့ပြည်လမ်းအသံလွှင့်ရုံခန်းမတွင် ကျင်းပသော ပြည်နယ်များညီဍွတ်ရေးအဖွဲဏမှ တင်သွင်းသည့် ဦပြည်ထောင်စုစစ်စစ် မူဦ နှင့် ပတ်သက်သည့်ဆွေးနွေးပွဲနှင့် ၁၉၆၂ မတ်လ (၁) ရက်နေ့တွင် ယင်း"မူ"အပေါ် တုန့်ပြန်ဆွေးနွေးချက်များမှတ်တမ်း" မာတိကာ_ ထုတ်ဝေသူ၏နိဒါန်း...အပိုင်း (၁) :ပြည်နယ်များညီညွတ်ရေးအဖွဲ့မှတင်သွင်းသောပြည်​ထောင်စုစစ်စစ်မူ အခန်း (၁) ၁၉၆၂ ဖေဖေါ်ဝါရီလ (၂၄) ရက်နေ့တွင် ရန်ကုန်မြု့ပြည်လမ်းအသံလွှင့်ရုံ ခန်းမဆောင်တွင် ကျင်းပသော ဆွေးနွေးပွဲအစီအစဉ် အခန်း (၂) နိုင်ငံတော်ဝန်ကြီးချုပ် ဦးနု၏အဖွင့်မိန့်ခွန်း အခန်း (၃) ပြည်နယ်များညီညွတ်ရေး အဖွဲ့မှတင်သွင်းသော "ပြည် ထောင်စုစစ်စစ်မူ" ကို ရှမ်းပြည်နယ်ဥက္ကဌ စဝ်ခွန်ချိုမှ တင်သွင်းခြင်း အခန်း (၄) ကချင်ပြည်နယ်ကိုယ်စားလှယ် ဒူဝါ​ဇော်လွန်း၏ဆွေးနွေးတင်ပြချက် အခန်း (၅) ချင်းအထူးဝ ဒေသတိုင်းကိုယ်စားလှယ် ကပ္ပတိန်မန်းတုံနုံး၏ဆွေးနွေးတင်ပြချက် အခန်း (၆) ရှမ်းပြည်နယ်ကိုယ်စားလှယ် ဦးထွန်းမြင့် (တောင်ကြီး)၏ ဆွေးနွေးတင်ပြချက် အခန်း (၇) ကယားပြည်နယ်ကိုယ်စားလှယ် ဦးစိန်၏ဆွေးနွေးတင်ပြချက်... အပိုင်း (၂) ပြည်နယ်များညီညွတ်ရေးအဖွဲ့မှ တင်သွင်းသော "ပြည်ထောင်စုစစ်စစ်မူ" အပေါ် ဗမာနိုင်ငံရေးပါတီများ၏ တုန့်ပြန်ချက်များ အခန်း (၈) ၁၉၆၂ မတ်လ (၁) ရက်နေ့တွင် ကျင်းပသောဆွေးနွေးပွဲအစီအစဉ်နှင့် နိုင်ငံတော်ဝန်ကြီးချုပ်ဦးနု၏အဖွင့်အမှာစကား အခန်း (၉) ပမညတဥက္ကဌ သခင်ချစ်မောင်၏ဆွေးနွေးတင်ပြချက် အခန်း (၁ဝ) ဖဆပလအဖွဲ့ချုပ် ဥက္ကဌ ဦးဗဆွေ၏ဆွေးနွေးတင်ပြချက်
        Author/creator: ဒေါက်တာ ဆလိုင်းလျန်မှုန်း ဆာခေါင်း နှင့်စိုင်းမော (န်) (Collection)
        Language: English/ မြန်မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: ENC
        Format/size: pdf (275.27 K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


        Title: DESIGNING FEDERALISM IN BURMA
        Date of publication: 2005
        Description/subject: CONTENTS:Forewords (David Williams)... PART ONE:THE BASIC PRINCIPLES: 1. Federalism, Constitution Making and State Building in Burma (Lian H. Sakhong) Introduction ... Federalism: Theoretical Analysis... Federalism in Burmese Contexts: Lessons from 1947... Nation-Building and the Problem of Forced Assimilation ... State-Building and Unity in Diversity: An Option for the Future... Conclusion: Finding Equilibrium between Nation-Building and State Building .... 2. The Basic Principles for Future Federal Union of Burma (Lian H. Sakhong)... Preamble ... The Basic Principles of Federalism at the time of Union Formation ... Proposal for the Future .... PART TWO:CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN FOR BURMA... 3. Constitutional Design for Burma:The First Lecture (2003) (David C. Williams)... A. The Purpose of a Constitution ... (i) Electoral Systems ... (ii) Separation of Powers ... (iii) Federalism .... (iv) Individual Rights ... B. Securing the Basis of Consent ... C. Federalism ... D. Electoral Systems ... E. The Union Constitution ... F. Judicial Review ... 4. Constitutional Design for Burma:The Second Lecture (2004) (David C. Williams)... A. Introduction ... B. State-Building and Nation-Building ... (i) States ... (ii) Nations ... (iii) States and Nations ... C. Federalism ... D. Federalism in Foreign Affairs ... (i) The States’ Ability to Make Their Own Foreign Policy ... (ii) The States’ Participation in Foreign Policy ... (iii) Political Pressure ... (iv) Implementation ... (v) Direct Participation ... (vi) Permanent Staffs ...E. Electoral Systems ... (i) Majoritarian Systems ... (ii) Proposal Systems ... (iii) Combing Systems ... F. Conclusion .... PART THREE:CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN AND FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS... 5. Constitutional Drafting and Fundamental Rights:The Example of Religious Freedom (Susan H. Williams) ... 6. Constitutional Drafting and Fundamental Rights:The Example of Gender Equality (Susan H. Williams) ....
        Author/creator: David C.Williams, Lian H.Sakhong, Susan H.Williams
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENC "PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE: Towards Federal Union of Burma [Series No.10]"
        Format/size: pdf (723.41 KB)
        Date of entry/update: 30 August 2010


        Title: THE FOURTH INITIAL DRAFT OF CONSTITUTION OF CHINLAND
        Date of publication: May 2004
        Description/subject: ချင်းလဲန်းဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြခံမူကြမ်း(၄): "အပိုင်း(၁)ချင်းအမျိုးသားများ၏နောက်ခံသမိုင်းများ" (၁)ချင်းအမျိုးသားများ၏နိုင်ငံရေးနှင့်လူမှုရေး နောက်ခံသမိုင်းအကျဉ်း (၂)နိုင်ငံရေးနောက်ခံသမိုင်း (၃)ချင်းလူမျိုးတို့၏လွတ်လပ်သောနိုင်ငံတည်ထောင်ပိုင်ခွင့် (၄)ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံ ဖွဲ့စည်းမှု အဖွဲ့ဝင်အဖြစ်ချင်းလူမျိုးများပါဝင်ခြင်း (၅)အင်္ဂလိပ်အုပ်ချုပ်မှုမတိုင်ခင်လွတ်လပ်သော ချင်းလဲန်းနှင့် ယနေ့ချင်းလဲန်း (၆)ချင်းလူမှုရေးနှင့်ယဉ်ကျေးမှုနောက်ခံသမိုင်း "အပိုင်း(၂)ဖက်ဒရယ်ပြည်ထောင်စုပြန်လည်တည်ဆောက်ရန် ချင်းအမျိုးသားများ၏တောင်းဆိုချက်များ" (၁)ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံအားဖက်ဒရယ်ပြည်ထောင်စုအဖြစ် ပြန်လည် ဖွဲ့စည်းခြင်း (၂)ဖက်ဒရယ်ပြည်ထောင်စုပြန်လည်ဖွဲ့စည်းနိုင်ရေး အခြေခံသဘောတရားများ (၃)ချင်းလဲန်းဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေနှင့်အစိုးရဖွဲ့စည်းပုံများ "အပိုင်း(၃)ချင်းလဲန်းဖွဲ့စည်းအုပ်ချုပ်ပုံမူကြမ်း" (၁)ချင်းလဲန်းဖွဲ့စည်းအုပ်ချုပ်ပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေနိဒါန်း (၂)ချင်းလဲန်းပိုင်နက်နယ်မြေ (၃)ချင်းပြည်သူတို့၏ဆန္ဒ (၄)တသီးပုဂ္ဂလအခွင့် အရေးများ (၅)တသီးပုဂ္ဂလတာဝန်များ (၆)ချင်းနိုင်ငံသားဖြစ်မှုနှင့် အမျိုးသားရေး (၇)ရွေးကောက်တင်မြောက်ခြင်း (၈)ဥပဒေပြုရေး (၉)အုပ်ချုပ်ရေး (၁၀)တရားစီရင်ရေး (၁၁)အုပ်ချုပ်ရေး (စီမံခန့်ခွဲရေး) (၁၂)ပြည်သူ့ဝန်ထမ်းကော်မရှင် (၁၃)ရာထူးမှဖယ်ရှားခြင်း (၁၄)ဒေသန္တရအစိုးရ (၁၅)ဘဏ္ဍာရေး၊အကောက်ခွန်နှင့် ဘဏ္ဍာတော် (၁၆)ပြည်သူ့ပညာရေး (၁၇)ပြည်သူ့ကျန်းမာရေး (၁၈)ပြည်သူ့လူမှုဖူလုံရေး (၁၉)ယဉ်ကျေးမှုနှင့် လူထု ဆက်သွယ်ရေး (၂၀)ချင်းလဲန်းလက်နက်ကိုင်အဖွဲ့ (၂၁)အထွေထွေဥပဒေများ (၂၂)ပြည်နယ်များနှင့် ပြည်နယ်ဖက်ဒရယ်ဆက်ဆံမှု (၂၃)ပြင်ဆင်ဖြည့်စွက်ခြင်း၊အချက်ပို (၁)
        Language: မြန်မာဘာသာ/အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: The Chin Forum
        Format/size: pdf (434 KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.chinforum.org/cfconstitutions/4th_cc_eng_bur.pdf (Burmese&English)
        http://www.chinforum.org/cfconstitutions/4th_chin_con.pdf (English)
        Date of entry/update: 15 September 2010


        Title: တတိယအကြိမ်မြောက် တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများနှီးနှောဖလှယ်ပွဲ မှတ်တမ်းများ
        Date of publication: 2004
        Description/subject: ENC "PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE: Towards Federal Union of Burma [Series No.8]" အခန်း (၁) ENSCC အဖွဲ့ဝင်နိုင်ငံရေးတပ်ပေါင်းစုများ။ နိုင်ငံရေးပါတီများနှင့် အဖွဲ့အစည်းများမှ ခေါင်းဆောင်များ၏တတိယအကြိမ်တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများနှီးနှောဖလှယ်ပွဲဖွင့်ပွဲ အခန်းအနားတွင် ပြောကြားခဲ့သောမိန့်ခွန်းများ၊ ၁:၁၊ အလှည့်ကျသဘာပတိဗိုလ်ချုပ်မန်းအောင်သန်းလေး.အဖွင့်မိန့်ခွန်း ၁:၂၊ အမျိုးသားဒီမိုကရေစီတပ်ပေါင်းစု (NDF) ဒု-ဥက္ကဌ ခိုင်စိုးနိုင်အောင်၏မိန့်ခွန်း ၁:၃၊UNLD (LA) ဥက္ကဌ ခွန်းမတ်ရ်ကိုဘန်း၏မိန့်ခွန်း ၁:၄၊ (KNPP) ဥက့ဌ ခူထဲဘူးဖဲ့.မိန်ဏခွန်း ၁:၅၊ SDU မှ ဒေါက်တာစဝ်ဇန့်ယောင်ဟွေ.မိန့်ခွန်း ၁:၆၊RCCS ကိုယ်စားလှယ် ဗိုလ်မှူးစိုင်းပွန်ခေး၏မိန့်ခွန်း..... အခန်း (၂)ENSCC ၏(၂) နှစ်တာလုပ်ငန်းအစီရင်ခံစာများကိုတင်သွင်းခြင်း: ၂:၁၊ အတွင်းရေးမှူးဒေါက်တာဆလိုင်းလျန်မှုန်း တင်သွင်းသော ENSCC၏နှစ်နှစ်တာ လုပ်ငန်းအစီရင်ခံစာ ၂:၂၊ ဗိုလ်မှူးကြီးခွန်ဥက္ကာ မှ ENSCC နိုင်ငံရေးလမ်းပြမြေပုံ ((Road Map for Rebuilding the Union of Burma) ၏အစီရင်ခံစာ ၂:၃၊ နိုင်ငံတကာရေးရာတာဝန်ခံ ခွန်းဒက်ဒီဘူရီတင်သွင်းသော ENSCC ၏နိုင်ငံတကာလုပ်ငန်းအစီရင်ခံစာ ..... အခန်း (၃) တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများ၏နိုင်ငံရေးပါတီများနှင့် တပ်ပေါင်းစုများမှတင်သွင်းသော "တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများ၏ကျစ်လစ်ခိုင်မာသော စည်းလုံးညီညွတ်ရေး" (Solidarity) တည်ဆောက်မှုအတွက် အမြင်နှင့်သဘောထား စာတမ်းများ ၃:၁၊UNLD (LA) မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၃:၂၊ALP မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၃:၃၊ CNF မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၃:၄၊ KNPP မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၃:၅၊ KNU မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၃:၆၊MPP မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၃:၇၊ NMSP မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၃:၈၊ PSLF မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ..... အခန်း (၄) တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများ၏ နိုင်ငံရေးပါတီများမှ "သုံးပွင့်ဆိုင်တွေ့ဆုံဆွေးနွေးရေးဦ" (Tripartite Dialogue) အပေါ် အမြင်နှင့်သဘောထားစာတမ်းများ ၄:၁၊ UNLD (LA) မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၄:၂၊ ALP မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၄:၃၊ CNFမှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၄:၄၊ KNPP မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၄:၅၊ MPP မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၄:၆၊NMSP မှတင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်း ၄:၇၊ NDF အထွေထွေအတွင်းရေးမှူးမှ သုံးသပ်တင်ပြချက် ၄:၈၊ UNLD(LA) နာယကDr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe မှ Dialogue အပေါ်ဆွေးနွေးတင်ပြခြင်း။ မှတ်တမ်းဓါတ်ပုံများ..... အခန်း (၅) လက်ရှိနိုင်ငံရေးအပေါ် သုံးသပ်ချက်များ (KNU နှင့် KNPPတို့၏အခြေအနေ) ၅:၁၊ အလှည့်ကျသဘာပတိ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်ကြီးတာမလာဘော၏မိန့်ခွန်း ၅:၂၊ KNU အထွေထွေအတွင်းရေးမှူး ပဒိုမန်းရှာမှ လက်ရှိနိုင်ငံရေးအခြေအနေကို တင်ပြရှင်းလင်းခြင်း ၅:၃၊ KNPP ဒု-ဥက္ကဌ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်မန်းအောင်သန်းလေး၏လက်ရှိနိုင်ငံရေးအခြေအနေကို တင်ပြရှင်းလင်းခြင်း ၅:၄၊ KNPP တွဲဖက်အတွင်းရေးမှူး ခူဦးရယ်မှ ကရင်နီပြည်အတွင်း လက်ရှိဖြစ်ပေါ်နေသောနိုင်ငံရေးအခြေအနေတင်ပြချက် ၅:၅၊ ENSCC အတွင်းရေးမှူးဒေါက်တာဆလိုင်းလျန်မှုန်း၏ကြားဖြတ်မေတ္တာရပ်ခံချက် ၅:၆၊KNU ဒု-ဥက္ကဌ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်ကြီးစောဘိုမြ၏KNU နှင့် နအဖစစ်အစိုးရ တွေ့ဆုံဆွေးနွေးပွဲအပေါ် ရှင်းလင်းတင်ပြချက် ..... အခန်း (၆) နိုင်ငံတကာအခြေအနေကို ဆွေးနွေးသုံးသပ်ခြင်း ၆:၁၊ အလှည့်ကျသဘာပတိ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်ကြီးစောဘိုမြ၏အဖွင့်မိန့်ခွန်း ၆:၂၊ ENSCC အကြံပေးပုဂ္ဂိုလ် Harn Yawnghwe မှ Inernational Forum နှင့် Bangkok Process အပေါ် ဆွေးနွေးခြင်း ၆:၃၊ ENSCC နိုင်ငံခြားရေးရာတာဝန်ခံ Teddy Buri မှ Bangkok Process အပေါ် ဆွေးနွေးခြင်း..... အခန်း (၇) ၇:၁၊ တတိယအကြိမ်မြောက် တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများညီလာခံဆုံးဖြတ်ချက်များ ၇:၂၊ တတိယအ’ကိမ် တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများညီလာခံ ထုတ်ပြန်ကြေညာချက် ..... အခန်း (၈) တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ (ENC) ၈:၁၊ တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများကောင်စီ၏ ရွေးချယ်တင်မြောက်ခြင်းနှင့် တာဝန်ပေးအပ်ခြင်း ၈:၂၊ ENC ၏ထုတ်ပြန်ကြေညာချက်များ
        Author/creator: Lian H. Sakhong (Series Editor)
        Language: English/ မြန်မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: UNLD
        Format/size: pdf (972.67 K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 September 2010


        Title: "ဒုတိယအကြိမ်ညီလာခံမှတ်တမ်း"
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: အပိုင်း(၁)ညီလာခံဖွင့်လှစ်ခြင်း။ ။ သဘာပတိအဖွင့်မိန့်ခွန်း,နာယကအဖွဲ့၀င် စဝ်ဆိုင်စစ်မိတ်ဆက်စကား, တက်ရောက်လာကြသော အဖွဲ့ချုပ်၏အဖွဲ့ဝင်အသီးသီးမှ ခေါင်းဆောင်များ၊ ကိုယ်စားလှယ်အချင်းချင်း မိတ်ဆက်ခြင်းနှင့် မိန့်ခွန်းမြွက်ကြားခြင်း အပိုင်း(၂)ညီလာခံသို့တင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်းများ 2:1 UNLD (LA) Policy Making & External Affairs Committee's Report 2:2 Ethnic Nationalities Initiative for Tripartite Dialogue: Part (1): Report on Activities of ENSCC Part (2): ENSCC Policy Paper Part (3): Statement & Declarations 2:3 Report on State Constitutions Drafting Process 2:4 UNLD (LA) Organizing & Alliance Affairs Committee's Report အပိုင်း(၃)ညီလာခံသို့တင်သွင်းသောစာတမ်းများအပေါ် ပြန်လည်ဆွေးနွေးဝေဖန်သုံး သပ်ခြင်းနှင့် အတည်ပြုခြင်း ၃:၁ UNLD(LA) Policy Making and External Affairs Committee's Report အပေါ်ပြန်လည် ဆွေးနွေးခြင်း (ဆလိုင်းလျန်မှုန်း) ၃:၂ ပြည်နယ်များဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြခံဥပဒေရေးဆွဲရေးလုပ်ငန်းစဉ်အပေါ် ဆွေးနွေးခြင်း (ဆလိုင်းလျန်မှုန်း) ၃:၃ စည်းရုံးရေးနှင့်မဟာမိတ်ရေးရာလုပ်ငန်းအစီရင်ခံစာအပေါ် ဆွေးနွေးခြင်း (ခွန်းမန်းကိုဘန်း) ၃:၄ ယနေ့လက်ရှိနိုင်ငံရေးအခြေအနေများကိုသုံးသပ်ချက်စာတမ်း တင်သွင်းခြင်း(မန်းညွန့်မောင်) ၃:၅ လက်ရှိနိုင်ငံရေးအခြေအနေများကိုဆွေးနွေးခြင်း(စဝ်ဆိုင်စစ်)
        Author/creator: ဆလိုင်းလျန်မှုန်း ဆာခေါင်း၊ စိုင်းမောန်၊ခွန်းမန်းကိုဘန်း၊ မန်းညွန့်မောင်၊ စဝ်ဆိုင်စစ်
        Language: မြန်မာဘာသာ/အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: ENC "PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE: Towards Federal Union of Burma [Series No.4]"
        Format/size: pdf (5.96 MB)
        Date of entry/update: 14 September 2010


        Title: "The New Panglong Initiative: REBUILDING THE UNION OF BURMA"
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: CHAPTER ONE: ENSCC Mission Statement (i) Dialogue Strategy:Tripartite Dialogue... (ii) The Constitutional Crisis... (iii) Vision for the Future... (iv) Humanitarian Assistance... (v) The Law Khii Lah Statement: Ethnic Nationalities Seminar 2001.... CHAPTER TWO:ENSCC Policy Papers (i) The New Ponglong Initiative:Re-Building the Union of Burma ... (ii) Rationale for the New Panglong Initiative ... (iii) The Decisions of Strategy Coordination Committee .... CHAPTER THREE: Ethnic Nationalities Initiative for Tripartite Dialogue (i) Ethnic Nationalities Initiative: Background Paper... (ii) Road Map for Rebuilding the Union of Burma .... CHAPTER FOUR: ENSCC International Campaign (i) The Current Political Situation in Burma (Dr. Sein Win, Prime Minister of NCGUB) ... (ii) The Non-Burman Ethnic Peoples of Burma (Harn Yawnghwe, Director, Euro-Burma Office)... (iii) The New Panglong Initiative (Saw Ba Thin, Chairman of KNU, NDF and ENSCC) ... (iv) Towards a Democratic Transition in Burma (Hteh Bupeh, Chairman of KNPP) ... (v) Vision for the Future (Sai Myo Win, Secretary General of SDU) ... (vi) Oslo Decisions .... CHAPTER FIVE: Mission to the United Nations: (i) Ethnic Nationalities Forces, Organizations and Tripartite Dialogue: A Background Brief (Chao Tzang Yawnghwe)... (ii) The UN Mission Report .... CHAPTER SIX:The Quest for Democratic Transition in Burma (i) Bringing About Change in Burma (Harn Yawnghwe) ... (ii) EU-ASEAN Relations: A Burmese Perspective ( Harn Yawnghwe)... (iii) A Possible Transition Plan for Burma .... CHAPTER SEVEN:Democracy Movement Towards Federal Union:The Role of Ethnic Nationalities in the Struggle for Democracy and Federalism in Burma ( Lian H.Sakhong).... CHAPTER EIGHT:Dialogue: Non-violent Strategy for Democracy Movement in Burma( Lian H. Sakhong)....
        Author/creator: Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe, Lian H. Sakhong, Dr. Sein Win, Harn Yawnghwe, Saw Ba Thin, Hteh Bupeh, Sai Myo Win
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ENSCC "PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE: Towards Federal Union of Burma [ Series No.7 ]"
        Format/size: pdf (762 KB)
        Date of entry/update: 30 August 2010


        Title: Federalism, State Constitutions And Self-Determination in Burma_Report on State Constitutions Drefting Process
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: Part One: Burmese Section:ပြည်နယ်များ၏ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေရေးဆွဲရေးလုပ်ငန်းစဉ်နှင့်ပတ်သတ်သောအစီရင်ခံစာ (ဆလိုင်းလျန်မှုန်းဆာခေါင်း) Part Two: English Section 1.Introduction:(i)Foreword (Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe)(ii)Report on State Constitutions Drafting Process(Lian H. Sakhong) 2.Federalism, State Constitutions and Self-Determination:(i)Federalism, State Constitutions and Ethnic Self-Determination (Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe)(ii)Burma:State Constitutions and the Challenges Facing the Ethnic Nationalities (Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe) 3.The Role of State Constitutions in the Protection of Nationality and Monitority Rights:Lessons From Other Countries (i)Australian Federalism, State Constitutions and the Protection of minority Rights (Cheryl Saunders)(ii)Federalism, Diversity and Minority Rights: What can we learn from India (Yogendra Yadav) (iii)Nigeria'sExperience in Managing the Challenges of Ethnic and Religious Diversity through Constitutional Provisions (Otive Igbuzor) 4.American Model Of State Constitutions:(i)Model State Constitution 5.German Model Of Local Governments: (i)Federalism and Local Self-Governmennt in Germany (Harald Hofmann)
        Author/creator: Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe and Lian H.Sakhong
        Language: အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာ/မြန်မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: ENC "PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE: Towards Federal Union of Burma [Series No.5]"
        Format/size: pdf (942 KB)
        Date of entry/update: 14 September 2010


        Title: "ပထမအကြိမ်ညီလာခံမှတ်တမ်း"
        Date of publication: May 2001
        Description/subject: "ပြည်ထောင်စုတိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ် (လွတ်မြောက်နယ်မြေ)ပထမအကြိမ်ညီလာခံမှတ်တမ်း" Foreward by: Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe ၁။ပထမအကြိမ် ညီလာခံ (က)ပမာဏ ကြိုတင်ပြင်ဆင်မှုများပြန် လည်ဖွဲ့စည်း ကြောင်း ထုတ်ပြန် ကြေညာချက် / Announcement 1/98 [Formation of UNLD (LA)] (ခ)ညီလာခံအကြို ထုတ်ပြန် ကြေညာချက်များ/ Announcement for Holding of UNLD Inaugural Congress (ဂ)ဖိတ်ကြားခြင်း/ Invitation for UNLD Inaugural Congress (ဃ) ညီလာခံအစီအစဉ်များ/ Tentavive Agenda ၂။ညီလာခံတွင်တင်သွင်းဆွေးနွေးသော အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာစာတမ်းများ (က)"DEMOCRACY MOVEMENT TOWARDS FEDERAL UNION: THE ROLE OF UNLD IN THE STRUGGLE FOR DEMOCRACY AND FEDERALISM IN BURMA" By: Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (ခ) "BASICS PRINCIPLES ON STATE CONSTITUTION" By: Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (ဂ) "BASICS PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL DIALOGUE" By: Harn Yawnghwe ၃။ညီလာခံတွင်တင်သွင်းဆွေးနွေးသော မြန်မာဘာသာစာတမ်းများ (က)ခွန်မာရ်ကိုဘန်း၏“တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများ နိုင်ငံရေးသမိုင်းဖြစ်စဉ်အကျဉ်းနှင့်ပြည်ထောင်စု တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ်၏ ဆယ်နှစ်တာဖြတ်သန်းမှုသုံးသပ်ချက်” (ခ)မန်းညွန့်မောင်၏“နိုင်ငံတော်အေးချမ်းသာယာရေးနှင့် ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေးမြန်မာစစ်ကောင်စီ၏မူဝါဒလမ်းစဉ်နှင့်မဟာဗျူဟာ ဆိုင်ရာပေါ်လေ့လာသုံးသပ်ချက်”(ဂ)အယ်နီရယ်အောင်၏ “နဝတ/နအဖ အမျိုးသားညီလာခံအတွေ့အကြုံ ရှင်းလင်းချက်” (ဃ) စိုင်းဝင်းဖေ၏ “ပြည်ထောင်စုတိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများ ဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ်နှင့် တိုင်းရင်းသားအင်အားစုများအတွင်း နိုင်ငံရေးအရခိုင်မာတိုးတက်ရေး (င)စဝ်အွတ်ကေးဆီး၏“မဟာမိတ်ရေးရာပူးပေါင်း ဆောင်ရွက်ခြင်း” ၄။ပထမအကြိမ်ညီလာခံထုတ်ပြန်ကြေညာချက်များ။ပထမအကြိမ် ညီလာခံထုတ်ပြန် ကြေညာချက်/Statement of the Inaugural Meeting of UNLD (LA) ၅။ပြည်ထောင်စုတိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများ ဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ် (လွတ်မြောက်နယ်မြေ)၏ (က)မူဝါဒသဘောထား၊ ရည်ရွယ်ချက်နှင့်လုပ်ငန်းစဉ်များ / UNLD (LA)'s Aims and Objectives (ခ)နိုင်ငံတော်ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေလမ်းညွှန်အခြေခံမူ(၇)ချက် /The Basic Principles of Federal Union (ဂ)အဖွဲ့ချုပ် ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံစည်းမျဉ်း (ယာယီ/မူကြမ်း) (ဃ)ဓါတ်ပုံမှတ်တမ်းများ/(Recorded Photos)
        Author/creator: Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe, Harn Yawnghwe ,Dr. Lian H. Sakhong,ခွန်မာရ်ကိုဘန်း,မန်းညွန့်မောင်,အယ်နီရယ်အောင်၊စိုင်းဝင်းဖေ၊
        Language: မြန်မာဘာသာ/အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: ENC "PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE: Towards Federal Union of Burma [Series No.2]"
        Format/size: pdf (672 KB)
        Date of entry/update: 14 September 2010


        Title: ဒီမိုကရေစီရေးနှင့်တန်းတူရေးတိုက်ပွဲကာလအတွင်းပြည်ထောင်စုတိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများဒီမိုက
        Date of publication: November 1999
        Description/subject: "ဒီမိုကရေစီရေးနှင့်တန်းတူရေးတိုက်ပွဲကာလအတွင်းပြည်ထောင်စုတိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ်၏သမိုင်းဝင်မှတ်တမ်းများ" ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံအမျိုးသားညွန့်ပေါင်းအစိုးဝန်ဦကြီးချုပ်ဒေါက်တာစိန်၀င်း၏အမှာစာ...FOWARD By Dr. Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe (Advisor-Consultant, National Reconciliation Program)...ထုတ်ဝေသူထံမှ အမှာစာ... အခန်း(၁) ပြည်တွင်းငြိမ်းချမ်းရေးနှင့်လူမျိုးစုပြဿနာ (ပြည်ထောင်စုတိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများ ဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ်ဖွဲ့စည်းရန်ကြိုးပမ်းမှုကာလလှုပ်ရှားမှုများ... အခန်း(၂) ပြည်ထောင်စုတိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ်၏လှုပ်ရှားမှုများ (အကျဉ်းချုပ်) ... အခန်း(၃) ခွဲထွက်ရေးနှင့်တန်းတူရေးပြဿနာ... အခန်း(၄) လူထုခေါင်းဆောင်ဒေါ်အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည်နှင့်ဆွေးနွေးပွဲ... အခန်း(၅) ပြည်ထောင်စုစစ်စစ်မူ (တိုင်းရင်းသားလူမျိုးများညီလာခံမှဆုံးဖြတ်ချက်)... အခန်း(၆) အထွေထွေရွေးကောက်ပွဲ (သို့မဟုတ်) နိုင်ငံတော်အာဏာကိုအကြမ်းမဖက်သောနည်းဖြင့်ပြန်လည်ရယူရေးလမ်းစဉ်)... အခန်း(၇) အာဏာလွှဲပြောင်းရေးပြဿနာ (ဒုတိယအကြိမ်တိုင်းရင်းသားညီလာခံမှတောင်းဆိုချက်များ)... အခန်း(၈)ဗိုလ်အောင်ကျော်လမ်းကြေညာချက်... အခန်း(၉)စစ်မှန်သောဖက်ဒရယ်ပြည်ထောင်စုဆီသို့
        Author/creator: ဆလိုင်းလျန်မှုန်းဆာခေါင်း
        Language: မြန်မာဘာသာ/အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: ENC "PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE: Towards Federal Union of Burma [Series No.1]"
        Format/size: pdf (807 KB)
        Date of entry/update: 13 September 2010


  • Ethnic groups in Burma (cultural, political)
    For human rights aspects, see the corresponding sections under Ethnic Discrimination in Human Rights. For historical and archeological documents, see History and Archeology.

    • Several Groups

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burma News International
      Description/subject: "The Burma News International was established in 2003 with four Burmese news organizations based in the western border of Burma, India and Bangladesh. It was later expanded, with other Burmese news organizations based in Thailand and the Thai-Burma border areas joining in. At present, it has ten independent Burma media/news organizations as members. They are Mizzima News, Narinjara News, Kaladan Press, Karen Information Center, Khonumthung News, Network Media Group, Independent Mon News Agency, Shan Herald Agency for News, Kao Wao News, Kantarawaddy Times and Kachin News Group. " The Burma News International aims to promote Burma related news and reports in South Asia and South East Asia. It is also serves as a bridge for mutual-understanding, sharing experiences, expertise and resources and cooperation among the Independent Burma Media Organizations."
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Burma News International (BNI)
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=1476&lo=d&sl=0
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2009


      Title: Myanmar Ethnologue
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Thai-Yunnan Project Project
      Description/subject: * Bulletin [2001-2005] * Bulletin Board * Seminars * Publications * Back Issues Thai-Yunnan Newsletter The Bulletin was launched in 2001. The Thai-Yunnan Newsletter ceased publication in 1995. Current issues of the Bulletin plus archive of the 28 issues of the Newsletter from June 1988 to March 1995. They contain a fair amount of scholarly articles and correspondance on Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf, html
      Alternate URLs: hhttp://rspas.anu.edu.au/anthropology/thai-yunnan.html#bulletin">http://rspas.anu.edu.au/anthropology/thai-yunnan.html#bulletin
      http://rspas.anu.edu.au/anthropology/thai-yunnan.html
      Date of entry/update: 08 July 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: 'External' Aspects of Self-Determination Movements in Burma
      Date of publication: February 2003
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Based on secondary resources and long term anthropological field research, this paper explores some of the 'external' factors involved in the pro-democracy and ethnic struggles for self-determination currently being experienced in Burma. The analysis draws in cultural, economic and political aspects to demonstrate that a number of macro- and micro-level external or external-origin influences are at play, at a number of different 'inside', 'outside' and marginal sites. The paper argues in particular that 'cultural' factors such as computer-mediated communication and contacts with outsiders when living in exile, serve as means by which real, virtual and imaginary connections are drawn between these different sites and the actors who inhabit them. In the context of Burma, this paper thus presents a glimpse into this complexity of origin and substance of external influences, of interactions between the external and the internal, and of the multidirectional pathways along which they operate. After an introductory overview, it does so by first reviewing some pertinent macro-political and macro-economic external factors, including international views and strategic interests. The paper then focuses on micro-level social and cultural issues, examining aspects of new media as utilised by the Burmese exile community and international activists. External influences on exiled communities living in the margins on the Thai-Burma border (characterised by the paper as neither 'inside' nor 'outside' proper), including Christianity and foreign non-governmental organisations, are then explored. The paper concludes that inside views, reactions and experiences of outside influences are presently just as important in determining outcomes as are the outside influences themselves."
      Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Queen Elizabeth House
      Format/size: pdf (123K)
      Alternate URLs: http://ideas.repec.org/p/qeh/qehwps/qehwps94.html
      Date of entry/update: 08 July 2010


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Rights of Ethnic Minorities
      Date of publication: October 2001
      Description/subject: "...Burma is a country rich in ethnic diversity. Yet although the SPDC attempts to promote this diversity, and the existence of its 135 "national races" (SPDC term for the countrys ethnic minority groups), the rights of ethnic minority people remain in violation...n areas where cease-fire agreements have been reached, human rights abuses continue to take place. In fact, in these "national reconciliation" areas human rights abuses have increased rather than abated. There has been no move on the part of the SPDC to engage in political discussions with opposition groups to reinforce the military cease-fire agreements. Under the terms of the cease-fire, some ethnic groups have been allowed to keep their arms and soldiers, however, SPDC had vastly increased the number of its soldiers in those areas... The continuing armed conflicts in the Karen, Karenni, Shan and Chin States have been accompanied by massive human rights violations..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: Main page of Yearbook: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: [Lecture on the Shans]
      Date of publication: 26 October 1888
      Description/subject: "...everyone who has seen anything of Burma, and paid any attention to its history, knows that it is essentially not the country of the Burmese. The Burmese proper are probably a very small minority in it, though the peoples of other races, Talines, Shans, and some others, have in certain places become so Burmanized that it is difficult to distinguish them from the Burmese..."
      Author/creator: Rev. Dr. J. N. Cushing
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
      Format/size: pdf (19K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/soas-bulletin-of-burma-research-volume-1-issue-2.html
      Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


    • Single Groups
      For human rights aspects, see the corresponding sections under Ethnic Discrimination in Human Rights. For historical and archeological documents, see History and Archeology

      • Akha (cultural, political, economic)

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Akha Chronicles
        Description/subject: 53 sections on line (January 2006)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Akha Heritage Foundation
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Title: Akha Heritage Foundation
        Description/subject: "A Nation In Search Of A State" "Purpose of this web site: The purpose of this website is to provide definitive information about critical events effecting the lives of the Akha people in Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, China and Vietnam. How to use this web site: This web site is broken down into five categories: 1. Information from and about the Akha; 2. Projects that assist the Akha; 3. Administrative information, reports and commentary; 4. Volunteer opportunities and how you can participate; 5. Information about the Akha Heritage Foundation. "The Akha Heritage Foundation delivers vital aid and services to a mountain network of more than 300 villages. "If you are interested in receiving information of events via e-mail you may subscribe to the popular Akha Weekly Journal on Yahoo Groups by clicking the link below. Feel free to browse through the many past issues in the Yahoo Archives. Akha Weekly Journal via E-mail Akha Weekly Journal is our e-mail newsletter about the life of the Akha people and our work with them. One of the items of content we sometimes discuss in the journal is "Akha Zauh". We use the name "Akha Zauh" because "Zauh" in Akha, refers to the Law, Culture and the "heart of" being Akha. "In a time when so many outsiders are denying that the Akha have a culture and have done so much to systematically eliminate these traditions we would like to show that the Akha, as much as any other people, have an extensive history, legal system, intricate culture and sizeable collection of literature. "The weekly e-mail journal gives updates of events here among the Akha as we work on providing medical services, clean water, literature development in Akha language, literacy in Akha language, seeds for nutrition, and advocacy services. This is not a highly polished journal, this is more the result of whatever the week's work has involved, the highlights, interesting commentary and whatever else can be fit in while bordering on exhaustion..." There is an archive of "The Akha Weekly Journal" from February 1999 (click on the Yahoogroup link and/or subscribe to the list).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Akha Heritage Foundation
        Subscribe: AkhaWeeklyJournal-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
        Alternate URLs: http://www.yahoogroups.com/group/AkhaWeeklyJournal
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Chin (Zo)- economic, social, cultural, political

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: The Last Frontier: Burma's Chinland In Transition - A Project Maje Update Report, April 2012
        Date of publication: April 2012
        Description/subject: "In mid-2012, with reforms taking hold in central Burma, war raging in the north, and a possible peace process in the east, little attention is being paid to Burma's western regions, including the homelands of the indigenous peoples known as the Chins. A group of culturally similar, but linguistically diverse ethnic peoples associated with highland lifestyles (although many live in river valleys), the people who have been called "Chins" in Burma have historically lived in Chin State, Sagaing Division, and far northern Arakan. These areas of residence are known as Chinland, particularly in indigenous-rights contexts. Some of these people prefer to be called Zo, and regional/tribal/linguistic names are often used in addition to "Chin" or instead of "Chin." Some of them who live in other countries use "Burmese" to describe their origins, or are described that way by others. Total population estimates of the "Chin" people of Burma, including residents outside of Burma, come to around 1.5 million. This update report is composed of interviews with people who identify themselves as Chin or Zo. The interviews took place in March-April 2012 in India: Delhi and Mizoram State (which borders Burma's Chin State). The interviews contain information on the current situation within Chinland and on the conditions for refugees and migrants in India. Of particular interest are Chin opinions on what the benchmarks would be for safe return to their homeland. A range of responses to change in Burma are observable. Some Chin refugees have already returned, some have gone back to visit for the first time in decades, and the majority apparently do not trust Burma's military/government and express a "wait and see" viewpoint..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012


        Title: Chin Gemeinde Deutschland - Chin Community Germany
        Date of publication: 14 May 2003
        Description/subject: Die Chin-Gemeinde in Deutschland (CCG) wurde von den Chin Flüchtlingen in Augsburg, Deutschland am 20. Februar 2001 gegründet. Informationen zur Chinkultur in Deutschland, Austausch mit anderen Gruppen, Politik, Geschichte, News.
        Language: Deutsch, German, English
        Source/publisher: Chin Gemeinde Deutschland
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Title: Chin Forum
        Description/subject: Aims and objectives: "The Chin forum was formed with aims and objectives of providing a common forum for all the Chin through which they could continuously strengthen the unity among themselves and also with all the other democratic forces of Burma and other nationalities. Furthermore, Chin Forum will carry out various tasks of research and documentation works for the betterment of entire Chin people under six working groups:..."
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Chin World
        Description/subject: Chin Directory, Chin Songs, Zuk Album, e-books, Videos
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Chin World Media
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Chinland
        Description/subject: "The Official Website of the Chin National Front". Chin National Front, CNA, Government of Chinland, STATEMENTS, SPEECHES, ALLIANCES, UNPO, UN LINKS.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Chin National Front
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Khonumthung.com
        Description/subject: "The world's window to Chin and western part of Burma"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Khonumthung News Group
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Title: Mizo Christian Global Network
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Chin Forum
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Zomi Daily
        Description/subject: News, Articles, Technology & Science, Health, poetry, Newsletter
        Language: English/ Zomi
        Source/publisher: Zomi Daily
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2012


        Title: Zomi National Congress
        Description/subject: (New Generation) pan hanciamna...in Chin
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Zomi Online Directory
        Alternate URLs: http://zomidirectory.com/index.php?option=com_sobi2&catid=10&Itemid=54
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Title: Zomi Online Library
        Description/subject: Collections of Economics and Business, Education And Literature, History, Entertainment, Politics and Government, Science and Technology, Newsletter And Magazines and Religions
        Language: English, Chin
        Alternate URLs: http://www.zomilibrary.com/main/collections
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Individual Documents

        Title: Food Security Surveillance survey Comparative Report Southern Chin State, Kanpetlet Township
        Date of publication: October 2011
        Description/subject: June and October 2011..."Solidarites International (SI) started its intervention in Kanpetlet Township, Southern Chin State in March, 2011. After conducting two rapid assessments in the two townships of Mindat and Kanpetlet in September and December 2010, SI launched a food security intervention in Kanpetlet Township, with the support of WFP and CIAA1. SI started its intervention with a blanket food distribution funded by WFP in 67 villages, targeting 10,000 people, around 1900 HH. The beneficiaries’ selection was based on the rodent infestation level: most of the selected villages had been severely affected by rodent infestation, and the majority of the villages had lost at least 75 % of their crops. In each selected village, all the villagers, except the government employees, received 10 kg of rice per month, for 2 months. In parallel, SI launched a food security project funded by CIAA. The specific objective of this project was to improve the access to food and to restore the production capacities of the communities affected by the rodent infestation. The project activities included corn and paddy seeds distribution, Food for Work (FFW) for rodent control and rat trap distributions. This project targeted 58 villages, for a total of 8800 beneficiaries. Within the framework of this project, one of the expected results was to monitor the food security situation in the targeted area, in order to better understand the main constraints faced in terms of access to food, and thus to better address the needs. SI conducted 2 food security surveillance surveys during 2011 project implementation period: the first assessment was done in June 2011 and the second assessment end of September/ beginning of October 2011.The rationale behind conducting those 2 surveys at that time was to collect data both towards the beginning and the end of the lean season in the area. The present report shows a comparison between the main findings of those 2 food security surveillance surveys..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Solidarites International (SI)
        Format/size: pdf (515K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


        Title: A Land of Beauty and Misery
        Date of publication: January 2010
        Description/subject: Breathtaking vistas of Chin State contrast starkly with the hardships of life in this often-ignored corner of Burma... "The Chin people I met during my visit to this northwestern part of Burma take great pride in the natural attractions of their land—a place of dense forests and deep gorges, where exotic flowers cover steep mountains, which often lie enveloped in cool, refreshing mists. Children in Chin State are the most vulnerable to disease and malnutrition. (Photo: KO YUYA) But the natural beauty belies the hardships of life in this isolated highland, where ordinary people face privations that are severe even by the standards of a country ranked among the world’s most impoverished. Much of the suffering here is not, however, merely a matter of poverty. Besides the struggle to find food and earn a living, many must also contend with various human rights abuses committed by the Burmese junta..."
        Author/creator: Ko Yuya
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


        Title: On the Edge of Survival: The Continuing Rat Infestation and Food Crisis in Chin State, Burma
        Date of publication: 24 September 2009
        Description/subject: Executive Summary" "Since late 2007, the people of Chin State have been struggling with massive food shortages and hunger after the vast bamboo forests that cover the mountainous landscape of Chin State began to flower and die- a process that occurs twice every century. Already struggling for their survival due to decades of severe economic repression and human rights abuses, this natural disaster has left the Chin people on the edge of survival. This report is a follow-up to CHRO’s July 2008 report, “Critical Point: Food Scarcity and Hunger in Burma’s Chin State,” which first brought worldwide attention to the dire humanitarian conditions facing the Chin people. This report provides an update on the current conditions in Chin State, the effects of the food crisis, and responses taken to assist people in the affected areas of Chin State. The bamboo of Chin State began to flower in late 2006. Attracted to the fruit produced by the bamboo, the flowering process triggered an explosion in the rat population. After exhausting the fruit supply, the rats turned on people’s crops and food supplies, causing massive food shortages for local villagers dependent on farming for their livelihood and subsistence. In 2008, CHRO estimated that as many as 200 villages were affected by severe food shortages associated with the bamboo flowering, and no less than 100,000 people, or 20 percent of the entire population of Chin State, were in need of immediate food aid. CHRO now believes those figures are much higher. Since CHRO first reported on the crisis, food shortages spread to seven townships in Chin State as well as parts of Sagaing Division. Up to 82 percent of the farmland has been destroyed in certain affected regions of Chin State. In several villages, each and every household is in need of immediate food aid. The consequences of the food crisis are also more apparent now. Over 54 people are known to have died due to the effects of extreme malnourishment and famine-related disease; children comprise the majority of recorded deaths. As access to affected regions is limited, this number is likely to be an underestimate. Disease and malnourishment is widespread, particularly among women, children, and the elderly. Children with little ability to concentrate on studies due to hunger have been forced to drop out of school in order to help their families forage for food: school enrollment rates are down 50 to 60 percent from last year. Several thousand Chin have fled their villages to search for food elsewhere. More than 4,000 have already arrived to the India and Thailand border. Villagers are now struggling with hunger and severe malnutrition due to food shortages in Chin State. Children are particularly at risk of malnourishment. (© CHRO, 2007) Up to 82 percent of the farmland has been destroyed in certain affected regions of Chin State. (© CHRO, 2009) The situation has been made more acute by the ruling military regime’s utter neglect of the suffering, compounded by policies and practices of abuse and repression against Chin civilians. As thousands struggle with hunger, starvation, and disease, the SPDC continues practices of forced labor, extorting excessive amounts of money from villagers, confiscating people’s land and property, in addition to other severe human rights abuses. Such actions have strained the Chin people’s ability to cope with the impacts of the natural disaster. Since the food shortages were first reported by CHRO, efforts have been made to respond to the food crisis. After initially dismissing the situation in Chin State, the WFP conducted a follow-up investigation and eventually acknowledged the existence of food shortages in Chin State. During a recent mission to the area, WFP reported “food consumption *to be+…worse than any other region visited by the Mission.” WFP and their coordinating partners initiated relief programs in early 2009 that continue to be implemented in various affected areas of Chin State. Chin community-based groups in India have also organized relief teams to deliver food aid to remote villages in Chin State. These teams are responsible for delivering over 30,000 kilograms of rice to 54 villages in six townships from May to July 2009 alone. Despite concerted efforts from multiply fronts to assist the affected population, Burma’s military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continues to do nothing to respond to the food crisis in Chin State. Rather, the SPDC has exacerbated the crisis through sustained human rights abuses and economic repression, further undermining the livelihoods and food security of the Chin people. Forced labor, extortion, and confiscations of land and property continue unabated within the affected areas. SPDC has denied repeated requests for food aid, even as it reports a rice surplus. Local authorities have banned villagers from receiving foreign aid, threatening reprisals against anyone who accepts foreign aid. Government neglect and continued abuse; inadequately supported relief efforts; and pervasive hunger and food shortages have the potential for catastrophic humanitarian consequences. The effects of the bamboo flowering and rat infestation are expected to last three to five years. During the last bamboo cycle, half a century ago, 10,000 to 15,000 people reportedly died due to the associated effects of hunger and disease in neighboring Mizoram State. The people of Chin State today struggling with the same natural disaster have the added burden of military repression, abuse, and neglect. They are on the edge of survival now; but their struggle is far from over."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO)
        Format/size: pdf (2.38MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/On_The_Edge_of_Survival-2.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 18 September 2009


        Title: Critical Point - Food Scarcity and Hunger in Burma’s Chin State _ 2008 (Special Reports)
        Date of publication: July 2008
        Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The military regime of Burma has been consistent in their inability and unwillingness to protect and provide for the people of Burma. Burma’s human rights record provides testimony of decades of widespread violations and abuses perpetrated largely at the hands of Burma’s military rulers and their agents against the Burmese people. Dissent is regularly silenced and opponents brutalized. In a country once known as the “rice-bowl of Asia,” Burma is now one of the poorest countries of Asia due to steady economic deterioration driven by the regime’s mismanagement. Many in Burma live without access to proper schools, healthcare facilities, reliable electricity, safe drinking water, and stable food supplies. Cowed by policies of extreme oppression and tactics of intimidation, life for much of the population in Burma is a struggle for daily survival. Add to that a natural disaster- and survival in Burma reaches a critical point. Western Burma’s Chin State is at such a point. Since 2006, the region has been plagued by a severe food crisis following a steep reduction in the local harvest and food production. The year 2006 marked the beginning of a new cycle of bamboo flowering, which occurs about every 50 years in the region, triggering an explosion in the population of rats and resulting in the destruction of crops. This has caused a severe shortage of food for local communities primarily dependent on subsistence farming through shifting cultivation. The phenomenon has been documented three times since 1862, and each past event ended in a disastrous famine for the communities in the area. Compounding the impending food crisis in Chin State due to the bamboo flowering is the continuation of severe human rights violations and repressive economic policies of the military regime, which serve to further undermine the livelihoods and food security of the Chin people. The use of unpaid civilian forced labour is widespread throughout Chin State, which consumes the time and energy of local farmers and reduces their crop yields. The regime also forcibly orders farmers to substitute their staple crops for other cash crops, and has confiscated thousands of acres of farmland from local farmers for tea and jatropha plantations. Meanwhile, arbitrary taxes and mandatory “donations” collected from Chin households by the Burmese authorities total up to as much 200,000 Kyats a year in major towns.2 This includes the unofficial collection of money from the Chin public by officials in various government departments at the local level to support such programs as tea and bio-fuel plantations; and extortion and confiscation of money, properties, and livestock by military units stationed at 33 locations across the state. The rising cost of living and skyrocketing food prices is also adding to the already dire humanitarian situation in Chin State. In the last four years, the price of rice has quintupled from 6,000 Kyats a bag in 2004 to as much as 30,000 Kyats today, an amount equivalent to the monthly salary of entry level public servants. The humanitarian consequences stemming from the dying bamboo and exacerbated by conditions imposed by the regime are enormous, and there are clear indications that unless urgent action is taken to address the crisis, the situation could soon turn into a large-scale catastrophe affecting all parts of Chin State. The hardest hit areas are in the southern townships of Matupi and Paletwa where bamboo grows heavily, but reports suggest that severe food shortages are a state-wide phenomenon with many villages in the northern townships of Tonzang and Thantlang, for example, having already run out of food supplies. Based on the latest field surveys conducted in the affected areas, Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO) estimates that as many as 200 villages may be directly affected by severe food shortages associated with the bamboo flowering, and no less than 100, 000 people or 20 percent of the entire population of Chin State may be in need of immediate food aid.3 Food scarcity is more severe in remote areas, where families are being reduced to one meal a day or have nothing left to eat at all. CHRO recently visited four border villages in India’s Mizoram State where it found 93 families from 22 villages in Paletwa Township, Chin State who fled across the border in search of food. To date, Burma’s State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has done nothing positive to counter the food scarcity, nor has the SPDC provided any kind of help to communities affected by the food crisis. Repeated requests by affected communities for food aid were denied, even as 100,000 metric tonnes of rice was exported to Sri Lanka.4 Rather, Burma Army soldiers have seized food aid donated by private donors and church groups.5 In contrast to the situation in Burma, India’s Mizoram and Manipur States, both adjacent to Chin State, are facing a similar food crisis related to the bamboo flowering, and have received millions of dollars in aid from the central government as well as international aid agencies, including USAID of the United States government, to support emergency programs to combat and manage the food crisis.6 In early May, when Cyclone Nargis ripped through lower Burma and the Irrawaddy delta destroying entire regions of land and leaving thousands homeless, hungry, and helpless, the regime clearly demonstrated their complete indifference to the plight of the Burmese people. In response to this natural disaster, they did shamefully little to ease the suffering of the victims and much to hamper relief efforts. As a result, the people of Burma paid a heavy price in the loss of life and continue to struggle under a regime that fails to protect or provide for its people. As another natural disaster unfolds in western Burma without hope of internal protections or provisions, the Chin people, like the cyclone victims, will be sure to pay a heavy toll unless action is taken immediately. The critical point for action is now."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO)
        Format/size: pdf (731K, 640K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.chro.ca/publications/special-reports.html
        Date of entry/update: 09 July 2008


        Title: A History of the Chin - a review of Lian Sakhong's book "In search of Chin Identity"
        Date of publication: October 2004
        Description/subject: "The former Secretary-General of the Chin National League for Democracy provides an in-depth study on Chin nationalism, Christianity in Burma and the Chin role in the history of Burma. Early Chin society in Burma consisted of a segmented tribal society comprised of six tribes, 63 sub-tribes and nearly as many dialects, but later transformed into a cohesive, modern ethnic unit claiming one common national identity based on Christianity. Today more than 80 percent of the Chin in Burma are Christian. Lian Sakhong’s In Search of Chin Identity: A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma examines this transformation and enables us to better understand how religion, ethnicity and politics have intertwined since independencce... In Search of Chin Identity: A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma, by Lian H Sakhong. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Monograph series No. 91, NIAS Press, Copenhagen: 2003; 280 pages.
        Author/creator: Mikael Gravers
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


        Title: The Chin and Mizo: Ex-brothers?
        Date of publication: April 2004
        Description/subject: United by geography, commerce and the colonial experience, the Chin and Mizo have grown apart in recent years.
        Author/creator: Karin Kaasik
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=3507
        Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


        Title: IN SEARCH OF CHIN IDENTITY
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma..."Chinram was once an independent land ruled by local chieftains and following traditional Chin religion. This world was abruptly transformed in the early twentieth century, however, by British annexation and the arrival of Christian missionaries. As the Chin became increasingly related to Burmese independence movements, they began to articulate their own Christian traditions of democracy and assert a burgeoning self-awareness of their own national identity. In short, Christianity provided the Chin people with a means of preserving their national identity in the midst of multi-racial and multi-religious environments. Written by an exiled Secretary General of the Chin National League for Democracy, this is the first in-depth study on Chin nationalism and Christianity. Not only does it provide a clear analysis of the close relationship between religion, ethnicity and nationalism but also the volume contains valuable data on the Chin and their role in the history of Burma."
        Author/creator: Lian H. Sakhong
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS)
        Format/size: pdf (2.9MB) - 306 pages
        Date of entry/update: 15 April 2010


        Title: Refugees from Burma need US protection
        Date of publication: 30 April 2002
        Description/subject: Fact Finding Trip to New Delhi by Zo T. Hmung April 17-30, 2002 Executive Summary: "I spent April 17-30, 2002, in New Delhi to assess options for durable solutions for refugees from Burma who reside in the Indian capital. "According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in New Delhi, as of the end of March 2002, there are 952 people from the country of Burma recognized as refugees by the UNHCR. Out of 952 refugees, 90 percent of them belong to Chin ethnic groups. The rest are Burmese, Arakanese, Shan, and Kachin. They include torture survivors, women, children, elderly people, and people persecuted because of their ethnicity, religion, and prodemocracy activism. "During my trip, I met with Wei-Meng Lim-Kabaa, UNHCR Deputy Chief of Mission, Kathy A. Redman, Officer in Charge Immigration, Attache of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), and Mr. Christopher George, YMCA Refugee Program Coordinator. I also met with over 250 refugees in one large meeting, met six times with 10 key leaders from the refugee community, conducted five interviews at refugees' apartments, spent most of my time visiting their housing and neighborhoods, and gathered voluminous information regarding their current hardship and vulnerability and their compelling reasons for fleeing Burma. "These groups are distinguishable from other refugee groups in India. For years, they had been living in suburban areas of New Delhi without future hope for a better life. They are unable to obtain jobs. Because they are Christians, they cannot feel comfortable and are not welcomed in the local Hindu community. They are unable to speak the local language, which is Hindi. Their children are unable to attend school. Psychologically, they are traumatized. They cannot go back to Burma because Burma is still under the rule of a military regime. Most importantly, they can be deported back to Burma at any time even though they are recognized as refugees by the UNHCR." Unfortunately, the UNHCR has referred only a dozen cases to the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) authority in New Delhi. At the same time, the U.S. INS in New Delhi does not take a case unless UNHCR refers a case to them. The INS does not accept walk-in cases. Therefore, they are in need of special protection by the U.S. The U.S. Department of State should designate them as refugees and process their cases. This would be a durable solution for them. The Chin community in the U.S. would be very happy to welcome these refugees..."
        Author/creator: Zo T. Hmung
        Language: English
        Format/size: HTML (206K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Ashes and Tears
        Date of publication: March 2001
        Description/subject: Interviews with Refugees from Burma on Guam, including recent interviews with Chin and Kachin refugees. "During the past year, nearly a thousand refugees from Burma have arrived on the island of Guam, a United States territory in the Pacific Ocean. They are seeking asylum in the US, having fled extraordinary levels of persecution in their homeland. Most are from northern Burma, especially the Chin State... This report consists of interviews with a small cross section of the Guam asylum seekers. It is to some extent representative of their demographics, in terms of ethnicity and gender. The interviewees have given us a great bounty of significant new information and details about recent conditions in Burma... Numerous topics are covered in these 17 interviews. There is front-line information about the AIDS epidemic which is making its grim progress into the remote mountains of Burma, and the efforts to evade the regime’s denial about it..."
        Author/creator: Edith Mirante
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: pdf (329K), Text (184K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.projectmaje.org/txt/guam_rep.txt
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Ethnic political crisis in the Union of Burma
        Date of publication: 25 October 2000
        Description/subject: (A Brown Bag Seminar organized by the Council for Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA). "Approximately, Burma has a population of 48 million people. Of those 48 million, 68% are Burman, and the rest, 32 %, belong to the ethnic groups such as Arakanese, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon, Shan, etc. These are only estimated statistics as there is no proper documented information available inside Burma. The ethnic people have their own religions, culture, and languages. There are different religions such as Buddhism, Muslim, Christianity, and Hinduism. Burmans belong to the majority religion, Buddhism while most ethnic Chins and Kachins are Christians. The ethnic political issue is important to Burma's politics. Because in order to put an end to civil war, which has spanned over half a century in Burma, the ethnic political crisis must first be resolved in accordance with the full consent of the ethnic minority people. Therefore, Burma's political history, especially how the minority and the majority groups came to live together under the Union government, needs to be addressed..." (A Brown Bag Seminar organized by the Council for Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA)
        Author/creator: Zo T. Hmung
        Language: English
        Format/size: HTML (66K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: A Chin Compendium
        Date of publication: September 1997
        Description/subject: 20 articles and reports about the Chin, 1996-97
        Author/creator: Edith Mirante
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Zo History
        Date of publication: 1986
        Description/subject: "This book contains the most comprehensive analysis of the people mostly known as Chin, Khyeng, Kuki, Lushai, and Plains Chin. It analyses the effect of imposing several names to these people. The author, Dr. Vumson chooses "Zo" as the common name because most of them call themselves by this name. The readers will find how the Zo people migrated from Western China—Tibet to the valley of the Chindwin and Irrawaddy and then to the Kale —Kabaw—Myittha Valleys and why they migrated to the rugged hill areas they occupy now. The proud and brave Zo people were colonialized, though they resisted with all their might. Then Japan invaded their country, exposing them to modern industrial warfare and dislocating their social and political behaviour. When the colonial rule ended they were divided into three countries hopelessly outnumbered by Indians and Burmans. The book analyses how they struggle to survive and retain their distinctive identity. It is most interesting to see how the same people develope themselves in two forms of societies, one under socialism and the other under free enterprise." [from the cover of the hard copy edition]...N.B. MANY (MOST?) OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENDNOTES ARE REPLACED BY ". SINCE THE BIBLIOGRAPHY IS ALPHABETICAL, ONE CAN LOOK UP ANY NAME FOLLOWED BY ". THESE ERRORS WILL BE CORRECTED IN A FUTURE VERSION, BUT IT MAY TAKE A LITTLE TIME. -- OBL LIBRARIAN.
        Author/creator: Vumson
        Source/publisher: Vumson via N.T. Thawnga, Aizawl, India
        Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2011


        Title: THE ECONOMICS OF THE CENTRAL CHIN TRIBES
        Date of publication: 01 March 1943
        Description/subject: CHAPTER I. The Application of Economic Theory to Chin Culture ... CHAPTER II. The Social Background ... CHAPTER III. Agriculture ... CHAPTER IV. Animal Husbandry ... CHAPTER V. Hunting and Fishing... CHAPTER VI. Forest Products ... CHAPTER VII. Land Tenure ... CHAPTER VIII. Trade and Wage-earning ... CHAPTER IX. The Economics of the Household ... CHAPTER X. The Economics of Social Obligations ... CHAPTER XI. The Economics of Justice ... CHAPTER XII. The Economics of Religious Ritual ... CHAPTER XIII. Wealth, Poverty, and Debt ... CHAPTER XIV. Conclusion ... GLOSSARY ... INDEX.
        Author/creator: H. N. C. STEVENSON, F.R.A.I.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Government of Burma
        Format/size: pdf (6.8MB) - other formats in the Alternate URL
        Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/economicsofthece033105mbp
        Date of entry/update: 21 July 2013


      • Chin discussion groups

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Chinland
        Description/subject: Global Chin Community Mailing List "For Chin people and friends all over the world!"
        Language: English
        Subscribe: chinland-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
        Format/size: Archive from March 2000
        Alternate URLs: For more information: http://www.chinland.org/
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Chin magazines

        • "Chinland Guardian"

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Chinland Guardian
          Description/subject: News Recent News News feeds Khonumthung News News Archived Articles Interviews Poems Cartoons Multimedia Audio Photos Video Election..."Chinland Guardian is an independent, internet-based news agency committed to providing reliable news and current issues about Chinland and Burma through a balanced, objective and professional reporting. Recognizing that access to information is a universal human right and that media plays an important role in a democratic society, Chinland Guardian will strive to fill in the information vacuum that has been created by decades of information blackout in Chinland and in Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Chinland Guardian
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2012


        • Chinworld

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Chinworld Media
          Description/subject: Site with material in Chin, Burmese and (some) English....nterviews; Article... Entertaiment... Gallery... E.Book... Contact.
          Language: Chin, Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Chinworld Media
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 25 November 2012


      • Kachin (economic, social, cultural, political)
        Kachin material also in the Internal armed conflict section

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: "The Kachin Post" (Shi Laika)
        Description/subject: Archive from 2002...Links to other Kachin sites
        Language: English, Kachin
        Source/publisher: "The Kachin Post"
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 March 2004


        Title: "Kachin News"
        Language: Kachin
        Source/publisher: "Kachin News"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Title: Kachin Development Networking Group
        Description/subject: "Kachin Development Networking Group is a network of civil society groups and development organisations in Kachin State, Burma. KDNG's purpose is to effectively work for sustainable development together with locally-based organisations in Kachin State. It's aim is to promote a civil society based on equality and justice for the local people in the struggle for social and political change in Burma"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin Development Networking Group
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2008


        Title: Kachin National Organization
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Title: The Kachinnet
        Language: Kachin
        Source/publisher: Kachinnet
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Title: World Concern Myanmar
        Description/subject: Many families have been uprooted in Myanmar because of thirty years of war. In their new homes, they have struggled to make a living through slash-and-burn agriculture. But poor harvests, lack of clean water and disease hold them back. In the Northern Shan States, Mon State and Kachin State, World Concern is using a comprehensive approach to help families escape poverty and resist the spread of disease, including HIV/AIDS. We are helping them to: ● Improve water sources ● Develop sustainable farming practices ● Prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other diseases
        Language: English
        Format/size: Myanmar page not accessible, Sept. 2001
        Alternate URLs: http://www.worldconcern.org
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


        Individual Documents

        Title: Pushed to the Brink - Conflict and human trafficking on the Kachin-China border
        Date of publication: 05 June 2013
        Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The Burmese government’s renewed war against the Kachin has exponentially increased the risk of human trafficking along the China-Burma border. New documentation by KWAT indicates that large-scale displacement, lack of refugee protection and shortages of humanitarian aid have become significant new push factors fuelling the trafficking problem. Burma Army offensives against the Kachin Independence Army since June 2011 and widespread human rights abuses have driven over 100,000 villagers from their homes, mainly in eastern Kachin State. The majority of these refugees have fled to crowded IDP camps along the China border, which receive virtually no international aid. Desperate to earn an income, but with little or no legal option to pursue migrant work in China, many cross the border illegally. Their lack of legal status renders them extremely vulnerable to exploitation by traffickers, who use well-trodden routes to transport and sell people into bonded labor or forced marriage as far as eastern provinces of China. Although ongoing attacks and massive social upheaval since the start of the conflict have hampered systematic data collection, KWAT has documented 24 trafficking cases from Kachin border areas since June 2011, mostly involving young women and girls displaced by the war, who have been tricked, drugged, raped, and sold to Chinese men or families as brides or bonded laborers. The sale of women and children is a lucrative source of income for traffickers, who can make as much as 40,000 Yuan (approximately $6,500 USD) per person. While some manage to escape, and may be assisted by Chinese authorities in returning home, others disappear without a trace. Kachin authorities and community-based groups have played a key role in providing help with trafficking cases, and assisting women to be reunited with their families. No trafficked women or their families sought help from Burmese authorities. The Burmese government lists an anti-trafficking border liaison office at Loije on the Kachin-China border, but it is unknown to the community and thought to be non-functional. Far from seeking to provide protection to the internally displaced persons (IDPs) and mitigate trafficking risks, the Burmese government has continued to fuel the war, block humanitarian aid to IDPs in Kachin controlled areas, and even attack and destroy IDP camps, driving refugees into China. It has also closed some of the immigration offices on the Kachin-China border which could provide border passes for refugees to legally seek work in China. It is thus ironic that in 2012, Burma was recognized in the U.S. State Department’s Annual Trafficking in Persons Report as increasing its efforts in combating human trafficking, resulting in a rise from its bottomlevel ranking for the first time in the history of the report, and a corresponding increase in financial support to Burma’s quasi-civilian government. It is urgently needed to address the structural problems that have led to mass migration and trafficking in the past and also spurred the recent conflict. The Burmese military’s gross mismanagement of resource revenues from Kachin State over the past few decades, and ongoing land confiscation, forced relocation, and human rights abuses, have pushed countless Kachin civilians across the Chinese border in search of peace and the fulfillment of basic needs. These problems led to the breakdown of the 17-year ceasefire between the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the military-dominated government in 2011. Refusing to engage in dialogue to address Kachin demands for equality and equitable development, the government launched attacks to seize total control over the wealth of resources in Kachin State. Resolving the current conflict via genuine political dialogue would not only be a step towards peace, but also a concrete move towards curbing human trafficking from Kachin areas. Launching a range of reforms dealing with the political and economic factors driving people beyond Burma’s borders is critical to addressing trafficking. Therefore, KWAT recommends the following:..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT)
        Format/size: pdf (1.1MB-OBL version; 1.37MB-original...Press release: Chinese, 90K; Burmese, 40K; English, html)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.kachinwomen.com
        http://www.kachinwomen.com/images/stories/pressrelease/pushed_chinese.pdf
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/KWAT-pushed_to_the_brink-PR-bu-ocr.pdf
        http://www.kachinwomen.com/advocacy/press-release.html
        http://www.kachinwomen.com/images/stories/publication/pushed_to_the_brink.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 05 June 2013


        Title: Statement on Dialogue Between KIO/KIA and Thein Sein’s Government
        Date of publication: 17 January 2012
        Description/subject: On behalf of: • All Kachin Students and Youth Union (AKSYU) • BRIDGE • Kachin Centre • Kachin Development Networking Group • Kachin Environmental Organization • Kachin National Organization • Kachin Women's Association – Thailand • Kachin News Group • Life Vision Foundation • Pan Kachin Development Society
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Partnership
        Format/size: pdf (75K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 October 2012


        Title: Indian intel makes fresh efforts to renew ties with KIO
        Date of publication: 25 December 2011
        Description/subject: Article on pps1 & 3
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Seven Sisters Post"
        Format/size: Adobe Flash
        Date of entry/update: 29 December 2011


        Title: Vor der Flut
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: Sie werden nicht gefragt, nicht entschädigt und bald einfach fortgejagt: Ein Staudammprojekt am Ayeyarwady in Myanmar bedroht die Natur und die Existenz tausender Flussanwohner. Der Widerstand gegen die Pläne der Militärjunta ist lebensgefährlich. Chinesische Investitionen, Kachin; Chinese Investment.
        Author/creator: Veronika Buter
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Kontinente
        Format/size: html (16K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


        Title: David gegen Goliath: Christen in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 26 February 2007
        Description/subject: Interview mit dem Präsidenten des Kachin Theological College (KTC).Im Gespräch mit Livenet berichtete er von seiner Schule in der Stadt Myitkyina, der grössten theologischen Ausbildungsstätte im Norden des Landes, die den Bachelor of Theology und den Master of Divinity verleiht und in den letzten 15 Jahren ein starkes Wachstum erlebt hat. „Seit dem Zusammenbruch des Sozialismus wollen viele Absolventen von Colleges und Sekundarschulen das KTC besuchen.“ Zahlreiche Kurse werden englisch unterrichtet; im abgeschotteten Land sehen Eltern hier offensichtlich ein Sprungbrett für die Laufbahn ihrer Sprösslinge; Verfolgung von Christen, Kachin Interview with the president of the baptist Kachin Theological College; Christian students; Persecution of Christians
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Livenet
        Format/size: Html (64k)
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2007


        Title: Valley of Darkness - gold mining and militarization in Burma's Hugawng valley
        Date of publication: 09 January 2007
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The remote and environmentally rich Hugawng valley in Burma's northern Kachin State has been internationally recognized as one of the world's hotspots of biodiversity. Indeed, the military junta ruling Burma, together with the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society, is establishing the world's largest tiger reserve in the valley. However, the conditions of the people living there have not received attention. This report by local researchers reveals the untold story of how the junta's militarization and self-serving expansion of the gold mining industry have devastated communities and ravaged the valley's forests and waterways. The Hugawng valley was largely untouched by Burma's military regime until the mid-1990s. After a ceasefire between the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) and the junta in 1994, local residents had high hopes that peace would foster economic development and improved living conditions. However, under the junta's increased control, the rich resources of Hugawng valley have turned out to be a curse. Despite the ceasefire, the junta has expanded its military infrastructure throughout Kachin State, increasing its presence from 26 battalions in 1994 to 41 in 2006. This expansion has been mirrored in Hugawng valley, where the number of military outposts has doubled; in the main town of Danai, public and private buildings have been seized and one third of the surrounding farmland confiscated. Some of the land and buildings were used to house military units, while others were sold to business interests for military profit. In order to expand and ensure its control over gold mining revenues, the regime offered up 18% of the entire Kachin State for mining concessions in 2002. This transformed gold mining from independent gold panning to a large-scale mechanized industry controlled by the concession holders. In Hugawng valley concessions were sold to 8 selected companies and the number of main gold mining sites increased from 14 in 1994 to 31 sites in 2006. The number of active hydraulic and pit mines had exploded to approximately 100 by the end of 2006. The regime's Ministry of Mines collects signing fees for the concessions as well as 35% - 50% tax on annual profits. Additional payments are rendered to the military's top commander for the region, various township and local authorities as well as the Minister of Mines personally. The junta has announced occasional bans on gold mining in Kachin State but as this report shows, these bans are temporary and selective, in effect used to maintain the junta's grip on mining revenues. While the regime, called the State Peace and Development Council or SPDC, has consolidated political and financial control of the valley, it has not enforced its own existing (and very limited) environmental and health regulations on gold mining operations. This lack of regulation has resulted in deforestation, the destruction of river banks, and altering of river flows. Miners have been severely injured or killed by unsafe working practices and the lack of adequate health services. The environmental and health effects of mercury contamination have yet to be monitored and analyzed. The most dramatic effects of this gold mining boom, however, have been on the social conditions of the local people. The influx of transient populations, together with harsh working conditions, a lack of education opportunities and poverty have led to the expansion of the drug, sex, and gambling industries in Hugawng valley. In one mining area it was estimated that 80% of inhabitants are addicted to opium and approximately 30% of miners use heroin and methamphetamines. Intravenous drug use and the sex industry have increased the spread of HIV/AIDS. Far from alleviating these social ills, local SPDC authorities collect fees from these illicit industries and even diminish efforts to curb them. The SPDC continually boasts about how the people of Kachin State are benefiting from its border area development program. The case of Hugawng valley illustrates, however, the fundamental lack of local benefit from or participation in the development process. The SPDC is pursuing its interests of military expansion and revenue generation at the expense of social and environmental sustainability This report documents local people speaking out about this destructive and unsustainable development. Such bravery should be encouraged and supported.".......The main URL for this document in OBL leaqds to a 1.5MB version, obtained by passing the original through ocr software. The original and uthoritative version can be found as an alternate link in this entry.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin Development Networking Group (KDNG)
        Format/size: pdf (3.77MB - original and authoritative; 1.5MB - ocr version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.eldis.org/assets/Docs/24720.html
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


        Title: When Birds Taught the Kachin to Dance
        Date of publication: December 2005
        Description/subject: Ancient myths lie at the heart of manau festivities... "It’s a scene out of the distant past—two columns of dancers loop, coil and weave a sinuous route around a ceremonial arch spanning a circular arena enclosed by a split bamboo fence. The arch is topped by a line of 10 tall boards colorfully decorated with linked linear maze patterns. A crossbeam, decorated with depictions of various birds and other animals, carries the carved head of a hornbill bird at one end and its tail at the other. The structure is called a manau—and that’s also the name of the ritual dance ceremony, performed by the Kachin people of Burma. In early December it was also being performed in the northern Thai village of Baan Mai Samaki, home to some 500 Kachin refugees who work on land managed by the Thai King’s Highland Development Project. This is the second manau to be celebrated at Baan Mai Samaki—the first was in 2003—and it was expected to draw Kachin exiles from as far away as China and India..."
        Author/creator: Geoffrey Walton
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 12
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


        Title: A Rocky Road
        Date of publication: November 2005
        Description/subject: Kachin State's growing ethnic and environmental troubles... "In recent years, many political analysts in Burma and abroad have predicted growing strife in the country’s troubled ethnic regions, warning that ceasefire agreements with the ruling junta would not guarantee lasting peace. The current instability in Burma’s Kachin State bears these warnings out..."
        Author/creator: Khun Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


        Title: School’s Out in Kachin State
        Date of publication: August 2005
        Description/subject: Bleak future for students and teachers in Burma’s northernmost state... "Mai Mai gave up on education after her first year as an English major at Myitkyina University and has no plans to revive her academic career. “I don’t want to continue university,” she says. “It’s worthless.” Instead, she spends her time trying to earn money to support her family—something that has occupied her since childhood, when she routinely skipped class to work at nearby jade and gold mines..."
        Author/creator: Khun Sam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


        Title: Driven Away: Trafficking of Kachin women on the China-Burma border
        Date of publication: 15 May 2005
        Description/subject: "An alarming trend is developing in ethnic Kachin communities of Burma. Growing poverty, caused by failed state policies, is driving increasing numbers of young people to migrate in search of work. As a result, young women and girls are disappearing without trace, being sold as wives in China, and tricked into the Chinese and Burmese sex industries. Local Kachin researchers conducted interviews in Burma from May-August 2004 in order to document this trend. "Driven Away: Trafficking of Kachin women on the China-Burma border", produced by the Kachin Women's Association Thailand (KWAT), is based on 63 verified and suspected trafficking cases that occurred primarily during 2000-2004. The cases involve 85 women and girls, mostly between the ages of 14 and 20. Testimony comes primarily from women and girls who escaped after being trafficked, as well as relatives, persons who helped escapees, and others. About two-thirds of the women trafficked were from the townships of Myitkyina and Bhamo in Kachin State. About one third were from villages in northern Shan State. In 36 of the cases, women were specifically offered safe work opportunities and followed recruiters to border towns. Many were seeking part-time work to make enough money for school fees during the annual three-month school holiday. Others simply needed to support their families. Those not offered work were taken while looking for work, tricked, or outright abducted. Women taken to China were most often passed on to traffickers at the border to be transported farther by car, bus and/or train for journeys of up to one week in length. Traffickers used deceit, threats, and drugs to confuse and control women en route..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin Women's Association, Thailand (KWAT)
        Format/size: pdf (3.3MB), 2.2MB
        Alternate URLs: http://www.womenofburma.org/Report/Driven_Away.pdf (original, authoritative)
        Date of entry/update: 17 May 2005


        Title: At What Price? Gold Mining in Kachin State, Burma
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: Contents:-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; MAP; EXECUTIVE SUMMARY; INTRODUCTION & METHODOLOGY;; BACKGROUND; UNEARTHING BURMA; ENVIRONMENT AND MINING LAWS; THE LAND OF THE KACHIN; GEOGRAPHY & BIODIVERSITY; HISTORY; GOLD IN THE KACHIN HILLS; CONCESSION POLICY; ROLE OF THE KIO; FOREIGN INVESTORS; CHINA; GOING FOR KACHIN GOLD: MINING TECHNIQUES; PLACER MINING; PANNING; BUCKET DREDGES; SUCTION DREDGES; HYDRAULIC MINING; GOLD ORE; OPEN-CAST MINES; SHAFT MINES; CHEMICALS IN THE MINING PROCESS; DANGER: MERCURY; ALTERNATIVES TO MERCURY; CYANIDE LEACHING; CASE STUDIES OF MINING AREAS IN KACHIN STATE; HUKAWNG; MALI HKA; N’MAI HKA; HPAKANT; GOLD AND THE ENVIRONMENT3; AFTER THE GOLD RUSH: TAILINGS AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE; LAND REHABILITATION; THE RIVER ECOSYSTEM; GOLD AND ITS SOCIAL IMPACT; SEEKING WORK, SEEKING GOLD; ENDANGERING MINERS; MINING AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS; RECOMMENDATIONS... APPENDICES: IVANHOE MINES LTD.; EXAMPLES OF MERCURY AND METHYLMERCURY POISONING; CASES OF CYANIDE POLLUTION; AGREEMENT BETWEEN MYITKYINA TPDC AND NORTHERN STAR MINERALS TRADING AND PRODUCTION CO.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Images Asia Environment Desk, Pan Kachin Development Society
        Format/size: pdf (3.4MB) 66 pages
        Date of entry/update: 21 December 2004


        Title: Shaky Future for the KIO
        Date of publication: April 2004
        Description/subject: "First an attempted coup then an assassination—the details are sketchy and conspiracy theories abound. It’s clear that all is not well within the Kachin Independence Organization..."
        Author/creator: Naw Seng
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


        Title: Echoing the Party Line: An Interview with Tu Jai
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: "The Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) was the first ceasefire group to welcome the Burmese government’s plans to reconvene the National Convention. The Irrawaddy interviewed KIO Chairman Tu Jai, 73, by email, about recent political developments in Rangoon and Kachin State. The organization signed a ceasefire with Rangoon in February 1994 and Tu Jai has been chairman since 2001..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 December 2003


        Title: Ashes and Tears
        Date of publication: March 2001
        Description/subject: Interviews with Refugees from Burma on Guam, including recent interviews with Chin and Kachin refugees. "During the past year, nearly a thousand refugees from Burma have arrived on the island of Guam, a United States territory in the Pacific Ocean. They are seeking asylum in the US, having fled extraordinary levels of persecution in their homeland. Most are from northern Burma, especially the Chin State... This report consists of interviews with a small cross section of the Guam asylum seekers. It is to some extent representative of their demographics, in terms of ethnicity and gender. The interviewees have given us a great bounty of significant new information and details about recent conditions in Burma... Numerous topics are covered in these 17 interviews. There is front-line information about the AIDS epidemic which is making its grim progress into the remote mountains of Burma, and the efforts to evade the regime’s denial about it..."
        Author/creator: Edith Mirante
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: pdf (329K), Text (184K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.projectmaje.org/txt/guam_rep.txt
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: This Revolutionary Life
        Date of publication: March 1995
        Description/subject: "Women of the Kachin Liberated Area". "12 women, all living in or near the headquarters of the Kachin Independence Organization, were asked essentially the same set of questions. Topics covered included politics, culture, health, violence, and religion. The picture that emerges from their answers is one of strong, independent women, functioning confidently amid considerable hardship..." "The women -- doctors, soldiers, shopkeepers -- reveal many aspects of their lives. They tell how they survive, their perceptions of women's role and political power, and their hopes for the future..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: PDF (871K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Difficult Lives
        Date of publication: September 1991
        Description/subject: "Interviews in the Kachin State, Northern Burma". "The eleven interviews in this report were conducted in a large village in the Kachin State (northern Burma) just across a river boundary from China. The village has been rapidly expanding in population since the 1980s, with a constant influx of internal refugees who flee here to avoid a series of campaigns by Burmese government troops...Some of the interviewees could see nothing but darkness in the future; others expressed a remarkably buoyant optimism....While frustrated by isolation and poverty, the people there have a great faith in themselves and each other, and seem to feel that whatever work they are doing, it will be productive in the end. They are exraordinarily willing to take political risks..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: PDF (610K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Karen (cultural, historical, political)
        See also Karen in the Human Rights section

        • Karen (cultural, historical, political)

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Museum of Karen History and Culture
          Date of publication: June 2004
          Description/subject: "Welcome to the Museum of Karen History and Culture dedicated to researching, preserving, and promoting the history and culture of the ethnic Karens of Burma. The Karens, now totalling over five million people, were one of, if not, the first inhabitants of what is now Burma. Throughout the centuries that followed they were constantly oppressed by the Burman rulers who took over the country. Now, the military government seeks to destroy the individual identity of the Karen people. History and language is being lost as the State Peace and Development Council bans all schools in Karen State from teaching their own language and history. The Karen History and Culture Preservation Society is a non-profit, non-political organisation, formed in 2001 to help preserve and promote the history and culture of a unique people. This electronic museum is only the beginning and is by no means complete, all people who can contribute are welcome (please see the KHCPS section for details) and any feedback you wish to give please do. We dedicate this museum to all of the Karen people who continue to suffer under insurmountable odds" SOME PEOPLE ARE ABLE TO ACCESS THE MUSEUM WITHOUT DIFFICULTY. OTHERS CANNOT SEE THE UPPER NAVIGATION BAR. PLEASE CONTACT darnott@iprolink.ch IF YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEMS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Karen History and Culture Preservation Society
          Format/size: html, jpg etc.
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/karenmuseum/
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


          Title: Drum Publications
          Description/subject: "The Drum Publication Group was founded in May 1998. The goal of the Drum Publication Group is to promote literature in both Karen and Burmese languages with the overall objectives of developing education for Burmese people wherever they might reside. The Group wishes to establish contact with as many other groups and individuals as possible who are involved in literature and education, and to be involved in all aspects of literacy development and the ensuing work of printing suitable books and teaching aids. As well as translation and typesetting we would like to assist those NGOs involve in education work at all stages. Participation in planning sessions and workshops would be welcomed and would, we feel, increase our capacity to play a useful role in this regard. The Group will promote, through its own practice, transparency and accountability, in all dealings. The Group is not affiliated with any political organization and stands for racial and sexual equality. The Drum Group's focus is on: * Writing and printing educational books. * Producing teaching aids and extra-curricula materials. * Translation of texts, to and from, both Sgaw Karen and Burmese languages - especially those relevant to education. * Establishing a library and documentation centre to preserve valuable books and documents. * Assisting the printing of educational material in Pwo Karen, Shan, Mon and other ethnic languages. A catalogue of our publications is available on this web site. Publications are distributed at cost price, or less, to groups and individuals involved in formal or non-formal education or training. Those ordering large numbers of books as well as overseas institutes are requested to pay the full cost of the order plus postage costs... Downloadable books: * English - Sgaw Karen Student Dictionary (PDF version which can be used off line) * Days Not to be Forgotten : (Sgaw Karen), Karen veterans of WWII share their experiences * Echos from Karen Land: (Sgaw Karen) * Little Authors' Imaginative World: (Sgaw Karen) * * Lilly and Pa Saw Htee's Amazing Earth and the Universe Facts: (Sgaw Karen / English) * Lilly and Pa Saw Htee's Amazing Animal Facts: (Sgaw Karen / English) * Ethnic Folktakes of Burma : (Sgaw Karen) * Hta for Children : (Sgaw Karen) * A Holiday I Will Never Forget (a choose your our adventure story) : (Sgaw Karen) * Brain Sharpeners : math puzzles (Sgaw Karen) * Traditional Karen Dress : (Sgaw Karen) Drum's quarterly fun newsletter for kids! * * Drum Kids Newsletter, July 2006:(Sgaw Karen) * Drum Kids Newsletter, April 2006:(Sgaw Karen) * Drum Kids Newsletter, Jan. 2006:(Sgaw Karen) * Drum Kids Newsletter, Oct. 2005:(Sgaw Karen)
          Language: English, Sgaw Karen, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Drum Publication Group
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Date of entry/update: 04 September 2006


          Title: Friends of the Karen People
          Description/subject: "Friends of the Karen People - Mission Statement * We provide scholarships to prospective students from Burma regardless of their ethnic origin. * We prepare students to able to integrate into the international education system. * We aim to upgrade the education system in the ethnic regions of Burma. * We help maintain the culture and literature of the different ethnic nationalities of Burma. * We publish materials about the struggle of the ethnic nationalities of Burma. Friends of the Karen People - Objective * To document the culture and daily life of the Karen People who are in refugee camps and who are internally displaced. * To inform the world about the plight of the ethnic nationalities. * To bring a new generation of leaders to Burma. * To help people to survive and bring peace to the region. Brief recent history of Burma The Burmese military dictatorship took over power on March 2, 1962 and has been introducing ethnic cleansing since. There are more than a hundred ethnic groups in Burma who are gradually becoming extinct. Ethnic nationalities of Burma are forbidden to study their languages and practice their religious beliefs. Their cultures are disappearing and they no longer know how to speak or write their own languages. Their land is being taken away from them. They become internally displaced. They are relocated to places where there is no way to make their living. They have to work as slaves for the military. They are used to clear land mines and carry military equipment as porters. They suffer all kinds of abuse and oppression. Husbands and sons are killed, wives and daughters are raped. Children and infants are burned alive. The ethnic nationalities have become internal colonies. They are oppressed by the military dictatorship of Burma and are trapped in the nest of a heartless monster. The Karen people and all the other ethnic nationalities have fought to defend themselves for over 50 years to survive ethnic cleansing."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Friends of the Karen People
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 01 November 2005


          Title: Karen Emergency Relief Fund
          Description/subject: "The purpose of the Karen Emergency Relief Fund Inc. is to provide humanitarian assistance, including food, shelter, medical and health supplies, and to provide educational and self-help projects for the Karen people. The Relief Fund recognizes that the Karens are an indigenous, ethnic minority group of about 11 million people who have lived in the mountainous region along the border of Burma and Thailand for many centuries. Due to the ongoing strife in Burma, it is estimated that there are more than 300,000 displaced Karens who have fled into the jungle and are living in huts and makeshift camps in the border area. Those who have escaped into Thailand have not been given official refugee status, consequently they receive no direct assistance from the United Nations or from the Red Cross. Alongside impoverished Karen organizations the Karen Emergency Relief Fund maintains an office in Mae Sot, Thailand. In 2000 K.E.R.F established a therapy program for the victims of rape and torture which is directed by a skilled and innovative psychotherapist. No other agency was addressing the consequences of these widespread and vicious crimes. The Karen Emergency Relief Fund Inc. is recognized by the IRS as a non-profit, tax deductible organization, and has no paid employees. All funds raised are distributed to the Karens or to organizations acting on their behalf. The Board of Directors of the Karen Emergency Relief Fund Inc. is comprised of physicians, clergypersons and business professionals from Connecticut, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The organization was created on July 20, 1997. "
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Karen Emergency Relief Fund
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Karen Website
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kawthoolei (Karenland)
          Description/subject: Some good material, but many links not working.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kawthoolei (Karenland)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Pwo and Sgaw Karen Fonts
          Description/subject: A number of Pwo and Sgaw Karen fonts...Open in a new page and unzip the files (that's the only way I can access the files using Firefox) -- other browsers may work differently - Librarian)
          Author/creator: KHCPS
          Source/publisher: KHCPS
          Format/size: .zip/469k
          Date of entry/update: 05 March 2006


          Title: The Hilltribes of Thailand Karen
          Description/subject: Touristy site
          Language: English
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Working Group: "Socio-economics of Forest Use in the Tropics and Subtropics"
          Description/subject: Various documents in German and/or English on the Karen and other groups in Thailand and Burma, including "Change and identity in Pwo Karen communities in Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary, a 'Global Heritage' in Western Thailand".
          Author/creator: Reiner Buergin
          Language: Deutsch, German, English
          Source/publisher: Institute for Ethnology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Individual Documents

          Title: Creating Non-State Spaces: Interfaces of Humanitarianism and Self-Government of Karen-Refugee Migrants in Thai Burmese Border Spaces
          Date of publication: October 2012
          Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper examines the interfaces of local community based humanitarian organizations with displaced Karen people in Thai-Burmese border spaces and their claims for cultural rights. It argues that Karen people have to organize themselves in a context where they do not have access to social welfare of the state and in which the state is hostile and oppressive to them. Applying Merry’s thesis on the localization and vernacularization of international rights frameworks in the local context, the paper explores the context of power in which different humanitarian actors intervention in the local conflict zone. The author finds that Karen displaced people have differentiated access to humanitarian assistance and that powerful organizations like the Karen National Union are able to benefit while essentializing Karen culture and suppressing internal difference among the Karen to position itself towards the international donor community, thereby becoming “liked” or “preferred” refugees. The paper then also looks at secular and faith-based local humanitarian groups and finds that these groups are deeply embedded in local society and thus able to help effectively. Karen displaced people thus create non-state spaces in border spaces by establishing partnerships with local humanitarian organizations that act as brokers and mediators of international organizations and donors."
          Author/creator: Alexander Horstmann
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religioius and Ethnic Diversity
          Format/size: pdf (940K-OBL version; 2MB-original)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.mmg.mpg.de/publications/working-papers/2012/wp-12-17/
          www.mmg.mpg.de/workingpapers
          Date of entry/update: 08 November 2012


          Title: Burma's Longest War: Anatomy of the Karen Conflict
          Date of publication: 28 March 2011
          Description/subject: "Political grievances among Karen and other ethnic nationality communities, which have driven over half a century of armed conflict in Burma/Myanmar, remain unresolved. As the country enters a period of transition following the November 2010 elections and formation of a new government, the Karen political landscape is undergoing its most significant changes in a generation. There is a pressing need for Karen social and political actors to demonstrate their relevance to the new political and economic agendas in Burma, and in particular to articulate positions regarding the major economic and infrastructure development projects to be implemented in the coming years. The country's best-known insurgent organisation, the Karen National Union (KNU), is in crisis, having lost control of its once extensive 'liberated zones’, and lacks a political agenda relevant to all Karen communities. Meanwhile the government's demand that ceasefire groups, such as the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army, transform into Border Guard Forces under direct Burma Army control throws into question the future of various armed groups that have split from the KNU since the 1990s. In this context, Thailand-Burma border areas have seen an upsurge in fighting since late 2010. Nevertheless, the long-term prospect is one of the decline of insurgency as a viable political or military strategy. Equitable solutions to Burma's social, political and economic problems must involve settling long-standing conflicts between ethnic communities and the state. While Aung San Suu Kyi, the popular leader of the country's democracy movement, seems to recognise this fact, the military government, which holds most real power in the country, has sought to suppress and assimilate minority communities. It is yet to be seen whether Karen and other ethnic nationality representatives elected in November 2010 will be able to find the political space within which to exercise some influence on local or national politics. In the meantime, civil society networks operating within and between Karen and other ethnic nationality communities represent vehicles for positive, incremental change, at least at local levels."
          Author/creator: Ashley South
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Transnational Institute, Burma Centrum Nederland
          Format/size: pdf (2MB - OBL version; 2.3MB - original)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/TNI-BurmasLongestWar-AshleySouth-red.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 29 March 2011


          Title: Pachyderm Party
          Date of publication: July 2008
          Description/subject: Each June, Karen villagers living on Thailand’s border with Burma gather to show appreciation to elephants—their friends and invaluable helpmates.
          Author/creator: Lawi Weng
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 7
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 15 July 2008


          Title: Die Karen im Strudel der Unabhängigkeit
          Date of publication: 03 July 2007
          Description/subject: Angesichts des britischen Verrats gründet der Karen Anwalt Saw Ba U Gyi am 5. Februar 1947 als ersten Schritt zur Selbsthilfe mit 700 Karen Delegierten aus allen Landesteilen die Karen National Union, KNU. Als politische Organisation soll sie den Einfluss seines Volkes hinsichtlich der Verhandlungen zur Unabhängigkeit Burma’s sicherstellen. Bereits im November ‘46 ist die mächtige kommunistische Partei aus der geeinten Front der Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League, AFPFL Thakin Aung San’s ausgeschlossen worden. Aung San; Panglong Agreement; The Karen during independence
          Language: German, Deutsch
          Source/publisher: Burma Riders
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


          Title: Die Karen - Völkermord in Burma
          Date of publication: October 2006
          Description/subject: Karen? Tja, bis vor kurzem wusste ich gar nicht, dass dieses Volk existiert. Die Karen sind eine ethnische Gruppe in Myanmar/Burma, Nachbarstaat von Thailand. Ja, Thailand, dem beliebten Urlaubsland. Doch was wir sehen ist nicht das, was die Menschen dort vor Ort sehen; Geschichte der Karen; Geschichte des Krieges der Karen; Staudämme; history of the Karen; history of the Karen civil war; water dams;
          Language: German, Deutsch
          Source/publisher: Reggae Magazin Revolution
          Format/size: Html (45 kb)
          Date of entry/update: 08 May 2008


          Title: Burma Diaspora
          Date of publication: 2005
          Description/subject: Burma Diaspora ist ein Dokumentar-Spielfilm, der 2005 während eines 6-monatigen Aufenthaltes in den Karen-Gebieten realisiert wurde. Die Seite enthält viele Bilder, Videos und Hintergrundinformationen zu der Situation der Karen; documentary on the situation of the Karen; the site contains many pictures, videos and background information;
          Language: German, Deutsch
          Format/size: Html
          Date of entry/update: 08 May 2008


          Title: Calling Home the Spirits
          Date of publication: September 2004
          Description/subject: "Karen communities celebrate their annual “wrist-tying” festival. The month of August marks a time of year when the bonds of tradition that bind the Karen people are tied in a symbolic but also quite literal way. In Karen families and communities around the world white threads are tied around wrists in a ceremony known as Lah Ku Kee Su...The chief purposes of the festival, however, are to reinforce Karen identity and contribute to the continuation of Karen culture. Saw Nay Kaw, a young Karen Christian living in the Thai town of Kanchanaburi, home to many Karen, summed it up: “It’s good for Karen culture for Karen people to come together and celebrate once a year like this.”..."
          Author/creator: Shah Paung
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 8
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


          Title: San C. Po: Elusive Dream
          Date of publication: June 2004
          Description/subject: "He has been knighted, honored and revered. But San C. Po’s dream of an independent Karen State remains unfulfilled..."
          Author/creator: Shah Paung
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


          Title: "Making a Name for Themselves: Karen Identity and the Politicization of Ethnicity in Burma"
          Date of publication: 2002
          Description/subject: The history of Karen nationalism has been interpreted in terms of inter-ethnic conflict and conceptualizations of ethnicity have influenced understanding of Karen political identity. While 'Karen' incorporated various linguistic, sociocultural, religious and political sub-groups, the Karen National Union (KNU) elite promoted a singular pan-Karen identity in order to minimize such diversity. As a result, factionalism emerged between different Karen groups, obstructing the KNU's political vision and leaving many Karens dissatisfied with KNU attempts to represent their various interests. The fall of Manerplaw in 1995 was thus the result of intra-ethnic conflict as much as conflict between Karens and non-Karens.
          Author/creator: Jessica Harriden
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 7 (2002)
          Format/size: pdf (2.67MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol7/index.shtml
          Date of entry/update: 08 July 2010


          Title: Ein Sommer voller Angst und Verzweifelung: Burmesische Flüchtlinge im thailändisch-burmesischen Grenzgebiet
          Date of publication: 2002
          Description/subject: Karen refugees in the thai-burmese border area. Halockani refugee camp run by the Mon National Committee. Mit dem Beginn der großen Militäroffensive burmesischer Truppen gegen die bewaffneten Guerillabewegungen der nationalen Minderheiten haben seit Anfang dieses Jahres nun auch immer mehr Angehörige der Karen Volksgruppe im thailändischen Grenzgebiet Zuflucht gesucht. Das vom Mon National Committee unterhaltene Halockani-Flüchtlingslager der Mon-Volksgruppe hat daher seine Tore im Sommer auch für Karen-Flüchtlinge geöffnet und Versorgungsgüter zur Verfügung gestellt.
          Author/creator: Hans-Günther Wagner
          Language: Deutsch, German
          Source/publisher: Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Karen History: in Their Own Words
          Date of publication: October 2000
          Description/subject: Most Burmese are familiar with aspects of Karen culture, but few are aware of its deeper significance as an expression of their unique values and historical experience.
          Author/creator: Min Zin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 10
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Karen: Ideologie, Interessen und Kultur. Eine Analyse der Feldforschungsberichte und Theoriebildung.
          Date of publication: 1992
          Description/subject: keywords: Karen, ideology, field research, history, scientific theory (? in German: Wissenschaftstheorie), theory forming, cultural debates, ethnology-cultural/social anthropology, literature. "In dieser Arbeit wird die englisch-, deutsch- und französischsprachige Literatur über die Karen des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts ausgewertet und im Hinblick auf Theoriebildung und vorherrschende Ideologien analysiert. Untersucht werden dabei verschiedene Karen-Gesellschaften Burmas und Thailands. Die Auswertung der Literatur unter ethnologischen und soziologischen Gesichtspunkten liefert einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte und Theoriebildung über die Karen..."
          Author/creator: Reiner Buergin
          Language: Deutsch, German
          Format/size: PDF (835K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Karen guerillas -- insurgency in Karen State (front-line photos, 1991)
          Date of publication: April 1991
          Description/subject: Photos taken March-April 1991 at Manerplaw and the front line north of Manerplaw, where there was heavy fighting at the time. Several photos of child soldiers. "Burma has been torn by civil war since the end of colonial rule from the British. One of the largest ethnic groups is the Karen-people. For a long time they maintained their own state, Kawthoolei or Karen land, in the east of the country bordering Thailand. From its base in Manorplow the Karen National Union (KNU) and its armed wing the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) led the armed struggle. In the late eighties they where reinforced by Burmese refugees from the All Burma Student Democratic Front (ADSDF) who escaped the crack down on the democracy movement. The failure of different ethnic groups to unite led to great success for the junta in the mid 90's. Today only a fraction of the KNU remains active and many Karens are living as refugees in Thailand. Many other armed groups have struck deals with the military junta (SLORC) or entered the lucrative drug-trade."
          Author/creator: Bjorn Svensson
          Language: English
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Two Indigenous Karen Religious Denominations
          Date of publication: 1981
          Description/subject: "This paper is a short presentation of two Pwo Karen sects as they may be found in contemporary Western Central Thailand. It will discuss the organization, origin, and cultural content of the two denominations in order to show how their politico-religious concepts and ritual architecture are related to their historical position in a larger system comprising the Buddhist monarchial civilizations of Burma and Thailand. It is my supposition that the religious paraphernalia of present day sects materialized in a certain historical context as symbols of royalty and autonomy, and in the larger social context functioned to identify these Pwo Karen collectively as a sovereign part of a larger civilized world. These symbols of self-defined participation in the world, and at times even claims to superiority, had been moulded according to a model set by the monarchism of the 18th century Mon Buddhist kingdom in Lower Burma. It included a messianic Buddhist framework, which precipitated millenarian expectations of the rise of a world conqueror and subsequent future Buddha, the Buddha Ariya Mettaya, who would install a new and ideal society for the elect. Viewing the history of the Buddhist valley civilizations, be they Burmese, Mon or Thai, we may see that this messianic aspect of Theravada Buddhism has been the catalyst for both social discontent and personal political ambitions within the Buddhist societies of Southeast Asia.2 The term 'Karen' covers a category of people in Burma and Thailand who speak related languages. Karen-speaking people are spread over a large area, and their habitations are found in the hills and forests as well as the lowland. Everywhere Karen groups live interspersed among various other ethnic groups, hill as well as valley peoples..."
          Author/creator: Kirsten Ewers Andersen
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Soertryk FOLK Reprint Vol. 23 1981 K0BENHAVN
          Format/size: pdf (247K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Deference for the Elders and Control over the Younger among the Karen in Thailand
          Date of publication: 1980
          Description/subject: "This paper examines the foundation of the deference paid the Elders in a Karen forest society in Thailand. It is argued that deference and social control are two sides of the same coin, both resting on the fact that the socially most valuable knowledge in Karen society is an attribute of old age. To analyze the foundation of this knowledge, which endows the Elders with social authority and control, it is useful to distinguish between various types of knowledge, such as knowledge of production-technique and ecology, knowledge of social history, and knowledge of ritual and magic. It is further emphasized that the foundation of the Elders' authority, in contrast to many other societies, is neither control of the means of production nor control of such prestige goods, which in unilineal societies may enter the affinal exchange circulation as bridewealth. Their control derives from their knowledge of social history, from their religious knowledge of cosmology, ritual, and ethics, and from their possession of magical know-how..."
          Author/creator: Kirsten Ewers Andersen
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Særtryk FOLK Reprint Vol. 21-22 1979/80 - KØBENHAVN
          Format/size: pdf (336K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: ELEMENTS OF PWO KAREN BUDDHISM
          Date of publication: 1978
          Description/subject: "...the frequent dichotomization of Burman and Thai "hill-tribes" as animists opposed to the valley population as Buddhists, the Buddhism of the "hill-tribes" being only a thin veneer on animistic beliefs, does not hold. It is rather a question of an inclusive hierarchization of religious activities and value orientations, where the basis for an exclusive dichotomization becomes unclear and elusive, when one investigates the concerned activities more closely. The levels of activities are interlocked and a future value orientation may be directed towards an increased emphasis on "pure" monk- and more Buddhist elements, as the Karens become subsumed under the Thai cash-crop economy and the concommittant cultural contacts. The role of the boungkhos as maintainers of nature's order will disappear when it becomes evident that economic survival under a new economy immediately seems to depend more on insights into the market-mechanisms than on maintenance of the up till now balanced eco-system."
          Author/creator: Kirsten Ewers Andersen
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies
          Format/size: html (35K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Burma and the Karens
          Date of publication: 1928
          Description/subject: "THE object of this book is to present and to explain to the reading public, and to those who are in authority, the condition of the Karens, the position they occupy, and their aspirations as a nation second in importance of the indigenous races of the province of Burma. It is their desire to have a country of their own, where they may progress as a race and find the contentment they seek. It is this contentment which gives a man or a nation that satisfaction and good-will and creates that patriotic feeling so essential to the well-being of the nation. Self-respect in a nation begets respect from other nations and races. What a grand thing the achievement of their ambition will be for the Karens, and what praises and blessing will be showered upon those who shall have made it possible. The Karens will then be in a position to show sincere respect to other races, especially to the Burmese, with whom they have been at variance, and in turn the Burmese will find them worthy of respect and esteem..."
          Author/creator: Dr. San C. Po C.B.E.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Elliott Stock (Publisher)
          Format/size: html (188K)
          Date of entry/update: 05 May 2008


          Title: HISTORISCHE ENTWICKLUNG DER ETHNISCHEN KONFLIKTE IN MYANMAR / BURMA
          Description/subject: Vor der Ankunft der britischen Kolonialmacht waren die burmanischen Königreiche zwar die dominierende politische Kraft, ihre Herrschaft über die Minderheiten blieb aber beschränkt. Zu keinem Zeitpunkt in der vorkolonialen Geschichte bemühten sich die Monarchen darum, die Minderheiten unter Zwang zu assimilieren. Politisch relevant wurde die ethnische Zugehörigkeit erst unter der britischen Kolonialherrschaft, als das Land in das direkt verwaltete Burma proper (Burma an sich) und in die indirekt verwalteten frontier areas (Grenzgebiete), das vornehmliche Siedlungsgebiet der Minderheiten, geteilt wurde. Karen (KNU); Panglong-Abkommen; Waffenstillstandsabkommen; History of ethnic conflicts in Burma; Karen (KNU); Panglong-Agreement; Ceasefire Agreements;
          Author/creator: Heike Löschmann
          Language: Deutsch, German
          Source/publisher: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung
          Format/size: html (25k)
          Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


        • Karen National Union (KNU)

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: KIC News
          Description/subject: Substantialsite... News, photos, articles, links, "Karen Newsletter" - archive
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Karen Information Center (KIC)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 28 March 2011


          Title: The Official Website of the Karen National Union (KNU)
          Description/subject: Home | About us | Departments | Peace Process | Statements | Human Rights | Karen Unity | Contact...Departments: Agriculture Department; Alliance Affairs Department; Breeding & Fishery Department; Defense Department; Education & Culture Department; Finance & Revenue Department; Foreign Affairs Department; Forestry Department; Health & Welfare Department; Interior & Religious Department; Organising & Information Department; Justice Department; Mining Department; Transportation & Communication Department.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Karen National Union (KNU)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 22 September 2013


          Individual Documents

          Title: The Dynamics of Karen National Union Political and Military Development: Reflecting the Shifting Landscape
          Date of publication: 2010
          Description/subject: Abstract: "This thesis investigates the themes and society of displaced Karen identity on the border between Burma and Thailand. The impact of the authoritarian military rule in Burma cannot be underestimated. The government exercises tremendous power to shape the social and economic environment. They determine whether a civil-society is prosperous and functions in an appropriate manner. Governments are also responsible for societal support and protection of all its populace. The population of Burma is essentially isolated from the global society through regime censorship and restrictions. The inter-linking spiral of humanitarian emergencies and continued to escalate, these include refugee, internally displaced people, the spread of preventable diseases and the illicit narcotic production. Recently, the Western governments had solidified their position towards the military junta resulting in a stalemate of diplomatic interaction, with ultimately the people of Burma being the victims of such actions. Current realities in the global sphere present the powerful Western Nations an opportunity for a change in perspective. US policy recommendations include a greater dialogue with the junta and the outcome of the election is seen as crucial to fostering better relation. It is imperative that long-essential reforms are undertaken if Burma if is to achieve lasting peace. The international community must develop coherent and focused policies towards Burma and make conflict resolution a priority. Humanitarian aid and displaced refugee support will play a vital role, and in the 21st Century regional dimensions must be addressed. The challenges of nation-state building must be made in conjunction with political, humanitarian, and economic issues."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: University of Manchester (thesis submitted in 2010)
          Subscribe: Peter James Bjorklund
          Format/size: pdf (374K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2013


          Title: Mahn Sha: The Compassionate Revolutionary (Obituary)
          Date of publication: March 2008
          Description/subject: "When news of the assassination of the Karen leader Mahn Sha broke, I was reminded of the advice he had once given me: “Use your journalistic skill to help poor people.” Two years ago, I visited Mahn Sha at his office in Mae Sot on the Thai-Burmese border. In our conversation, his left-wing enthusiasm was evident. It was an enthusiasm that he wanted to pass on to a younger generation—“We want more young people who will work for the sake of their country and people,” he told me..."
          Author/creator: Violet Cho
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


          Title: Die Karen im Strudel der Unabhängigkeit
          Date of publication: 03 July 2007
          Description/subject: Angesichts des britischen Verrats gründet der Karen Anwalt Saw Ba U Gyi am 5. Februar 1947 als ersten Schritt zur Selbsthilfe mit 700 Karen Delegierten aus allen Landesteilen die Karen National Union, KNU. Als politische Organisation soll sie den Einfluss seines Volkes hinsichtlich der Verhandlungen zur Unabhängigkeit Burma’s sicherstellen. Bereits im November ‘46 ist die mächtige kommunistische Partei aus der geeinten Front der Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League, AFPFL Thakin Aung San’s ausgeschlossen worden. Aung San; Panglong Agreement; The Karen during independence
          Language: German, Deutsch
          Source/publisher: Burma Riders
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


          Title: A House Divided
          Date of publication: March 2007
          Description/subject: Infighting and unsanctioned peace overtures with Burma’s ruling regime have left many wondering about the fate of the KNU, Burma’s oldest ethnic opposition group... "As its 60th year of armed insurrection approaches, the Karen National Union is spending more of its time o­n internal skirmishes than in armed rebellion against its historic foe, Burma’s ruling military government..."
          Author/creator: Shah Paung
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


          Title: Rethinking KNU Principles
          Date of publication: March 2007
          Description/subject: “Until the Karen go to Rangoon and surrender, the Karen revolution will never disappear”——Ba U Gyi... "Less than a month before he was killed in a Burmese army ambush in August 1950, Ba U Gyi, a former colonial-era Burmese cabinet minister and then leader of the Karen resistance, gave the above admonition to a gathering of Karen leaders from Papun District. As the father of the Karen liberation movement, Ba U Gyi outlined four basic tenets of the resistance, which he urged his fighters and followers to adhere to resolutely. He said: “Surrender is out of the question;” “We shall retain our arms;” “Recognition of Karen State must be complete;” and “We shall decide our own political destiny.” The Karen National Union, the mainstream Karen resistance group o­nce led by Ba U Gyi, adopted these maxims as the guiding principles of their fight for autonomy from the Burman-dominated military and government..."
          Author/creator: Aung Naing Oo
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


          Title: The Karens and their Struggle for Freedom
          Date of publication: August 2006
          Description/subject: Originally published as ‘The Karens and their Struggle For Freedom’ in 1991 by the Karen National Union Reprinted under the same title by the KNU in July 1992, 18 pages, and in 1997 to include Peace talks in 1996/7, 42 pages. This version reprinted and updated with a new foreword, Chronology, colour illustrations, and images in 2006 by the Karen History and Culture Preservation Society...PREFACE (To the original Edition): "We, the Karens of Burma, have been cornered into fighting against the ruling Burmese Governments for the past fifty years. Holding the reins of all organs of the state, and in full control of the press radio, and television, the successive ruling Burmese Governments from U Nu’s AFPFL (Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League) to the present Military Junta headed by General Than Shwe and his State Peace and Development Council ( SPDC ), have always painted us as black as they can. They have branded us insurgents, war-mongers, a handful of border smugglers, black-and stooges of both the communists and the imperialists. Even so, to the extent of our ability we have always tried to refute the nefarious one-sided Burman propaganda of false accusations and make the true facts of our cause known to the world. In fighting against the ruling Burmese Government, we are not being motivate by narrow nationalism, nor by ill-will towards the Burmese Government or the Burman people. Our struggle was not instigated neither by the capitalist world nor by the communists, as some have falsely accused us. It has an originality completely of its own. Throughout history, the Burman have been practicing annihilation, absorption and assimilation ( 3 A’s) against the Karens and they are still doing so today. In short, they are waging a genocidal war against us. Thus we have been forced to fight for our very existence and survival. In this document we venture to present a concise outline of the Karens’ struggle for freedom; the Karen case, which we consider just, righteous and noble. We hope that through it, the world may come to know the true situation of the Karens, a forgotten people who continue to fight for our freedom intensively, single handedly and without aid of any kind from anyone..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Karen History and Culture Preservation Society (KHCPS)
          Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
          Date of entry/update: 22 August 2006


          Title: The Longest Fight
          Date of publication: March 2006
          Description/subject: "After 57 years of fighting for independence from the Burmese, the Karen National Union is beset by internal divisions, a lack of resources and an aging leadership..."
          Author/creator: Shah Paung and Harry Priestley
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


          Title: A Soldier's Duty
          Date of publication: November 2005
          Description/subject: The troops of KNLA Battalion 101 stick to their guns... "...The KNU is one of Burma’s oldest and strongest armed ethnic opposition groups, and it has waged war with successive administrations of the Burmese government since 1949. Government troops overran KNU headquarters at Manerplaw in 1995, and since that time the group has lost ground in its fight for greater regional autonomy. In the last decade, other political developments have weakened the KNU. Neighboring Thailand had for many years adopted a policy of tacit collaboration with the Karen and other armed ethnic minority groups along the Thai-Burma border, hoping that they would establish a buffer zone against any encroachment by Burmese forces. This policy has changed in recent years as Thailand seeks to strengthen its economic and political ties with Rangoon. Despite more than a half century of armed conflict, the KNU has since 1995 made several efforts to open diplomatic lines of communication with Burma’s ruling junta to negotiate an equitable ceasefire agreement. In 2004, then deputy chairman Gen Bo Mya flew to Rangoon to hold peace talks with ex-prime minister Gen Khin Nyunt. The meeting—backed by some of Thailand’s top military and business leaders—produced a “gentleman’s agreement” to end hostilities in Karen State. Khin Nyunt’s subsequent ouster later in the year, however, ended any momentum towards an official ceasefire..."
          Author/creator: Shah Paung
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


          Title: Myanmar: Militärregime geht auf Schmusekurs
          Date of publication: 22 January 2004
          Description/subject: Rangun hofiert Karen-Kommandeur. Verhandlungen mit Rebellen über Waffenruhe. cease fire talks with karen rebells.
          Author/creator: Thomas Berger
          Language: Deutsch, German
          Source/publisher: AG Friedensforschung an der Uni Kassel
          Format/size: html (6,3k)
          Date of entry/update: 01 March 2005


          Title: Determined Resistance: An Interview with Gen Bo Mya
          Date of publication: October 2003
          Description/subject: "After almost 55 years of resistance, the Karen National Union (KNU) is Southeast Asia’s oldest insurgent group. The Irrawaddy spoke to deputy chairman of the KNU, Gen Saw Bo Mya, 76, about Rangoon’s latest political gestures and the future of the Karen struggle..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 11, No. 8
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=3146
          Date of entry/update: 06 December 2003


          Title: Bo Mya: In His Own Words
          Date of publication: June 2002
          Description/subject: "The recently published memoirs of former Karen leader Gen Bo Mya offer a glimpse into the inner workings of Burma's longest-running insurgent struggle..."
          Author/creator: Aung Zaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 10, No. 5, June 2002
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: The KNU: To Cease Fire, or Not to Cease Fire?
          Date of publication: March 2002
          Description/subject: "After more than half a century of struggle and nearly a decade of major setbacks, the Karen National Union remains defiant in the face of calls to lay down its arms. By Aung Zaw After 53 years of resistance against Rangoon, the aging leadership of the Karen National Union (KNU) is nothing if not defiant. Arguably weaker now than at any other point in its half-century-long struggle, the KNU and its military wing, the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA), have faced numerous setbacks in the past decade. But asked about the prospects of the KNU entering the dubious embrace of Rangoon’s "legal fold", Padoh Mahn Sha, the KNU’s general secretary, did not mince words: "Surrender is out of the question," he told The Irrawaddy recently..."
          Author/creator: Aung Zaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 10, No. 2
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: The New Face of the KNU
          Date of publication: February 2000
          Description/subject: The KNU leadership reshuffle looks to solidify internal support as well as present a more refined view to the rest of the world, report Aung Zaw and Moe Gyo.
          Author/creator: Aung Zaw and Moe Gyo
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 2
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Karen guerillas -- insurgency in Karen State (front-line photos, 1991)
          Date of publication: April 1991
          Description/subject: Photos taken March-April 1991 at Manerplaw and the front line north of Manerplaw, where there was heavy fighting at the time. Several photos of child soldiers. "Burma has been torn by civil war since the end of colonial rule from the British. One of the largest ethnic groups is the Karen-people. For a long time they maintained their own state, Kawthoolei or Karen land, in the east of the country bordering Thailand. From its base in Manorplow the Karen National Union (KNU) and its armed wing the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) led the armed struggle. In the late eighties they where reinforced by Burmese refugees from the All Burma Student Democratic Front (ADSDF) who escaped the crack down on the democracy movement. The failure of different ethnic groups to unite led to great success for the junta in the mid 90's. Today only a fraction of the KNU remains active and many Karens are living as refugees in Thailand. Many other armed groups have struck deals with the military junta (SLORC) or entered the lucrative drug-trade."
          Author/creator: Bjorn Svensson
          Language: English
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        • Karen Heritage

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Karen Heritage Website
          Date of publication: 09 May 2006
          Description/subject: The website of the Karen History and Culture Preservation Society
          Author/creator: KHCPS
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: KHCPS
          Format/size: Website
          Date of entry/update: 09 May 2006


          Title: Museum of Karen History and Culture
          Date of publication: June 2004
          Description/subject: "Welcome to the Museum of Karen History and Culture dedicated to researching, preserving, and promoting the history and culture of the ethnic Karens of Burma. The Karens, now totalling over five million people, were one of, if not, the first inhabitants of what is now Burma. Throughout the centuries that followed they were constantly oppressed by the Burman rulers who took over the country. Now, the military government seeks to destroy the individual identity of the Karen people. History and language is being lost as the State Peace and Development Council bans all schools in Karen State from teaching their own language and history. The Karen History and Culture Preservation Society is a non-profit, non-political organisation, formed in 2001 to help preserve and promote the history and culture of a unique people. This electronic museum is only the beginning and is by no means complete, all people who can contribute are welcome (please see the KHCPS section for details) and any feedback you wish to give please do. We dedicate this museum to all of the Karen people who continue to suffer under insurmountable odds" SOME PEOPLE ARE ABLE TO ACCESS THE MUSEUM WITHOUT DIFFICULTY. OTHERS CANNOT SEE THE UPPER NAVIGATION BAR. PLEASE CONTACT darnott@iprolink.ch IF YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEMS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Karen History and Culture Preservation Society
          Format/size: html, jpg etc.
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/karenmuseum/
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


          Individual Documents

          Title: Karen Heritage Yearbook 2007
          Date of publication: 09 April 2008
          Description/subject: Karen History and Culture Preservation Society Yearbooks contain articles gathered from a number of international sources that relate to the ethnic Karen people of Burma. They are published to aid research and promote a greater understanding of the Karen situation. Format: ebook (.pdf) A4, 80 pages Colour and B/W Photos, Maps and Tables.
          Author/creator: KHCPS
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: KHCPS
          Format/size: .pdf (20.1 mb)
          Date of entry/update: 09 May 2008


          Title: Saw Ba U Gyi - Voices of the Revolution 1
          Date of publication: 06 March 2008
          Description/subject: Ebook detailing the impact Saw Ba U Gyi, one of the founders of the Karen National Union,had the Karen revolution
          Author/creator: Paul Keenan
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: KHCPS
          Format/size: .pdf (4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 06 March 2008


          Title: The Karens and their Struggle for Freedom
          Date of publication: August 2006
          Description/subject: Originally published as ‘The Karens and their Struggle For Freedom’ in 1991 by the Karen National Union Reprinted under the same title by the KNU in July 1992, 18 pages, and in 1997 to include Peace talks in 1996/7, 42 pages. This version reprinted and updated with a new foreword, Chronology, colour illustrations, and images in 2006 by the Karen History and Culture Preservation Society...PREFACE (To the original Edition): "We, the Karens of Burma, have been cornered into fighting against the ruling Burmese Governments for the past fifty years. Holding the reins of all organs of the state, and in full control of the press radio, and television, the successive ruling Burmese Governments from U Nu’s AFPFL (Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League) to the present Military Junta headed by General Than Shwe and his State Peace and Development Council ( SPDC ), have always painted us as black as they can. They have branded us insurgents, war-mongers, a handful of border smugglers, black-and stooges of both the communists and the imperialists. Even so, to the extent of our ability we have always tried to refute the nefarious one-sided Burman propaganda of false accusations and make the true facts of our cause known to the world. In fighting against the ruling Burmese Government, we are not being motivate by narrow nationalism, nor by ill-will towards the Burmese Government or the Burman people. Our struggle was not instigated neither by the capitalist world nor by the communists, as some have falsely accused us. It has an originality completely of its own. Throughout history, the Burman have been practicing annihilation, absorption and assimilation ( 3 A’s) against the Karens and they are still doing so today. In short, they are waging a genocidal war against us. Thus we have been forced to fight for our very existence and survival. In this document we venture to present a concise outline of the Karens’ struggle for freedom; the Karen case, which we consider just, righteous and noble. We hope that through it, the world may come to know the true situation of the Karens, a forgotten people who continue to fight for our freedom intensively, single handedly and without aid of any kind from anyone..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Karen History and Culture Preservation Society (KHCPS)
          Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
          Date of entry/update: 22 August 2006


        • Karen periodicals

          • "Inside News"

            Websites/Multiple Documents

            Title: "Inside News"
            Description/subject: 4 issues a year on landmines, forced relocation, Burma army attacks, IDP health, education and many other issues affecting internally displaced Karen people.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People (CIDKP)
            Format/size: html. pdf
            Alternate URLs: http://www.newsinside.wordpress.com/ ("Inside News" blog)
            Date of entry/update: 05 January 2012


          • "KNU Bulletin"
            The "KNU Bulletin" was published by the Karen National Union between 1985 and 1993.

            Individual Documents

            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 27, December 1993
            Date of publication: December 1993
            Description/subject: LETTER TO GENERAL THAN SHWE (1) (from DAB, April 1993); LETTER TO GENERAL THAN SHWE (2)(from DAB, August 1993); THE SLORC BECOMES SO AFRAID; "THE WAY TO PEACE" - PAPER PRESENTED BY Dr. Em MARTER AT THE INTERNATIONAL BURMA CONFERENCE (BERLIN, GERMANY 16-18 APRIL, 1993}; Resolution on Karen National Day; "Let us establish a Federal Union"; CENTRAL ORGANIZING DEPARTMENT MEETING; Memo: for the Human Rights Monitoring Organizations. From the Political Defiance Committee of the NCUB; THIRD NCUB MEETING HELD IN MANERPLAW; FIRST CONGRESS OF THE DAB; Urgent Request: To the parents, mentorsi monks, sons and daughter, and wives concerned:-; Letter to Senior General Than Shwe from DAB, 1 December 1993,expressing its willingness: "to officially hold negotiation for internal peace and the development of the country..."; The Atrocities and Human rights committed by the SLORC Army;
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union (KNU)
            Format/size: pdf (5MB)
            Date of entry/update: 05 January 2012


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 26, August 1992
            Date of publication: August 1992
            Description/subject: 1. Editorial ; 2. Karen National Union (KNU) Statement; 3 Regarding: SLORC Maj. Gen. Maung Hla's order to halt the military offensive in Karen State; 3. KNU Statement on the successful defence of the Headquarters;at Manerplaw against the SL0RC offensive; 4. Statement of the Democratic Alliance of Burma regarding the National Convention to be convened by State Law and Order Restoration Council; 5. The SLORC escalates its war on villagers; 6. If I ever return; 7. The SLORC cannot be trusted; 8. Like beasts of burden; 9. Enemy relocation of villages in Nyaunglebin district in April - May 1992; 10. Villages relocated in Nyaunglebin district in April - May 1992 by SLORC Troop; 11. Statement of the Karen National Union regarding the National Convention planned by the SLORC; 12. Racial Discrimination in Burma; 13. Summary of KNLA military statistics from 1 June 1991 through May 1992.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (419K)
            Date of entry/update: 23 April 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 25, August 1991
            Date of publication: August 1991
            Description/subject: 1) Editorial. 1... (2) Documentary: (1) Letter to the chairman, Human Rights Commission UNO. 4; (2) Statement of the (KNU) to the ninth session of the United Nation Working Group on Indigenous Population' 6; (3) Principles and Policy Statement of the NCGUB. 8; (4) Press release of the (DAB) on Genuine Peace and National Reconciliation in the union of Burma. 9; (5) The Statement of the 3rd Congress of the NDF (Burma). 11; (3) Foreign Press. Rape, torture rife in Burma, says dissident. 13; (4) Feature Articles: (1) Burma. 14; (2) The KWO and IWDA one year later. 15; (3) A murderer went unpunished but promoted. 17; (4) The lives of Papun students under the (SLORC). 18; (5) Testimony by Kyaw Khaing. 19; (6) Inhuman Acts and Atrocities by Regiment (14) and (317) of the SLORC Army. 21; (7) Visiting Mergui-Tavoy District 23; (8) Bitter experience of an enemy porter. 24; (5) Battle News: Some Important Military Achievements of KNLA Troops from . 1.7.91 to 15.8.91.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (449K)
            Date of entry/update: 12 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 24, February 1991
            Date of publication: February 1991
            Description/subject: DOCUMENTARY: (1) KNU President Gen. Bo Mya's speech on the occasion of the 42nd. Anniversary of Karen Revolution. 1; (2) Letter of Felicitations from the Prime Minister to KNU President General Mya. 2; (3) Letter of Felicitations From (NDF) for the 42nd. Anniversary of Karen Revolution. 3; (4) Letter of Felicitations from (ABSDF) to the Karen People on the occasion of the 42nd. Anniversary of Karen Revolution. 4; (5) Declaration of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma. 5; (6) The National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma Prime Minister's speech. 8; (7) Speech of Chairman of Democratic Front of Burma in support of (NCGUB) 10; (8) Statement of the (DAB) on the Formation of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma. 11; (9) Statement of (NDF) Position on the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma. 13; (10) (NCGUB) Ministry of Defence Statement No. (1) 14... FEATURE ARTICLES: (1) The Vanishing Forest 16; (2) Burma. 18... POEM- Joint Hands with Democratic Revolution. 19... BATTLE NEWS (1) Some Important Military Achievement of KNLA 23.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (335K)
            Date of entry/update: 12 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 23, October 1990
            Date of publication: October 1990
            Description/subject: DOCUMENTARY: (1) Speech of KNU President Gen. Bo Mya on 40th Anniversary of Martyrs' Day August 12,1990; (2) KNU Statement on Present situation of Burma; (3) Excerpts from speeches of revolutionary leaders on the Anniversary day of Quadruple 8... FEATURE ARTICLES: (1) Aspiration of Karen and Future Federal Union; (2) The war of annihilation against the indigenous peoples of Burma and the raping of their heritage forests... BATTLE NEWS: (1) Summary of KNLA Military activities from 1.9.90 to 31.10.90.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (299K)
            Date of entry/update: 21 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 22, June 1990
            Date of publication: June 1990
            Description/subject: FEATURE ARTICLES: (1) The Burmese Connection; (2) Burning down the Houses: Burma's New Military strategy; (3) Porters offer testimony of human rights abuses by Burmese Army; (4) "They are not our Kinsfolk"; (5) Salween polluted with blood and corpses... DOCUMENTARY: (1) Media release of The Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB), on Burma's May 27, 1990 multi-party general election; (2) Policy statement of Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB) , on establishment of Federal union of states; (3) Press communique on Burma Army; (4) Press statement by central executive committee of (DAB)... Some military successes of our KNLA troops from March to June 1990 Summary of KNLA Military activities from March to June 1990.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (394K)
            Date of entry/update: 13 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 21, February 1990
            Date of publication: February 1990
            Description/subject: DOCUMENTARY: (1) The Karen National day; (2) The Position of Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB) on Eradiction of Narcotic Drugs... 2. FEATURE ARTICLES: Invocation to Democratic Nations of the world for support and sympathetic consideration for our national movement, Democracy and human rights cause in Burma... 3. FOREIGN PRESS: (1) The Fight for Freedom and Democracy in Burma; (2) The New Killing Fields; (3) Use Democracy to Stomp out Drugs... 4. BATTLE NEWS: Some military successes of our KNLA troops in January/February, 1990.— Summary of KNLA military actvities for the month of January/February, 1990.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (326K)
            Date of entry/update: 15 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 20, September 1989
            Date of publication: September 1989
            Description/subject: DOCUMENTARY: 1. Message from President Gen. Bo Mya to Karen Nationals on 391:n anniversary of Martyrs' Day: 2. Statement of NDF Position on One Year Old Saw Maung-Khin Nyunt Military Junta: 3. All Burma Students Democratic Front (ABSDF) Special Anniversary Declaration on Movement for Democracy in Burma: 4. All Burma Students Democratic Front (ABSDF) Statement No. 9... FEATURE ARTICLE: 1. Please Stop Arms Sale to Military Junta... FOREIGN PRESS: 1. "Whoever Shoots Me_____"; 2. Rangoon Drops all Pretensions to Democracy; 3. Reply of Brig. Gen. Khin Nyunt to the Press at 49th Press Conference; 4. Myanmar: Reports of Human Rights Violations; 5. Ne Win Remains a Powerful Presence Behind Political Scenes in Myanmar... BATTLE NEWS: 1. Annual Summary Report of KNLA Military Activities cfrom 1.6.88 to 31.5.89; 2. Some Important KNLA Achievements in May/June/July/August.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (310K)
            Date of entry/update: 16 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 19, June 1989
            Date of publication: June 1989
            Description/subject: EDITORIAL... BEREAVEMENT... PRESIDENT GEN.BO MYA'S SPEECH AT 40th ANNIVERSARY DAY CELEBRATION OF KAREN REVOLUTION... CALUMNY SPREAD BY THE MILITARY CLIQUE... SAVE BURMA'S FORESTS (THE LAST GREEN PLACE)... THE MAJOR ABSTACLE TO PEACE IN BURMA... KAREN REVOLUTION 40th ANNIVERSARY DAY STATEMENT... EXCERPT FROM PRESIDENT SAW BA U GYI'S LAST, SPEECH... GRANDFATHER SGAW LER TAW... JOINT STATEMENT OF KAREN NATIONAL UNION AND NEW MON STATE PARTY CENTRAL LEADERS MEETING... STATEMENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE OF BURMA CONCERNING THE PROPOSED PEACE TALKS... SEN.MOYNIHAN URGES THAT BURMA BE BROUGHT BEFORE U.N. HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION... STATEMENT OF KAREN NATIONAL UNION TO BURMA ARMED FORCES PERSONNEL... SOME IMPORTANT MILITARY ACHIEVEMENT OF KNLA FROM 1.3.89 TO 31.4.89... SUMMARY OF KNLA ACTIVITIES FOR THE MONTH OF MARCH /APRIL, 1989.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (332K)
            Date of entry/update: 18 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 18, December 1988
            Date of publication: December 1988
            Description/subject: EDITORIAL: Step up the Struggle with Unity... FEATURE ARTICLES: 1. Autopsy of what is left of the BSPP Regime; 2. Will those who Ignite the fire be able to Extinguish its Flames; 3. Lessons of History... FOREIGN PRESS: 1. Democratic Forces in Burma Gather Support Locally; 2. Back under the Shadow of Ne Win; 3. Passing in the Dark... DOCUMENTARY: 1. Statements of KNU Central Standing Committee, NDF; All Burma Students Democratic Front; 2. Declaration and Press Release of DAB; 3. Statement by Sten Anderson, Foreign Minister of Sweden; 4. Statement of Senator D.Patrick Moynihan of U.S.A.; 5. Speeches of US Congressman Jim Leach and Edith Mirante at Freedom for Burma Demostration in U.S.A... NEWS: 1. News of the Students ABSDF; 2. The Battle of Mae Ta Waw.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (515K)
            Date of entry/update: 18 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 17, August 1988
            Date of publication: August 1988
            Description/subject: DOCUMENTARY: (1) Speech of President Gen. Bo Mya on 38th Anniversary of Martyr's Day; (2) Statement of KNU Central Standing Committee-Raise the Struggle a Stage Higher, and Overthrow the Dictictorial one Party BSPP Government; (3) Statement of NDF Central Presidium; BSPP Emergency Congress and Changes Made... FEATURE ARTICLES: (1) The Rise and Fall of Ne Win Dictatorship; (2) Anguish Britain's Forgotten Allies - Andrew Drummond... FOREIGN PRESS: (1) Reading the Stars-Asiaweek Aug. 12, 1988; (2) Burma, a change for the worse. Post Opinion; (3) A New (Era) in Burma, Yomiuri Shimbu (Japan); (4) Storms Gather as Winds of Change Fades Over Troubled Burma - Denis D. Gray. A.P... 3ATTLE NEWS: (1) Summary of KNLA Military Activities from 1-4-88 to 15-7-88... LETTERS FROM BURMA: [1) MEE MEE; 2) The Difficulty in Burma. Asiaweek Aug. 12, 1988; |3) Extract of Letters from a Burmese temporarily in another South East Asia Country. Asiaweek Aug. 25, 1988... STOP PRESS... AN APOLOGY.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (390K)
            Date of entry/update: 21 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 16, May 1988
            Date of publication: May 1988
            Description/subject: EDITORIAL: Letter from the publisher... DOCUMENTARY: Statement of KNU standing committee on the students uprising; The position of the National Democratic Front; Open letter from NDF to students union; Letter of Dr. Tu Ja to Foreign Ambassadors; Press statement of NDF... FEATURE ARTICLES: The Brawl That became a Riot; Eyewitness Account; Seven Days That Shook Rangoon; Riots divide Burmese leadership; An Appeal from The Students Union... FOREIGN PRESS: Burma holds out begging bowl to the UN; The U.S.Role in Burma's Drug War... BATTLE NEWS: Summary reports of KNLA Military Activities; Military Achievements of KNLA; NDF Battle News;
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (475K)
            Date of entry/update: 16 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 15, March 1988
            Date of publication: March 1988
            Description/subject: DOCUMENTARY: (1) Speech of President Gen. Bo Mya on Karen New Year Day 1; (2) Letter of Gen. Bo Mya to Mr. Tony Abe* on his meeting with Khun Sa 2; (3) Letter of Mr. Brang Seng to Dr. Richard Von Weizsacker 4; (4) Resolution on the Karen Case at UNWGOIP meeting at Geneva 5;... 2. FEATURE ARTICLES: (1) Tormented Burma (Alan Whitaker) 6; (2) The Dilema of Economic change within Burma (H.E. Klein 8; (3) Burmese Ethnic rebel groups to boost foreign support 10... 3. FOREIGN PRESS: (1) Reflection on Burma's President U San Yu's visit to Germany 11; (2) Burmese Isolation 13; (3) BBC World Service News 14... 4. BATTLE NEWS: (1) Summary report of KNLA Military Activities from 1-6-87 to 31-1-88. 16; (2) Special K.I.A. Battle News 17... 5. SOME WORLD STATISTICS: (1) The cost of arming the world 20; (2) Duration of conflict 21; (3) Estimated war casualities 22.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (385K)
            Date of entry/update: 15 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 14, December 1987
            Date of publication: December 1987
            Description/subject: EDITORIAL: Attempts to Hide Elephant's Skeleton Under the Hide of a Goat's Skin... FEATURE ARTICLES: (1) Burma and UN Aid; (2) Commentary on the Burmese Delegate's Reply... FOREIGN PRESS: (1) Indigenous Power Meet at Honolulu by Keith Lorenz; (2) Burma Seesaws in Reforming Rice Trade. By Helen E. White; (3) Burma Continues to Hide Behind the Walls of Isolation By David Storey... DOCUMENTARY: (1) Speech of CRDB Vice Chairman at London Demonstration; (2) Letter of CRDB to U Ne Win; (3) Foundation for Democracy in Burma. Letter to the Secretary General, UN... NEWS FEATURES: (1) BBC World Service. "24 Hours" 8th Sept: 1987; (2) BBC, World Service "24 Hours" 12th Oct: 1987.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (393K)
            Date of entry/update: 22 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 13, November 1987
            Date of publication: November 1987
            Description/subject: EDITORIAL: The Building of a Better Future... FEATURE ARTICLES: (1) An Analysis of U Ne Win's Move; (2) Is Burma Serious About Reform - Joseph Silverstein; (3) The Rape of Burma - H. Wood; (4) Burmese Daze - Andrew Sullevan... DOCUMENTARY: (1) Statement of KNU on the Callous Acts of BSPP Military Regime; (2) Statement of NDF on the speech of U Ne Win and Subsequent Development; (3) Statement of NDF on Demonetizatism of Currency Notes; (4) Resolution of WCIP Pacific Asia Empowerment Confereno on End Atrocities in Burma... LIST OF KAREN CIVILIANS KILLED BY BURMESE TROOPS... SUMMARY OF KNLA MILITARY ACTIVITIES FROM 1-6 -86 TO 31- 5 -87.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (472K)
            Date of entry/update: 18 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 12, August 1987
            Date of publication: August 1987
            Description/subject: NDF SPECIAL ISSUE....CONTENTS:- DOCUMENTARY: (1) Statement of the Second Congress of NDF; (2) Statement of NDF on the Suppression of Narcotics; (3) Letter of NDF to the Secretary-General of UNO; (4) Letter of NDF to the Members of ECOSOC; (5) Position and Statement of NDF on 12-Point Proposal of CRDB... FEATURE ARTICLES: (1) The Most Odious Nature of BSPP Leadership and Military Regime; (2) BSPP Racist Policy of Enslavement and Elimination; (3) Correct Decision of Comrade Ne Lin... BATTLE NEWS: (1) Summary of KNLA Military Activities from 1st June, 87 to 15th July, 87; (2) Some important Military Achievements of KNLA from 1.6.87 to 15.7.87; (3) Kachin independence army (Kl A) field report... NEW MEMBERS OF NDF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE FOR 1987-1991 TERM. - Immune to Victimisation.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (398K)
            Date of entry/update: 11 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 11, July 1987
            Date of publication: July 1987
            Description/subject: DOCUMENTARY: Letter of President. Gen. Bo Mya to the Secretary General/UNO in Burma's application for LLDC Status; 25 years in the life of the BSPP regime... FROM FOREIGN PRESS: (1) The Poverty Measurement (Far East Econ. Review); (2) Burma : The Troubled Hermit of Asia Human Rights in Burma... BATTLE REPORTS: (1) Summary of KNLA Military Activities in March/April/May 1987; (2) Some important KNLA Military Acheivements in March/April and May 1987; (3) Map Showing places of Important Military Actions... Project MAJE Report.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (368K)
            Date of entry/update: 22 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 10, March 1987
            Date of publication: March 1987
            Description/subject: 1. DOCUMENTARY: (1) President. Gen. Bo Mya Revolutionary Day Speech; (2) The Humble Memorials of the Karens of Burma... 2. FEATURE ARTICLES: (1) Minority Rights or National Question; (2) Renaissance and the Karen Revolution... 3. REPORTS OF ENEMY ATROCITIES: (1) Some Enemy Atrocities in Thaton District; (2) 2 Episodes of Enemy Brutalities... 4. BATTLE NEWS: (1) Summary Report of KNLA Activities for Jan/Feb 1987; (2) Some military Successes of KNLA troops in Jan/Feb 1987; (3) Map, Showing some fighting places in Jan/Feb 1987; (4) Detailed Account of Kadaingti and Tala-aulu Battle... 5. SITUATION OF BSPP GOVERNMENT.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (392K-low res)
            Date of entry/update: 13 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 9, February 1987
            Date of publication: February 1987
            Description/subject: 1. Documentary - Speech of President Saw Bo Mya on Karen New Years Day Th'lei 2726; 2. Feature Articles (1) A Review of the Previous Year's Work (2) Burmese Chauvinism and Imperialism (3) Burma the Paddy Land (4) Human Rights in Burma 3. Battle News (1) Consolidated KNLA Activities from 16/11/86-31/12/86 (2) Some KNLA Military Activities 4. Pu Hsah Ye
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (358K, 3MB - archival version)
            Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docskaren/KNU%20Bulletin/9.pdf
            Date of entry/update: 11 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 8, December 1986
            Date of publication: December 1986
            Description/subject: 1.Documentary - The constitution of the SRUB and the Ethnic Peoples of Burma; 2. Feature Articles (1) Setting Brothers against Brothers (2) True Situation of the Farmers (3) The Attempts of the Enemy to Breed Enmity and Sow Discord Among the Karens (4) After Ne Win Who's Next?; 3. Battle News (1) Consolidated Activities Sep/Oct/Nov 86 (2) Major KNLA Activities; 4. Foreign Press - US dirties its Hands in Burma's Affairs
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (259K-ocr; 1.5MB - image file)
            Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/KNUBulletin08-image.pdf
            Date of entry/update: 11 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 7, November 1986
            Date of publication: November 1986
            Description/subject: 1. Documentary The Struggle for Karen Justice; 2. Feature Articles (1) Why Did I Take up Arms and Fight (2) Religious Persecution in Burma (3) Internal Struggle with the Top Leadership of the BSPP (4) The Karen State Question; 3. Battle News KNLA Annual Summary Report for the Year 1st June 85/31st May 86 4. The Karen Tribes of Burma 5. Karen Tribes in Burma and Their Settlements 6. Population Fugures of the Karen
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (386K)
            Date of entry/update: 24 April 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 6, September 1986
            Date of publication: September 1986
            Description/subject: 1 PRESIDENT'S SPEECH ON 36th ANNIVERSARY OF MARTYRS' DAY... 2 KWO PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO FAMILIES OP MARTYRS... 3 LETTER TO THE EDITOR... 4 OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS: * Statement of KNU Central Committee regarding NDF/CPB agreements; * Appeal of President General Bo Mya... 5 NATIONAL REVOLUTIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL PRESS: * Karen revolution strikes an impasse; * Sold down the river - about situation of the revolution, activities in Arakan... 6 FEATURE ARTICLES: * In the chapters of crimes against humanity; * Rangoon flexes its military muscles... 7 A WORD OF THANKS TO THE READERS... 8 SUMMARY BATTLE NEWS... 9 NEWS IN PICTURE.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (268K, 3.1MB - archival version)
            Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docskaren/KNU%20Bulletin/6.pdf (archival version)
            Date of entry/update: 26 April 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 5, June 1986
            Date of publication: June 1986
            Description/subject: 1 . EDITORIAL... 2 . NDF PRESIDENT GEN.BO MYA'S SPEECH ON THE 10th ANNIVERSARY OF NDF DAY... 3 • A WORD OF THANKS TO THE READERS... 4 • FEATURE ARTICLES: * Truth against deceits; * The efforts of BSPP regime te unify the indigenous people ; * The BSPP scheme of smashing the Karen revolution and present situation... 5 . REPORT OF ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY... 6 . BATTLE FIELD REPORTS: * Gist of Shan State Army (SSA) military activities from 21-1-86 to 20-5-86; * Consolidated military repent on KNLA activities for the month of April / May 1986; * Remarkable success scored by our troops; * Note on KNLA military activities in April and May 1986... * NEWS IN PICTURE.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (316K)
            Date of entry/update: 25 April 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 4, April 1986
            Date of publication: April 1986
            Description/subject: 1. PRESS RELEASE OF ROHINGYA PATRIOTIC FRONT (R.P.F)... 2.FEATURE ARTICLES: * Who really killed Aung San; * Peace through political means; * Interview with international relations expert... 3. THE KAREN REVOLUTION AND THE INTERNATIONAL PRESS... 4. A WORD OP THANKS TO THE READERS... 5. BATTLE NEWS: * Consolidated report of own KNLA activities for the month of February and March 1986; * Remarkable successes scored by our troops; * Battle news for April 1986 (incomplete); * Battle news from National Democratic Front(NDF)H.Q; * Map of military Zones of Kaw Thoo Lei ,Karen Revolutionary Area,showing some important battles fought during February March and April 1986... 6. BURMESE HEGOMONISM... 7. NEWS IN PICTURE.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (309K, 3.4MB - archival version)
            Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docskaren/KNU%20Bulletin/4.pdf (archival version)
            Date of entry/update: 23 April 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 3, February 1986
            Date of publication: February 1986
            Description/subject: 1. EDITORIAL... 2. PRESIDENT GEN .BO MYA SPEECH ON THE 37th ANNIVERSARY OF KAREN REVOLUTION... 3. FEATURE ARTICLES: * BSPP Government and the Golden Triangle; * Sham Union of BSPP and the Genuine Unions; * Run!Run! the Burmese are coming; * The Massacres by the People's Army... 4. REQUEST TO THE READERS... 5. BATTLE FIELD REPORTS: * Late reports for December, 1985; * Incomplete reports for January, 1986; * Battle News from other NDF Members... 6. BRIEF NEWS F20M KNU HEAD QUARTER: * Central Political and Leadership Training Course; * Honouring the Karen Revolution Veterans... 7. NEWS IN PICTURES... 6. PHOTO CAPTIONS.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (296K)
            Date of entry/update: 23 April 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No 2, January 1986
            Date of publication: January 1986
            Description/subject: 1. ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT GENERAL BO MYA ON KAREN NEW YEAR'S DAY 1; 2. REQUEST TO THE READERS 3; 3. A LETTER FROM THE PUBLISHER 4... 4. FEATURE ARTICLES: - Karen and Their Newspapers 5; - BSPP or Burma Military Dictatorship Party 8; - The Burmese Socialist Way of Increasing Revenue 11; - Profile of An Absolute Dictator 13; - Burmese Atrocities 16; - Karen Revolution and the International Press 18... 5. BATTLE FIELD REPORTS: - Half-Yearly Military Situation Report for 1985/86 20; - Battle Field Reports for December 1985 21... 6. FIFTH BASIC MEDICAL TRAINING COURSE 23... 7. NEWS IN PICTURES 24.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (292K)
            Date of entry/update: 15 March 2006


            Title: KNU Bulletin No. 1, November 1985
            Date of publication: November 1985
            Description/subject: CONGRATULATORY MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT GEN. BO MYA; A LETTER PROM THE PUBLISHER... STATEMENTS: - Statement of KNU 7th Central Committee Meeting; - Statement of NDF 4th Annual Presidium Meeting... FEATURE ARTICLES: - Summary of 37 Years of Karen Revolutionary War; - Foreign Aids to Burma; - Mercenaries? - Tactics of Terror • Peace in Burma... BATTLE FIELD REPORTS: - Summary of Battle Field Reports; - Battle News in Wangkha Sector; - Annual Summary Reports for 1984-85... NEWS IN PICTURES... REQUEST TO READERS.
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen National Union
            Format/size: pdf (308K)
            Date of entry/update: 21 April 2006


          • "Karen News"

            Websites/Multiple Documents

            Title: Karen News
            Description/subject: Breaking news; Articles; Opinion; Facts on Burma; Reports; Video; Audio; Photos; About us Contact us... "KAREN NEWS is reported and written by Karen journalists to provide information on issues that shape Karen communities in Burma and around the world... KAREN NEWS provides a window to Burma and the international community on what is happening in Karen state. Our journalists live and work in Karen communities, know the issues that affect Karen people and aim to bring those issues to the attention of people across Burma, in the diaspora, and to all readers interested in the struggles and triumphs of the Karen people... Karen state has remained a conflict zone for more than half a century, during which the Burmese army has waged war against the Karen people. Since 1996 more than 3,600 villages have been abandoned or destroyed, and as many as 500,000 people have been displaced as a direct result of armed conflict... For KAREN NEWS journalists, everyday stories cover a range of crimes against humanity – extrajudicial killings, sexual violence, forced labor, child soldiers, forced displacement, human trafficking. Among the carnage, however, are stories of hope, love and dignity... KAREN NEWS: Reporters Nan Paw Gay, Naw Htoo San, Naw Chamu, Saw Kar Hsu, Saw Thein Myint, Saw Blacktown, Saw Kweh Say, Saw Poe Taw and Saw Ehna... The Karen Information Center has been providing news to Karen communities for more than 14-years. Besides our Karen News website we also offer readers a hard copy Karen language newspaper, K’nyawTakasaw, a Burmese language version Kayin Thadin Sin (a Burmese language version is also available on CD). The KIC Burmese language website is available at: www.kicnews.org."
            Language: English
            Source/publisher: Karen News
            Format/size: html
            Date of entry/update: 04 January 2012


      • Karenni (Kayah) - cultural, political

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Karenni Independence through Education (KITE)
        Description/subject: Karenni Independence through Education (KITE) Mission Statement: The mission of Karenni Independence Through Education is to provide financial and organizational support for community-based organizations, individuals, and projects in the Karenni Refugee Camps in Mae Hong Son, Thailand and within Karenni State which * Develop youth and student community-involvement, leadership, and inter-ethnic cooperation. * Bring awareness about the situation in Karenni State and the refugee camps to an international level. * Build and foster educational opportunities and resources for Karenni students, especially those that focus on cultural preservation and community development."... About the Karenni | About KITE | What KITE does | How you can help | Picture Gallery | Press Releases | Contact Us.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karenni Independence through Education (KITE)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 November 2004


        Title: Karenni National Women’s Organization (KNOW)
        Description/subject: "The Karenni National Women’s Organization (KNOW) is a nonprofit grassroots organization, founded 6 years ago in 1994 by Karenni women who had fled to and found tenuous asylum on Thai soil. Some of these women have tried many times to return home, each time finding the situation in Karenni State intolerable and returning to Thailand once again. Within the Karenni refugee camp there has been a noticeable gender different involving decision making, where the input and participation of women has been minimal. In recent times, this has begun to change through necessity and women beginning to take leadership roles and organize themselves into flexible grassroots organizations. However, because of lack of education, women still remain facing many problems in getting forward aswell as in obtaining, leading and managing roles in the community. Therefore, the organization realized that it is up to the women themselves to open the way and upgrade their ability and knowledge..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karenniland
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


        Title: Karenni Student Union
        Description/subject: KSU Background: The Karenni Student Union was founded on April 1st 2000. There are currently 451 members of the KSU and membership numbers continue to increase. The primary goal of the KSU is to help Karenni students gain the skills necessary to serve our community both now and on our return to Karenni State... Our Objectives: 1. To cooperate with the Karenni National Education Committee to seek ways for Karenni students to have access to further studies. 2. To cultivate and upgrade the knowledge of Karenni students in administration to be able to participate in serving Karenni state in all fields now and in the future. 3. To implement collectively the goal of the Union by the combined strength of the students who finish high school level. 4. To cooperate and exchange ideas with other student groups who are also suffering under oppression. 5. To support students who are facing difficulties in continuing their studies. 6. To educate the students to promote their morality and dignity... Mission of Karenni Student Union: We the Karenni students are against discrimination of race or sex in society. We work to have access to higher education and to preserve human dignity in order to be ready to lead our country. We encourage cooperation and coordination with other student groups.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karenni Student Union (KSU)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 November 2004


        Title: UNPO Karenni Page
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Living Ghosts - The spiraling repression of the Karenni population under the Burmese military junta
        Date of publication: March 2008
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The people of Karenni State are living ghosts. Their daily survival is an achievement; however, it also signifies their further descent into poverty and a spiralling system of repression. Whilst this report documents the deteriorating situation in Karenni State over the past six years, this is nothing new for the ethnically diverse population of this geographically small area. They have been living in a protracted conflict zone for over 50 years with no respite from decades of low-intensity conflict and frequent human rights abuses. All the while both State and Non-State actors have marginalised the grassroots communities’ voices, contributing to the militarisation of their communities and societies. Burmese soldiers oppress Karenni villagers on a daily basis. Villagers are isolated from members of their own communities, and other ethnic groups; they report daily to local Burmese troops about Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) troop movements and other activities in their areas; community members spy on one another, reporting back to the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); and they are punished by the SPDC in retaliation for the actions of the KNPP. All of these strategies create an environment of fear and mistrust between ethnic groups, communities, and even family members. These tactics successfully oppress the villagers, as they are too fearful and busy to think beyond daily survival. Further exacerbating the situation is the fact that villagers face oppression not only from the Burmese army, but also ceasefire groups and the KNPP. Soldiers from both the KNPP and ceasefire groups physically maltreat villagers and undermine their livelihoods. While these occurrences are certainly less frequent and less severe than similar acts by the SPDC, they still oppress the civilian population and undermine their ability and capacity to survive. Additionally the presence of many different actors has resulted in the militarisation of Karenni State. Thousands of landmines have been indiscriminately planted throughout the state, without adequate mapping or markings to minimise civilian causalities. The SPDC, ceasefire groups and the KNPP all recruit and have child soldiers in their armies. The Burmese army has the largest number of child soldiers anywhere in the world, and approximately 20 per cent of the KNPP’s troops are under 18 (the minimum age for recruitment into the armed forces under Burma’s national law). The increased militarisation of Karenni State has resulted in increases in human rights abuses. However villagers are staging their own non-violent resistance movement. They have developed and implemented a number of early warning systems and household and village-wide risk management strategies so as to minimise the impact of the SPDC and other armed groups violence and abuses. These resistance strategies have become the biggest threat to local and regional authorities; consequently the villagers are increasingly becoming the targets of hostilities from the Burmese army. Most people in Karenni State rely on agriculture as their primary source of income and are living a subsistence existence. Despite the villagers’ best efforts to secure their livelihoods, their ability and capacity to do so is constantly undermined by the SPDC and, to a lesser extent, ceasefire groups and the KNPP via crop procurement, forced production of dry season crops, arbitrary taxation and fines, theft and destruction of property and food, forced labour and land confiscation. This is further exacerbated by the drought that has been occurring in Karenni State for the past decade, which affects crop yields. When coupled with skyrocketing commodity prices, villagers’ ability to ebb out a living is further eroded – to the point of impossibility in some cases. The abject poverty in Karenni State prevents villagers from accessing basic health and education services. Whilst the SPDC claims to provide free health care and education, in reality this does not occur. Health and education services provided by the state are extremely expensive and are well-below international standards. As a result, for most people education and medical treatment becomes a luxury they simply cannot afford. As a result of poverty some villagers are turning to illegal activities in order to survive - mainly poppy production. In Karenni State there are two areas where villagers are growing poppies with the permission of ceasefire groups. Farmers can earn a significantly higher monetary return on their poppy yields than for other crops using the same quantity of land. Poppy growers can earn up to 300,000 Kyat per 1.5 kilogram package of raw opium they produce (a 1.5 kilogram package of raw opium can be produced in four months). A teacher supported by the SPDC would have to work for 60 months in order to earn the same amount. Additionally amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) are being produced in Karenni State. Three factories producing ATS in Karenni State have been identified, again in areas controlled by ceasefire groups; however as it is difficult to distinguish between factories and ordinary dwellings it is possible that there are many other ATS factories in Karenni State that have not been identified. Each factory can produce between 250,000 and 300,000 pills per month. From the three known factories in Karenni State between 9 million and 10.8 million ATS pills are being produced and released into the international drug market each year. Today over a quarter of the population in Karenni State have been forced from their homes as a direct result of the actions of the Burmese military junta. Between 70 and 80 per cent of those displaced are women and children. Displacement has increased 42 per cent since 2002 and represents eight per cent of the total population in Karenni State. Karenni State has the highest level of displacement to population ratio in all of eastern Burma. When similar comparisons are made to the five countries with the largest displaced populations in the world (Sudan, Colombia, Uganda, Iraq and the Democratic Republic of Congo) the percentage of displaced persons in Karenni State is alarmingly higher. Over 12 per cent of Sudan’s population is displaced – less than half that of Karenni State. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) in eastern Burma receive very little assistance, if any at all, primarily due to the policies of the SPDC, which severely restrict humanitarian agencies accessing these vulnerable populations. The SPDC deems IDPs as enemies of the state and implements a shoot on sight policy, which includes children and the elderly. IDPs are vulnerable to human rights abuses, exploitation and violence from the SPDC, as well as food shortages and have severely limited access to education and health care services. The most pressing need of the people and the IDP population is physical security. Most people have the capacity to earn a livelihood mitigating food shortages, to educate their children, establish a medical clinic and develop their communities; however, they lack the security necessary to do so. There are humanitarian organisations working in Karenni State, including local community based organisations (CBOs), nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) and international agencies such as the United Nations Development Programme. Despite this presence the humanitarian situation in Karenni State continues to deteriorate and people are finding themselves slipping further and further into the poverty abyss – with no foreseeable escape. The impacts from the situation in Karenni State are not confined to the State’s boundaries - they spill over into other states and divisions in Burma and also across international borders, especially into Thailand. These spill over effects include, but are not limited to: the mass exodus of people from Burma to neighbouring countries as refugees and migrant workers; illegal trafficking of drugs and people and associated health concerns, especially HIV/AIDS. These non-traditional security threats impinge on Burma’s neighbours economies and social welfare systems, affecting regional stability and security. The situation in Karenni State cannot be rectified without genuinely addressing Burma’s complex issues, including ethnic chauvinism, in a participatory manner, which engages the whole nation’s citizenry. Only when these issues are truly addressed may the people of Karenni State find peace and start living life for the future, and not as living ghosts."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Issues
        Format/size: pdf (666K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaissues.org/images/stories/pdfreports/livingghosts.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008


        Title: The Dragon Mothers Polish their Metal Coils
        Date of publication: September 2006
        Description/subject: "Estimated at less than 50,000, the Kayan tribe of Burma’s northeast have long been the essence of exotica, subject of curiosity, and source of "Ripley's Believe it Or Not" obsessions. Because of some of the women's traditional adornment of coiled metal rings, which enhance--or perhaps disfigure--their necks, the Kayans are also known by the name the lowland Burmese gave them: "Padaung," meaning "long necks." Years ago, National Geographic magazine x-rayed some Kayan women and determined that their necks had not been stretched, as it appeared. Actually, the women's collarbones had been pushed down to create the long-necked effect..."
        Author/creator: Edith Mirante
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Guernica"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 August 2007


        Title: Language use and policy in a linguistically fragmented refugee community
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: Abstract: "The context of this dissertation is the conflict-ridden attempt in Burma to create a unitary nation state, also the parallel attempt by the Karenni political opposition, based in refugee camps in Thailand, to create a viable nation-inopposition from the many Karenni ethnolinguistic groups. New data is presented on language use at public sites in one of the two Thailand-based Karenni refugee camps, where 11 languages are in daily use. Observations at schools, public meetings, acts of worship and shops, and exit interviews at clinics, show that public language use is dominated by the use of Karenni (Kayah), Burmese and English, with lesser-used community languages in a state of critical decline. Karenni and Burmese predominate in spoken language, while Burmese and English are the most important languages in written discourse. In schools the use of Karenni declines as students move up through the system, while the use of English and Burmese increases. Although 23% of the camp population are speakers of languages other than Karenni and Burmese, these other languages are underrepresented at the sites investigated. At schools minor languages feature mainly in the speech of students who are probably explaining to each other what their teacher is saying in Burmese or Karenni. At public meetings, minor languages play a similar role, featuring in nonofficial speech overheard by observers; official speech is dominated by Karenni and Burmese. At shops, there are clusters of locations where minor languages are used, but the vast majority of transactions are in Karenni or Burmese. Language use at Christian places of worship depends on the denomination of the church. Catholic churches use Karenni, with one or two also using Burmese; and Baptist churches use Karen with some Burmese. Written texts in churches vary, with some in Karen, some in Karenni roman script and a few in Karenni camp script. At all churches the phenomenon of congregations praying in several first languages simultaneously was observed. At clinics, the language of consultation was either Karenni or Burmese. English accounts for 31% of writing or use of written texts at the sites observed. However, the use of English as the preferred medium of instruction in upper secondary schools has been limited by lack of teachers' proficiency and lack of texts in English. Burmese continues to be the leading medium of instruction in the upper school system. About one third of the population of Kayah state has been displaced since 1996, and at least two fifths of its villages destroyed or relocated for security reasons. Many refugees have been displaced from monolingual villages. Those who now live in Karenni northern camp find themselves in a linguistically complex environment where in some cases their own language now cannot probably be used in the local shop, and is not supported in the school system at any level. Although some of these languages, for example Kayan, have quite large core communities elsewhere, some do not, and these languages must now be at risk of disappearing completely. They include Kay aw, Manaw and Bre."
        Author/creator: Richard Sproat
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Macquire University (dissertation)
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 09 December 2005


        Title: Kayah, Kayan, Karenni et Yang Daeng
        Date of publication: June 2002
        Description/subject: Version internet 2002. "...En Birmanie la zone ouverte aux étrangers est réduite par la guerre civile, et toute étude y serait dérangée par la présence imposée d’une escorte militaire. Les Kayah les plus faciles à approcher sont les Kayah orientaux (Kayè dans leur propre dialecte). On peut les atteindre de la frontière thaïe sans trop de difficultés. Ces groupes Kayah sont assez différents de leurs cousins de l’ouest, et en particulier des Kayah de Kyebogyi. La principale différence est due aux conditions économiques, le pays très vallonné à l’est de la Salween n’est pas propice à l’agriculture, et la rotation annuelle des champs induit un déplacement périodique des villages. A l’opposé des villages occidentaux qui sont grands et stables, à l’est il faut souvent trois heures de marche pour d’atteindre le prochain hameau, ou les champs distants. Les villages sont d’habitude construits vers le tiers supérieur des collines, proche, mais pas à côté, d’un point d’eau. A l’intérieur même des villages les gros arbres ne vont pas être coupés: les pentes sont abruptes, parfois 70%, et les racines nécessaires pour retenir le sol. Il en sera de même dans les champs, où seuls les petits arbres seront éliminés. Je vis en 1983, après que tous les plants de riz tardifs moururent en raison de la sécheresse, qu’une végétation d’un mètre de haut envahit les champs abandonnés en trois mois. Pour des raisons qu’il faudra étudier, les manifestations extérieures de la religion diffèrent aussi entre l’ouest et l’est du Karenni. Par exemple le Ko Thoo Bow, ou mât aux esprits, sera parfois très petit, fait d’un simple bambou, et non décoré à la manière de ceux de Kyebogyi. Je ne vis pas une fois la guirlande faite de petits fanions accrochée vers le sommet des mâts reliées au sol comme elle le serait à l’ouest. Dans les villages où je me suis rendu, je notais souvent l’absence de mât femelle, et la simplicité du “how”, réduit à une simple table en bambou..."
        Author/creator: Jean-Marc Rastorfer
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: CédoK (Centre d'études et de Documentation sur les Karenni)
        Format/size: html (827K) , Word (661K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/JMR-kayah1.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Celebration, Affirmation and Transformation: a "Traditional" Festival in a Refugee Camp in Thailand
        Date of publication: 31 October 2000
        Description/subject: "In 1996, approximately 1500 people lived in Camp 5, a refugee camp located in the jungle on the Thai-Burmese border. The camp was open and self-administered, with refugee-run schools, two churches, and one Buddhist monastery. Though unavoidably and significantly influenced by displacement, cultural life in Camp 5 was vibrant. Refugees were able to celebrate annual festivals in the camps; for many internally displaced persons inside Burma, such celebrations have been impossible for some years. One such festival is diy-kuw. The people living in Camp 5 call themselves Karenni and have fled from Kayah State (referred to by the Karenni as "Karenni State"). Kayah is Burma's smallest state, bordering Thailand's northwestern province of Mae Hong Son..."
        Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Cultural Survival Quarterly" Issue 24.3
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Conflict and Displacement in Karenni: the Need for Considered Responses
        Date of publication: May 2000
        Description/subject: Click on the on the html link above to go to a neater, paginated table of contents or on the pdf links below to go straight to the document .... PDF File 1: Cover and Contents. PDF File 2: Boundaries; Climate; Physical Features; Population; Ethnic Groups in Karenni; Gender Roles in Karenni; Agriculture, Land Distribution and Patterns of Recourse; Resources; Water; Communication, Trade and Transport Conflict in Karenni; A History of Conflict; The Pre-Colonial Period; The Colonial Period; Independence in Burma and the Outbreak of Civil War in the Karenni States; State and Non-State Actors including Armed Groups and Political Parties; The Role of the Tatmadaw; The Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP); The Karenni National Peoples Liberation Front (KNPLF); The Shan State Nationalities Liberation Organisation (SSNLO); The Kayan New Land Party (KNLP; The NDF and CPB Alliances and their Impact in Karenni; War in the Villages; The Formation of Splinter Groups in the 1990s; The Economics of War; The Relationship between Financing the War and Exploitation of Natural Resources; The Course of the War; Cease-fires.... PDF file 3: Conflict-Induced Displacements in Karenni -- Defining Population Movements; Conflict Induced Displacement; Displacement in 1996; Displacements by Township; Relocation Policy; Services in Relocation Sites; Smaller Relocation Sites and so-called Gathering Villages; Displacement into Shan State; Displacement as a Passing Phenomenon; Displacement, Resettlement and Transition; Women outside Relocation Sites. Development Induced Displacement -- Displacements in Loikaw City; Confiscation of Land by the Tatmadaw; Displacement as a Result of Resource Scarcity; Food Scarcity; Water Shortages; Voluntary Migrations. Health and education needs and responses: Health Policy; Health Services; Health Status of the Population; Communicable Diseases; Nutrition; Reproductive and Womens Health; Landmine Casualties; Iodine Deficiency and Goitre; Vitamin A Deficiency; Water and Sanitation; Responses to Health Needs; Education Policy; Educational Services and Coverage; Traditional Attitudes to Education; Educational Services in Karenni; Responses to Educational Needs; Responses from the Thai-Burma border; Responses by International Humanitarian Agencies from Inside Burma. Appendices: A Comparison of Populations in Relocation Sites in Karenni; Refugee Arrivals at the Thai Border; Displacements by Township; Examples of Population Movements.
        Author/creator: Vicky Bamforth, Steven Lanjouw, Graham Mortimer
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Ethnic Research Group (BERG)
        Format/size: 3 pdf files: (1) Cover and Contents (472K); (2) Text-pp1-47 (782K); 3 Text pp48-128 (1300K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-1.pdf
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-2.pdf
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-3.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: "Traditional" culture and refugee welfare in north-west Thailand
        Date of publication: December 1999
        Description/subject: "The effects of displacement on culture can have significant impacts on the psychological and physical welfare of individual refugees and on the social dynamics within a refugee population. Yet, refugees and relief agencies alike often underestimate or feel too overworked to incorporate the importance of cultural factors in assistance programmes. Potential cultural conflicts between refugee communities, host communities and relief agencies are of course important. Less often recognised, however, is the importance of cultural variation and tension within the refugee community. This article argues that if relief agencies develop a greater awareness of cultural patterns and potential cultural conflict within as well as between communities, their assistance programmes may be more effectively and appropriately designed and implemented...This article is based on anthropological field research, conducted by the author at the request of the NGO concerned during the course of wider field research conducted in 1996-7 and 1998, with Karenni refugees living in camps on the Burmese border, in Thailand's northwestern province of Mae Hong Son. Karenni people have been fleeing from Karenni (Kayah) State in eastern Burma and seeking refuge on the Thai side of the border for some years, the first significant numbers arriving in 1989..."
        Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 6
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burmesische Kinder im Flüchtlingslager
        Description/subject: Durch Zwangsarbeit, gezielte Menschenrechtsverletzungen und gewaltsame Umsiedlung versucht die burmesische Regierung, die ethnische Gruppe der Karenni im Osten Burmas unter Kontrolle zu halten und von den Karenni-Widerstandsgruppen zu trennen. Knapp die Hälfte der etwa 200.000 Bewohner des Kayah-Bundesstaates sind inzwischen vertrieben – in staatlichen Lagern oder in den endlosen burmesischen Wäldern. Flüchtlings-Leben in Thailand; Karenni Ethnic children in refuge camps; Life of refugees in Thailand
        Author/creator: Michaela Ludwig
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Terre des Hommes
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.tdh.de/medien/1_2005/leben_im_lager.htm
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2007


      • Kuki

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Kuki International Forum
        Description/subject: "The kukiforum stands to uplift the Glorious Past of the long forgotten Kukis history and cultural heritage. It is a forum for all the Kukis around the world to discuss and debate Kuki National Issues in a form of intellectual and academic integrity in order to resurrect the Kuki self-government (Kuki Inpi) and Kuki Zalengam (Kuki Fatherland). The forum serves a platform for all the Kukis around the world. It also keeps abreast with current news in a cyber technocratic arena, using it as a tool to serve the national cause is a way of explaining other community about the rich heritage of Kuki. It has a growing membership. Its membership is opened for all who love to contribute for the good cause of the Kuki Nation. Yet, it maintains dignity and integrity while welcoming new members."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kuki International Forum
        Subscribe: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/kukiforum
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Kuki Students Democratic Front (KDSF)
        Description/subject: "Kuki Students Democratic Front (KSDF) came into existence on 12 December 1993. The organisation was formed at Moreh, in Manipur state of India by dedicated Kuki Students leaders and like-minded Kuki peoples. These students had fled Burma in 1988, following the students uprising against the dictatorial rule of the Military junta. We have our office in Moreh (Head Office), Delhi, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand...The aims and objectives of Kuki Students Democratic Front are stated as follows: 1. To make the Government recognize our rights over our ancestral land. In this regard we should be granted self-determination to preserve our identity and culture, and to freely practice our religion. 2. For peaceful advancement and progress in the field of education and socio-economic development. 3. To end military rule by supporting the democratic movements. 4. To establish a federal union in Burma as desired by all constituent nations, so that the rights of these various nations are ensured, cherished and protected. 5. To allow the peaceful return of Khadawmi victims who were driven out from their land in 1967 by Ne Win Government..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kuki Students Democratic Front (KDSF)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 May 2007


      • Mon (cultural, political)

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Euro-Mon Community
        Description/subject: "To strengthen the cause of unity within the Mon people, To improve the national education and culture, literature, society, To cooperate with other nationalities in Burma and international communities to reform Burma to be a democratic country are our main purpose. In the 26-27 July 2003 all Mon organizations in European countries attended the Euro Mon meeting. The meeting took place in Copenhagen, the capital city of Denmark, and we formed the organization Euro-Mon Community..." EMC in the News; Mon & Burma News; Mon History; Mon Language & Sript; History of Mon inscription; History of Shouth East Asia; Image of Mon; Map of Monland... Not very much on the site yet, but it has just begun.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Euro-Mon Community
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 31 July 2004


        Title: Mon Culture and Literature Survival Project
        Description/subject: "The Mon Culture and Literature Survival Project (MCL) is a group of people both Mon and foreigners who are concerned with the preservation of the cultural identity of the Mon people. The MCL is a non-denominational and non-political organization with the sole interest of preserving Mon culture. The MCL currently consists of 12 members of different nationalities (Mon, Thai, Swiss, and American) and is currently being registered as a non-profit organization in Switzerland with the official registration number due in March-May 2001. MCL's Southeast Asian hub is in the town of Sangkhlaburi, Thailand. The MCL works closely with other organizations and people who are involved in the study, promotion, and preservation of Mon culture. The MCL supports the Mon people, situated in Burma and Thailand, in their endeavors to preserve, promote, and pass on their cultural identity in all its aspects to future generations. The principal activities of the MCL include the education of children and adults, the preparation of necessary teaching materials, as well as the support of their daily cultural practices. Currently the Mon population is under 2 million people." Monland: Who Are The Mon People; Latest News. Language: Mon Phonetic Code; Mon Bilingualism. Literature: Proverbs of the Mon; Legends of the Mon; Daily Life and Traditions: A Monk's Funeral; Mon Food; Mon Medicine; Mon Holidays and Calendar; Mon Faces; Traditional Dress. Music: The Crocodile Harp. History: National Symbols and Anthem: The MCL: History and Achievements; Goals; Statutes of the MCL. Help the MCL. Activities of the MCL: MCL School; MCL Christmas; Youth International.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Mon Unity League
        Description/subject: * Home... * About MUL... * Monland Update... * MUL Activities... * Media Releases... * Information Sheet... * Publications.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Mon Unity League
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Monland Restoration Council
        Description/subject: Lots of stuff on the site -- news, statements, research, articles in Mon and English, list of Mon organisations, links, photo gallery, Mon politics, literature and history and lots more.
        Language: English, Mon
        Source/publisher: Monland Restoration Council
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: New Mon State Party website
        Description/subject: Material in Mon, Burmese and English.
        Language: Mon, Burmese, English
        Source/publisher: New Mon State Party
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2005


        Title: Rehmonnya.org (human rights and media website)
        Description/subject: "Rehmonnya.org is an information web homepage provided by Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM), Burma as Human Rights issues, forums and publications for all communities to share the current situation of Mon territory and southern part of Burma. In this web page, we put all publications from our HURFOM such as "The Mon Forum monthly issue, Woman and Child Rights Project's report & journal (in Mon and Burmese) and Our time journal (in Mon language). We also link "Guiding Star monthly Mon newspaper" in Mon language from the Media issue for all Mon community to share their idas and inspirations. Please contact us if you would like to contribute any articles, cartoons, stories and poems in either "Guiding Star" Mon language newspaper or other Journals and magazines which were publiced from HURFOM. Thank you very much for visit and support us. Please Enjoy!"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 20 March 2004


        Title: The Mon Information Home Page
        Description/subject: Last updated June 1995. Good on Mon history and language. Includes Mon hypertext grammar.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: UNPO Mon Page
        Description/subject: Brief profile and history. Articles.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations and Peoples' Organisation (UNPO)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


        Individual Documents

        Title: IDENTITY, IMAGE AND ETHNIC CONFLICT IN BURMA: A CASE STUDY OF MON PEOPLE
        Date of publication: December 2010
        Description/subject: Abstract: "Burma‘s ethnic conflict is one of the longest conflicts in the world. The conflict has been ongoing since 1948. The conflict has resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and thousands more have become refugees or internally displaced persons. This study attempts to explain the root causes of ethnic conflict in Burma through an in-depth analysis of the Mon ethnic group as a case study. Based on the results of the analysis, the study presents possible solutions to the conflict. The results show that the conflict is caused by three major factors: threats to ethnic identity, nationalist sentiments, and images of out-group. When the Mon ethnic identity was identified and measured, the Mons are highly nationalistic and strongly identified with their group. Thus, they are prompted to respond to threats to their identity. Major factors explaining the threats to Mon ethnic identity are the loss of territory, downgrading of identity, restrictions on the teaching of language and literature, and practicing of culture, the destruction of national symbols, internal migrations and population transfer, intermarriage, and threats of annihilation. The Mon have a barbarian image of the Burman because they see Burman as superior in capability, inferior in status, and as having harmful intentions. The level of in-group identity also v has a positive correlation with the level of barbarian image. These two variables (identity and barbarian image) also have positive correlations with the level of conflict. This implies that those who have higher levels of in-group identity and a greater barbarian image of the Burman results in higher levels of conflict. The level of barbarian image also shows a positive correlation with the forming of alliances with other non-Burman ethnic groups and fighting against the Burman. The current Burmese government‘s ―seven steps road map‖ will not provide a solution to the ethnic conflict in Burma. Burma‘s ethnic problems could be solved by dialogue among all stakeholders, democratization, power-sharing, and the forming of a super-ordinate identity. These can happen through the establishment of a genuine federal political system that guarantees autonomy to all ethnic groups in Burma."
        Author/creator: Pon Nya Mon, Ph.D.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Washington State University (Doctoral Dissertation)
        Format/size: pdf (1.7MB) 286 pages
        Date of entry/update: 11 September 2011


        Title: An Enduring Culture
        Date of publication: April 2008
        Description/subject: The Mon, one of the earliest indigenous people in the Thai-Burmese area, were instrumental in disseminating Buddhism to the region. Nowadays they face a fight for cultural survival... " CONCENTRATED in the mountainous border area of Burma and Thailand, up to three million Mon are struggling to preserve their culture and language. Researchers and anthropologists worry that Mon culture may disappear entirely, deliberately assimilated through the policies of both the Thai and Burmese governments. Thai military officials observe a Mon festival in Samut Sakhon near Bangkok. (Photo: Bangkok Post) As evidence, they point to Moulmein, the capital of Mon State in Burma, where the name of the Mon National Museum was changed by Burmese authorities to the “National Museum,” and members of the Mon Literature and Culture Association were replaced by junta associates. In Thailand, meanwhile, security officials pressured organizers of the annual Mon National Day festival in February to refrain from singing and dancing, to limit the festival to one day, to identify the organizers of the festival and ban the participation of unregistered workers from Burma. In addition, Thai officials also urged the public not to support the Mon cultural events at Samut Sakhorn, home to almost 200,000 workers from Burma, the majority of whom are Mon..."
        Author/creator: Lawi Weng
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Waiting Game
        Date of publication: November 2005
        Description/subject: Junta tightens control in Monland... "As in other ethnic regions of Burma, where ceasefire agreements have been a growing source of frustration and bitterness, Monland in southern Burma has also seen its share of broken promises and the increasing likelihood that lasting peace is still a long way off. The New Mon State Party—the region’s principal ethnic opposition group—entered a ceasefire agreement with Rangoon in 1995, at the urging of the country’s military leadership as well as members of Thailand’s political and business communities, who were eager to increase investments in the region. Foreign oil companies, such as France’s Total and Unocal in the US, saw peace in the region as good for business. Each had proposed a natural gas pipeline through contested areas of Mon State—a fact that caused the regime to exert greater pressure in the interest of increasing vital foreign investment. In 1996, the NMSP received 17 industrial concessions in areas such as logging, fishing, inland transportation, trade agreements with Malaysia and Singapore, and gold mining. The regime, however, had cancelled the majority of these contracts by 1998, leaving NMSP leaders with little in terms of economic support and weakening the opposition party..."
        Author/creator: Louis Reh
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


        Title: Mon Culture: Dying or Reviving?
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: "One of Southeast Asia’s oldest cultures is under threat of extinction. Defenders of Mon identity and language are working to ensure its survival... During his defense hearing at a court in the Mon State capital of Moulmein, Mon Buddhist abbot U Palita refused to speak in Burmese, even though he knew it well enough. "This is Mon-land," he argued, "where I should be able to speak Mon in official matters." The authorities eventually acquiesced and arranged for an interpreter to translate his words into Burmese. That was 1975, a year after Burma’s socialist government granted statehood to the Mon in Burma’s southeast. Yet despite this concession, the Mon were without any real autonomy. Rangoon continued to control many of the state’s affairs and insisted that the Mon speak Burmese in all official matters..."
        Author/creator: Min Zin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 December 2003


        Title: Mon Language in Thailand: The endangered heritage
        Date of publication: 11 May 2003
        Description/subject: "This paper will give the picture of Mon language situation in Thailand both spoken and written language from the earliest time to the present day. The written language will include inscriptions, palm leaf manuscripts, and printed books..."
        Author/creator: Paphatsaun Thianpanya,
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
        Format/size: html (60K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 May 2003


        Title: War, History and Identity (a review of Ashley South's "The Golden Sheldrake")
        Date of publication: April 2003
        Description/subject: "A new book on the Mon ethnic group makes a much-needed contribution to the study of Mon history and sheds light on some of the complexities of Burma’s ethnic conflicts... Although ethnic conflict is a key issue in modern Burmese politics, few writers and researchers seem to have covered the topic in detail. Ashley South’s latest book, Mon Nationalism and Civil War in Burma: The Goldensheldrake (Routledge Curzon, 2002), is perhaps the first comprehensive study of Mon history and offers a timely contribution to the issue of Burma’s ongoing ethnic conflicts... South’s detailed and authoritative book is a must for all interested in Mon history and ethnic minority politics, and for those curious about the dynamics of the civil war and conflict that has raged in Burma for more than 50 years..."
        Author/creator: Tom Kramer
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 3
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: May 2003


        Title: MON - Die vergessenen Flchtlinge in Thailand
        Date of publication: 1995
        Description/subject: Mon - the forgotten refugees in Thailand Das Volk der Mon ist die Urbevlkerung im heutigen Kernland von Thailand, im Gebiet von Bangkok in Richtung burmesische Grenze (Kanchanaburi Provinz) sowie im benachbarten burmesischen Bergland und im Kerngebiet des heutigen Burma mit seiner Hauptstadt Rangoon. Einst Trger einer frhen und hochentwickelten buddhistischen Kultur, wurden sie in den vergangenen Jahrhunderten von anderen, aus Norden eindringenen Vlkern immer mehr verdrngt. Sie stellen heute sowohl in Thailand wie in Burma eine stark benachteiligte ethnische Minderheit dar. Die Mon in Burma fhren seit Jahrzehnten zusammen mit zahlreichen anderen ethnischen Minderheiten einen Kampf um ihre Unabhngigkeit und eigenstndige Entwicklung. Diese Bestrebungen werden von der Militrjunta mit einem systematischen Vernichtungsfeldzug beantwortet.
        Author/creator: Hans-Gnther Wagner
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten
        Alternate URLs: http://cscmosaic.albany.edu/~gb661/moncamps.html (Photos of the refugee camps at Halockhani and Lohloe -- 1994?)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Mon discussion groups

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Kao Wao News
        Description/subject: Very useful news service dealing largely with the Mon. You can have Kao Wao News delivered to your emailbox by asking at kaowao@hotmail.com There is now an archive in the Online Burma Library (click on the hyperlink)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
        Subscribe: kaowao@hotmail.com
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Monnet
        Description/subject: "Discussion Mon affair". Very active group. Archive since November 1999 of several hundred messages.
        Language: English
        Subscribe: monnet-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Mon newsletters and news services

        • "Kao Wao News" (from 2001)

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Rehmonya Radio
          Date of publication: May 2008
          Language: Mon
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Date of entry/update: 25 July 2008


          Title: "Kao Wao News" (Burmese version)
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: "Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 30 April 2007


          Title: "Kao Wao News" (English version)
          Description/subject: Very active site...Largely on the Mon...Contains opinion pieces and articles as well as links... News and other items by category: Articles... Book Reviews... Culture... Environment... Guest Book... Human Rights... Interviews... Kaowao Audio Migrant Watch... Opinion... Photo Gallery... Politics... Readers front... Donation... Statements... Links.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 18 September 2003


          Title: "Kao Wao News" (Mon version)
          Language: Mon
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 15 February 2005


          Title: "Kao Wao News" (Thai version)
          Language: Thai
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 30 April 2007


          Individual Documents

          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 02/2. December 7, 2011 – January 27, 2012
          Date of publication: 27 January 2012
          Description/subject: NMSP Agrees To New Round of Peace Talks, Holds out on Ceasefire; Mon Leaders Discuss Possible Parliament; Ceasefires without Dialogue Will Not Solve problems, Say Ethnic Leaders; An interview with Ashin Zaw Latt; Photo Exhibition Highlights Difficult Lives of Children from Burma; Leading Mon Monk Released in Amnesty, Vows to Continue Political Activity; NMSP Will Not Discuss Ceasefire until Fighting Ends in Kachin State; KNU Instructs KNLA troops Not to Fire on Government Forces; Bomb Explosion at Pagoda Festival Kills Four; Mon Community Leaders Express Concern Over Peace Talks; Christmas Fire Destroys More Than 100 Homes in Mon State; NMSP and Burmese Government Take First Step Towards Ceasefire Agreement; Activists Raise Concerns Over Thai PM’s Visit to Burma; Media and Press Freedom Continue to be Limited in Burma’s Parliaments; Ethnic People Organize Charity Concert in Denmark to Benefit Kachin Refugees; NMSP to Hold Party’s Congress; Thai Environmental Activists Raise Concerns about Tavoy Deep Seaport Project.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (144K)
          Date of entry/update: 30 January 2012


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 01/2: November 7, 2011 – December 2, 2011
          Date of publication: 02 December 2011
          Description/subject: Readers' Front; Ethnic Leaders Discuss Plans to Form Federal Alliance Army; Mon Parliamentarian Skeptical about Pace of Change in Burma’s Parliaments; Ethnic Journalists Still Unable to Report in Their Own Languages; NMSP Will Discuss Peace-Talk Prior to the Party’s Congress; Interview: Nai Hong Sar Secretary of the NMSP; Opposing Mon Parties to Merge ahead of Elections; After ASEAN, No Change Seen in Government’s Attitude Toward Ethnic Issues; MNDF Leadership Change; Three Thais Kidnapped by Armed Karen Group, Two Released; NMSP members to join MNDF; NMSP and Government Peace Mission Hold Ceasefire Talks; NMSP Discusses Political Developments, Possible Ceasefire Talks; Mon Political Party Has No Plans to Re-Register Following Party Law Amendments; Can UN Envoy and Burman Leaders Change The Country?
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (152K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 December 2011


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 163: November 19, 2010 - November 6, 2011
          Date of publication: 06 November 2011
          Description/subject: 10th anniversary of Kaowao; Election Anniversary: What Has Changed in Mon State? Burmese Government Welcomes the Migrants Fleeing Bangkok Flooding; Military Prepares To Sell Confiscated Land; Villager Steps on Landmine after Being Conscripted as Military Porter; Mons Celebrate Refugee Day in Kuala Lumpur to Raise Awareness; Mons See No Change to Political Landscape after 2010 General Election; Burmese communities hit hard by the declining value of their earnings; Military demands cash and transport from travelers; Two Karen youth caught in the firing line; SPDC human porters caught in line of fire; Security Fears Rise After Three Pagodas Pass Border Siege; AMDP Wins Opposition Party in Mon State; Readers' Front
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (198K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 December 2011


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 162
          Date of publication: 09 November 2010
          Description/subject: September 15 - November 9, 2010..... Three Pagodas Pass Border Town Under Siege; Karen retreat Three Pagodas Pass border town after one night siege; Mon Vote starts with good results in Ye; “Vote for the Mon” - AMRDP Releases Election Campaign Song; NMSP stands firm on boycotting Burma’s 2010 General Election; AMRDP faces many obstacles in 2010 General Election; Mons celebrate Baw Smot Pan: Full-Moon Day Celebration; Burma: Poverty, lack of opportunity, drive Mon youth to risk life; Ban-Wangka, an old Mon Buddhist village in Sangkhlaburi; How the Ruling Junta Turns Its Enemy to Become Its Supporters; Readers' Front
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (147K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 161
          Date of publication: 04 August 2010
          Description/subject: May 10-August 4, 2010... Mon Leaders Focus on Stronghold Base: Siha Ong... ‘We Will Fight in Parliament’ say Mon Leaders... Mon Party Urgently Needs Campaign Funds... World Cup 2010: Mon State Under Their Feet... NMSP gains public support after rejecting BGF... Mon Party To Choose Candidates for the 2010 General Election... Loss of Hope: Taing Taw... Comments on "Mon Leaders Focus On Stronghold Base"... Readers' Front
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (189K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 August 2010


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 160
          Date of publication: 24 April 2010
          Description/subject: March 15 - April 24, 2010... Readers' Front; NMSP reaches final decision on joining BGF; Mon Reject Militia Plan; Major Boost for Global Indigenous Rights Movement; Mon Democracy Party Prepares For Registration; Mon State USDA Speeds Up Campaign; UNA calls for a free and fair 2010 Election; Direction for democracy or autocracy (Apar Hong Mon); Lesson from the Past: the fate of the KRC (Nai Pe Thein Zar); Songkran Greetings from Kaowao Team
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (164K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2010


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 159
          Date of publication: 15 March 2010
          Description/subject: February 10 – March 15, 2010... Readers' Front; More Migrant Workers Heading Home; If Attacked, Mon will Wage Guerrilla War; HURFOM documents 200 villagers fleeing from Yebyu Township; War of nerves continues as deadline expires; SPDC pressures KPF to form Border Guard Force; Forced militias ordered to battle in southern Burma; Karen Youths Fearful of Joining DKBA Border Guard Force; Villager killed after challenging Burmese Militia; SPDC ambushes Mon group, girl and soldier killed.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (50K)
          Date of entry/update: 16 March 2010


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 158
          Date of publication: 04 February 2010
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma...January 7- February 4, 2010... *Readers' Front *Burmese Army Intrudes NMSP control zone *63rd Mon National Day Celebrated Worldwide *Most drugs seized in Thailand come from the Burma Army: Businessmen *Overseas Mon call for the release of arrested Mon monk *2010 Election: Buddhist Monk and Youth Arrested, Tortured *Mon National Day Billboard Censored *Joint-Statement on the 63rd Anniversary of the Mon National Day *Hunger for Education *The Karen Flag: A Symbol of Unity
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (119K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2010


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 157
          Date of publication: 06 January 2010
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... 2010 Happy New Year from Kaowao Newsgroup... Mon Delegates Urge for National Congress... Vehicle owners suffer from SPDC portering... Dental Patient Dies at Top Rangoon Hospital... Two Surrendered Groups Become One... Mon Canadians hold 12th Annual General Meeting... Wa, Mongla Seek Protection against CW... Wretched life for Mon village headman... Chasing Change in Burma: By Dr. Zarni... Earth Itself Has Become Disposable: By George Monbiot... Readers' Front
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (149K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 January 2010


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 156
          Date of publication: 05 December 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 31- December 5, 2009... Readers' Front; Cash Flow Slows Despite Strong Burmese Currency; Ninety Sex Workers Rescued; Rescued Sex Workers Found HIV-positive; HRP Families Deported To NMSP Area; Mon Schools Endure Funding Crisis; Mon State USDA Launch Election Campaign; Economic Recession Affects Mon Music Industry; Burmese Army Closes Three Pagodas Pass Border Crossing; Southern Ye: Human Rights Abuses Continue
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (131K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 December 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 155
          Date of publication: 18 October 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 25 - October 18, 2009... Readers' Front; Mon Veterans are Hopeful about 2010 Election; Mon Refugees to Register in Malaysia; Mystery surrounds ceasefire leader's death; Burmese Army Recruits Militia in Mon-Controlled Area; Mons Speak Out Over New US Policy; Ethnic Network Founded at Burma Ethnic Nationalities Forum in Canada; Extortion a Problem for Migrant Workers Applying for Temporary Passports; New Mon Party or A New Party formed by Some Mon? By Siri Mon Chan; Interview with Zoya Phan (Part Two)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (144K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 November 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 154
          Date of publication: 09 September 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... August 18- September 9, 2009... Readers' Front; Mon Youth Community to Hold Annual General Meeting; Owners Worry as Rubber Demand Rises; Interview with Zoya Phan; Junta Pressures Mon Party Leaders; Burmese Army recruit escapes with injury; Mon Community Launches Mon Language Course in the US; NMSP put on SPDC Watch List; Karen Guerrillas Ambush Burmese Army Joint Offensive; Monks and Headmen Oppose DKBA Recruitment.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (134K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 September 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 153
          Date of publication: 01 August 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 9 - August 1, 2009... Readers' Front; Malaysia: Burmese Rights and Drug Issue Long Neglected; Mon Politicians Prepare for 2010 Election; Army on Four cuts campaign again; Youth's Hope for Burma: By Christina Maes; New DKBA members sent to frontline; Flooding Besets Ye, Mon State; Burmese Army officer and soldiers desert, flee to Thailand; Tension mounts after three killed in Mon clash; Election 2010: Mon veterans contest or not.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (144K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 August 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 152
          Date of publication: 05 July 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 5, 2009...   Readers' Front;   Burma Army deploys troop near Three Pagodas Pass;   Border town on alert after bomb blast;   Human rights violations continue along gas pipeline; Demonstration in the U.S to commemorate the fall of Monland; Bomb blast while Lieutenant General Ye Myint visits Mawlamyime;   Salt imported from Thailand due to decline in production; Worried for the lack of salt; Will civil war continue in Burma: By Taingtaw; Will the upcoming election lead to a lasting peace in Burma?  
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (135K)
          Date of entry/update: 05 July 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 151
          Date of publication: 12 May 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... April 20 - May 12, 2009... Readers' Front; Closing ceremony of Mon language class held in Rangoon; Collecting Money for Repairing Farmhouses; Desperate mother sells her baby girl; Wa mull over how to say No; KPF ordered to form an Armed Border Guard; Drug abuse on the rise in Mudon Township; Election 2010: Fear of Bloody Conflict Growing in Mon Communities; NMSP member killed near SPDC’s Southeast Command Headquarters; PYO Statement on SPDC Killing and Torturing; Statement on Burmese military regime's 2010 election.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (123K)
          Date of entry/update: 15 May 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 150
          Date of publication: 12 April 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... February March 19 – April 12, 2009.....   Songkran New Year Greeting from Kaoawo... Two more Burmese soldiers die after another KNU attack... KNU Leaders Meet Thai Officials... Mon Community Opens Bilingual Class in Australia... KNU Launches Ambush Attacks... Mon eagerly await news on global markets... Mon villagers forced to provide wood for brick factory... Obama likely to lean toward Indonesia for Burma: Nehginpao Kipgen... Economic Crisis: Women Will Suffer Most (By Jay Fletcher)... Readers’ Front.  
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (145K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 April 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 149
          Date of publication: 15 March 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... February 25 – March 15, 2009.....   Readers’ Front... Burma: Tortured Victim flees labour camp... Wa continue to resist census taking... Mon Women’s Day Held In Canada... Villagers In Mon Stronghold Area Receive ID... Migrant Workers heading back home to Burma... Villagers forced into forming People’s Militia... Displaced Villagers Flee to Border... Selfless Side Of Humans Can Overcome Crisis.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (148K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 April 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 148
          Date of publication: 01 February 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma ... January 22 - February 13, 2009...   Readers' Front; Statement of 62nd Anniversary of Mon National Day; Clash between Burma Army and Wa reconfirmed; Shadow UN Marked Founding Anniversary with New Campaign; Building a bridge to the future: The 62nd Mon National Day; Mon National League for Solidarity: Ethnic Issue should be solved as priority; More Burma Army troops along border with Wa; Soaring Kyat hurts Mon community worldwide; Victorious Mon party from 1990 election supports NMSP refusal to compete in 2010; Festival permit useless in preventing raid by Ye police; It Is Now Or Never: By Aditi Munot.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (113K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 February 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 147
          Date of publication: 02 January 2009
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... November 25, 2008 – January 2, 2009... Readers' Front; Local headmen pressured for road security; NMSP Reaches a Golden Fork in the Road; Harn Yawnghwe: Ethnic efforts not in vain; Mon Canadians elected woman to lead; Two more die in hospital after trafficking car crash; Travelers hit the Three Pagodas Pass Motor Road; SPDC takes a census and enforces a new taxing scheme; Economic Downturn Hits Mon Community; Let's Set Aside Differences, Let's Work Together: Siri Mon Chan; Toward A Democratic Change in Burma; India Sleepwalks To Total Surveillance.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (115K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 January 2009


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 146
          Date of publication: 16 November 2008
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 18 - November 16, 2008... Readers' Front; Mon Rock Music Gains Popularity; Salt Producers Worry Over Government Manipulation; PEN Canada Award to Comedian Zarganar; MNDF-LA Will Not Support Election 2010; Mon Pay Final Tribute to Thai Princess; Chin Scholar Dr. Lian H. Sakhong Urged To Look Back Into The Past; Sex Traffickers Arrested by Thai Police in Samut Sakhon; Why India shifts its policy on Burma; Hope for Young Americans.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (126K)
          Date of entry/update: 22 November 2008


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 145
          Date of publication: 08 October 2008
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 1 - October 8, 2008... Readers' Front; Army Deserter Shot Dead; Malaysia: Mon Labour Rights Promotion Network Formed; Feature: Creators of the Same Meaning; US Senate Staffers Meet with Mon Restoration Council Representatives; Burmese Army Provides "Security," Intimidates People at Large Buddhist Festival; Sangkhlaburi's Largest Factory Raided by Thai Police; 14 Year Old Girl Raped at Refugee Camp; NMSP: No Separation Between the Army ;nd Party; FEATURE: Another New Day for the NMSP OPINION: Election Victory Doesn't Equal People Power; Commentary: George Bush's Legacy in Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (74K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 October 2008


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 144
          Date of publication: 18 August 2008
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... August 4 - 18, 2008... Readers' Front; SPDC may force diversity alongside reconciliation: NMSP; Motorcycle Registration Centers Closed; Nai Nonlar: A Tribute to the Late NMSP President; Tightened Security, Increased Restrictions in Southern Burma; Amphetamines Threaten Burmese Community; Logging Ban Flouted: Criminal Activity Strips ; Men of Conscience should Raise Human Rights Issue at Beijing Olympics; Statement on the 20th Anniversary of the General Uprising in Burma; China Must Act on Burma as Olympics Kick Off; PRESS RELEASE: Joint Statement on the Anniversary of '88 Uprising.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (144K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 October 2008


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 143
          Date of publication: 16 July 2008
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... June 19 - July 16, 2008..... Readers' Front... Mon Refugees Face Food Shortage... FEATURE: Drug Addiction in Mon Migrant Communities... Nargis ‘Donations’ Collected From Schools... Ceasefire Agreement Day between NMSP and SPDC... Monks Forced Home from Rangoon... Villagers Angry as Forced Cyclone Donations Disappear... Five People Sentenced to Death for Abbot Assassination... Returned Nargis Volunteer Tells of Continued Crisis... Refugees from Myanmar find a home in Bangkok... Feature: The Plight of Nargis' Victims.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (53K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 July 2008


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 142
          Date of publication: 16 June 2008
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... May 21 - June 16, 2008... Retaliation Attack Killed Two Mon Guerrillas... Truth in Storm Rumors... Durae Stream... Deep South Referendum Bombing Suspects Resurface... More Nargis’ Survivors Flee to Southern Burma... STATEMENT: 251st Anniversary of the Falling Day of Mon Kingdom Hongsawatoi... There's a Little Bit of the Burmese General in All of us... A Black Tuesday for a Fallen Kingdom... More Requisitions for Transportation of Military Regime... Overseas Mon Urge International Community to Intervene Under 'Responsibility to Protect' Principle... Readers Front.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (69K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 July 2008


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 141
          Date of publication: 19 May 2008
          Description/subject: Trafficking Narcotic Smuggling on Thai-Burma Border Towns; British Minister Says Aid Plan for Myanmar Must Work Quickly; Statement on SPDC's Handling of the Nargis Cyclone Disaster in Burma; Cyclone Nargis; News from Inside; UN Must Take Decision Action To Protect the Dying; Southern Ye Voting Centers Threatened; Referendum Unchanged; Survey on the Burmese Referendum; Villagers Forced to Guard Pipeline as Referendum Approaches; Three Pagoda Pass: Rice Prices Rise 25%; Mon Woman, Working in Samut Sakorn, Raped by Six Men; Amphetamine Assaults in Sanghklaburi.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (59K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 May 2008


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 140
          Date of publication: 23 April 2008
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma ... March 15-April 23, 2008 ... TPP Economy on Decline but Sex Industry Thriving Public Service Personnel Threatened to Vote 'Yes'; Families of Suffocation Victims Face Inquiry; Three Villagers Wounded in Guerilla Attack; Songkran Graffiti Campaign Continues Through Mon State; Referendum; Crisis Continues?; MRO: Low Mon Refugee Registrations; Suffocation Deaths Shock Worldwide Migrant Community; Joint Statement on The Mon Women's Day; Exile Mon Democratic urges the SPDC to rethink referendum; Mon youths campaign for 'No' vote in referendum; Don't blame the underdog UN envoy Gambari!
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 139
          Date of publication: 14 March 2008
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... February 17 - March 14, 2008... Disappearance of Army Chief of the New Mon State Party; The examination of 2 subjects in a day at southern Mon State' town; Dam Repairs May Disrupt and Destroy; Ministry of Education running fake diploma mill; The Celebration of Mon National Day Worldwide is Over: But our dreams are still strong and much work remains to be done; Destruction of more farmland by Burma Army; Mon National Day kicks off worldwide; Changes to Travel Document Requirements; Summer Paddy Cultivation Ordered in Mon State; Traffic police in festivals to extort motorbikes owners; Announcement of Mon National Council on the SPDC’s Constitutional Referendum.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (57K)
          Date of entry/update: 05 May 2008


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 138
          Date of publication: 16 February 2008
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... January 10 – February 16, 2008... Readers' Front; Authorities silent after bomb blast in Khaw Zar; Over 30000 amphetamines seized at the border town; KNU Leader Assassinated; Four Mon Migrant Workers Killed in Rubber Plantation; Canada urges Burma to include all parties in constitutional processes; People 'paying the price' for health care in Burma; Cockfight gambling poses problems for villagers; Mon solidarity called at MAU gathering; Mon National Day and our National Obligation; They Are Not Dead Who Live in the Heart They Leave Behind; Burma: Lessons from the Past, Problems in the Present, Thoughts about the Future.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (93K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 March 2008


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 137
          Date of publication: 28 December 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... December 8- 28, 2007, 2007... Readers’ Front; Students face threat of corrupt Thai security crackdown; Mon refugees arrested on Xmas Day in Malaysia; Mon Canadians hold Annual General Meeting; Canada: Mons prepare for 61st Mon National Day; Forced name change for Mon Cultural Museum by SPDC; Shot TPDC Chairman heads back to Three Pagodas Pass; DKBA issue motorcycle license "Ah-Hta-Da-Tha"; Burmese refugees facing funding cuts for food; Studying diversity, conflict and internationalizing Burma.28
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (130K)
          Date of entry/update: 29 December 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 136
          Date of publication: 30 November 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... November 13- 30, 2007... Readers’ Front: SPDC increase troop numbers in Three Pagodas Pass - Thanbyu Zayat Highway; Burmese authorities investigate video shops; Scared of marching troops villagers sell paddy at low prices; Burmese revolution? By Katy Anderson; Migrant worker kidnapped and Forced to Pay; Migrant Worker Rights Dissolving; Migrant Working Group to petition Govt on foreign workers policy; Thai Mon slam Samut Sakhon governor's order; SPDC to register the New Mon State Party soldiers list; China can shine by acting on Burma: By Teddy Buri.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (115K)
          Date of entry/update: 29 December 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 135
          Date of publication: 13 November 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 22- November 13, 2007... Mon refugees at Umpium Camp seek help for survival; Publication follows Mon History Conference; Canada: Calgarians active for a Free Burma; Over 1000 SPDC landmines on Karen State Highway; Many Mon arrested in shrimp raids; NMSP area knife attack on mother and daughter; Authorities investigate Moulmein monasteries; Junta demand rally Support in Towns of Mon State; Hello! Mr. Ibrahim Gambari and the International Community; Who Determines The Price Of Oil? By Ralph Nader; Readers’ Front.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (132K)
          Date of entry/update: 18 November 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 134
          Date of publication: 19 October 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 6 - 19, 2007... Readers' Front; Traveling Monks Face Difficulties; Myanmar embassies receiving 'Panties for Peace'; Drug dealer set free by army Burma Army Major; Thai Police arrest Mon Drug Dealer; Guest house bomb attack in Myawaddy; NMSP denied giving a speech to support mass rally; Villagers ignored - Sand exported from Gyaing River to Singapore; Junta Bans Traditional Festival Donations in Three Pagodas Pass; Insurgent-planted mines killed 2, injured 2 in Ye; Interview with Harn Yawnghwe: Chinland Guardian; 2007 Uprising and Transitional Challenges: By Nehginpao Kipgen; The Fatal Flaws of Burma's Opposition: by Bo Nyein.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (210K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 October 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 133
          Date of publication: 29 September 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 14-29, 2007... Readers' Front; Students and monks from Mawlamyine sent back home; Junta continues crackdown on monks overnight; Burmese prince asks Canada to cut off ties; Mon State: Monks continue marching in the Students’ Quarter; Monk-led demonstration welcomed by New Mon State Party; Monks from Mawlamyine Protest Today; Statement on support of Buddhist monks led demonstration; Palm-leaf manuscripts throw new light on ancient kingdom MonTALES; Triple traveling allowance of train in Mon State; Mon National Council: “Ceasefire groups - It's time to stand with the people”; Men of Conscience Should Boycott the Beijing Olympic: Kanbawza Win.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (208K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 October 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 132
          Date of publication: 12 September 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... August 20- September 12, 2007 ... Readers' Front; Mon rubber farmers head north; Migrant workers in Maharchai arrested; SPDC launches census in the Mon cease-fire zone; Khawzar: mobile phones confiscated on who gets the biggest slice; Three Pagodas border crossing with Myanmar reopens; Mon refugees forced out from Umpium Camp; Pregnant refugee woman seeks protection in Malaysia; U.S. moves closer to cutting off funding to U.N. Human Rights Council; Generation Journey – Sangklaburi Project; Statement on 60th Anniversary of the Mon Revolution Day. Readers' Front Dear readers,
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (126K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 September 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 131
          Date of publication: 13 August 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 22-August 13, 2007... Readers' Front; Elder Mon leader sparks comments worldwide; MAU urged to be more proactive; More Thai Mon students join bi-lingual education in the Kingdom; Unicoding Mon Language; Floods along Zami River destroys 32 houses; Environment, Sustainable Development And Globalisation: Burmese nuclear and weapon proliferation amid state instability; NMSP facing new challenges: A new election or a new battleground? Statement on the19th Anniversary of the 8-8-88 People’s Uprising in Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (190K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 August 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 130
          Date of publication: 19 July 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... June 24 – July 19, 2007... Readers' Front; Thai Ramarn changes attitude toward migrant workers; NMSP: Cautiously Waiting for National Convention; Claims of Media Control at Three Pagodas Pass; President of Australian Mon Association Nai Manoit Sak passed away; University students closely monitored; Sex industry booming near campus; Hidden Survivors: By Sanitsuda Ekachai; Burma’s Genocide Military Junta in Naypyidaw; The Flourishing Business: Kanbawza Win.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (185K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 129
          Date of publication: 19 June 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... June 4-19, 2007... MAU building Mon community development strategies; Curfew leaves villagers facing economic difficulties; Burmese authorities seize illegal cars; ENC on its lobby mission to the United States; Suu Kyi motion passed in Canadian Parliament; MYPO: Empowering Youth on the Border; Interim Thai PM pledges to eradicate 'cancer of corruption'; We’re Nearing Climate’s Tipping Point; AEIOU is Calling for Volunteer Manager; A Cat Cannot Hide Long Underwater.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (71K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 June 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 128
          Date of publication: 02 June 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... May 17 – June 2, 2007... Readers' Front; Burmese military expansion spawns violence and displacement in Karen State; Illegal checkpoints close down due to row over their control; Prostitution thrives as young girls struggle in Mon State; For rural school children in Burma, an uncertain future; Global Warming: Late Monsoon hurting betel nut farmers; World leaders’ letter to Burma was remarkable: By Nehginpao Kipgen; Act Now or Regret Later with the Unholy Alliance; Ethical Issues forgotten by the Burmese Media: By Siri Mon Chan; Courts cannot allow bullshitting with justice; Globalization And Democracy: Some Basics.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: pdf (105K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 127
          Date of publication: 17 May 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... May 2-17, 2007... Villagers taxed by local police for working in Thailand; 4 Mon migrants dead, 7 wounded in car accident; Thousands of poor migrants streaming across the Thai-Burma border; Mon people face hard labor in military development projects; NMSP President urges for the reestablishment of Monland; Thousands of Burma's children deprived of education; Fall of Honsawatoi unites Mon organizations around the world; The day before the fall of Hongsawatoi on 8 May 1757; Communists in Bhutan? The contribution of the US, UNHCR, India; Burmese Media-in-Exile: Is it Biased, too?
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (166K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 May 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 126
          Date of publication: 01 May 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... April 12 – May 1, 2007... Readers Front; Flow of migration increases despite tight border controls; Monland Restoration Council (USA): Media Release; New Year gathering motivates building of Mon Temple; Mon New Year in the U.K; Dr. Su-Ed Gajaseni: Thai Mon leader dies at 83; MRO calls for the safety of Mon detainees in Malaysia; Unity a priority: NMSP leaders plan strategic meeting; The 4th international trade union conference on Burma; ; Burma and North Korea: Desperate Reconciliation; Venezuela Pulls Out of IMF, World Bank.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (109K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 May 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 125
          Date of publication: 09 April 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... March 18 - April 9, 2007... Readers’ Front; MAU: New umbrella organization takes over; MNU: Non-campus Mon University to be revitalized; New checkpoint upsets Three Pagodas Pass residents; Myanmar border clashes kill 17, wound 19 – rebels; Mon having difficulty obtaining refugee status in Malaysia; Public unite with New Mon State Party; Sudden death of beloved Mon entertainer, Mon Chit Soe; The Legend of King Naresuan: a glimpse into Mon Buddhist history; War pays a nighttime visit: By Thira Thura.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (85K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 124
          Date of publication: 05 March 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... January Feb 2-Mar 5, 2007... Readers Front; Mon Unity League New Strategy: Broadening participation of civil society; Sook Gloin: Rebel leader goes into hiding; Mon Women's Day celebrated in honor of a Queen; Mon State: Rebel demands end to human rights violations; In 60th Year, Mon National Day attracts thousands; Violence used to disrupt Mon national day at Three Pagodas Pass; Candlelight a factor behind school fire; Organizational Change, Future Direction and Strategic Planning: By Thiha Thura; What does "Union Day"? By Nehginpao Kipgen; Reflection On A Glorious Past: By Siri Mon Chan; Announcement.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (62K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 March 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 123
          Date of publication: 30 January 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... January 16-30, 2007... Readers Front; Mon immigrant Diaspora unite online to solve Burma’s conflict; Betelnut production suffers due to dry weather; World hits on Kaowao in 2006; Worldwide, Mon prepare for Mon National Day; Myanmar citizens restricted for US account; SSA calls for constructive engagement with China and Russia; Malaysia detains 176 immigrants from Myanmar; Mon community in Canada elects new leaders; What lies ahead for Burma's cease-fires: Ashley South.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (135K)
          Date of entry/update: 30 January 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 122
          Date of publication: 13 January 2007
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... December 25, 2006, January 13, 2007... Readers' front; Mon woman leader almost loses job over slow mail service; Long wait in store for new refugees; Ethnic leader awarded Martin Luther King Prize; Rising fuel price after border tension; China, Russia Veto Myanmar Resolution; Murder of new abbot shocks Mon refugee community; Burma Army confiscates land, farmers pay to work it; New Year's Eve Bombs Kill 2 in Bangkok; A New Year and an old system: By Banya Hongsar; The people of Burma: By Roland Watson.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (144K)
          Date of entry/update: 15 January 2007


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 121
          Date of publication: 22 December 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... December 1-22, 2006... Readers' Front; Mon entertainer charged for rural bridge accident; Burmese government restricts ethnic national dress; Attacks on ethnic women during military operation; Final tribute to revered Mon Buddhist Monk draws thousands; NMSP urged to maintain arms amid gov’t pressure; HTM: the silent killers in lower Burma; Ivanhoe Mines in the process of divesting from Burma; Canadian Parliamentary Friends of Burma formed; Identity, Conflict and National Reconciliation in Burma; Climate Change vs Mother Nature.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (159K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 120
          Date of publication: 29 November 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... November 12-29, 2006... Readers' Front; Religious leaders urged to protect Mon Culture; Nai Tun Thein: Active for revitalization of Mon literature; Substandard road construction puts young motorcyclists at risk; Mon Youth Community's Annual Meeting; Ambush continues despite military presence; Guerrilla supporter on the run; 60th Mon National Day in the offing; AIDS to Be Third Leading Cause of Death; Attempting democracy in ethnically diverse Burma: By Nehginpao Kipgen.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (117K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 119
          Date of publication: 09 November 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 23- November 9, 2006... Readers' Front; Burmese fishery workers rounded up in Thai raid; SPDC handpicks ward headmen; Villagers flee forced Burmese militia training; Another migrant worker dies in a car accident; Burma Army eyes motorcycles for New Capital; Unrepresented Peoples Organization gathers in Taipei; NMSP: Cease-fire policy will be maintained; Myanmar allows North Korean cargo ship in distress to enter port; Indigenous People See Harm from Kyoto Warming Pact.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (93K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 November 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 118
          Date of publication: 23 October 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 10-23, 2006... Readers' Front; A tribute to "Phra Raj Udom Mongkhon Phaholnarathorn"; Revered Mon monk passes away at 96; Chin Asylum Seekers Held Captive by Thai Agents; Migrant education continues despite limited support; Mon refugees face arrest and hardship in Malaysia; Unreliable post office disappoints locals; Sangkhlaburi refugees enter border camp; Overseas Mon denounces National Convention; U.S. “Waiver” a means to an end for Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (114K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 October 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 117
          Date of publication: 09 October 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 25 - October 9, 2009... Readers' Front; Child soldier seeks safe refuge; Sexual abuse to increase with return of Colonel Myo Winn; Australia gives Terrorist training to Terrorists – Lita Davidson; Burma wants help to keep terrorists at bay - Greg Sheridan; Myanmar says brush with U.N. will have no impact; Yangon-Mawlamyine bus terminal shifted to new site; Mon Community Gives "Thumb's Up" to UNSC's Agenda; UNSC Agenda divided among cease-fire groups; New Mon State Party on the Way to National Convention; Three Pagodas Pass border reopened.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (134K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 October 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 116
          Date of publication: 23 September 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 9-23, 2006... NMSP debate matters of political division; Villagers flee USDA course by local authorities; KNU forced villagers to join guerrilla unit; Mon monks disrobed by Thai authorities; Border town on alert; Mon refugees released from detention in Malaysia; A senior leader of Karen ceasefire group under suspicion for drug dealing; Focus on ceasefire and war in Monland; Readers Front.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (89K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 September 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 115
          Date of publication: 05 September 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... August 16- September 5, 2006... Readers' Front; Mon migrant dies in dash for freedom from Malaysia's crackdown; Plight of boat refugees uncertain; Mon national dress restricted on university campuses; Exiled ethnic nationalities seminar held in North America; Mon activist among 30,000 delegates at AIDS Conference; Town businessmen to pay for raising artillery; Burma report presented to Canadian government; Captured soldier dies while portering; Flooding besets Mon State.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (33K)
          Date of entry/update: 05 September 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 114
          Date of publication: 13 August 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 29-August 13, 2006... Readers’ Front; Dwindling forest spurs land purchases in Three Pagodas Pass; Confiscated smuggled goods worth billions Burmese Kyat; Plight of refugees uncertain as applicants ordered to enter camp; Mon Resistance Day celebrated in Canada; Statement on the 18th anniversary of the General Uprising in Burma; New motor road brings hope and the desperate; Vehicle owners turn to KNU to hide their motorbikes and cars; Canadian Conference on Burma held; Calling for Volunteers Professors and Lecturers (AEIOU).
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (44K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 August 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 113
          Date of publication: 20 July 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 5-20, 2006... Readers' Front; Mafia network of Thai and Malay target illegal workers; Suspicions rise over deaths of 30 Burmese fishermen; The Mon Community: Ten years in Australia; Mon political prisoner: Nai Yekha's health deteriorating; Statement on Nai Yekha's and Nai Cheem Gakao's Imprisonments; 3rd Chin Forum Managing Board Meeting; Seizure of unlicensed vehicles stepped up; Burmese government bets on its divide and rule policy; Torrential rains flood Ye Township; Global Warming 'Will Cancel Out Western Aid And Devastate Africa'
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (49K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 July 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 112
          Date of publication: 03 July 2006
          Description/subject: News letter for social justice and freedom in Burma... June 16-July 3, 2006... Readers’ Front; World Cup gambling enthusiasts undaunted by threats of arrest; Malaria on the rise in Three Pagodas Pass; Barriers to education for poor families in Southern Burma; Villagers forced to guard MOGE gas pipeline; Canadian lawmakers call for UNSC action on Burma; World Cup 2006: Burma under their feet; Open and close door policy on a Free Market Economy; Are the Asians morally inferior than the West? Population transfer threatens Mon community; Discussion on Population Transfer.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (107K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 July 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 111
          Date of publication: 12 June 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... May 28-June 12, 2006... Readers' Front; Children working in underground lottery; Villagers forced to build motor road; Migrant woman dies in car accident; Burmese Authorities close Three Pagodas Pass border; Taxis barred from crossing border after Thai-Burmese clash; Thai authorities raid Mon office in Maesot; Security Council resolution: Canadian support essential for democracy in Burma; Lessons from another revolution; Scholarship to Mon monks; Kaowao volunteer needed.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (43K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 110
          Date of publication: 25 May 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... May 10-25, 2006... Readers’ Front; Break or fine for joining GONGOs; Militia training course to start in the border town; Exiled Mons commemorate Honsawatoi Destruction Day; Joint-Statement on the 249th Fallen Day of Hongsawatoi Mon Kingdom; More villagers fled home after ambush by guerrilla; Bird flu scare drags chicken prices down; Suu Kyi's release won't harm Myanmar peace: police; Yawdserk calls for unity among Shans; One Year Later: CFOB Urges Canada to Implement Burma Motion; Crimes against citizens in Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (64K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 May 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 109
          Date of publication: 06 May 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... April 17- May 6, 2006... Child poverty in displaced village on Thai Burma border; 20 migrants die in Andaman Sea at border crossing; Last hope for survival, migrants waiting to enter Thailand; Teleglobe to pull out of Burma: a Call on World Press Freedom Day; A few Burmese asylum seekers show up for registration; Number of Mon refugees increasing daily in Malaysia; SONGKRAN: Buddhist Water Festival in USA; Authorities order relocation of private homes in Burmese border town; Burma’s Probability: Wooing China and India (By Nehginpao Kipgen); Readers’ front.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (72K)
          Date of entry/update: 04 May 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 108
          Date of publication: 16 April 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... April 1-16, 2006... Readers’ front; Dilemma in funding Burmese NGOs; Federal Constitution Seminar held in Kawthoolei; Mon New Year in Canada; Sangkran Festival and Mon Culture; Booming furniture industry fuels uncontrolled logging; Korean Firms to mine copper in Myanmar; Over 80 Burmese Mon arrested by Thai police for illegal entry; Yaba use on the rise among youth at Three Pagodas Pass; Wildlife trade and domestic consumption threatens Burma’s forests.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (48K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 April 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 107
          Date of publication: 31 March 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... March 16-31, 2006... Readers’ front: Corrupt hospital workers threaten fight against curable diseases at refugee camp; Alternative solution for fuel turned into forced labour in Karen State; Farmers left with nothing after selling paddy to army; Canada’s Policy on Burma: Cham Toik; Statement of the Second Burma Forum; Mon Women Day held in America; Close Down AEIOU Programme, Due to Lack of Funds; The War Drums Are Getting Louder; Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in FOSS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (70K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 April 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 106
          Date of publication: 16 March 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... February 28- March 15, 2006... Readers’ front; Mon monks and cultural committees creating educational opportunities; Burmese migrant workers head back to Burma; SPDC rounds up another 13 villagers for interrogation; Mon environmentalist urges government intervention on Burmese forests; SPDC degrading river ecosystem in Mon State and Tenasserim Division; Mon Women’s Day Joint Statement; Provision of Anti terror Law Delays Entry of Refugees; Democracy or Hypocrisy: Kanbawza Win; NLD Plan of National Reconciliation and Offer Lack Essential Ingredients; The Secret War Against The Defenseless People Of West Papua.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (89K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 March 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 105
          Date of publication: 26 February 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... February 11-26, 2006... Readers’ front; Migrants face difficulties registering for work; 59th Mon National Day in North America; Mon community celebrates heritage in American home; Celebration of freedom: thousands participate in Mon National Day;l The Mists of Ramanna: The Legend that was Lower Burma; Villagers threatened following desertion from the army; Confiscated farmland turned into brick making factories, building military camps; Collection of wild orchids and bee honey threatens Burma’s environment; Interview with Salai Kipp Kho Lian; Engage or Isolate Burma; Moral Justification: Nyi Nyi Lwin.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (101K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 February 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 104
          Date of publication: 10 February 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... February 2-10, 2006... Readers' front; SPDC bullies teacher and Mon School Students; Village extortion as rural development; Human rights abuses as result of gas pipeline explosion in Mon State; Speaking Mon Contest reflects ancient heritage; MRC, clear commitment to achieving Mon Independence; 59th Mon National Day, Canberra (Australia); SPDC cause great economic hardship of Mon village; Hopes and Tears of Burma: Kanbawza Win; Pro-democracy movement should prepare for the post-regime change era.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (73K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 February 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 103
          Date of publication: 01 February 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... January 21-February 1, 2006... Readers’ front: Elderly, beaten and tortured as rebel sympathizers: Army targets villagers for not speaking Burmese: Out of control logging worries local people: Educators tutor older students in Mon language: First Mon newspaper to be published in Thailand: SPDC ease back on reconnaissance in Rangoon: Col Sai Yee elected to SSA leadership: Local community protest antimony plant: Respect, harmony to promote business on Thai-Burma border; The right to Vote is a privilege; Chavez Calls For ‘Socialism Or Death’.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (61K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 102
          Date of publication: 20 January 2006
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... January 5-20, 2006... Readers’ front; Longest bridge causes village displacement on Beelu Kyun Island; SPDC spreads out to confiscate more land, show of force; Local Mon community workers fear for their future; Eight baht an hour in border town; Illiteracy rate high among Mon children in Thailand and Burma; Mons born in Thailand approved for Thai citizenship; Children infected by chickenpox in Mon refugee camp; Riot broke out in Karen refugee camp after a refugee was beaten; Mon youth workshop in liberated area; Are the Mons capable to form its own government? Mon-Burman reconciliation: Nai Thet Lwin.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: htiml (69K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 January 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 101
          Date of publication: 31 December 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... December 10-31, 2005... Readers’ Front; Authorities order villagers against fire hazards; Fire destroyed nineteen houses in Beeluu Kyun; Sudden rise in illegal importation of vehicles to Burma; Burmese migrants flooding into Thailand; Discovery of ancient town of Mon King; Local villagers forced into government positions; Arakanese observes the Day of the Downfall of Arakan Kingdom; We Need More Living Leaders: By Min Khin Kyaw; U.S. Sees Burma as 'Test Case' in Southeast Asia.
          Language: English
          Format/size: html (62K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 January 2006


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 100
          Date of publication: 10 December 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... November 26- December 10, 2005... Readers' Front; Poor attitudes on condom use put Burmese at risk; Stalwart criticisms of National Convention; HRP welcomes NMSP's decision over National Convention; Mon facing a lost generation of youth; Suspects in murder case executed by Burmese Army commander; SPDC soldiers die after eating poisoned chicken; UN council approves US bid for Myanmar discussion; Peak Oil: What We Know Now; A Proposal Towards Correct and Peaceful Political Solutions in Burma; Debate by Thant Zin Tun and Pago Hongsar.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (84K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 December 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 99
          Date of publication: 22 November 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... November 5-22, 2005... Readers' Front; Migrant workers happy after typing the knot; Headman shot with homemade gun: villagers flee; Nai Ngwe Ya: Remembering him keeps alive our hope for social justice; Handpicked NC representative says no sense in attending NC; Securing ceasefire agreement seen as step backward; Buddhist monks flee Mon State fearing persecution; Mon: By Min K Kyaw; Mon music: A struggle for identity; Geeta-Watee: Mon band formed in Moulmein; Myanmar expands military presence in new capital.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (58K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 December 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 98
          Date of publication: 31 October 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 16-31, 2005... Readers’ front; Flood of Burmese causes concern; Human traffickers coming under scrutiny; Corruption among new military intelligence continues; Mon National Day Committee in Canada formed; Bush welcomes young Burmese activist to White House; Kyats notes seized in Mon State; Explosion in the capital; Ceasefire groups defiant; Rangoon's generals prepare for the changing of the guard.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (116K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 November 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 97
          Date of publication: 15 October 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September October 1- 15, 2005... READERS’ FRONT; MON NGOS PUT UNDER CLOSE WATCH; FORCED LABOR FOR TOTAL PIPELINE; FARMERS LOSE LAND TO MILITARY CAMPS; RIGHTS GROUP ASKS UN COUNCIL TO LOOK AT MYANMAR; SUPPORTERS ENDORSE THE CALL TO DISCUSS BURMA AT THE UNSC; NEW CFOB COORDINATOR RAISES EYEBROWS; AN EU STRATEGY FOR BURMA/MYANMAR; AN ETHNIC PERSPECTIVE: DEMOCRACY IS NOT ENOUGH; CHARM TONG: EDUCATING BURMA.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (94K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 October 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 96
          Date of publication: 01 October 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 15- October 1, 2005... READERS’ FRONT; MON URGE NMSP NOT TO GIVE UP ARMS; EXILE SHAN GOVERNMENT SEEKS ALLIANCE; MON POLITICAL PRISONER DIES IN PRISON; 2 MILLENIA OF MON TRADITION; JUST THE BASICS FOR BURMESE MIGRANTS; GAS LEAK NEAR MON VILLAGE; CARS FOR A TOTAL SURRENDER; MEMORIAL SERVICE FOR DR. VUM SON; LOVE IS A MANY SPLENDOUR THING: KANBAWZA WIN.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (93K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 October 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 95
          Date of publication: 14 September 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 1-14, 2005... READERS' FRONT; VILLAGERS BEATEN AND FINED FOR NOT SPEAKING BURMESE; SPDC'S LAND CONFISCATION FOR ARMY VILLAGE; MON POLITICAL PRISONER AT RISK OF LOW BLOOD PRESSURE; PADDY FARMS DESTROYED DUE TO FLOODING; MON AND THAI LANGUAGES CLASS OPEN AT THE BORDER; CATTLE FROM BURMA BANNED; 20 PERSONS CONTRACT GOAT DISEASE; BURMESE JUNTA CUTS SUPPORT FOR NMSP; CHINS IN THE USA CELEBRATE 'CHIN NEW YEAR FESTIVAL'; DOWN THE RAT HOLE: ADVENTURES UNDERGROUND ON BURMA'S FRONTIERS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (77K)
          Date of entry/update: 18 September 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 94
          Date of publication: 31 August 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... August 15-31, 2005... READERS’ FRONT; MORE MIGRANTS ENTER THAILAND; UNPO MEET MEMBERS FROM BURMA; VILLAGERS FORCED TO PORTER; RUBBER TRADERS BUY UP PLANTATIONS AFTER CHANGE IN EXPORT RULES; DETAINED MON COMMUNITY LEADER RELEASED; JUNTA WAGING SECRET WAR AGAINST WA; NMSP: WILL MAINTAIN ARMED STRUGGLE; HEAVY RAINS CAUSE VILLAGERS TO EVACUATE IN KAREN STATE; FAREWELL TO ARMS: KANBAWZA WIN.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (81K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 August 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 93
          Date of publication: 12 August 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 25- August 12, 2005... READERS FRONT; NMSP’S LATE PRESIDENT NAI NONLAR REMEMBERED; QUEEN SHIN SAWBU HONOURED BY MON WOMEN; FOUNDATION STONE LAID FOR MON STUDY CENTER IN THE HEART OF THE KINGDOM; MYPO CALLS FOR DIALOGUE; MYANMAR RESHUFFLES MILITARY COMMANDERS AND MINISTERS; BE WARY AND WISE: BY KANBAWZA WIN; HEAVY RAINS CLOSE SCHOOLS, DISPLACE POOR FARMERS; UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FACE TOUGH REGULATION; THREE PAGODAS PASS REOPENS: FUEL TRANSPORT TO BURMESE SIDE; KNU BRINGS GOOD GOVERNANCE TO MERGUI-TAVOY DISTRICT.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (175K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 August 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 92
          Date of publication: 22 July 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 7-22, 2005... READERS FRONT; DETAINEES INTERROGATED AFTER RANGOON EXPLOSION; MON NATIONAL SCHOOL MOVED BY SPDC; SOLDIER GETS 7 YEARS FOR RAPE; REMAINING UNLICENSED VEHICLES DOCUMENTED; ISLAND DWELLERS TO BE AFFECTED BY SALWEEN DAM PROJECT; TRADE DROPS IN MYAWADIl FOOD PRICES RISE; THREE PAGODAS PASS BORDER TEMPORARILY OPENED; DVB TV GAINS ATTANTION AMONG MON COMMUNITY; U.S MON BLEND INTO MELTING POT.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (93K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 July 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 91
          Date of publication: 06 July 2005
          Description/subject: Newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... June 16-July 6, 2005... READERS FRONT; PROUD TO BE MON SAYS FORMER THAI PM; MON JOINS UNPO ASSEMBLY; MIGRANTS FROM THREE PAGODAS ARRESTED; VILLAGER BEATEN TO DEATH; SOUTHERN BURMA FACES LABOUR SHORTAGE IN AGRICULTURE; OPPOSITION SHOULD FOCUS ON GENERAL MAUNG AYE; THREE PAGODAS PASS BORDER TO OPEN; BURMA ARMY INTRUDES REFUGEE CAMP.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao Newsgroup
          Format/size: html (42K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 July 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 90
          Date of publication: 14 June 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... May 26-June 14, 2005... BASIC EDUCATION FEES INCREASED; MIGRANTS AND THE ONSLAUGHT OF MALARIA; RICE EXTORTION FOR ARMY FOOD SUPPLY; A tribute to Nai Panthar; FORCED SECURITY ALONG YADANA PIPELINE ROAD; WILL EQUAL RIGHTS EXIST IF BURMA IS A DEMOCRACY? racism: JUNTA’S BIGGEST WEAPON in WAR; DIALOGUE WITH A SHAN LEADER, H.R.H HSO KHAN PHA; THAI ARREST MIGRANTS AT THREE PAGODAS PASS; READERS FRONT.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (74K)
          Date of entry/update: 14 June 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 89
          Date of publication: 25 May 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... April May 11-25, 2005... READERS’ FRONT; RUMORS SPREAD ON MON SURRENDER; COVERING THEIR TRACKS: SPDC HIDES CARS; WORLD HITS ON KAOWAO; REMITTANCES: A TOOL FOR DEVELOPMENT; SHAN STATE ARMIES MERGE TO FIGHT MILITARY GOVERNMENT; FORMING THE UNION WITHOUT THE MYANMAR / BURMAN; SURRENDER OR FIGHT: DKBA FACE DILEMMA; THAI GOV’T URGED TO REVIEW BAN ON BURMA’S TIMBER; FREE AND INDEPENDENT BURMESE TV LAUNCHED.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (83K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 May 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 88
          Date of publication: 10 May 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... April 22 - May 10, 2005... READERS’ FRONT; SPDC URGED TO FORM GENUINE UNION; 4th ETHNIC NATIONALITIES’ CONFERENCE; MON POP MUSIC SHOWCASED BY BURMESE; MIGRANTS DETAINED IN BORDER TOWN; REFUGEE ROAD SHUT DOWN; MONS HONOUR STUDENT FOR EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT; CANADIAN MON EXTEND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES; IT IS NOT THAT SIMPLE: BO KYAW NYEIN; WHEN THE CIVILIZED MEET THE UNCIVILIZED; ON SHAN DELARATION.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (131K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 May 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 87
          Date of publication: 21 April 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... April 5-21, 2005... READERS’ FRONT; USDA PLANS FOR COMING ELECTION; MON VILLAGERS KILLED BY ARMED GROUP; FARMLAND SEIZED: BA’S DESTRUCTIVE LAND USE POLICY; Rubber price drops after export ban To China; GRADUATION OF MON SUMMER LITERACRY CLASS; MIXED REACTIONS FOR INDEPENDENCE DECLARATION; SDU STATEMENT ON DECLARATION OF SHAN STATE INDEPENDENCE. SONGKRAN NEW YEAR FESTIVAL IN FINLAND CALLING FOR LECTURERS AND TUTORS
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (40K)
          Date of entry/update: 27 April 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 86
          Date of publication: 04 April 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... March 20- April 4, 2005... WOMEN SAVVY IN BUSINESS; MON LEADER NAI AUNG TIN FOLLOWS LATE PRESIDENT; ARE THEY HOMO SAPIENS? BY KANBAWZA WIN; INDEPENDENCE OR FEDERALISM? HARN YAWNGHWE; BURMA’S GOVERNMENT CLOSES TWO PRIVATE BANKS; VEHICLE PRICE GOES DOWN; DISPUTED HOUSES AT THREE PAGODAS PASS RELOCATED; BOMB EXPLODES AT THREE PAGODAS PASS BORDER; LOCAL TYRANT KILLED BY UNKNOWN GUNMAN; READERS’FRONT.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News
          Format/size: html (77K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 April 2005


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS NO. 85
          Date of publication: 20 March 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... March 2-20, 2005... READERS' FRONT; NEW LEADERS OF NMSP SEEN AS MODERATES; NMSP PRESIDENT NAI HTIN PASSES AWAY; SOUTHERN YE: HORROR, HUMANITY HOPE? AGRICULTURE EMPLOYEES GET SACKED BY SPDC; NAI SHWE KYIN'S MEMORIAL LIBRARY OPENS; TWO MPs ARRESTED BY JUNTA; ETHNIC COUNCIL WARNED JUNTA. IRISH FOREIGN MINISTER MEETS EBO DIRECTOR FORGOTTEN HEROINE: BY CHAM TOIK
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (95K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 84
          Date of publication: 01 March 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... February 16-March 1, 2005... READERS’ FRONT; NMSP: MORE DIALOGUE WITH JUNTA; PRESIDENT’S HEALTH RAISES CONCERN; 58th INTERNATIONAL MON NATIONAL DAY; CHIN COMMEMORATE NATIONAL DAY; MON GUERRILLA LEADERS SEEKS SAFE HAVEN; THE IMPACT OF ARMED CONFLICT ON BURMA’S CHILDREN; ASIAN INDIGENOUS DELEGATES ASSERT RIGHTS; BURMESE PROTESTERS ARRESTED IN MALAYSIA; WE CAN FIGHT ANOTHER 50 YEARS: MYANMAR REBEL CHIEF.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (104K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 March 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 83
          Date of publication: 05 February 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... January 28-February 15, 2005... READERS’ FRONT; MUL PUBLISHES LEADER’S BIO; UPCOMING MON NATIONAL DAY; MON CULTURE VCD IN THE MARKET; BURMA’S LONGEST BRIDGE OPENS; GIRLS RAPED AND BOYFRIEND MURDERED; CHILD SOLDIERS ON FRONTLINE; SPDC SOLDIER KILLED BY KNU LANDMINE; TSUNAMI AND FORGOTTEN VICTIMS; DETAINED SHAN LEADERS’ FATE STILL IN LIMBO; TOP GENERALS LOCKED IN POWER STRUGGLE.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao Newsgroup
          Format/size: html (113K)
          Date of entry/update: 15 February 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS No. 82
          Date of publication: 27 January 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... January 8 -27, 2005... READERS’ FRONT; TSUNAMI MON VICTIMS LIKELY TO INCREASE; SECOND MON CULTURE VCD COMING SOON; KAOWAO EXTENDS HARD COPIES; A HUNDRED FAMILIES FLED TO MON RESETTLEMENT CAMP; YOUNG PEOPLE EXPLOITED FOR SEX; FORCED LABOUR CAMPAIGN TO BUILD HIGH SCHOOLS; ARMY COLLECTS BRIBES FOR ILLEGAL CARS; WANTED REBEL POSTERS ON SALE; NATIONAL CONVENTION OR NATIONAL REFERE3NDUM.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (47K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 January 2005


          Title: KAOWAO NEWS NO. 81
          Date of publication: 05 January 2005
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... December 22, 2004- January 5, 2005... TSUNAMI: WORLDWIDE CONCERN FOR BURMA; MON VILLAGE GOES UP IN FLAMES; FRANCE’S OIL GIANT Total AND HUMAN RIGHTS; TIGHTENED SECURITY AFTER EXPLOSION; PIPELINE SECURITY ROUND UP PORTERS FOR OFFENSIVES; MALAYSIA CRACKDOWN DRIVES THOUSANDS HOME; Migrant Workers Conference Held in Thailand; SHAN DRAFT CHAPTER PRESENTED FOR TEAM APPROVAL; THAI DEVOTEES HONOR WAT PROK ABBOT; MYANMAR’S LOW OFFICIAL DEATH TOLL FROM TSUNAMI QUESTIONED.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (111K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS NO. 80
          Date of publication: 21 December 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... December 9-21, 2004... READERS’ FRONT; LIVING STANDARD IMPROVES IN MONLAND; ILLEGAL CASH COW business; Forced labor still exists in Karen state; SPDC CASHES IN ON SEIZED CARS; theives prey on NAPPING women; FORGOTTEN MON REFUGEES IN MALAYSIA; PRESERVING A CENTURIES OLD TRADITON; QUEEN CHAMMA DEVI WRAPS UP THE KING’S BIRTHDAY; MON GALA ON KING’S BIRTHDAY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (93K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS NO. 79
          Date of publication: 08 December 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... November 28-December 8, 2004... YAA BAA MAGIC; corruption SPREADS AFTER MI loses control; rising FUEL price hits Travelers’ pockets; HRP declined overture from Burmese military; YOUTHS LEAD MON NATIONAL DAY; CANADIAN FOREIGN POLICY REVIEWED BY BURMA FORUM; NCGUB PRIME MINISTER VISITS FINLAND; THE DIVERSE MINDSETS OF BURMESE POLITICAL CULTURES; CHINS CELEBRATE CENTENNIAL YEAR OF CHRISTIANITY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (125K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 December 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS NO. 78
          Date of publication: 25 November 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... November 8-25, 2004... DEPORTATION OR PROTECTION FOR GUERRILLA LEADER; MON COMMUNITY RIGHTS IN THAI VERSION; DETAINED VILLAGERS SEEK HAVEN IN THE EAST; THE BURMESE WAY: A THOUSAND YEAR OLD WAY OF THINKING; SPEAK BURMESE OR PAY THE PRICE; BURMA ARMY TOLD TO DISARM DKBA TROOPS; DKBA: NEVER SURRENDER TO SPDC; THE DIVERSE MINDSETS OF BURMESE POLITICAL CULTURES; MALAYSIA LEGISLATURE CONDEMNS TAK BAI TRAGEDY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (96K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 December 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS NO. 77
          Date of publication: 07 November 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 25- November 7, 2004... READERS’ FRONT; PLAYING THE WAITING GAME; NMSP LEADERS ON THE CAMPAIGN TRAIL; NEW LEADERSHIP STYMIED OVER BUSINESS COMMUNITY; KYAIKAMORT FESITVAL KICKS OFF WITH A BLAST; PRESSURE ON DKBA: YABA PILLS SIEZED BY THAI; MORE MONLAND LOST TO BURMA ARMY; MALAYSIA TO RECOGNIZE MYANMAR MUSLIM REFUGEES; DIVERSE MINDSETS OF BURMESE POLITICAL CULTURES; KNU, SHOW SOME HONESTY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (95K)
          Date of entry/update: 08 November 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS NO. 76
          Date of publication: 24 October 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September October 9-24, 2004... READERS' FRONT; SPDC: CEASE-FIRE WILL BE MAINTAINED; FORCED LABOUR AND ABUSES IN YE RURAL AREA; BURMA ARMY'S TRAVEL BAN; BUY CALENDAR OR SUPPORT THATCH FOR THE ARMY; USDA MEMBERSHIP ON THE INCREASE; MON TEACHER WARNED BY MILLITARY INTELLIGENCE; BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION IN HONOR FOR DR. SU-ED; MYANMAR 'S NEW PM LINKED TO SUU KYI ATTACK; FBC URGES LEADER FOR ENDING 14 YEARS OF DEADLOCK.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (100K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 November 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 75
          Date of publication: 07 October 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 23 - October 7, 2004... READERS’ FRONT; MUL URGES FULL INVESTIGATION OF ATTACK ON CAMP; YOUTHS WARNED ABOUT LEAKS TO NEWS MEDIA; FORCED LABOURERS FINED FOR SHOWING UP LATE; NEW MON STATE PARTY CLOSELY MONITORED; NMSP CHECKPOINT RAIDED BY BURMA ARMY; SUSPICIOUS BA TARGET ALLEDGED REBEL FAMILIES; THAI RAMAN ASSOCIATION TO HONOUR FOUNDER; BURMESE COUPLE CAMPS OUTSIDE UNHCR; ASIA-EUROPE FORUM GROWS, MYANAR IRRITATES.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (65K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 74
          Date of publication: 20 September 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 1- 20, 2004... READERS’ FRONT; THAI BOSSES KILLED BY MIGRANT FISHERMEN; FRENCH JUDGE REJECTS APPEAL TO CLOSE TOTAL’S CASE; WHO WILL BE BELIEVED? LAWI WENG; BURMA ARMY TORCHES HOUSE AFTER AMBUSH; CAUGHT IN THE CROSSFIRE: VILLAGERS KILLED AND ARRESTED; FUNDS RAISED FOR MON TEMPLE IN CANADA; VILLAGERS TAXED TO PAY TEACHERS' SALARIES; 57TH MON ARMED RESISTANCE DAY CELEBRATED; MYANMAR RESHUFFLES CABINET.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (68K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 September 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 73
          Date of publication: 27 August 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... August 9-27, 2004... READERS’ FRONT; NMSP REMAINS OPTIMISTIC ON CEASE-FIRE; FORCED LABOUR AFTER GENERAL MAUNG BO’S VISIT; LAND CONFISCATED FOR INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS; USDA SAY TEACHING MON A BARRIER FOR RECONCILIATION; SEX IN THE BORDER TOWN; MON CANADIAN REMEMBER LATE LEADER NAI NON LAR; MIN THU WUN: BURMESE LITERARY PIONEER DIES; NO PEACE FOR INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN BURMA.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (69K)
          Date of entry/update: 27 August 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 72
          Date of publication: 08 August 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 20-August 8, 2004... READERS’ FRONT; HUMAN TRAFFICKING: A BOON FOR OPPORTUNISTS; BURMA’S DEPLETING FORESTS: TEAK TRANSPORTED TO THE BORDER; NGO accuse Total of HR abuses; Despite talking peace fighting continues; MONEY THIRSTY CHECKPOINTS; CHILDREN: VICTIMS OF SERIOUS FLU; FIVE VEHICLES SEIZED IN MON STATE; THE EPIC STRUGGLE OF 8888: KANBAWZA WIN; KAREN CULTURE STILL ALIVE IN VANCOUVER; US SENATORS ASK POWELL TO EXPEL MYANMAR ENVOY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (106K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 August 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 71
          Date of publication: 19 July 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 4-19, 2004... READER’S FRONT; NMSP MEMBERS ARRESTED WHILE COLLECTING FUNDS; MON RESETTLEMENT SITES SWELLS TO MORE THAN 5,000 IDP; RICE FIELDS FLOODED OUT BY HEAVY RAINS; MON CANADIAN PITCH IN FOR BUDDHIST TEMPLE; SUMMER CLASS FOR MON CANADIAN CHILDREN; BURMA FORUM IN CANADA; SUU KYI ABSENT FROM MARTYR’S DAY CEREMONY; AJAR WAT SINGH PASSES AWAY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (56K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 August 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 70
          Date of publication: 03 July 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... June 17- July 3, 2004... READER’S FRONT; STEP OUT OF LINE AND YOU’LL BE SHOT; THE JUNTA’S WAY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT; FORCED LABOUR FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION; SALWEEN RIVER BAND SET TO TAKE THE STAGE; JULIA TRYBE THAI/BURMESE BORDER TOUR BENEFIT; CHALLENGING THE 9-YEAR OLD CEASE FIRE AGREEMENT; MON OPINION SPLIT OVER NATIONAL CONVENTION; FOREST AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT NOT A CONCERN; PASSENGERS HELD UP BY BOMB THREAT.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (45K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 July 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 69
          Date of publication: 16 June 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... June 2-16, 2004... READER'S FRONT;; POOR FORCED TO PAY FOR BASIC EDUCATION; CONSCRIPTED VOLUNTEER FOR SCHOOL; WAITING MIGRANTS SUFFER FROM MALARIA; FORCED LABOUR FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION; ARMY CONFISCATED 800 ACRES FROM VILLAGERS; VILLAGERS ABDUCTED AND KILLED BY BURMA ARMY; TV LICENSE IN MON STATE; CIVILIANS WELCOME IMPRISONED LEADERS; KAREN UNITY SEMINAR HELD AT THE BORDER; VIETNAM SEEKS TO MEND EU ASIA RIFT OVER MYANMAR.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (51K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 July 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 68
          Date of publication: 01 June 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... May 16 –June 1, 2004... CEASE FIRE GROUPS MUZZLED AT THE NATIONAL CONVENTION; MON LEADERSHIP MEETING BOYCOTTS CONVENTION;; SPDC’S HAND OF CORRUPTION; MON NATIONAL SCHOOLS COME UNDER FIRE; HIGH PRICE FOR MOTORBIKE LICENCE; HISTORY ATTRACTS MON STUDENTS; AUNG SAN SUU KYI MARKS YEAR IN DETENTION; BURMESE JOB HUNTERS AWAIT BORDER RUN; FLOODING RAINS CLAIM LIVES AT THREE PAGODAS; READERS’ FRONT.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (39K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 June 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 67
          Date of publication: 15 May 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... May 1- 15, 2004... READERS’ FRONT; MON FORCED OUT OF THEIR SCHOOLS; FAT CATS RULE THE VILLAGE: THE POWER OF MONEY; BURMA ARMY’S BUSINESS AS USUAL; SMUGGLING VEHICLES SEIZED IN YE; HUNDREDS OF MIGRANT WORKERS WAITING AT THE BORDER; THAILAND'S CYCLE OF TRAFFICKING; WHAT SHOULD THEY DO?; MON TO JOIN IN NATIONAL CONVENTION; MYANMAR UNDER FIRE FOR TALKS WITHOUT SUU KYI; UNITED NATIONS URGES LAST MINUTE DEAL.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (88K)
          Date of entry/update: 16 May 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 66
          Date of publication: 28 April 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... April 10- 28, 2004... READERS’ FRONT; MILITARY BANS MON NATIONAL SCHOOL IN YE; NATIONAL CONVENTION: A JUNTA PLAYING GAME; WOMEN CALL FOR DIALOGUE BEFORE NATIONAL CONVENTION; ANNUAL SUMMER LITERACY CLASS HELD; MATERNAL AND CHILD WELFARE ORDERED TO FORM; ASIAN HIGHWAY WOULD LINK BURMA; DISCUSSION ON SANCTIONS MISS THE MARK; GENERAL BO MYA’S PEACE MISSION TO RANGOON; MON SONGKRAN IN NORTH AMERICA
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (53K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 April 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 65
          Date of publication: 07 April 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... March 23- April 7, 2004... READER’S FRONT; AIDS THREAT GROWING IN SOUTHERN MON STATE; NMSP DEFENDS AGAINST CAR SMUGGLING ACCUSATION; NOTHING TO SHOW AFTER 9 YEARS OF CEASE-FIRE; KILLING OF MON OUTRAGE EXILE COMMUNITY; LICENSE RENEWAL FOR MOTORCYCLES IN MON STATE; CANADIAN ACTIVISTS PUSH FOR BURMA DEMOCRACY; EURO-MON PLAN FOR SECOND MEETING; TALKS GIVE NEW HOPE FOR PROGRESS; MOVE OVER, BAYINTNAUNG, SAY CEASEFIRE LEADERS; REFUGEE FIRE BOMBS GUT BURMA’S MALAYSIA EMBASSY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (68K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 April 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 64
          Date of publication: 22 March 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... March 7- 22, 2004 READER’S FRONT; MON PREPARE FOR National Convention; THUNDER VICTORY OPERATION NO. 3: KILLING CONTINUES; TRAPPED LIKE MICE: REVENGE POLITICS; MON YOUTH SELECTED FOR YOUTH PARLIAMENT; ETHNIC NATIONALITIES COUNCIL: STRUGGLE AGAINST DENIAL; HUMAN RIGHT’S DAY COMMEMORATED INSIDE BURMA; MP FROM DEPAYIN MASSACRE TO VISIT CANADA; BUSH CAMPAIGN SELLS JACKET FROM PUNISHED MYANMAR.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (66K)
          Date of entry/update: 22 March 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 63
          Date of publication: 06 March 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... February 26 – March 6, 2004... READER’S FRONT; LANDMINE USE BY BOTH PARTIES; LAMINE VILLAGE PROMOTED TO TOWN; MOULMEIN POLICE FORCE: SHOW ME THE MONEY; FIGHTING BETWEEN DKBA AND KNU; HUMAN TRAFICKKING THE ONLY BUSINESS IN TOWN; BUDDHISM EXAM IN THE CAPITAL; BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION FOR REVERED MONK; MON NATIONAL DAY IN NORTH AMERICA; SCHOLAR: IDP NOT HUMANITARIAN CRISIS; CAUTIOUS OPTIMISM OVER LATEST UN BROKERING.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (82K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 March 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 62
          Date of publication: 25 February 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... February 8-25, 2004... READER’S FRONT; BREAKAWAY LEADER SEEKS OPINION FOR TALK; CHOLERA CLAIMS SIX PEOPLE AT THE BORDER; MON LEADER NAI DHAMMA NAY HAS PASSED AWAY; DEPORTED WORKERS DIE IN CAR ACCIDENT; MONS GATHER AT SENIOR ABBOT’S CREMATION; CHIN POLITICAL PARTIES COME TOGETHER; ETHNIC ORGANIZATIONS CALL FOR UNITY; BURMESE URGED TO BE REALISTIC; TRIPARTITE DIALOGUE AND NATIONAL CONVENTION; MON NATIONAL DAY IN LONDON; LOGGING MENACE WORLD’S HOTTEST BIODIVERSITY SPOTS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (75K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 February 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 61
          Date of publication: 08 February 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... January 23 – February 8, 2004 READER’S FRONT; BURMESE ARMY PERPETUATES RAPE; 57TH MON NATIONAL DAY WORLDWIDE; HR GROUP BLAMES ARMY OFFENSIVE; FARMERS FED UP WITH JUNTA; THIRD ETHNIC NATIONALITY SEMINAR HELD; THE MILITARY’S ‘ROADMAP’ AS A CATALYST; ON DIVIDE AND RULE POLICY: BY BASAW KHIN; A NONVIOLENT YOKE; JUNTA SACKS CABINET MINISTER.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (123K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 February 2004


          Title: JOINT STATEMENT OF THE WORLDWIDE MON COMMUNITIES ON THE 57th ANNIVERSARY OF MON NATIONAL DAY
          Date of publication: 06 February 2004
          Description/subject: February 6, 2004: "Among the peoples who live in Burma today, the Mons are considered to be the oldest. The Mon people established their own sovereign kingdoms and enjoyed freedom and prosperity for many centuries before the modern era began. Their civilization was among the most distinctive and influential in pre-colonial Southeast Asia. Significant aspects of the language, art and architecture, political and legal arrangements, and, above all, the religion of the great Burman and Thai civilizations were derived from the Mon society which preceded them and which acted as a vector in the transmission of Theravada Buddhism and Indianized political culture to the region..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (22K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 February 2004


          Title: RAPE USED AS WEAPON DURING MILITARY OFFENSIVE
          Date of publication: 31 January 2004
          Description/subject: Mon State at War: January 31, Sangkhalaburi -- "The Burmese Army used rape as a weapon of war against civilians during military operation to wipe out Mon guerrillas in southern Ye, Mon State. Both married and unmarried women from Mon villages near the patrolled areas of Light Infantry Battalion No. 299 have been forced by the army commanders to sleep with them at night according to local sources..."
          Author/creator: Taramon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 60
          Date of publication: 24 January 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... January 6-23, 2004... Best wishes for a very happy Year of the Monkey!... READER’S FRONT; VILLAGERS TORTURED FOR NOT SPEAKING BURMESE; PRO RANGOON TROOPS CLASH DURING CEASE-FIRE TALKS; ETHNIC CONFLICT TARGETED AT BURMA DONOR FORUM; CHOLERA SPREADS ALONG THE BORDER; MON DANCE GAINS POPULARITY ON THAI SOIL; JUNTA DESTROYS CORN CROPS IN MUDON; DKBA SMUGGLING BUSINESS; JUNTA HOLDS HISTORIC PEACE TALKS WITH KAREN; MONKS ARRESETED FOR CURFEW VIOLATIONS; A LAND WITHOUT EVIL: NEW BOOK ON BURMA.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (53K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 January 2004


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 59
          Date of publication: 06 January 2004
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... December 21, 2003 - January 6, 2004... READER'S FRONT; CIVILIANS USED AS HUMAN SHIELDS DURING OFFENSIVE; BURMESE WAY TO MONEY LAUNDERING; ARMY OPENS FIRE ON KAREN NEW YEAR CELEBRATION; NEGOTIATING CEASE-FIRE: THE ART OF DISILLUSION IN MON STATE; SALWEEN RIVER MUSIC BAND IN THE USA; HUMAN RIGHTS ALARM OVER BLOODY DRUGS CRACKDOWN; DEMOCRACY OR FEDERALISM IN BURMA; MRC HOLDS 10TH CONFERENCE; MON CANADIAN PREPARE FOR BUDDHSIT TEMPLE; KAREN NEW YEAR IN VANCOUVER; FROM THE FIRST TO SECOND INDEPENDENCE.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (115K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 January 2004


          Title: CIVILIANS TORTURED AND KILLED DURING MILITARY OFFENSIVE
          Date of publication: 29 December 2003
          Description/subject: Ye – "Civilians are abducted and killed by the Burmese Army during military operation against guerrillas in southern Mon State and northern Tenasserim Division. According to the witness, 19 villagers including Buddhist monks and village headmen were arrested for interrogation three days ago. Being accused as supporters of the Mon guerrilla group, those arrested were ordered to sit in the sun, beaten and tortured by the Burmese Army Regiment No. 22 led by Colonel Nyi Nyi Swe..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao and IMNA
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 29 December 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 58
          Date of publication: 20 December 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... December 1-20, 2003... READER’S FRONT; MUL WARY OF NMSP’S INVITE TO THE NATIONAL CONVENTION; ETHNIC PARTIES OPPOSE THE JUNTA’S ROAD MAP; THE INFORMATION AGE: BURMA STANDS ALONE; OBSTACLES TO ICT IN BURMA; DEATH PENALTY REVIVED TO PUNISH DISSIDENTS; 13-YEAR-OLD GIRL ASSAULTED AND RAPED BY LANDLORD; AMERICAN MON WOMEN ORGANIZE; POPPIES BLOSSOM IN THE NORTH AGAIN; SHOULD WE FORGET THE PAST? ANNAN PRESSES BURMA TO WORK ON DEMOCRACY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (171K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 57
          Date of publication: 01 December 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... November 15-December 1, 2003... READER’S FRONT; MON URGED TO JOIN National Convention; FARMERS REFUSE TO SIGN OVER LAND; YOUNG WOMEN PROP UP THE REGIME; FARMERS’ PROFITS UNDERMINED AGAIN; ABSDF GAINS SUPPORT FROM FORMER MEMBERS; MON NATIONAL DAY COMMITTEE FORMED; BURMESE APARTHEID AND MULTINATIONALS; MILITARY RULES MON STATE; EFFECT OF SANCTIONS AGAINST RANGOON WEIGHED.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (110K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 December 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 56
          Date of publication: 15 November 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... November 1-15, 2003... READER’S FRONT; LAND OWNERS PROMISED COMPENSATION; KANBAUK MYAINGKALAY GAS PIPELINE; BURMESE MIGRANTS: A THORN IN THE THAI SIDE; CONFISCATED LAND CANNOT CHANGE THE SOUL OF A NATION; STRONG CIVIL SOCIETY AND A WEAK STATE; DISPLACEMENT OF MINORITIES IGNORED; MONKS UNDER CURFEW; SUU KYI REFUSES TO ACCEPT FREEDOM; MYANMAR UNMOVED BY US SANCTIONS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html ()102K)
          Date of entry/update: 15 November 2003


          Title: MON PEOPLE STRIVE TO PRESERVE DREAM OF OWN HOMELAND
          Date of publication: 07 November 2003
          Author/creator: DENIS D. GRAY
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: AP via Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (16K)
          Date of entry/update: 16 November 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No 55
          Date of publication: 30 October 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 15-30, 2003... READERS' FRONT; HUNGER IN EASTERN BURMA BORDER; LAND CONFISCATION IN MON AREA DOCUMENTED; NEW PSYCH WARFARE; ILLEGAL FUND RAISING FOR BURMA ARMY; EQUALITY FIRST PRIORITY: MON STATE CONSTITUTION; ANTI-MUSLIM ATTACKS SPREAD TO SOUTHERN BURMA; GRASS ROOT CONFERENCE DECIDES KEY RESOLUTION; CAN WE TRUST PRIME MINISTER KHIN NYUNT? MON STUDIES CENTRE A GOAL FOR ACADEMICS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (110K)
          Date of entry/update: 30 October 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No 54
          Date of publication: 14 October 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... October 2-14, 2003... READERS' FRONT; TEACHERS JOIN DEFENSE TRAINING; SOUTHERN TROPICAL FOREST IN DANGER; ACTIVISTS DISCUSS ROAD MAP FOR DEMOCRACY; MON LANGUAGE BOOKS SCRUTINIZED; ILLEGAL TRADE AND CORRUPTION ON THAI-BURMA BORDER; A MAN WITH A MISSION: MIGRANTS GIVE BACK; THAILAND STRUGGLES TO HALT HUMAN TRAFFICKING; WILL THE ROAD MAP SOLVE PROBLEMS IN BURMA? HAPPY IN INSEIN.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (97K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 October 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No 53
          Date of publication: 01 October 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 18- October 1, 2003... READERS' FRONT; FIGHTING CONTINUES IN SOUTHERN YE; MON MP CALLS ON EU TO PRESSURE MILITARY REGIME; OVER 1,400 FAMILIES RELOCATED FOR NEW RAILWAY STATION; MON TEXT BOOK COMMITTEE MEETS; GEETA-WATEE: MON BAND FORMED IN MOULMEIN; FORCED LABOUR IN BURMA, CHEAP LABOUR IN MALAYSIA; MONKS ILL TREATED DURING CRACKDOWN; SUU KYI RECUPERATES UNDER HOUSE ARREST; DEMOCRATIZE MYANMAR BY 2006: UN.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (92K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 October 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No 52
          Date of publication: 17 September 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... September 4-17, 2003... READERS' FRONT; SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR’S REPORT FAILS; MON PRISONERS DENIED ACCESS; DISPLACED FLOCK TO THE BORDER; JUNTA LIES ON EDUCATION; U.N. ENVOY SEEKS TO VISIT DEMOCRACY LEADER; REPLY TO CONTAGIOUS DISEASE OF ROAD MAP; A ROAD MAP TO DELUSION OR EQUALITY; NEOLIBERALISM VS. BUDDHISM; DEPORTED MONKS SHOCK MON IN EXILE; SOROS FUNDS PLAN TO BLOCK BUSH.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (163K)
          Date of entry/update: 18 September 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No 51
          Date of publication: 03 September 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... August 19 - September 3, 2003... READERS' FRONT; FATE OF GUERRILLA LEADER UNKNOWN; FORCED VOLUNTEERS FOR BURMA ARMY; ANTI-DEMOCRACY DEATH SQUADS; MON CEASE-FIRE LEADERS IN RANGOON; From Tri-partite Dialogue to Tri-Offensive Strategy; POWER RESHUFFLE IN BURMA; JUNTA DENIES SUU KYI ON HUNGER STRIKE; BUDDHIST MONKS ARRESTED AND DISROBED; JESUITS AID CHIN REFUGEES IN JUNGLE; EURO-MON MEET DURING SUMMER
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (123K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 September 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 50
          Date of publication: 18 August 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READERS' FRONT; MON NOT WORRIED BY U.S. SANCTIONS ; GIRL PORTER KILLED BY LAND MINE; CEASE-FIRE GROUP UNDER A CLOSE EYE; GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES FORCED INTO MILITARY TRAINING; NMSP VOICE SOFT ON RESISTANCE DAY; RESISTANCE: A BITTER EXPERIENCE FOR THE MON PEOPLE; REVOLUTION, CEASE-FIRE AND DEMOCRACY IN MONLAND; OVERSEAS MON STUDENTS ELECT NEW BODY; BUDDHIST MONKS: STAY AWAY FROM POLITICS; WORLDWIDE PROTEST FOR 15TH ANNIVERSARY OF 8888; FUNDS FOR MON TEMPLE IN CANADA.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (109K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 August 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 49
          Date of publication: 03 August 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... July 21 - August 3, 2003... READERS' FRONT; MON POLITICIANS IN PEGU ARRESTED; ACTIVISTS ACCUSED OF STATE ASSASSINATION; NO WORK PERMIT FOR NEW MIGRANT WORKERS; 5-MINUTE TOUCH; OPPOSITION OFFICES CLOSE, ROAD MAP PITCH CONTINUES; MYANMAR DEFIANT ON SUU KYI; VIRTUAL ROUNDTABLE: DIASPORA NEEDS DYNAMIC LEADERSHIP; TALK IN RANGOON: WAR ON THE BORDER; NEW MON JOURNALS; MON LANGUAGE COURSE AT SILAPAKON UNIVERSITY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (154K)
          Date of entry/update: 04 August 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 48
          Date of publication: 21 July 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... June July 8-21, 2003... READERS' FRONT; MON LEADER CALLS FOR INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION; DISPLACED PEOPLE BEYOND THE BORDER; CIVILIANS LOOTED AND KILLED BY ARMED GROUPS; POPULATION TRANSFER INTO MON STATE; LAND CONFISCATION STRIKES FEAR IN FARMERS; BOMB EXPLODES IN MOULMEIN; MYANMAR SANCTION BILL READY FOR SIGNING; EXILED GOVERNMENT WELCOMES US SANCTIONS; NON-PROFIT EDUCATION IN MON STATE; EXILED ARAKAN LEADER PASSES; DIASPORA NEEDS DYNAMIC LEADERSHIP: BY KANBAWZA WIN.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (137K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 July 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 47
          Date of publication: 06 July 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma...June 22-July 7, 2003... READERS' FRONT; MON CEASE-FIRE ON THE WANE; VILLAGERS FLEE MILITARY TRAINING; MONKS FORCED TO AVOID POLITICS; COUNTER INSURGENCY EXPANDS IN YE; FARMERS PROTEST FOR THEIR RIGHTS; CIVILIANS BLAMED FOR INCOMPLETE ROAD; MYANMAR OFFICIAL WANTS TO SOLVE SUU KYI ISSUE; RECITING MON LITREATURE IN NORTH AMERICA; FISHERY WORKERS ON THE RUN.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (119K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 July 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 46
          Date of publication: 21 June 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... June 11-21, 2003... READERS' FRONT; CEASE-FIRE GROUP WARNED TO CLAM UP; STUDENTS MADE TO PAY HIGHER TUITION FEE; EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF BLACK FRIDAY; ENDANGERED HERITAGE GROWS ON THAI SOIL; BURMA AWARENESS IN CANADA; NEW ZEALAND URGED FOR MORE ACTION; CHINA AND INDIA TARGETED FOR BURMA’S DEMOCRACY; CHIN MEETING PROMOTES PUBLIC PARTICIPATION; SOCIAL WELL BEING OF WOMEN UNDER THREAT; MON CEASE-FIRE: A NO WIN SITUATION.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (69k)
          Date of entry/update: 21 June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 45
          Date of publication: 10 June 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READERS' FRONT; EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF MAY 30; LAND CONFISCATION FOR ARTILLERY REGIMENT; REFUGEE MONKS SEEK PROTECTION; MORE YOUTHS IN THE CAPITAL LEARN MON; INTERVIEW: AN EVENING WITH DR. KANBAWZA WIN; STUDENTS FORM MASS MOVEMENT OPERATION COMMITTEE; PRO RANGOON INVOLVED IN ILLEGAL LOGGING; THE FIRST PRINTING PRESS IN MONLAND; FOUNDATION OF NATIONAL UNITY; ILO AND FORCED LABOUR IN BURMA.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (138K)
          Date of entry/update: June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 44
          Date of publication: 29 May 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READERS’ FRONT; MONS FLEE TO REFUGEE CAMP; ARMY ISSUES IDENTIFICATION CARDS; JUNTA DISROBES MONKS IN PEGU; MON DRAFT STATE CONSTITUTION; OVERSEAS MON REMEMBER THEIR SOVEREIGNTY; KAO WAO VIRTUAL ROUNDTABLE: DOES BURMA NEED THE U.S?; IN PURSUIT OF CORRUPTION; MONKS CONFRONT LOCAL POLICE FORCE; EARN ABROAD, SPEND AT HOME; MIGRANT WORKERS ATTACKED BY MAFIA.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (105K)
          Date of entry/update: 30 May 2003


          Title: JOINT-STATEMENT ON 246TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FALLEN DAY OF MON SOVEREIGN KINGDOM (HONGSAWATOI)
          Date of publication: 23 May 2003
          Description/subject: "Today is the 246th anniversary of the fallen day of our Mon sovereign kingdom, known as Hongsawatoi or Pegu, which covered the whole of today's Lower Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (19K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 May 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 43
          Date of publication: 13 May 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READERS' FRONT; VILLAGERS CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF BATTLE; OVERSEAS MONS URGED TO STUDY POLITICS; PORTERS USED FOR ARMY TRANSFER; GROUP FORMED TO BLOCK DEMOCRACY MOVEMENT; RAINSTORM WIPES OUT REFUGEE CAMP; FORCED LABOUR FOR ARMY CAMP; KAO WAO VIRTUAL ROUNDTABLE: DOES BURMA NEED THE U.S?; INTERVIEW WITH PON NYA MON; A MAN FOR ALL SEASONS: BY KUN BOP HTAW; RUN AWAY WORKER HIT BY TRAIN.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (139K)
          Date of entry/update: 14 May 2003


          Title: Mon Language in Thailand: The endangered heritage
          Date of publication: 11 May 2003
          Description/subject: "This paper will give the picture of Mon language situation in Thailand both spoken and written language from the earliest time to the present day. The written language will include inscriptions, palm leaf manuscripts, and printed books..."
          Author/creator: Paphatsaun Thianpanya,
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (60K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 May 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 42
          Date of publication: 22 April 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READER’S FRONT; MON PRISONER SUFFERS STROKE; CIVILIANS KILLED AT PRO REGIME CONCERT; DKBA EXPANDS INTO MON STATE; SEX AND DRINK IN CITY; GAS PIPELINES DESTROYED BY KAREN REBELS; DRUGS AND GAMBLING AT THE CAMPUS; RESTRICTION ON MON LANGUAGE PUBLICATION; SHOW ME THE MONEY; CHECK-POINTS ALONG THE RAILWAY OF DEATH LINE; MON NEW YEAR IN NORTH AMERICA.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (60K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 April 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 41
          Date of publication: 10 April 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... March 27-April 10, 2003... READER’S FRONT; NEW MON STATE PARTY REFORMED; REFUGEES TORTURE BY BURMESE ARMY; OLD MAN BEATEN FOR NOT SELLING RICE; MOULMEIN STUDENTS CLASH WITH POLICE; LAND CONFISCATION FOR POLICE STATION; MON MUSIC THRIVES DESPITE ASSIMILATION; ARAKAN YOUTHS COORDINATE; LOST IN THE WESTERN BORDER; CANADIAN MON WOMEN ORGANIZAION.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (62K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 April 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 40
          Date of publication: 26 March 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READER’S FRONT; CEASE-FIRE POLICY UNCHANGED AFTER DEATH OF MON LEADER; MONS EXCLUDED AMONG POLITICAL PRISONERS; OVERSEAS MONS REMEMBER NAI SHWE KYIN; OCEAN OF MOURNERS ATTEND MON LEADER’S FUNERAL; FARMERS FORCED TO SELL PADDY; COUNTER INSURGENCY GROUPS DISTURB GRADUATION CEREMONY; MAFIA ROB MON GIRL IN MARKET PLACE; THE POOR FORCED TO CLEAN BORDER TOWN; STUDENTS PAY FOR REPAIRING GOVERNMENT SCHOOL; SPIES SNEAK SEX FROM CHILD PROSTITUTES; ATHENS SUPPORTS NON-BURMANS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (64K)
          Date of entry/update: 27 March 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 39
          Date of publication: 15 March 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READER’S FRONT; ARMY BANS SELLING OF PRODUCTS; POLICE STAB MEMBERS OF NATIONAL DAY COMMITTEE; DRUNKEN MAJOR BEATS LOCAL; USDA TRAIN VILLAGERS TO LIE TO INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS; RANGOON PLANS TRADE EXPANSION; REGIME FAILS TO LOBBY THE UNITED STATES; THE TRADITIONAL KOWTOW: BY KANBAWZA WIN; SEXUAL VIOLENCE VOICED BY WOMEN GROUP; ONE MAN, ONE FLAG: PRESIDENT OF NEW MON STATE PARTY DIES; CANADIAN URGED FOR SUPPORT.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (56K)
          Date of entry/update: 16 March 2003


          Title: Condolences
          Date of publication: 07 March 2003
          Description/subject: Letter of condolence on the death of Nai Shwe Kyin from the Kachin National Organisation (KIO) to members of the New Mon State Party and the People of Mon State.
          Author/creator: James Lum Dau, Deputy Chief of Foreign Affairs, KIO
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: KIO via Kao Wao News
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: PRESIDENT OF NEW MON STATE PARTY PASSED AWAY
          Date of publication: 07 March 2003
          Description/subject: "A well-known Mon national leader Nai Shwe Kyin passed away in Mon State, Burma. According to the source form New Mon State Party, the president and founder of NMSP passed away peacefully at his Myaing TharYar resident, Moulmein, capital of Mon State at 1:30 AM local time, March 7, 2003. He is 91. Nai Shwe Kyin (aka) Nai Ba Lwin, President of the New Mon State Party was born at Kawhnat, near Moulmein on March 1, 1913. He studied at Methodist mission school and graduated from Rangoon University before joining the British Navy and attained the rank of instructor..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 38
          Date of publication: 25 February 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READERS FRONT; MONS CALL FOR CHANGE; NATIONALITIES MEET ON UNION DAY; MONS WORLDWIDE JOIN NATIONAL DAY; CHIN AROUND THE WORLD CELEBRATE NATIONAL DAY; BANK CRISIS HITS BORDER TRADE; BUDDHIST EXAM SPONSORED BY SENIOR MONK; PUBLISHER OF MON POETRY ARRESTED; ANOTHER GAS EXPLOSION IN MON STATE; STATE TERRORISM USED BY JUNTA SAYS ALLIANCE; DEATH TOLL OF WAR ON DRUGS RISES; EU PRESIDENCY CRITICIZES BURMA; GENERATION OF POLITICS IN MONLAND.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (67K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: GAS PIPELINE EXPLODES IN MON STATE
          Date of publication: 17 February 2003
          Description/subject: Environmental Disaster... (Kao-Wao / Three Pagodas Pass, February 17, 2003)... "A section of a gas pipeline exploded on February 11, 2003 between 1- 2 AM local time in southern Mon State according to local source. The explosion on the Kanbauk-Myaingkalay gas pipeline occurred near La-Mine village of Northern Ye Township..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: THE JOINT STATEMENT OF WORLDWIDE MON COMMUNITES ON THE 56th ANNIVERSARY OF THE MON NATIONAL DAY, FEBRUARY 17, 2003
          Date of publication: 17 February 2003
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (22K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 37
          Date of publication: 13 February 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READERS FRONT; IMPRISONED MON LEADERS HEALTH WORSENS; ROAD TO MONLAND REOPENED; RUN WITH THE HERD; EDUCATON FESTIVAL UNDER SIEGE; KAREN RESISTANCE DAY HELD DESPITE ARMY OFFENSIVE; LEADERS UNCHANGED AFTER MON CONFERENCE; MILITARY BASE BUILT ON ISLAND; FORCED PADDY COLLECTION IN MON VILLAGES; SHAN POLITICIAN DETAINED; UPCOMING MON NATIONAL DAY IN THE WORKS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (41K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 36
          Date of publication: 29 January 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... READERS FRONT; TEACHING MON BANNED BY JUNTA; AN ORDER TO SHOOT EVERY MAN IN UNIFORM; FORCED LOGGING FOR NEW ARMY BASE; NEW MON STATE PARTY HOLDS FIFTH CONFERENCE; LICENSE TO RAPE: RUNAWAY SOLDIERS DISCLOSE; POCKET MONEY FOR NEW RECRUIT; ARMY CONFISCATED LAND FOR PRAWN PROJECT; BURMAS FORMER FIRST LADY REMEMBERED; DISSIDENTS UNDER THE THAI JUNGLE BOOT; PROTEST AT WAIVER OF EU VISA BAN ON DICTATOR,
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (49K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 35
          Date of publication: 14 January 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... JUNTA RICE STOCK BURNT BY MON ARMED GROUP; MON GROUPS URGED TO REFORM; FORCED LABOUR FOR NEW HELICOPTER FIELD; MIGRANT WORKERS ARRESTED ON HOLIDAY TRIP; THAI ARMY FIRED WARNIGN SHOTS AS BORDER WAR HEATED UP; WOMEN FRRSTRATED OVER DISTURBING SUU KYI; PALAUNG CELEBRATES FORTY YEARS OF ARMED RESISTANCE; VILLAGERS THREATENED BEFORE ICRC VISIT IN SHAN STATE; MU DANE TATMADAW: BY KANBAWZA WIN; READERS FRONT.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (57K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 34
          Date of publication: 04 January 2003
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma...No. 34, Dec 26, 2002 Jan 4, 2003... READERS FRONT; MORE LAND CONFISCATED FOR NEW BATTALION; SPDC SOLDIERS SURRENDER TO MON ARMY; DKBA ROB MON TEACHERS RESIDENCE; MORE HRP MEMBERS REJOIN NEW MON STATE PARTY; CHECK POINT BUSINESS IN SOUTHERN BURMA; MIGRANT VILLAGERS SEND TO JAIL; SPDC SOLDIERS KILLED BY KNU; MRC HOLDS NINTH CONFERENCE; MON IN CANADA PREPARE FOR NATIONAL DAY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (34K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 33
          Date of publication: 25 December 2002
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma... No. 33, December 11-25, 2002. READERS FRONT; MAN STABBED FOR NOT SPEAKING BURMESE; BURMA OPPOSITION OFFICES CLOSED; ETHNIC NATIONALITIES MEET IN BERLIN; US CHARGES MYANMAR WITH NEW RAPE ACCUSATION; SECOND CONGRESS OF WOMENS LEAGUE OF BURMA; MILITARY ALLIANCE HOLD FOURTH CONFERENCE; SILENCING THE VOICES OF TRUTH; INTERVIEW WITH COLONEL YAWD SERK; PEACE FOR BURMA ACTIVISM IN CANADA.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (59K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Pro-democracy activists under threat of arrest and deportation
          Date of publication: 23 December 2002
          Description/subject: Forum Asia... Urgent Alert... 23 December 2002... "Burmese and ethnic minority pro-democracy activists taking refuge in Thailand are being threatened with arrest and deportation to military-ruled Burma. The Thai Army’s Ninth Division has ordered all pro-democracy activists in Sangkhla Buri to leave Thailand immediately despite evidence that the activists are likely to face persecution if forced back into Burma...."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA) via Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: February 2003


          Title: MON YOUTH OFFICE RAIDED BY THAI AUTHORITIES
          Date of publication: 21 December 2002
          Description/subject: Security Alert... (Kao-Wao, December 21, 2002)... "The Mon Youth Progressive Organization (MYPO) office at Sangkhalaburi, Karnchanaburi Province of western Thailand was raided by Thai army on December 19, 2002..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 32
          Date of publication: 10 December 2002
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma. No. 32, November 28- December 10, 2002. READERS FRONT; VILLAGERS KILLED BY RAMPANT SHOOTING; POLICE OFFICER RELEASED BY SPLINTER GROUP; BURMAS DENIAL SEND AIDS TOWARD THE BRINK; JOINT ASSOCIATION OPENED AT THREE PAGODAS BORDER; BUSINESS OVER THE RIVER KWAI BRIDGE; CURFEW IN WESTERN BURMA; MON NOT ALLOWED TO SPEAK; BREAK AWAY GROUP JOINS NEW MON STATE PARTY; MON CANADIAN ASSOCIATION; BURMESE NATIONAL DAY AT THE BORDER; FORMER DICTATOR NE WIN DIES.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (63K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: BUDDHIST MONKS USED AS HUMAN SHIELDS DURING OFFENSIVE
          Date of publication: 03 December 2002
          Description/subject: Mon State at War... YE, Dec 3, 2002 -- "Burmese Army Light Infantry Battalion No. 299 has abducted Mon Buddhist monks, women and children in southern Ye township and used them as human shields during a military operation against the Mon armed group, the Hongsawatoi Restoration Party, starting in November, local sources said..."
          Author/creator: Sem Ong
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: KAO WAO NEWS No. 31
          Date of publication: 27 November 2002
          Description/subject: An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma. No. 31, November 13-27, 2002. READERS FRONT; IMPRISONED MON LEADERS HEALTH WORSENS; PORTERS USED IN OFFENSIVE AGAINST MON; STUDENT CARD HOLDER EXTORTED BY POLICE; MUL LAUNCH LAND CONFISCATION CAMPAIGN; SNIPPERS ATTACK BREAKAWAY LEADER; FORCED TO SELL BETEL NUT; FARMERS ORDERED TO SELL RICE WITH LOW PRICE; MON MONKS RESTRICTED FROM BUDDHIST EXAM; FIFTH CONGRESS OF NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC FRONT HELD; MON STUDENTS IN SAFE AREA.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (45K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: LAND CONFISCATION BY MYANMAR GOVERNMENT
          Date of publication: 15 November 2002
          Description/subject: "ear Mon people and supporters of social justice in Burma, There are serious developments taking place in Mon state that requires immediate attention by the international community as a matter of long-term national survival for the future of the Mon people and civil society in Burma. Organized land confiscation has reportedly continued to prevail in all parts of Mon State by the Government of Myanmar that continues to confiscate several thousand acres of land for military purposes which is becoming a serious threat to survival of civilians. This threat represents a new episode in the drama against the human rights and civil society of the Mon people, whose basic human rights have been violated throughout the past forty (40) years..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Mon Unity League via Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 30
          Date of publication: 13 November 2002
          Description/subject: "An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma" No. 30, November 1-13, 2002 READERS FRONT; MON APPEALS TO MONITOR DISPLACED PERSONS; FARMERS THROWN INTO A LIFE OF POVERTY; DRUG POSTERS FOR SALE; STATE CONSTITUTION SEMINARS HELD; KARENNI TALK PEACE; MAN KILLED BY POLICE INVESTIGATION; FORCED FUND RAISING CONTINUE IN MON STATE; USDA: ACT LOCALLY AND LIE GLOBALLY.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (48K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 29
          Date of publication: 31 October 2002
          Description/subject: "An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma". October 16-31, 2002. READER’S FRONT; LICENSE TO RAPE BY ARMY CONTINUES; INTERVIEW: AN EVENING WITH NAI YEN NI; ETHNIC LEADERS JOIN IN CRPP; MERIT-MAKERS BLOWN TO DEATH IN SHAN STATE; REFUGEE RELIEF GROUP FORMED IN AUSTRALIA; MON NATIONAL DAY COMMITTEE IN NORTH AMERICA; UN ENVOY MEETS UNITED NATIONALITIES ALLIANCE; MIGRANTS PAY A HIGH PRICE FOR ASIAN VALUES.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (66K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: MON LEADER SHOT DEAD BY SPLINTER GROUP
          Date of publication: 28 October 2002
          Description/subject: "A senior leader of the New Mon State Party and five Mons were shot dead by the splinter group while sleeping near the headquarters..."
          Author/creator: Kun Yekha,
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: via Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (6K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 28
          Date of publication: 15 October 2002
          Description/subject: "An electronic newsletter for social justice and freedom in Burma." READER'S FRONT; INTERVIEW WITH NAI TUN THEIN; STARVATION IN MON STATE; CANADA LASHES BURMA FOR STIFLING DEMOCRACY; ALIEN WORKERS READY WITH RUBBER CUBE; EDUCATION PROJECT FOR MON MONKS; JUNTA MAINTAINS TIGHT GRIP ON RELIGIOUS ACTIVITY; REFUGEE HOLDING PROTECTION PAPER ARRESTED; ETHNIC KAREN, MON TOLD TO HAND IN ID CARDS; THE MON POLITICAL DILEMMA: BANYA HONGSAR.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (86K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: MON LEADER PASSED AWAY
          Date of publication: 01 October 2002
          Description/subject: (Kao-Wao, Bangkok, October 1, 2002)... "Nai Khin Maung, a Member of Parliament and the leader of the main Mon political party passed away in Rangoon on September 29, 2002. Representing the Mon National Democratic Front (MNDF), a committed nationalist Nai Khin Maung won the Member of Parliament seat at Kyaikmayaw Constituency No. 2 in Mon State, Burma during the 1990 general election in Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 27
          Date of publication: 30 September 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "RICE FARMS FLOODED OUT BY HEAVY RAINS"; "HUNGRY VILLAGERS LOOT RICE STOCK"; "FARMERS FACE AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE"; "BESEIGED BOAT PASSENGERS TO PAY FOR LOST WEAPONS"; "EU MISSION MEETS WITH ETHNIC LEADERS"; "NCUB IN TENTH YEAR"; "DEPLETING RAIN FOREST IN SOUTHERN BURMA"; "NEW WORKERS ON EDGE FOR REGISTRATION CARDS"; "HARD TIMES AHEAD FOR INJURED MIGRANTS"; "BURMESE TO OBTAIN REFUGEE STATUS IN KOREA".
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: kaowao@hotmail.com
          Format/size: html (40K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 26
          Date of publication: 09 September 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "MORE LAND CONFISCATED BY BURMESE ARMY"; "BREAKAWAY GROUP BLAME MEDIATORS"; "FLASH FLOOD CLAIMS REFUGEES' LIVES"; "WOMEN CALL ON UN TO INVESTIGATE SEXUAL VIOLENCE"; "JUNTA PRESSURED TO RESOLVE CRISIS"; "MON JOINS MOUNTAIN FESTIVAL IN CHINA"; "THAILAND URGED FOR BETTER TREATMENT'; "PALAUNG LEADER DIES IN PRISON"; "THE ROAR OF THE ELEPHANT". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (56K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 25
          Date of publication: 26 August 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT" "POLICE FORCE FUND RAISING"; "SUSPICIONS IMPEDE PEACE FOR MON"; "OVER FIFTY YEARS OF MON ARMED RESISTENCE"; "AILING ETHNIC LEADER FREED AT LAST"; "ARAKAN RICE RIOT MASSACRE REMEMBERED"; "LAND CONFISCATION CAUSING HARDSHIP"; KANBAWZA WIN: "WHY DISTRACT THE KARENNI REFUGEES?"; "MON MAGIC IN THE NORTH POLE". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (51K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: BORDER OFFICE RAIDED BY THAI AUTHORITIES
          Date of publication: 20 August 2002
          Description/subject: Security Alert... (Kao-Wao, August 20, 2002). "The border offices working on Thai soil at Sangkhalaburi, Karnchanaburi Province of western Thailand were being raided in this morning..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 24
          Date of publication: 12 August 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "RAPE VICTIMS COMPENSATED BY ARMY"; "PEOPLE READY FOR CHANGE"; "ARMY GRABS MORE LAND"; "KAREN COMMEMORATE FREEDOM FIGHTERS"; "DIALOGUE HAS NOT YET BEGUN"; "FOURTEENTH YEAR AFTER NATION WIDE UPRISING"; 'MON WOMEN SEEK POLITICAL ROLE'; "ARAKAN SOCIAL WELFARE ASSOCIATION'; "MIGRANTS DETAINED AND TORTURED BY THAI"; "CHINESE DRUG LORD AND BURMESE ARMY". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (37K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 23
          Date of publication: 30 July 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT" "ARMY RAPES GIRL THEN MURDERS MON FAMILY"; "MON WARY AMID HOPE, WAR AND TERROR"; "HUMANITARIAN AID QUESTIONED BY SOCIAL ACTIVISTS"; "HIV/AIDS: BURMA ON THE BRINK"; "AI REPORT: URGENT ACTION TO SAVE ETHNIC GROUPS"; "THAI MON LEADER REMEMBERED"; "MON YOUTH COMMUNTY MEET'; "DEMOCRATIC VOICE OF BURMA IN TENTH YEAR"; "YOUTH ACTIVITIES AT THE BORDER". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (44K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: RELEASED MON LEADER QUESTIONED IN RANGOON
          Date of publication: 09 July 2002
          Description/subject: (Kao-Wao, July 9, 2002) "The senior leader of the New Mon State Party was taken to Rangoon for questioning following his release from the breakaway group near Halockhanee Mon refugee camp, Thai-Burma border. Nai RotSa, the Secretary General of the New Mon State Party was released in the evening on July 6, 2002 after being taken and held by force for three weeks by the Hongsawatoi Restoration Party. He was released, along with his assistant, Mon Saw Noi, by the breakaway group near Halockhani refugee camp, Karnchanaburi Province of the Thai-Burma border..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 22
          Date of publication: 06 July 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "BORDER OFFICES CLOSE AFTER WARNING"; "BREAKAWAY LEADER AIMS TO BUILD CONSENSUS"; "MON POLITICIANS URGE COMPROMISE"; "NMSP EXPRESS DISSATISFACTION WITH THAI"; "THAILAND COUNTER ATTACKS IN WAR OF WORDS"; "ANTI THAI RALLY SPREADS TO WESTERN BURMA"; "WORLD CUP 2002: BURMA UNDER THEIR FEET"; "ARAKAN INDEPENDENCE BULLETIN: A CHALLENGE FOR FREEDOM"; "DRUG DEALERS ARRESTED BY NMSP"; "RAPE USED AS WEAPON OF WAR". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (45K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 21
          Date of publication: 26 June 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "MUSIC TO THEIR EARS"; "NEW MON STATE PARTY LEADER ABDUCTED"; "INTERVIEW: HRP TALKS ON CURRENT MON CONFLICT"; "SUU KYI'S BIRTHDAY AT THE BORDER"; "COSTLY BATTLE AGAINST SHAN"; "MON LITERACY CLASS IN USA"; "MYPO STUDENTS BUILD CONFIDENCE"; "OFFICERS AND GENTLEMEN?": BY DAVID O'HANLON; "GENERAL HAS DREAMS FOR WHITE ELEPHANTS"; "UNHCR CALLS IN POLICE". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (57K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 20
          Date of publication: 14 June 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "THE FALL OF MONLAND UNFORGOTTEN"; "POLITICAL REFUGEES FACE UNCERTAINITY"; "ARAKAN YOUTHS: FREE POLITICAL PRISONERS"; "OFFENSIVE COST JUNTA 300 KILLED AND WOUNDED"; "SPDC'S WAR OF WORDS A BLAST FROM THE PAST"; "ALL QUIET AT THREE PAGODAS PASS"; "CULTURAL EXCHANGE IN BANGKOK"; "HRP ATTACK MILITIA CAMP'; "NO TAX BREAK FOR CONFISCATED LAND'; "BOOK: THE GOLDEN SHELDRAKE SET TO FLY"; "KACHIN POST: A VOICE FOR TOP NORTH". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (49K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 19
          Date of publication: 04 June 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "NO POLITICAL SOLUTION AFTER CEASE-FIRE"; "MONS URGE ARMIES TO RECONCILE"; "GAS PIPELINE UNDER COVER"; "RECOGNIZE ELECTION RESULT"; "BORDER CRISIS BECOMES A POLITICAL GAME"; "INVESTIGATION AFTER RAMPANT SHOOTING'; "ONE LEG VALUED AT TEN DOLLARS"; "WOMEN MIGRANTS TARGETS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT"; "MON REFUSES TO PAY CORRUPT POLICE"; "MONOPOLY ON THE POOR"; "SWISS NATIONAL APPOINTED AS INTERIM OFFICER TO ILO"; "MYPO AND THE FUTURE OF MON MAGAZINE".Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (49K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 18
          Date of publication: 22 May 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "PEACE STALEMATE"; "PEACE BREAKS DOWN BETWEEN MONS"; "YABA IN THE HANDS OF THAI POLICE ACCUSE MIGRANTS"; "VILLAGERS ORDERED TO FORM DRUG COMMITTEES"; "A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A GENERAL"; "OPPOSITION CAMPS UNDER ATTACK ON SUU KYI'S RELEASE"; "ETHNIC GROUPS URGE TRIPARTITE DIALOGUE"; "FLEXIBILITY: THE WAY OF EDUCATION IN BURMA"; "BURMESE APPOINTED UN SECURITY COORDINATOR"; "IN DEFENSE OF THE ARMED STRUGGLE" : BY DAVID O'HANLON; "THE MILITARY'S HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (55K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: BURMA ARMY OPEN FIRES ON SOCIAL GATHERING
          Date of publication: 13 May 2002
          Description/subject: KAO WAO: BREAKING NEWS... (Kaowao, May 13, 2002) "The Burma Army marched into Taung Pauk village, Kya-Inn Seikyi Township in Karen State and opened fire on a group of innocent civilians who had gathered to build a house on May 12, 2002. A crowd of Mon villagers were fired upon by the Infantry Battalion No. 77 under Army Division 88 who intruded into the cease-fire zone of the New Mon State Party. On May 12, about a hundred Burmese troops led by Major Myint Lwin entered Taung Pauk (Day Thoong) village and committed rampant shooting at a social gathering of Mon villagers who were building a house at a traditional gathering. During the shooting the army killed two villagers and wounded three..."
          Language: English
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 17
          Date of publication: 10 May 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "BURMAN STATE CONSTITUTION FORMED"; "MONS PLAN FOR CIVIL SOCIETY"; "CIVILIANS TO PAY FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION"; "SUU KYI RELEASE WIDELY WELCOMED"; "SUU KYI SAYS MINORITIES MUST JOIN IN"; "BURMESE KYAT REBOUNDS"; "GAS PIPE LINE EXPLODES FOR A SECOND TIME"; "RAMANYA BULLETTIN: FORCED DISTRIBUTION". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (36K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 16
          Date of publication: 27 April 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "JUNTA BUILDS ROAD IN MON STATE"; "ETHNIC LEADERS' HEALTH WORSEN"; "TENSION OVER STALLED UN TALKS"; "WLB: FUTURE PEACE BUILDER"; "KARAOKE SINGERS ARRESTED"; "FILLING THE QUOTA"; "NIGHTMARE JOURNEY TO THAILAND"; "SONGRAN WATER WARS"; "BURMA EXILES CELEBRATE THINKYAN"; "MON EMBRACE SANGKRAN". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (46K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 15
          Date of publication: 12 April 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "MON UNITY LEAGUE NEGOTIATE TRUCE"; "JUNTA TIGHTENS CONTROL IN MON STATE"; "LEADERS EXCHANGE EXPERIENCE ON DEMOCRATIZATON"; "MON POST TEN SCHOOL RECRUITS STUDENTS"; "THAI SEMINAR PROMOTES MULTICULTURALISM'; "VOA: VOICE OF ARAKAN"; "THAI MAFIA BREAK AND ENTER MON MIGRANTS'; "HIV CRISIS: BURMA MIGRANTS VULNERABLE". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (40K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 14
          Date of publication: 31 March 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "MON WOMEN TO LEAD COORDINATING TEAM"; "OVERSEAS MON URGE NEW MON STATE PARTY TO RECONCILE"; "NCUB HOLDS SIXTH CONFERENCE"; "INFANTS ARRESTED AS ILLEGAL LABOUR"; "SHAN YOUTH NETWORK GROUP"; "MON YOUTH JOINS DIPLOMACY TRAINING"; "CHIN LEADER SUPPORTS NATIONAL RECONCILIATION PROGRAM"; Note by Editor: SUBMIT YOUR NEWS. Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (51K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 13
          Date of publication: 21 March 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "HRP, KAREN GUERRILLAS AMBUSH BURMA ARMY" "ARMY DEVELOPMENT ON THE RAILWAY OF DEATH"; "TAXATION AND FIGHTING OVER THE RAILWAY OF DEATH"; "INTERVIEW: AN EVENING WITH DR EMMANUEL GUILLON"; "KANBAWZA WIN: WILL THE JUNTA LIVE UP TO ITS RHETORIC?"; "REGISTERED WORKERS ARRESTED"; "CHINESE BOSS, TEMPLE AND DRUG TRAFFICKERS"; "UNITED STATES LINKS WA CARTEL TO TERRORISTS". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (50K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 12
          Date of publication: 09 March 2002
          Description/subject: "GENERAL DIGS UNDERGROUND"; "LETTER CAMPAIGN TO UNITE MON ARMED FORCES"; "NO FORCED LABOUR BUT FORCED CULTIVATION"; "HALOCKANEE VILLAGERS CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE"; "MON NATIONAL DAY ON THE SIDELINES"; "MON SPIRIT IN NORTHERN THAILAND"; "NATIONAL DAY IN MAHACHAI AND OVERSEAS"; "FINN MON CELEBRATION"; "MON DAY IN NORTH AMERICA"; "HELL'S GATE SWINGS WIDE OPEN TO MIGRANTS"; "HONEY MON WORKERS ARRESTED"; "TRAFFICKING TRAGEDY"; "READERS' FRONT"; "THAILAND YEARS BEHIND IN HUMAN RIGHTS". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (44K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 11
          Date of publication: 26 February 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "CEASE-FIRE GROUPS STAND MUTE WITH UN RAPPORTEUR"; "POLITICAL REFUGEES DENIED FAIR TREATMENT"; "AN EVENING WITH DR. CHAO TZANG YAWNGWE"; "MON YOUTH IN ACTION"; "CHIN NATIONAL DAY"; "WEARING SARONG AN INVITATION TO ROBBERY"; "MONS AWARDED FOR ENTHUSIASM". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (49K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 10
          Date of publication: 15 February 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS FRONT"; "MON CLASH STEPS INTO AN ARMED CONFLICT"; "PANGLONG SPIRIT GROWS INSIDE CEASE-FIRE GROUPS"; "UNLD HOLDS ANNUAL MEETING"; "HARIBHUNCHAI: THE FORGOTTEN MON KINGDOM"; "MOBILE PHONE A RISK FOR MIGRANTS"; "POLICE ROB MONEY FROM REGISTERED WORKERS"; "CROCODILE ENTERS HOME AND KILLS INFANT"; "MON YOUTH MOVE FORWORD"; "NATIONAL DAY IN THE WORKS". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (35K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 9
          Date of publication: 05 February 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT" "MON MEDIA UNDER PRESSURE"; "UNLD CONGRATULATES KAREN RESISTANCE DAY"; "MONS GATHER AT ABBOT'S CREMATION"; "THAI CRACKDOWN ON MIGRANTS"; "MIGRANT WORKERS UNDER THREAT OF THAI MAFIA"; "55TH MON NATIONAL DAY IN THE WORKS"; "THAI YOUTH: PRISONERS OR VICTIMS?"; "ETHNIC YOUTHS GAIN EXPERIENCE IN WORKSHOP'; "THAI DEFEATS MYANMAR AT ASEAN YOUTH SOCCER". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (37K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 8
          Date of publication: 24 January 2002
          Description/subject: "READER'S FRONT" "FIGHTING BRINGS IN THE NEW YEAR"; "LIFE IN THE NEW THAM HIN REFUGEE CAMP"; "INTERVIEW: AN EVENING WITH ASHLEY SOUTH"; "VILLAGERS FLEE GASE PIPELINE EXPLOSION IN MON STATE"; "THAI PREGNANCY BAN WORRY MIGRANT WOMEN"; "MON YOUTH LIBERTY ORGANIZATION: ESTABLISHED IN THAILAND"; "ENGLISH FOR ALL SHAN YOUTHS"; "MON CULTURAL HERITAGE MEETING HELD IN BANGKOK". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (43K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 7
          Date of publication: 15 January 2002
          Description/subject: "READERS' FRONT"; "MON COMMUNITY URGES MUL TO LOBBY BETWEEN ARMED GROUPS"; "REFUGEES ASK UNHCR TO ENTER NEW CAMP"; "MON NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC FRONT FORMS IN THAILAND"; "STATE PARANOID ON MIGRANT LABOUR"; "WARRANT FOR REGISTERED WORKERS"; "GENERALS ENJOY THE OPENING CEREMONY"; "8TH CONFERENCE OF MRC (USA)"; "THE SPIRIT OF MON CULTURE IN THAILAND". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (31K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 6
          Date of publication: 05 January 2002
          Description/subject: "BREAK AWAY LEADER FORMED POLITICAL PARTY"; "MANEELOY CAMP IS HISTORY"; "THAI NEW YEAR'S GALA AT MAHARCHAI"; "RICE MILL WORKERS EXPLOITED"; "55TH MON NATIONAL DAY & PUBLICATION"; "MON COMMUNITY OF CANADA JOURNAL"; "READER'S FRONT". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (33K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 5
          Date of publication: 24 December 2001
          Description/subject: "READER'S FRONT"; "ONLY ROAD TO MONLAND CLOSED"; "HUNGER STRIKE CONTINUED AT MANEELOY CAMP"; "ETHNIC NATIONALITIES STUDY FEDERALISM IN GERMANY"; "SHAN WELCOME 2096 NEW YEAR"; "PROTEST AT RANGOON UNIVERSITY"; "REGISTERED WORKERS DEPORTED"; "BURMA JUNTA GOES ALL OUT IN FESTIVITIES"; "YOUTH EXCHANGE AT SANGKHALA". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (33K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 4
          Date of publication: 14 December 2001
          Description/subject: 1. "Burma Army Intrudes Cease-fire Zone"; 2. "Asia's First Nude Paradise in Burma"; 4. "World joins Centennial Nobel Peace Prize"; 5. "Upcoming 55th Anniversary of Mon National Day"; 6. "Workers protest for registration cards"; 7. "Resurrecting the Railways of Death" 8. "Readers Front" . Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (26K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: DEMONSTRATION AT MANELOY CAMP
          Date of publication: 06 December 2001
          Description/subject: KAO WAO: BREAKING NEWS. (Special report from Maneeloy, December 6, 2001) "About (300) refugees from the Burmese Students Center held a demonstration to protest the Thai governments move to close the refugee camp. Fearing for their safety, the refugees and asylum seekers at Maneeloy camp staged the peaceful demonstration to voice their demands to the Thai government and UNHCR, as stated by Nai Aung Win, chairman of the Overseas Mon National Students Organization (OMNSO), who was interviewed on the day of the protest..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 3
          Date of publication: 03 December 2001
          Description/subject: "MON UNITY LEAGUE URGES COMPROMISE"; "FEAR AT CLOSURE OF SAFE AREA"; "HELL'S GATE AT FISHING SITE"; "HUMAN RIGHTS REACHING OUT"; "COMMITTEE FOR REVITALIZATION OF MON CULTURAL HERITAGE". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (25K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 2
          Date of publication: 22 November 2001
          Description/subject: "Market Slows at Three Pagodas Pass"; "Mon Youth Gathered at the Border"; "New Guerrilla Group Attracts Mon Community"; "Some analysis on the 1995 cease-fire agreement between the NMSP and SLORC (SPDC)"; "Migrant Watch: Workers Beaten to Death"; "Preserving Old Palm Leaves". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: HTML (26K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Kao Wao News No. 1
          Date of publication: 13 November 2001
          Description/subject: "Split From The Cease-Fire"; "Honey Mon"; "Learn More Rights"; "Solidarity Building"; "Community Training". Cultural, political and human rights articles, mainly on the Mon.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
          Subscribe: Contact kaowao@hotmail.com to receive the newsletters by email
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        • Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          "Independent Mon News Agency is formed by former Mon students, youth and democratic activists based in Mon State, Union of Burma in 1999. Members of the agency are not affiliated to any political organizations. Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA) is based in Thailand and Burma that founded by youth of Mon ethnic nationality in Southeast Asia. IMNA is a non-profitable news agency and covering news a bout Mon Community in Thailand, Mon Community in Burma and about Burma. IMNA is an independent Mon news agency producing fair and balance news through Internet, Mon newspaper, radio and community radio. Every month, IMNA is publishing Mon language newspaper called Guiding Star, be targeted Mon audience in Thailand and Burma. IMNA also have Mon DVB radio program, part of the Democratic Voice of Burma that broadcasting from Norway and IMNA also producing news through via and Monnet mail list which is run by Mon community in United State of America. IMNA also started a community FM radio in Hlockhani Mon refugee camp in Thai-Burma border. IMNA is trying to extend in Mon state, southern Burma..." ... Archive from October 2002.

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: "IMNA News" in English
          Description/subject: Archive from January 2005. A very useful collection.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 20 March 2007


          Title: IMNA News in Burmese
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


          Title: IMNA News in Mon
          Language: Mon
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html, jpg,? gif ?
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Individual Documents

          Title: Trade decreases in Myawadi
          Date of publication: 11 July 2005
          Description/subject: "Cooking oil and Thai goods’ trade have decreased in Myawadi, Thailand-Burma border town, after the Burmese government seizing illegal oil, that importing from Thailand a long way up to Rangoon, according to traders..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IMNA
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: Hundreds of families forced to carry brick for army
          Date of publication: 10 July 2005
          Description/subject: "Hundreds of families from three villages in the north-western part of Ye township have been forced to carry and locate army bricks for a week. By the order of Light Infantry Battalion No. 586, about 100 families from, Sein-kyi village, about 200 families from Kyone-por village and about 150 families from Thuu-myaung village have been forced to carry bricks for a furlong from brick making mills to a place where they gathered bricks for sale..."
          Author/creator: Nai Lawi
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: A seven month-old baby killed and two children wounded by artillery shell
          Date of publication: 08 July 2005
          Description/subject: "A mother took to Palaing Japan hospital at about 5: 30 P. M. (Thai time) to have treatment for her wounds and her seven months old baby is also killed after motor shells drop in her home yesterday..."
          Author/creator: Joi Htaw/ Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: Lightning kills a Man in Pegu
          Date of publication: 08 July 2005
          Description/subject: "Funeral of a man who was killed by lightning was held by his family and relatives in Pegu today, said by a local Town resident. Nai Htoo, 60 years old farmer, was hit by lightning while he was transplanting the paddy with his grandsons and sons in his farm, east of Pegu after lightning hit open rice field on July 8’s morning..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: Migrant Workers Lost Jobs after a Landlord’s Plantation Business Ceases
          Date of publication: 08 July 2005
          Description/subject: "About 133 Mon and other ethnic migrant workers from southern Burma lose their employments in Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand after a land dispute happen in Thai landlord, Seal Hook’s rubber plantation. Thai government’s Forestry Department is planning to confiscate all of these lands belonged to the landlord, as the officials found the lands have no legal document, the landlord himself took the lands from ordinary farmers in the area and it is also against the law if a Thai citicen belong a plot of lands which is over 500 Rais (or 333 acres), said a local source..."
          Author/creator: Nae Non
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: Patients in Three Pagoda Pass Border Rely on NMSP’s Hospital
          Date of publication: 08 July 2005
          Description/subject: "In the beginning of this rainy season, when the poor people from several villages in Three Pagoda Pass Township suffer from various type of diseases, they just take medical care in Palaing-Japan (literally Japanese Well) village hospital, which is operated by New Mon State Party’s Health Department and supplied by Medicins Sans Frontier (MSF), said the local villagers..."
          Author/creator: Chan Ai
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: Two more Mon dance performance groups to be formed
          Date of publication: 06 July 2005
          Description/subject: , "A comedy Nai Pauk Chun said there will be two more Mon dance performance groups in the coming performance season which started in September 2005 and the price will increase. Two performance groups: Mon Chit Soe (or Seik Non Chan) will create one Mon performance group and ‘Ong Seik Kyae’ will also create another group. But he does not know very well what are the exact plans..."
          Author/creator: Nae Non
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: A three children’s mother was raped
          Date of publication: 04 July 2005
          Description/subject: "A three children’s mother claimed she was raped by a Burmese Army Captain after her husband and children were taken away by other soldiers at her home in a small village in Thanpyuzayat Township. Mi Cho claimed she was raped and was threatened to be killed by Cap. Lin Oo from Military Tactical Command No.1 under the command of Light Infantry Battalion No.308 on July 2, 2005..."
          Author/creator: Nai Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: Civilians’ Cars banned on Public Road
          Date of publication: 04 July 2005
          Description/subject: "Unlicensed car are banned from using the public road by the Township authorities in Three-Pagoda Pass (TPP) border town, according to unlicensed car owners who are using his car in town.
          Author/creator: Nai Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: The Burmese Army Forced to Offer Land with 100 Kyat per Acre
          Date of publication: 04 July 2005
          Description/subject: "In order to avoid the bad image of ‘land confiscation’, the Burmese Army’s battalions based in Mon State forced the local Mon farmers to accept 100 Kyat payment for one acre of land and let them sign in selling documents, accordingly to the civilians from Ye Township. Burmese Army’s LIB No. 583 that bases in Kyaung-ywa village, eastern of Ye Town, confiscated about 100 acres of lands and forced the farmers to take money for 100 Kyat per acre, said Mr. Nai Blai, whose lands were also confiscated..."
          Author/creator: Nae Non
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: An extra-judicial killing case forced to close in Ye Township
          Date of publication: 30 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Duya village headman is forcing the younger sister of Aung Soe Naing to fingerprint on an agreement to finalize on the case of the death of her brother, said Aung Soe Naing family (who is in Thailand). Aung Soe Naing who was seriously beaten to death on June 5 because of torture by an official of Duya village and members of fire brigade..."
          Author/creator: Joi Htaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: NMSP cease-fire comes to an end [this title does not reflect the content – OBL]
          Date of publication: 30 June 2005
          Description/subject: "News Mon State Party (NMSP), a Mon ethnic armed cease-fire group and Burmese military Southeast Region Commander held 10th anniversary of June 29, 1995 cease-fire agreement in well known hotel, Ngwe Moe Hotel, which is in the capital of Mon State, Moulmein, Southern Burma. Both sides presented what were their plans and what their political agendas, but no decision was made and the ceremony just finished with no sense, NMSP senior leader in Moulmein exposed his unsatisfied feeling..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (19K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: Nine ‘POC’ refugees escape from camp
          Date of publication: 29 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Recently 9 "persons of concerns (POC)" refugees from Ban Don Yang camp escaped from the camp after they are unable to tolerate with insufficient food supplies distributed by UNHCR and Aid agencies, according to POCs in the camp. "If they come and persuade us to go back, we will refuse to return. Even though they point us with guns, we wouldn’t go. We cannot tolerate anymore," said a POC who left the camp on June 25..."
          Author/creator: Nai Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: NMSP and South-East Command held 10th anniversary cease-fire agreement
          Date of publication: 29 June 2005
          Description/subject: "New Mon State Party’s leaders and Commanders of South-East Command held a ceremony for 10th years cease-fire agreement in Ngwe Moe hotel of Moulmein, the capital of Mon State, today’s morning. About a hundred people attended the ceremony and NMSP Vice-President, Nai Rot Sa and other NMSP senior member, and Deputy South-East Commander, Col. Myo Hla and other Burmese senior military commander led the ceremony..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: Rubber Seedlings on Sale
          Date of publication: 28 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Rubber plants cultivation in lower part of Burma has grown up and it created the selling of rubber seedling become a main business and huge amount of rubber seeds are on sale in southern Mon State. More local people cleaned up uncultivated or wild land and are interested to plant rubber plants. The Mon State PDC’s Agriculture and Long-term crop planning department also planned to grow rubber in 30, 000 acres in this year in Mon State, according to a retired manager..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 July 2005


          Title: A Thai Senate visits to Three Pagoda Pass border town
          Date of publication: 27 June 2005
          Description/subject: "A Thai high-level politician team led by a Senate representing Border Affairs Committee paid a visit to small furniture and lacquer factory in Burmese territory of Three Pagoda Pass border town and Thai customers have hoped that the border will be re-opened next month, according the Burmese furniture traders..."
          Author/creator: Nai Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (16K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: Pegu’s Residents Under Forced Labour for Patrolling
          Date of publication: 27 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Town residents in Pegu town, situates in eastern of Burma’s capital, Rangoon, have been forced to launch the patrol for security of the town instead of soldiers and militias, according to the residents. “(The SPDC Township authorities force) at least one time per month. In some times, we were forced three or four times to patrol in the town quarter”, a resident said..."
          Author/creator: Nai Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: May 17 explosions continue to harsh Pegu residents' lives
          Date of publication: 26 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Farmers in Pegu are discordant to rebuild their huts in the farm because local military stated martial law and announced all the huts to be destroyed after Rangoon May 17 bomb explosions, according to resident farmer..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IMNA
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: Working outside creates labor shortage in Agriculture
          Date of publication: 26 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Agricultural farms in Southern Burma face lack of human resources after thousands of local people seek job in Thailand and others neighbor countries..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IMNA
          Format/size: html (16K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: MYC's 30th anniversary celebration was successfully
          Date of publication: 22 June 2005
          Description/subject: "The event of MYC's 30th anniversary celebration was successfully held with presentation and entertainment completed at 8.30 pm last night. It was held at the National Theatre Hall, Bangkok Thailand and attended about 1500 people..."
          Author/creator: Suthorn
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IMNA
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: Negotiation in progress for border reopening
          Date of publication: 20 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Three Pagoda Pass border would be opened soon after the visit of Thai Deputy Prime Minister visit, said a Thai-Raman businessman who accompanied the Deputy Prime Minister. Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Chaturon Chaisang together with Kanchanaburi Province Administrator, and officials from other five departments, visited furniture and timber production factories in Three Pagoda Pass, Burma side to make sure that wood products are legally processed..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IMNA
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: Mon Community Pray for Mon King Manu Haw
          Date of publication: 18 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Mon community, led by two prominent leading Mon monks, yesterday organized a prayer meeting for the first time in 948 years for Mon King Manu Haw, the first King of Mon who was attacked and captured by Burmese King Anawratha..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IMNA
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: DKBA ordered to release monopolizing bamboo-shoot trade
          Date of publication: 17 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Burmese army set up free trading for bamboo-shoot with Thailand yesterday, replacing pro-Rangoon Karen group's monopoly at Three Pagoda Pass. Lt.Col Soe Htat, the commander of IB 38, called the regional commanders of Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) yesterday morning at 9:00 am after receiving complaints from the traders that the DKBA is monopolizing bamboo-shoot trade. Armed pro-Rangoon DKBA control the bamboo-shoot trade and barred other traders from buying the shoots..."
          Author/creator: Mrot Chair
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IMNA
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: Refugees face food shortage
          Date of publication: 17 June 2005
          Description/subject: "The political refugees from Tham Hin and Ban Don Yang camps claimed they have not enough support and they are facing food shortage. Refugees received 15 Kgs of rice, 1.5 Kgs bean, 1 Kg of fish-pate and one liter of oil a month per head. They were given 5 Kgs of charcoal and some wood for cooking. "We cannot complain to anybody. They just give us such amount. What should we do," a Tham Hin refugee said.."
          Author/creator: Nai Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IMNA
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: Challenging bull defeated
          Date of publication: 16 June 2005
          Description/subject: "In a traditional bull buttering in Southern Burma, the 20% double betted challenging side lost after their bullhorn broken yesterday. "Our bull had butted till falling down on the ground after it's second horn again broken down, couldn't run and the referees pulled out the winner bull and decided who is the winner," said Mi Hla who watched and lost betting in the bull buttering..."
          Author/creator: Mi Joi Htaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IMNA
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 July 2005


          Title: A Mon National Revolutionary Army founder passed away
          Date of publication: 07 June 2005
          Description/subject: "A Mon National Revoulation Army founder, Nai Pan Htar, passed away June 4 in Rangoon capital of Burma in his son house. Nai Pan Htar 84, who involved in founding of Mon National Revolutionary Army since 1947 with Bo Thein who led and started founding Mon National Army..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Migrant Workers Allowed To Renew Work Permits
          Date of publication: 07 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Immigrants working in Thailand from neighboring countries are having chance to renew work permits for one more year this month, according to the workers. The work permits are being renewed between June 1 to 30. “Getting work permit one year is better than without having a chance to do anything. The rights of the worker in this time is not different from last year,” said U Myint Wei, a member of the Thai Action Committee for Democracy in Burma (TACDB)..."
          Author/creator: Nai Dae Nae
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Villagers forced to attend military training - Hundred thousand Kyat fine for absence
          Date of publication: 07 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Military in a township of Tenasserim Division ordered villagers to attend basic military training. The villagers had to pay one hundred thousand Kyats each to army if they could not join the training, according to villagers. After the bomb explosions in Rangoon, Burmese government put tight security along the routes entering Rangoon. They also rearmed retired military members in Mon state and drilled with some military training, where they believed the suspects would flee after the explosion. In Tenassrim, the military government ordered villagers to attend the training..."
          Author/creator: Mi Mrae Moo Chai
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Returning un-licensed cars, a rumor
          Date of publication: 06 June 2005
          Description/subject: "Rumors on returning of un-licensed cars were not true, said a senior member of New Mon State Party in Moulmein. Rumors broke out that the government is giving back the cars inside Burma. "It is a rumor. Not true. If they give back the cars, we must get first. We are in town," the NMSP senior member said. "They said to us they will give back our cars because we are cease-fire group. But it has been for two months, we still do not receive any car."..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Border closure brings workers jobless
          Date of publication: 03 June 2005
          Description/subject: "The closure of Thai-Burma border affected to about one thousand furniture and lacquer workers in Three Pagoda Pass on Burma side according to the members of a furniture association. Thirty five registered and around 40 unregistered furniture and lacquer factories workers in town became jobless after the banning of exporting timber, furniture and lacquer to Thailand, according to a member of the association..."
          Author/creator: Chan Aie
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (15K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Rice Extortion for Army’s Food Supply
          Date of publication: 30 May 2005
          Description/subject: "A Burmese Army’s battalion has been collecting rice from local farmers in Ye township, Mon State, Southern Burma for their food supplies to stock-pile in coming rainy season. Burmese Army’s Infantry Battalion No.61, which is under the command of Military Operation Command No.19 that bases in Ye, is taking rice from the local farmers in northern Ye township, in Duya village-tract and Ain-Din village tract respectively..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Meeting of Informal School for Burmese Migrant Worker in Thailand
          Date of publication: 29 May 2005
          Description/subject: "An officer of Thai Education Ministry and a group of Thai-Raman people held official meeting with government officials from Bang Kun Thieng District Informal Education Department and discussed for legal cooperation process for education of Mon migrant workers from Burma. Thai Education Ministry officer, Mrs. Bussaba led the 4 Thai-Raman people as a group, representing the migrant workers’ school in Bangkadee Mon village, met 4 officials from Bang Kun Thieng District Informal Education Department led by the Departmental Director Mr. Nai Komkrit and discussed about creating textbooks, that need to translate from Thai Informal School textbooks to Mon language and the printing cost will be funded by the Thai Government..."
          Author/creator: Nai Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: A Thai NGO handed over a HIV/AIDS Care Center to Mon Villagers
          Date of publication: 24 May 2005
          Description/subject: "Patanarak Foundation, a local Thai NGOs for community development and HIV/AIDS protection hold a cerebration of handing-over of HIV/AIDS Care Center to Mon medical workers and villagers to take care the people living with HIV in Paling-Japan village, in Three Pagoda Pass area of Thai-Burma border..."
          Author/creator: Loa Htaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (16K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Southeast Command Re-equipped Arms to Army Veterans
          Date of publication: 24 May 2005
          Description/subject: "Burmese Army Southeast Command based in Moulmein (Mawlamyaine), the capital of Mon State decided to re-equipped arms to the army personals of veteran soldiers after holding a meeting with a Township Burma (Army) Veteran Association (BVA), according a source close to an army veteran..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Three Pagoda Pass Border closes with no limited time
          Date of publication: 20 May 2005
          Description/subject: "Three Pagoda Pass border closes with unlimited time agreed by both countries’ authorities and the border close makes big impact to border trading, according to border based traders. “Because our Thai customers informed us that the Thai authorities plan to close the border for one year period and so that we prepared to carry our furniture products to Thai territory’s markets. But while we were preparing to carry them, the Thai authorities closed the border at about 4:00 PM,” said Mr. U Soe Than, a furniture factory owner in Burmese side..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Thai fake bank notes found in Three Pagoda Pass border town
          Date of publication: 18 May 2005
          Description/subject: "Thai fake money 1000 Baht bank notes are found in a Thai-Burma border town, Three Pagoda Pass Town, opposite of Thailand’s Kanchanaburi province. “Our town resident found the fake Thai bank not since a week ago and now my shop found one of 1000 Baht bank note,” Win Mar Exchange Shop owner, Mr. Nai Lorn said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (18K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Accident grenade explosion killed three DKBA soldiers
          Date of publication: 13 May 2005
          Description/subject: "An accident grenade explosion killed three Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) soldiers in Three Pagoda Pass, a Thai-Burma border town, opposite of the Kanchanaburi Province yesterday..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: SPDC Authorities Denied Registration to Mon Community Organization
          Date of publication: 13 May 2005
          Description/subject: "The military government recently denied a township Mon Literature and Culture Committee’s (MLCC) registration to be a legal organization, said by its central executive committee (CEC) members. In Mon State of southern Burma, the Thanbyuzayat Township MLCC applied last October 2004 to the Township Peace and Development Council to register MLCC as an official organization working for the Mon community in the area especially for the promotion of Mon literature and culture..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: SPDC doubles up automobile’s tax
          Date of publication: 13 May 2005
          Description/subject: "After the military regime SPDC seized the unlicensed cars, it’s Ministry of Transport also doubled the tax payment for ordinary licensed cars countrywide, said car owners..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Forced Relocation in Border Town for Gambling Business
          Date of publication: 11 May 2005
          Description/subject: "The 50 houses are ordered to forcibly relocate after the local SPDC Township authorities decide to the Thai businessmen’s investment to build Casino gambling business and a road, accordingly to the local residence from Three Pagoda Pass border town opposite of Thailand’s Kanchanaburi Province..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: A group of Mon splinter committed in more atrocities
          Date of publication: 10 May 2005
          Description/subject: "The local Mon villagers, who were robbed during a well known pagoda festival “Meang-ma-lort” in southern part of Ye Township in Mon State accused of ‘Nai Chan Done’ and his troops involved in robbing gold wares from villagers and killing some civilians, but the accusation is denied by the Mon splinter commander today..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Border block creates problems to Karen and Mon refugees
          Date of publication: 09 May 2005
          Description/subject: "After the Thai Army closed down the border point due to UNHCR’s POC (Persons of Concern) in Ban Tong Yang border camp presenting to the Thai authority that they are not secured, the refugees who live in Ban Tong Yang and Halockani camps have faced problems with trading and purchasing supplementary foods. The border was shut down since on 1st May, after the Thai authority has deployed many security soldiers (or guards) in the border point..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: MNDF Chairman Asks for the Formation of Federated Burma
          Date of publication: 06 May 2005
          Description/subject: "The Chairman of Mon National Democratic Front (MNDF), Nai Tun Thein, asked the regime State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) to implement forming of genuine Federal Union of Burma, if not he argued that many other ethnic nationalities will follow as ethnic ‘Shan’ suit of declaring their Independence..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Crowding Burmese Migrants Create Inflation on The Border
          Date of publication: 05 May 2005
          Description/subject: "As Burmese migrant workers crowd along the Thai-Burma border, the value of Burmese currency (Kyat) decreases further. The purchasing rate for one Thai baht is 25 kyat and 20 coins, and the selling rate is 24 kyat and 50 coins, say foreign exchanges in Myawaddy, Kaw-Thaung and Three Pagoda Pass along the border. “24 kyat and 50 coins by cheque transfer is the highest rate so far this year,” said Mr. Lun, a foreign exchange owner based in Three Pagoda Pass. “Migrants who came back last month, all brought kyat. The selling price was one baht to 22 kyat and 50 coins or 23 kyat and 20 coins. Today, all those who have returned to Thailand have brought a lot of kyat. Because of this, the Burmese kyat is of less value,” claimed Nai Lun..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Songs of Mon Composers on Sale
          Date of publication: 05 May 2005
          Description/subject: "A leader of Mon music association and famous Mon singer “Pamaukha Chan” said the Burmese song producers bought two Mon songs and so that composing style of the songs will separate into Burmese artist’s entertainment community. These two songs: “Ask Permission for Love” (Kor Akhoung Chan Nyeed) and “Friends! Help Me” (Roi Tor Ream) in Mon language are the famous songs, which are sung by a Mon singer “Anat Ghae” in CDs and tapes, and most listeners like these songs. The first song was written by “Wunna Thukha” and composed by “Thaya (Eco)” while the second song was written by “Blai Mon Lawi Rot” and composed by “Pamaukha Chan”..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Respecting Ceremony to Mon Leader Nai Aung Htun was Not Smooth
          Date of publication: 03 May 2005
          Description/subject: "After a senior Mon leader, Nai Tun Thein (the Chairman of Mon National Democratic Front - MNDF), was not allowed to give speech in the remembrance and respecting ceremony of Mon leader Nai Aung Htun, some participants did not satisfy, said Mr. Nai Lyi Mon, who attended the ceremony..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Ethnic Alliances Support Shan Independence
          Date of publication: 27 April 2005
          Description/subject: "Even the Burmese military regime and some political groups did not support the declaration of Shan State Independence, but some Karen, Mon and Karenni organizations have upheld with Shan leaders. “If the people respect on Panglong Agreement in 1947, there is no problem with Shan declaration of independence,” said Khu Remin Htoo, General Secretary of Karenni National Progressive Party..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


          Title: Widespread Water Shortage Problems in Lower Burma
          Date of publication: 22 April 2005
          Description/subject: "In every dry season in Burma, the people in the country usually face a bit water shortage problem, but this year, people in Mon State face a more serious water shortage problem the residents in Mon State said. Director of Earth Rights International an environmental NGO based in Chiang Mai, Mr. Chana Maung said that water shortage is much relating to environmental impacts of enormous deforestation and massive mining. “The people in Burma have more faced water shortage problems since 1990” concluded by Mr. Chana Maung..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: SPDC Authorities take seized cars to the South-East Command
          Date of publication: 18 April 2005
          Description/subject: "Three Pagoda Pass Township authorities today take all seized unlicensed cars with arrangement of beef security to the South-East Command based in Moulmein (Mawlamyaine) along a main road to Thanbyuzayat. These unlicensed cars were seized or the owners were forced to offer in the end of March 2005, after military government SPDC ordered to turn up unlicensed cars and offer to the government country-wide..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: Mon Communities in Thailand Celebrate ‘Songkaran’ with a Popular March
          Date of publication: 13 April 2005
          Description/subject: "Mon migrant workers who work in Thailand and various Thai-Mon communities in Thailand cooperate and celebrate Mon ‘Songkaran’ New Year Festival in Phra Padaen District in Bangkok today, said Mr. Nai Oung Murn, a leader of Mon workers’ education program. New Year festival in Mon tradition is led by Thai-Raman (Thai-Mon) Community, Bangkok, and the organization receives fund from a department of local Thai government authority for maintaining of Mon culture, added by Mr. Murn..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (16K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: Closing Ceremony of Mon Literacy Training for more than 10,000 Students held
          Date of publication: 11 April 2005
          Description/subject: "A closing ceremony of 13th Anniversary of dry season Mon literacy training led by a senior Mon monk, Rev. Palita, was held in the evening of April 10 in Mudon town for more than 10, 000 students and about five thousands of people from various Mon villages attended the ceremony..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: SPDC authorities order licensed cars to be given to them
          Date of publication: 09 April 2005
          Description/subject: Licensed Cars in Three Pagoda Pass are ordered to give authority [SPDC authorities order licensed cars to be given to them]... "SPDC authority in Three Pagoda Pass Township in Thai-Burma border ordered car owners with local Township licenses to offer their cars to Township authority following a serial confiscation of unlicensed cars. On April 3, 2005, SPDC authorities led by Deputy Police Chief U Yan Naing and other vehicle and transport authorities U Tin Min Nyo and U Than U, U Pan Ngwe and U Soe Kyaw called a meeting with 40 car owners and instructed them to offer their cars on April 8, 2005, as a deadline..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (15K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: Rubber price drops after export ban to China
          Date of publication: 07 April 2005
          Description/subject: "After Burma’s military regime SPDC banned rubber export to China, the rubber price has decreased down and thousands of rubber compound sheets have left in the traders’ stores, according to Mr. Nai Plai, a Mon State local rubber exporter to China. The rubber price has decreased since last September (in 2004) and the current a drought compound rubber sheet price is 430 Kyat per pound (~ 0.5 US Dollar). It was 540 Kyat per pound in mid-2004, he added..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (18K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: 20th Anniversary of Karen Women’s Organization Day Praises Karen Women’s Role
          Date of publication: 05 April 2005
          Description/subject: "As a significant recognition to the founders of Karen Women’s Organization and the heroic women in fighting for the rights of Women and Karen revolution, today 20th Anniversary of KWO Day offers 17 elder Karen women with silver medals and clothes, said by a Central Committee of KWO, Ms. Naw Khaing Mar Kyaw Zaw..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: Sudden Increase of Ferry Fares along Three Pagoda Pass – Thanbyuzayat Motor Road
          Date of publication: 04 April 2005
          Description/subject: "After hundreds of unlicensed cars in Three Pagoda Pass border town, which the local car owners used as ‘ferries’ along Three Pagoda Pass – Thanbyuzayat motor road, were taken by the SPDC authorities at the end of March, the ferry fares have suddenly increased, said the passengers who travel on that road..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: A Bomb Blast Near the Township PDC Office in Three Pagoda Pass
          Date of publication: 01 April 2005
          Description/subject: "There is a bomb explosion in car park near the Township Peace and Development Council Office in Three Pagoda Pass border town about 7: 20 a.m. in early morning, but it does not hurt anyone. According to the source, a cleaner, who was cleaning in the Township PDC office, found the bomb in milk can. Then she informed to the military officers of Infantry No. 36 in the town. While the bomb experts were testing for the bomb from a distance, it exploded up..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: Overseas Mon Students Move into Camps
          Date of publication: 31 March 2005
          Description/subject: "Hundreds of overseas Mon students and their families who base Thailand and have status of ‘Person of Concern’ by UN High Commissioners for Refugees (UNHCR) ­ Bangkok have moved into two refugee camps ­ Htam Hin and Ban Ton Yang, which are in the border areas of Ratchburi Province and Kanchanaburi Province, respectively..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (19K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: Generals don’t care for the position of ASEAN Chairmanship
          Date of publication: 30 March 2005
          Description/subject: "Despite the international pressure and campaign by Burmese pro-democracy activists to block for the Burma’s Chairmanship in ASEAN in 2006, the SPDC leadership has not much seriously worried for the position, but just try to have completing the draft of the army monopolized constitution from the current National Convention, said a NC’s Peasant Delegate, who would not like to identify his name..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: Prices of Cars Are Cheaper Than Motorbikes
          Date of publication: 24 March 2005
          Description/subject: "After the SPDC authorities announced that they would seize public cars, which have no licenses at the end of March and therefore the price of the cars currently cheaper than motorbikes in the border area of Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 April 2005


          Title: SPDC’s Plan for Seizure of Illegal Cars
          Date of publication: 15 March 2005
          Description/subject: March 15, 2005: "The military government has issued an order to send all illegal cars ­ without license - to the nearest police stations late this month, according to a government servant..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


          Title: New Mon State Party’s President Passed Away
          Date of publication: 14 March 2005
          Description/subject: March 14, 2005" "Mr. Nai Htin, President of NMSP (New Mon State Party), passed away at 6:50 a.m. (Burma time) early morning at the New Mon State Party’s Central Office in Moulmein (Mawlamyaing), the capital of Mon State, according to In-charge of NMSP Liaison Office Nai Ba Khaing..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


          Title: Tax Extortion in Yebyu Township, Tenasserim Division
          Date of publication: 10 March 2005
          Description/subject: March 10, 2005" "The village headmen in Yepu Township, Tenasserim Division has demanded illegal tax from villagers with a reason of village security, but they forced villagers to guard their villages for security at night time. Tax demands are depending on the property of each family that who have gardens and large houses have to pay 4500-5000 Kyat per month, while the slightly poor family has to pay 1500 Kyat per month to heads of the village in the area..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


          Title: Military government dismissed 9600 employees of MAI
          Date of publication: 08 March 2005
          Description/subject: March 8, 2005: "Military government SPDC dismissed 9600 employees of Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MAI) after the government degrading of management and some dismissed employees dissatisfied to the possess, according to a manager of Township Myanmar Agricultural Service (MAS)..."
          Author/creator: Mi Mon Kyae
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


          Title: You can read IMNA daily news in Mon
          Date of publication: 08 March 2005
          Description/subject: Tue Mar 8, 2005: Dear IMNA readers, You can read IMNA daily news in Mon In IMNA website, www.monnews-imna.com/mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


          Title: Ferry porter service for rotating government servants
          Date of publication: 07 March 2005
          Description/subject: March 7, 2005: "Thirty-seven trucks were forcedly used in order to transport the officials of immigration and police officers who were in the rotation of their government duties in Three Pagoda Pass border town (with Thailand), a member of car association said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


          Title: IMNA Update News, March 4, 2005
          Date of publication: 04 March 2005
          Description/subject: (1) Village Headman Demands Money from Villagers; (2) Traditional Mon Musicians Found A Musical Instrument Maintaining Committee.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (23K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


          Title: SPDC Troops Demand Fuel and Tax from Fishing Boats
          Date of publication: 02 March 2005
          Description/subject: "The Burmese troops, which is based in a check-point on Ye river near Andaman Sea have demanded fuel and tax from fishing boats that are crossing into the sea for fishing, according to a leader of Ye-chaungwa village. The troops from Infantry Battalion No. 61 which is under the command of Military Operation Management Comment No. (19), that operates or takes responsibility in that area, stop every boat which crosses into sea and have demanded two fuel gallon per boat..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 March 2005


          Title: Burmese military dismisses 10,000 MAPT employees
          Date of publication: 14 February 2005
          Description/subject: "The Burmese military has dismissed 10,000 Myanmar Agriculture Produce Trading (MAPT) department employees, according to an employee of central department in Rangoon. The government central MAPT department in Rangoon sent those dismissed an official letter in the start of this month, according to that employee. “Only 3,509 employees were left,” said the employee. An IMNA source in Rangoon also confirmed it..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 14 February 2005


          Title: Log trading increasing in Three Pagoda
          Date of publication: 14 February 2005
          Description/subject: "Log trading is increasing and more than 100 tons of logs per day are imported into Three Pagoda according to a logging businessman. "About ten 10-wheel trucks carrying logs reach Three Pagoda every day. Most of our trucks carry logs from the Tha Byuud area about 80 kilometers northeast of Three Pagoda which has good logs," said Nai Thin Htwe, a businessman who logs there..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 14 February 2005


          Title: Authorities forced more than three hundred villagers to clean the bush
          Date of publication: 04 February 2005
          Description/subject: "More than three hundred villagers in Kyait Roi village in Mudon Township of Mon State were force to clean up the bush along the roadsides by local authorities on February 2, 2005 as preparation for the visit of military government leaders. “Village headmen, Nai Sein ordered us to do so. If we do not follow the order, he will be fine 5000 Kyat to a family. That’s why we have to come and clean the bush,” Nai Chan Ong told IMNA reporter who visiting their working site..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 14 February 2005


          Title: 10 wheels trucks arrested for carry army supply
          Date of publication: 02 February 2005
          Description/subject: "Burmese Army's a Tactical Command based in Nan-kwin village, Thanbyuzayat Township, is arresting 10 wheels trucks which are routing in Thanpyuzayat-Three Pagoda Pass motor road to use them for carrying army's logistics for military operations in the area. “Seven 10 wheels trucks were arrested and kept in Nan-Kwin village,” Nai Than Shwe, a four wheels car driver who came from there said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 14 February 2005


          Title: Burmese Army collected paddy with free of charge from Mon villages
          Date of publication: 01 February 2005
          Description/subject: "Burmese Army’s Southeast Command has been collecting paddy from the 17 Mon villages in Thanpyuzayat township, Mon state for food supply to their army without payment ever after Mon State farmers groups sent a complaint letter to top general recently and although military government announced they did not take any paddy from the farmers in 2003..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 14 February 2005


          Title: NMSP replaced its delegates to NC
          Date of publication: 01 February 2005
          Description/subject: "New Mon State Party (NMSP) replaced the head of its delegation to National Convention that will resume on February 17, 2005 said NMSP spokesperson Nai Thein Win. "Gen Aung Naing (NMSP's Central Executive Committee) replaced Nai Chan Toik (Joint-Secretary of NMSP) to lead the delegation comprised of Nai Tala Mon, Nai Tin Hla, Nai Januu Mon and Nai Chay Mon for the forthcoming National Convention", added Nai Thein Win..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 14 February 2005


          Title: People forced to paint fences or walls in front of houses for bridge opening
          Date of publication: 31 January 2005
          Description/subject: "Intent on welcoming Burma's military leaders for the opening ceremony for the longest bridge in Burma, police have forced people who live along the main Rangoon-Ye road in Mon and Karen states to paint their fences or walls white and clean up the bush along the roadsides..."
          Author/creator: Nai Jorn
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 14 February 2005


          Title: NMSP again decided to attend upcoming NC for official political struggle
          Date of publication: 29 January 2005
          Description/subject: "The Mon ceased-fired group, New Mon State Party (NMSP) decided yesterday to attend resuming Burmese military government’s National Convention to involved political struggle on table with other ethnic ceased-fire group said NMSP spokesman. “We decided to attend NC after our NMSP central committee members held a meeting in our’s party headquarter in Ye ­Chaung-pyar area,” said Nai Thein Win..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


          Title: Burmese Army burns down 3 Mon villages
          Date of publication: 27 January 2005
          Description/subject: "Troops of Burmese Army burnt down three villages in southern Ye Township and in northern part of Yebyu Township house by house basis on each day. About 100 houses in these villages were burnt down and hundred of villagers escaped away from the villages. South-East Command’s No. 3 Tactical Command No.3 has been burning down the civilians’ houses in Wae-kwao (Paukpingwin), Magyi, and Dani-kyar villages. All of these villages are Mon villages they have from 100 to 300 households in the village..."
          Author/creator: Nai Non Htaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


          Title: 5 millions Kyat per month payment for gas-pipeline security fee
          Date of publication: 25 January 2005
          Description/subject: "Villagers in southern Thanbyuzayat Township, Mon State, are forced to pay about 5 millions Kyat per month for Kanbauk-Myaingkalay gas-pipeline security fee to soldiers and they also forced to fence the gas pipeline for security reason, according to Villages Peace and Development Council (VPDC) in the area. Military officers from Burmese Army’s Infantry Battalion No.62 based in Thanpyuzayat collected each houses 2000 Kyat per month from 7 villages in the area, according to VPDC..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


          Title: MNDF chairman asks cease-fire groups to demand ethnic rights at resumed National Convention
          Date of publication: 24 January 2005
          Description/subject: "Mon National Democratic Front chairman Nai Tun Thein has asked cease-fire groups at the next National Convention (NC) to maintain their NC standing and together demand greater ethnic rights from the Burmese government. "Even though the Burmese military government has their seven point roadmap, it seems they did not plan to really reform Burma," he said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


          Title: A Sub-town PDC Chairman kicked out from place after he met NMSP membera
          Date of publication: 14 January 2005
          Description/subject: "Burmese Army’s Tactical Commander dismissed the Sub-town authorities in Ye Township, Khaw-zar Sub-Town Peace and Development Council Chairman from his ‘chairman’ position after he met a senior leader of the New Mon State Party (NMSP), at the end of December 2004. Khaw-zar village headman, Mr. Nai Hlike replaced with a retired soldier of Burmese Army, after he willingly received the NMSP’s Tavoy district officials and NMSP Education authorities on December 24..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


          Title: Motorbike price jumps up after SPDC announces cleanup of illegal cars
          Date of publication: 14 January 2005
          Description/subject: "Motorbike prices have jumped up after the recent announcement of a Burmese military government cleanup of illegal (unlicensed) cars imported from neighboring countries, so they cost almost the same priceas illegal cars did: two million Kyats for a motorbike made in 2004 that has a Ma La Ma license, and one.million Kyats for a motorbike made in 2004 that does not have a license..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


          Title: Mon School teachers forced in building Burmese high school
          Date of publication: 11 January 2005
          Description/subject: "Burmese army has been forcing the villagers in Khaw-zar Sub-Town and villagers from villages near by in building the government high school on daily basis to compete against Mon National School in the southern part of Ye township, Mon state..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 30 January 2005


          Title: Delayed Opening the longest bridge in Burma
          Date of publication: 07 January 2005
          Description/subject: January 7, 2005: "Burmese Military regime has delayed the opening of the longest bridge in Burma, Moulmein (Mawlamyine)-Mattama (Salween Bridge) due to security reason according to authorities. The government planned to open the bridge, which is long 11575 feets on Burma’s Independent Day, on January 4, 2005..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: 18 Mon women were raped by the troops of Burmese Army in 2004
          Date of publication: 05 January 2005
          Description/subject: January 5, 2005: "The witnesses from the local villages reported that about 18 Mon women have been raped by Burmese Army’s commanders and soldiers during they lunched military operation against a Mon Splinter group that was active in southern part of Burma – southern Mon State and northern Tennaserim division. Most women victims were the family members or relatives of the soldiers in splinter group, as some women were raped at their houses after threats of killing by the soldiers while some were raped during they forced to work in the military camps..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: Burmese Army confiscated over 3300 Acres of land in Mon areas during 2004
          Date of publication: 05 January 2005
          Description/subject: January 5, 2005: "Burmese military regime SPDC’s armed force, Burmese Army, has confiscated over 3300 acres of land belonged to the local farmers for their army businesses and troop deployment in southern part of Burma and they did not pay any compensation in 2004. Burmese Army confiscated about 2000 acres of lands in Thanbyuzayat Township, Mon state for their new bases of army battalions and about 700 acres of land for their dam construction in Ye Township in mid-2004..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: 5 Mon Migrant Workers died in Puket
          Date of publication: 28 December 2004
          Description/subject: December 28, 2004: "12 Burmese migrant workers who working in Puket killed by the tsunami that drove through the Andaman Sea on Sunday according to an NGO who searching the death on migrant said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: Army starts taking areca nut tax from villagers
          Date of publication: 28 December 2004
          Description/subject: December 28, 2004: "For the first time a Burmese military battalion based in Yebyu Township has collected a areca nut tax from the people, 1,000 areca nuts from each areca palm plantation owner. "The military Infantry battalion No.282 ordered the village headmen in Yebyu Township by letter to collect the tax," a village headman said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: Telephone and Telecommunication Project Rangoon to Tavoy
          Date of publication: 24 December 2004
          Description/subject: December 24, 2004: "Burmese military regime has implemented it new technology projects of telephone and telecommunication project, that provide communication from the capital Rangoon to Tavoy, southern town in Tenasserim Division, accordingly to telecommunication officers..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: USDA plans training for ‘member recruitment’
          Date of publication: 24 December 2004
          Description/subject: December 24, 2004: "SPDC’s patronized Mon State Union Soliderity and Development Association (USDA) is gathering a USDA leader from each village in Mon State for a training with objective of providing tactics how to recruit new members for the organization. “Township USDA leaders are gathering the USDA members list from the villages for the registeration of the training which will start on December 29,” Nai Jorn reported..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: Gas pipeline security soldiers use villagers in forced porter service
          Date of publication: 23 December 2004
          Description/subject: December 23, 2004: "Troops of Burma’s military regime, who are taking responsibility for the security of well-known Yadana gas pipeline to Thailand border, have constantly used villagers as unpaid porters during they lunch military offensives against the Mon Splinter group, which is previously a faction of Hongsawatoi Restoration Party (HRP) in Yebyu Township in the northern of Tenasserim Division, southern Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: Land confiscation for Burmese Army for border security
          Date of publication: 22 December 2004
          Description/subject: December 22, 2004: "A Burmese Army’s military battalion based in Three Pagoda Pass Town (a southern Thai-Burma border town) put signboard written ‘Armed Force’s Land’ in Ywa-Thit village which about three kilometers west of the town in order to deploy a new army base for firm control in border area. “Some soldiers recently came to village and they seized the lands in November without paying compensation to land owners from the village,” reported Min Thit Swe..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 January 2005


          Title: Army Authorities Reselling Seized Vehicles
          Date of publication: 15 December 2004
          Description/subject: "Vehicles without licenses imported from Thailand and Japan, which were seized by the Burmese military government army in the November crackdown, are being resold again by the army, according to a monk. “The middle level army authorities in the Military Southeast Command (MSC) changed the color of some seized vehicles and resold these vehicles only to a monk for a low price,” said a monk who tried to buy a car..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 December 2004


          Title: Villagers forced to build 90 houses for government employees in new town
          Date of publication: 08 December 2004
          Description/subject: "People from Khawzar village, a government new town created by the Burmese military government, and nearby villages have been forced to build 90 houses in the town for government employees..." The Burmese government created two new towns in Ye township, Mon state, at the beginning of 2004 to control the area where the Mon splinter group Hongsarwatoi Restoration Party was moving.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 December 2004


          Title: Fuel Price Increase Raises Cost Of Travel
          Date of publication: 04 December 2004
          Description/subject: "The price of fuel is slowly jumping up in Southern Burma because of the difficulty of getting fuel from Rangoon, according to fuel customers. The price of a gallon of petrol, 2,100 kyat in the previous month, is 2,400 kyat now. The price of a gallon of diesel, 2,200 kyat in the previous month, has now jumped to 2,500 kyat..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 December 2004


          Title: HRP declined overture from Burmese military
          Date of publication: 02 December 2004
          Description/subject: "The military government army launched a strong military operation in the Hongsarwatoi Restoration Party (HRP) based area and sent overtures to the HRP for a cease-fire after an HRP headquarters was captured in fighting by a Karen National Liberation Army and Muslin armed group moving in the area, the HRP chairman said..."
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 December 2004


          Title: No trader dares import Thai goods to Burma via Three Pagoda Pass-Thanpyuzayart route
          Date of publication: 28 November 2004
          Description/subject: N"o traders have dared to import Thai goods into Burma at the start of this year's routing season on the Three Pagoda Pass to Thanpyuzayart road because locally based military are seizing imported goods, according to local traders at Three Pagoda Pass. The cars started their routing via the Three Pagoda Pass-Thaphyuzayart road Nov. 24 when just a small number of cars was routed in a day, according to a routing car owner. “We only carry people. We do not dare carry goods,” a routing car owner with a car license."..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 December 2004


          Title: NMSP Not Promised Joining until the End of the National Convention
          Date of publication: 27 November 2004
          Description/subject: "New Mon State Party (NMSP) has not given promise yet that their party will join the resuming National Convention (NC) until finish said NMSP spokesperson, Nai Thein Win. The Burmese military government owns MRTV released on November 23 that all of the cease-fire groups included NMSP will join their NC until finish that will resume in February 2005..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 December 2004


          Title: KPF Can Still Produce Teak Logs Though Banned In Three Pagoda Pass
          Date of publication: 23 November 2004
          Description/subject: "Local military authorities have banned the production of teak logs in the Three Pagoda Pass logging zone and are cleaning up illegal logging business in the area, according to logging businessmen in the area. The military authorities has started banning the export of teak to Thailand since the end of October, and the No. 44 Brigade military operation has tried to clean out illegal logging in the Kyorn Chaung logging zone, northwest of Three Pagoda Pass, where teak was grown by a British colonel..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 December 2004


          Title: Agriculture authorities forced farmers to grow subsidiary crops
          Date of publication: 20 November 2004
          Description/subject: "Mudon Township agriculture authorities forced farmers to grow subsidiary crops on farms irrigated by the Win-Pha-None Dam, according to villagers in the area. “A group of township agriculture authorities came to the villages and gathered villagers to grow subsidiary crops such as rice and beans,” a villager said. According to Nai Jorn, a reporter, villagers are dissatisfied with authorities because they were forced to grow crops in previous years and received no benefits for growing them..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (Mon State)
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 December 2004


          Title: Drug addicted woman’s car hits into crowd and kills one
          Date of publication: 16 November 2004
          Description/subject: "A drug addicted woman, whose brother was killed by Thai polices in Three Pagoda Pass while sending amphetamine to Thailand, drove a car with high speed into three motor-bikes in a the crowd road and killed one person while two got serious injuries, according to victims’ families..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 November 2004


          Title: Fire Bomb exploded in the crowed, more than 20 people wounded
          Date of publication: 06 November 2004
          Description/subject: November 6, 2004: "Hided Three Fire Booms exploded in the crowded people in Kyaikkamort pagoda festival in Kamawet village Mudon township and more than 20 people wounded including an Actresses from Mon Oung Sorn Drama Performance group. Because one Fire Bomb explosion blew up in the drama stage show, some curtains were burned and the stage show has stopped until last night..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: New Law Kills the People
          Date of publication: 06 November 2004
          Description/subject: November 6, 2004: "The military government new law against the illegal transferring money, things and giving information for these kinds of things are likely the law kills the people inside Burma; Southern Thailand based Federation of Trade Unions – Burma (FTUB) General Secretary said. The new law sections an act No. 35 (Kha) declared on Nov.3 with the sign of Senior General Than Shwe and the law is for barring illegal transferring money, things and giving information to these kinds of work. In the law, the government will sentence three years to people whom working in transferring money..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Arrested owners of Cars without licenses face court
          Date of publication: 04 November 2004
          Description/subject: November 4, 2004: "During the recent military government crackdown on cars without licenses, cars owners were arrested and taken to court by authorities for illegal trading. At least 40 car owners were arrested in Mon State and faced court under the legal section of Act No. 31 for illegal car trading, Nai Jorn reported..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Beaten villager case has unreasonable ending, family says
          Date of publication: 04 November 2004
          Description/subject: November 4, 2004: "The case of a patient in the Thanpyuzayart town hospital ended with the unreasonable denial by the Burmese military commander in the area that the soldier who beat the patient ran away, according to the patient’s family. . The patient, Nai Hamard, 44, has been taking treatment for serious wounds after he was beaten by three soldiers of the Southeast Military Command No.4 military training battalion in Waekali, Thanpyuzayart township, while reaping rice in the paddy on his farm about one mile from the battalion on Oct. 26..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Burmese Army commander denied to take action rape perpetrators
          Date of publication: 04 November 2004
          Description/subject: October 4, 2004: "A teenager and a woman from Kyauk-kadin village, Yepyu Township of Tenasserim Division in southern Burma were raped by the Burmese Army soldiers. Although the villagers complained to take action against the rapers for the cases, the commander of the Burmese Army denied it according to a villager from this village who arrived the border recently..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Mounting Tension Between The Burmese Army and DKBA
          Date of publication: 02 November 2004
          Description/subject: November 2, 2004: "Between the Burmese army and a Karen cease-fire group, Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), which is based near the Thai-Burma border in Three Pagoda Pass has reached tension, after Ex-Prime minister Gen Khin Nyunt was dismissed. “It was started after DKBA denied to the Burmese army demanding to have a meeting with them after Gen Khin Nyunt and MI were discharged,” a source close to DKBA said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Military Government Cracking down the Cars without Licenses
          Date of publication: 01 November 2004
          Description/subject: November 1, 2004: "Burmese military government is cracking down the cars and motorbikes without licenses in the whole country and there are about five hundreds cars were seized in Mandalay according to a car trader in Mon State..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Military officers take party line on constitution draft to the public
          Date of publication: 01 November 2004
          Description/subject: November 1, 2004: "Army officers from the Southeast Command Military Training Battalion No. 4 have been talking to people regarding the military government’s party line on the constitution in public shops and while meeting people. “The military officers in Southern Mon state treated the people with good relations as they wanted to talk to them to explain that their top leaders are drawing up a constitution which international people would accept, in tea shops, on trips and while meeting people,” Nai Jorn, an IMNA source, reported..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Easy Learning Mon VCD for Mon People Who can’t read and write Mon made
          Date of publication: 30 October 2004
          Description/subject: October 30, 2004: "The first Easy Learning Mon Video VCD made by Sanghklaburi based Winyangita Foundation for Mon people who can’t read and write Mon, the Winyangita Foundation Director said. “You do not need to have a teacher, you can have this CD and learn it by following reading alphabets and listen the voice in it,” said Nai Orkpung..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Three Pagoda Pass DKBA barred to enjoin the traditional Padaytor Pint
          Date of publication: 29 October 2004
          Description/subject: October 29, 2004: "The Three Pagoda Pass-based Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) was barred by the Burmese army from joining in the annual traditional Padaytor Pint, in which a tree is hung with various items as offerings at the end of Buddhist Lent..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: “The Draft Constitution was centralized; the State Supreme Legislative Body has no power to do legislation”
          Date of publication: 18 October 2004
          Description/subject: [18 October, 2004]*: "Some of the voice of a representative at the Burmese Military Government National Convention... These Questions and Answers were written by a representative who attended the Burmese Military Government National Convention as an ethnic national representative. He wrote about his experience and sent it to the Independent Mon News Agency in his own handwriting:..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (21K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: 80th birthday of President of Thai Raman Association, and annual festival
          Date of publication: 17 October 2004
          Description/subject: By: Sunthorn (IMNA)... "On the 80th birthday of Dr Su-ed Gajaseni, the President of Thai Raman Association, and annual festival of honey offering on October 17, 2004. The Mon people in Thailand hold a special celebration in their office at Ban Bangkadee, Bangkhunthien, Bangkok..."
          Author/creator: Sunthorn
          Language: English
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Burmese army distributes flyer to increase its number of soldiers
          Date of publication: 17 October 2004
          Description/subject: October 17, 2004: "The Burmese army is distributing a flyer to recruit soldiers for their army in Southern Mon State with the title: “To Protect the Country Join the Army,” Nai Choan reported. “Yesterday local army authorities went village to village in Thanpyuzayart and Mudon townships to put flyers at the crossroads and in the main villages to increase their soldiers' number,” he said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Mon State PDC ordered Chaungzon USDA to form USDA battalion in town
          Date of publication: 15 October 2004
          Description/subject: October 15, 2004: "Mon State Peace and Development Council (MSPDC) ordered Chaungzon (Bilu –Kyoon) township Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) to from a USDA battalion in township where National League for Democracy (NLD) were be powerless according to USDA meeting decision. MSPDC Secretary Lt-Col Soe Myint Aung ordered to form it quickly during USDA meeting for September that was held on October 3, 2004..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: General Khin Nyunt does development by detaining villagers
          Date of publication: 13 October 2004
          Description/subject: October 13, 2004: "Villagers in the area between Ye and Yepyu township where Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt wants to have development, have been detained in their villages by Burmese troops, according to villagers from the area. According to a New Mon State Party (NMSP) officer, NMSP leaders asked General Khin Nyunt to allow the NMSP to do activities in the area when they met with him in September. But General Khin Nyunt denied the NMSP request for the reason that the area was undeveloped and needed to develop. The government wants to do development in the area and barred the NMSP, he said. However, Burmese troops under command of Military Operation Management Command (MOMC) No.19, instead of doing development, banned villagers from leaving their villages and did more human rights violations to villagers in the area..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Mon National Democratic Front CEC Leaders close check by MI
          Date of publication: 12 October 2004
          Description/subject: October 12, 2004: "Mon National Democratic Front elected leaders in 1990, who were released on June 4, 2004, were closed check by Burmese military intelligent (MI) according to these leader friends and family said. “MI regularly came to the neighbor house MNDF Secretary, Dr. Nai Soe Lin who strongly debated to the government, and asked a lot of question what Dr. Nai Soe Lin doing,” a Dr. Nai Soe Lin family said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Barred Thai goods made price jump up immediately inside Burma
          Date of publication: 09 October 2004
          Description/subject: October 9, 2004: "Burmese military Border Security Administration (BSA) authorities in Myawadi barred importing goods to inside Burma and it made foodstuffs price jumped-up immediately according to trader and food-stall inside Burma. “Mostly oil, Ajinomoto... and milk price jumped up in four days,” said Nai Myit (not real name) a food-stall owner in Moulmein, Mon State city..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Army used young girls for model show to entertain the commander everyday
          Date of publication: 08 October 2004
          Description/subject: October 8, 2004: "Burmese army base in Khaw-zar village southern Ye Township, Mon State use 13-20 years, young girls by forcing as model girls showing fashion to entertain their commander in the army camp during the night time everyday, according to the villager arrived the border, confirmed by the IMNA source in the area..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (Southern Burma)
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Army ordered villager about they are going to confiscate land
          Date of publication: 07 October 2004
          Description/subject: October 7, 2004 (Karen State): "The Burmese army based in Three Pagoda and village headmen gathered all of the residents of a village of Three Pagoda township Oct. 6 and gave them orders regarding seizure of their land. Burmese army No. 63 gathered the Choo-cha-plu villagers in the primary school, where army officers told them they are going to confiscate the land and measure it..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH LARRY JAGAN, A BURMA SPECIALIST
          Date of publication: 04 October 2004
          Description/subject: BY Lao Htaw, Independent Mon News Agency 4 October 2004*: Interview with Larry Jagan, a Burma specialist on politic and he said “I think that the opening of the second session of the NC gives the ethnic leaders a new opportunity but they must be strong. If I was an ethnic leader, I would go to the NC but I would not buckle under. They have to protest, they have to speak out, they have to force the authorities to allow them to meet each other. And more importantly as an ethnic leader I would want to see all ethnic leaders signing up to one agreement. Please read the whole interview at the below...
          Author/creator: Lao Htaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (27K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Non-stop force labor in road construction
          Date of publication: 01 October 2004
          Description/subject: ) October 1, 2004: "Currently Burmese military government army has been using local villager in Southern Ye Township at the road construction everyday. One person from each house in Ywa Thit village, Singu village and Hangan village are ordered by Tactical Commander Colonel Nyi Nyi to build a new road for connecting these three villages..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (Southern Burma
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Military government reduced selling oil 50% to people
          Date of publication: 30 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 30, 2004: "Burmese military government, Minister of Energy (ME) reduced selling oil 50% to the owner of vehicles that registered with the government according to car owners who are routing their car in Southern Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Eight NMSP members released, but three more members have been arrested again
          Date of publication: 29 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 29, 2004: "Yesterday, Burmese military government released eight New Mon State Party members that were arrested on June 29 2004, the day of NMSP made cease-fire agreement reached for 9 years. But there are more than three of NMSP members from Tavoy district have been arrested on September 14 by the Burmese government and it made more badly relationship between NMSP and the government..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: No citizen card, no money cannot go to hospital
          Date of publication: 28 September 2004
          Description/subject: By Chan Mon (IMNA) (Yepyu)... 27 September 2004... "A leg cut patient who stepped on the landmine during he returned home from fishing could not go to take treatment inside Burma because of no citizen card said by the patient’s father who brought his son to a Christian Hospital in Thai-Burma border for four days walked from his camp. Bo Naung, 23 years old stepped landmine, where was his father and friend passed before him when they went back to home, in east part of Ye Pyu Township, near Internal Displace People (IDP) camp called Chao Done according to his father, Mr.U Chit..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Honorable ceremony for the senior Mon drama performers
          Date of publication: 27 September 2004
          Description/subject: By Sike (IMNA), Moulmein "Mon Drama performance groups joined altogether and honored to the respected senior Mon drama leaders in Ceremony in capital of Mon State, Moulmein yesterday before they started their performance in coming dry season. Nine Mon Drama performance groups honored the elder performers in Mon community hall according the Buddhism respecting of elderly people, invited 14 drama elderly performers from Mon State and Karen State and made a devotional offering to them in the ceremony, according to Nai Mon Oung Kyaw Son, the leader of honoring committee, and the head of Mon Kyae Lai drama performance group..."
          Author/creator: Sike (IMNA)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2004


          Title: Five people arrested on suspicion of being rebels’ parents
          Date of publication: 23 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 23, 2004 (Southern Burma): "The Burmese Army arrested five villagers in southern Mon State with suspicion rebels’ parents at 11:00 Am yesterday and additionally restricted the villagers’ movement to work in their paddy-farms and orchid plantation. “Burmese Army Battalion (LIB) No.586, Colonel Ngwe Soe arrested four parents of Mon rebels from Hongsarwatoi Restoration Party (HRP) in our village called Kaw-hlaing, in southern part of Ye Township, Mon State,” said villagers..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (15K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 September 2004


          Title: No compensation for the houses burned down by gas-pipeline explosion
          Date of publication: 23 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 23, 2004 (Upper Mon State): "Five family lives in Tha-mar-saing villages which on the road between Thaton and Beelin towns in Mon State have to makeshifts after their houses were destroyed by the gas-pipeline explosion and no compensation paid by the military regime SPDC. “The houses belonged to five families in the village were seriously burnt on September 17, 2004 night at about 10:00 p.m,” said the villagers..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (16K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 September 2004


          Title: Land and properties provision for increased troops deployment
          Date of publication: 21 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 21, 2004 (Southern Mon State, Burma): "Villagers are forced to give wooden poles for a Burmese Army’s new battalion, which deploys in Khaw-zar village, in southern Ye Township, Mon State, accordingly to the villagers. “Each house has to give 10 leaves for roofing the barracks and every two houses have to give a wooden pole. Our Yin-dein villagers are also forced to give to Infantry Battalion No.31,” said Mr. Nai Kung Sike. IB No. 31 is currently taking patrol in the area and taking responsibility for a new battalion deployment in Khaw-zar, a biggest village in the area..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 September 2004


          Title: HRP Headquarters seized by a Muslim and Karen joint armed force
          Date of publication: 20 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 20, 2004: "Hongsarwatoi Restoration Headquarter (HRP) seized by an unknown armed group and one of HRP chairman daughter died on the spot and his wife and other one of his soldier wounded after the fighting according to HRP member. The HRP headquarters in Tavoy District, in Thailand-Burma border area was seized on September 18’s morning after an armed groups entered in there and fired to HRP chairman Nai Pan Nyunt shelter house according to HRP spoke-person Mr. Nai Kon Chan Nai..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 September 2004


          Title: DKBA gets favor after halting businessperson’s seizure of public market
          Date of publication: 18 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 18, 2004 (Karen State, Border): "A Karen ceasefire armed group, Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) which has bad name in treating the local people, gets support from the people after halting trader Ms. Daw Saw Khin and Township Peace and Development Council’s (Ma Ya Ka) plan for building the lacquer and furniture market in public ground in Three Pagoda Pass (TPP) border city..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2004


          Title: Mon rebel (HRP) denies for cease-fire if there is no time frame for political reform
          Date of publication: 16 September 2004
          Description/subject: "Hongsarwatoi Restoration Party (HRP) does not want to talk for cease-fire to the regime SPDC, if the regime does not setup exact time frames for political reform in Burma, said by HRP leader amid many other ethnic armed groups have agreed for ceasefire. “We want genuine peace, but if the government does not setup time schedule for the political reform in Burma and the problems in Mon State continue and if there is no international mediator, no way we wouldn’t talk to the regime,” said HRP Chairman Nai Pan Nyunt..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: ndependent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2004


          Title: Border trade ban during the Deputy Chief Command is in Myawadi
          Date of publication: 14 September 2004
          Description/subject: "Deputy Chief Commander of South-East Command, Brigadier General Myo Hla is on trip to Myawadi border town with Thailand, the imported Thai goods is on a still-stand situation, said by SPDC’s Border Area Administration Department (Nasaka) said trader..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2004


          Title: Confiscation of 490 acres land for Burmese Army’s business
          Date of publication: 14 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 14, 2004 (Thanpyuzayat, Mon State): "Commanders of No. 4 Military Training School under the command of Burmese Army’s South-East Command, in Thanbyuzayat Township are measuring 490 acres of rubber and orchid plantations belonged to the civilians in Wae-ka-li village in order to confiscate for their own business..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (17K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2004


          Title: Burmese soldiers burnt down their sheltering house after Mon rebels’ ambush
          Date of publication: 13 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 13, 2004 (Southern Mon State Ye): "A house which the Mon rebel fired to 6 Burmese (SPDC) soldiers while falling in asleep was totally burnt down by the Burmese soldiers and household heads were also arrested on the next day, the villagers told IMNA yesterday. The burnt house was in Mi-Htaw-hlar village, southern Ye Township, where 4 Burmese soldiers among 6 under the command of Light Infantry Battalion No. 282 were shot to death by the Mon rebels while they were sleeping on August 29..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2004


          Title: Four Burmese soldiers died in landslide
          Date of publication: 10 September 2004
          Description/subject: "Four Burmese soldiers died in landslide on the road of Myawadi to Mawlamyine (Mon State city) during heaving raining last night according to trader..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2004


          Title: I don’t know, why I became a USDA member
          Date of publication: 08 September 2004
          Description/subject: "Many people said they did not know why they become as members of Union Solidarity Development Association (USDA) while this SPDC hand-picked organization is currently extending its members in Mon State. “I did not know why myself became a USDA member because of my village headmen filled in the USDA member registration form. When USDA leaders came and asked our Village Peace and Development Council to extend 20 members in this year for the village, my name was put,” said Mr. Nai Myo a villager from Kwan-hlar village Mudon Township..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2004


          Title: Village headmen call for ILO to have more access in rural areas
          Date of publication: 01 September 2004
          Description/subject: September 1, 2004: "International Labor Organization (ILO) should try to have more access to rural area in southern Mon state, Burma and it should not conduct its activities only in cities/towns, in order to know forced labor situation, the village headmen from southern part of Ye Township demanded. “Even ILO monitoring the situation of force labor in Burma and the government issued Order 1/99, the use forced labor by the Burmese government is not really stopping in our area,” a village headman from a village near Khaw-za village, who was in anonymity situation told IMNA. “There are a lot of Order 1/99 paper sheets put on the wall in the Village Peace and Development Council (VPDC) office in the villages in both Burmese and English. Although currently the Burmese Army under the command of Military Operation Management Command (MOMC) No.19 have forced villagers all the time to work in the road construction, pieces of works in army camp and as porters, the villagers never received any payment,” he added..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 September 2004


          Title: Pegu city residents sick of patrolling duty
          Date of publication: 24 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 24, 2004: "The SPDC authorities in Pegu city have forced the residents on a rotation basis to guard and patrol around their city for security and if the residents fail to perform their duties they have to pay, according to Pegu residents..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 August 2004


          Title: USDA organizes membership with business opportunity
          Date of publication: 23 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 23, 2004: "Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) are checking and registering adult population of most families in towns situating southern Mon state in order to raise awareness about USDA and organize the people with business opportunity..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 August 2004


          Title: Eighteen people bitten by rabid dogs and one man died with hydrophobia
          Date of publication: 20 August 2004
          Description/subject: "Strangely, lot of dogs infected with hydrophobia in Three Pagoda Town, 18 peoples included children bitten by these dogs and one man died with hydrophobia. Thur Pu, 21 year olds from Kya-inn-seikyi Township who was working in Three Pagoda, died on yesterday morning with hydrophobia after suffering bitten three days ago according to his friends..."
          Author/creator: Mon Kyae & Thu Rein
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (15K)
          Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


          Title: Forced labor and inhumane treatment in the road construction
          Date of publication: 19 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 19, 2004" "An unpaid forced laborer working in a road repair was seriously beaten by the Burmese soldiers, as he took a rest for a while during the Burmese Army is planning to convert a village to be a Sub-Town in Southern Mon State, according to a local resident. Everyday 10 civilians from a quarter from Khaw-zar Sub-Town and 10 civilians from each village around the area forced to work in a road repairs. The road connects from one village to another in the area and have re-built the road since the end of 2003 with forced labor contributed by civilians. The military regime is also planning to promote the administration of Khaw-zar village to be a Sub-Town, which is about 10 miles from Ye Town in Mon State. “At least three or four people were beaten everyday from a village,” said Mr. Nai Kon Mon who witnessed the mis-treatment and was also forced in the road repairs recently..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (18K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 August 2004


          Title: Independent Mon News Agency Archive
          Date of publication: 13 August 2004
          Description/subject: The IMNA archive on OBL currently contains more than 230 IMNA stories from October 2002. The archive metadata can be browsed, or searched by keyword.
          Language: English, Burmese, Mon
          Source/publisher: OBL-IMNA
          Format/size: html, jpg, gif
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Exclusive Interview with NMSP General-Secretary, Nai Hong Sar
          Date of publication: 10 August 2004
          Description/subject: New Mon State Party (NMSP) General Secretary, Nai Hong Sar was interviewed by Loa Htaw, Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA), in Sangkhlaburi on what Burmese government accused on their members as criminals. But he refused the accusation and continues talking about what NMSP and other cease-fire groups’ request to military government, SPDC, in the recent National Convention. Here in the full transcript of the interview.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (17K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Three Pagoda Pass football match ceased at semi-final in fear of armed conflict
          Date of publication: 10 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 10, 2004: "Three Pagoda Pass Township 6th annual football match ceased at semi-final after an argument occurred between the Ramonnya Football Team and Chaung-zone Football Team. “Because of Three Pagoda Pass Township Peace and Development (TPDC) is afraid of armed conflict occurs between New Mon State Party (NMSP) and Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) which are behind the two football teams, and so they cease the match without a decided date to re-start again,” according to the match Implementing Committee..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Thai-Raman (Thai-Mon) Communities Gather to Offer Mon Foods in a Honor of Royal Thai Queen’s 72th Birthday
          Date of publication: 09 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 9, 2004, Bangkok: "Thai-Raman (Thai Mon) communities near Thai capital Bangkok gather to offer Mon foods to the people for five days including showing of Mon Traditions Exhibition stall at Sanam Luang, a public ground in order to honor Royal Thai Queen’s 72th Anniversary Birthday ceremony..."
          Author/creator: Chan Mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (15K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: About 30 smugglers killed each other before SPDC seized 830 kilograms heroin
          Date of publication: 06 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 6, 2004: "About 30 heroin smugglers killed each other in the Martaban Sea, southwestern part of Burma, before the the military regime SPDC authorities and Military Intelligence (MI) seized about 830 kilograms (1, 660 pounds) heroin from a Mon smuggler in Hnit-kayin, a coastal village, Ye township, southern Mon State, according to the villagers..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: New Mon State Party Refused What SPDC’s Accusation on Their Soldiers as Criminals
          Date of publication: 06 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 6, 2004: "New Mon State Party (NMSP) General Secretary refused what Burmese government accuses on eight of their soldiers as criminals for scary people by guns in collecting tax money. The NMSP Leader said that eight soldiers who have been accused as criminals and arrested by the SPDC authorities in Ye township, Mon State are Nai Ron Nai, Nai Tala Lawi, Nai Aung Yin and five others on June 29, on the day of 9th anniversary of NMSP cease-fire with regime..."
          Author/creator: Loa Htaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: A serious beating and killing of a Mon comedian by SPDC’s police and MI
          Date of publication: 05 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 5, 2004: "Because of Thanbyuzayat Township polices and Military Intelligence’s serious beating and torture a Mon comedian, Mr. Nai Lam Pyart, from “Mon Kyae Lai” Mon traditional drama performance group, died after the abuses was committed with a suspicion he was attempting to rape a performance girl, accordingly the source from the drama group. “Nai Lam Pyart died in Moulmein (Mawlamyine – named by the regime) hospital after Thanbyuzyat hospital’s medical workers could not treat the injuries and brought him there on July 29,” the source said..."
          Author/creator: Sike
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Burmese Military Changed New Mon State Party School To Government School
          Date of publication: 03 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 3, 2004: "Burmese military government destroyed New Mon State Party (NMSP) school signboard and put government school signboard in Mon State, southern Ye township said a Mon teacher in the area. “Now some Mon National School (MNS) signboards have already been changed to the signboard of government schools”, said the teacher..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Escape from arrest as porters while village is under flood
          Date of publication: 03 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 3, 2004: "The villagers in a village in Southern Ye Township are escaping from the soldiers’ arrest for the conscription of porters while their village is under flood according to the villagers. “The villager are hiding and escaping. The soldiers are trying to arrest the men to use them as porters in the military operations against the Mon splinter groups. Many times, the men are loud their voice “Karoute” Karoute (in Mon language) in Hangan to escape from the arrest even while the village is under water of three feet in depth,” said a monk come from the Hangan village..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: A furniture or lacquer factory has to pay three hundreds thousands kyat for concession
          Date of publication: 02 August 2004
          Description/subject: August 2, 2004: "Each furniture or lacquer factory in Three Pagoda Pass has to pay three hundreds thousands kyat (about 300 $ US) to the Burmese military government for factory concession and they have to pay log permission too to open their factory again according to the furniture and lacquer factories owners. “We also have to pay eight thousands kyat every year for extending concession and 25 thousands kyat (about 30 $ US) for a ton to buy log permission..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Forced Relocation of 300 houses for a SPDC’s Police Station and Hospital
          Date of publication: 27 July 2004
          Description/subject: July 27, 2004: "Burma’s regime authorities from Ye Township Peace and Development Council (Ye TPDC) forcibly moved 300 houses in a Mon village in Mon State, Southern Burma, in order to build police station and hospital by force to build it police station and accordingly to the villagers. “Ye TPDC not only forced us to move the house, they also confiscated eight acres of orchid plantation and ten acres of paddy-farms land in the Du-yar village in northern Ye township,” said Mr. Nai Mon Chan, the villager who closes to Ye TPDC..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Senseless of fined from the traffic policemen
          Date of publication: 27 July 2004
          Description/subject: July 27, 2004: "Traffic policemen in Mon State, Southern Burma seriously check the motorbike drivers for fine money since the security has been tight for the National Convention held in Rangoon according to the travelers in the area. “They check helmet first, if you do not have helmet they fine you. If you have it, they check driving license again, if you do not have it they fine you. Even we have helmet and driving license but they fine us,” said Mr. Nai San Wae a motorbike owner inside Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: News Alert ! (New Song and VCD From Mon State)
          Date of publication: 26 July 2004
          Description/subject: Dear Mon Friend, Song Lover, New Mon singer (Kra Weat Htaw) song album will distribute to Mon people and Rae Mharn VCD karaoke is distributing to Mon community. For the Kra Weat Htaw album, You can visit www.monnews-imna.com/mon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Mon singers request the Mon community to against the pirate CDs and tapes
          Date of publication: 25 July 2004
          Description/subject: July 25, 2004: "Mon singers requested to their Mon audiences that to not buy the pirate Mon CDs and tapes produced by the businessmen, and they asked the Mon audiences to buy only the original CDs and tapes after the illegal copied CDs and tapes are widespread sold in the Mon community..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Independent Mon News Agency (Mon Language)
          Date of publication: 21 July 2004
          Description/subject: Now Independent Mon News Agency is updated Mon Language webpage. http://www.monnews-imna.com/mon/index.htm
          Language: English
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: A decision for Mon Monks university in Mon State
          Date of publication: 20 July 2004
          Description/subject: July 20, 2004: "A decision to open a Mon Monks’ University in Mon State is made by the famous senior Mon monks, Mon community leaders and some New Mon State Party leaders in the capital of Mon State, said Ajar Damma Dinna a Mon monk from United State who support this University said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Killing, rape, porter and torturing continue in Southern Ye Township
          Date of publication: 17 July 2004
          Description/subject: July 17, 2004: "Killing, rape, porter and torturing – other human rights violations continues by the soldiers of Burmese Army in Southern Ye Township, Southern Burma, according to fifteen villagers who fled from their villages to escape the abuses and arrived to the Mon refugee resettlement camp on July 15. “Burmese soldiers from Battalion No.273 based in Kanbauk, in Yebyu Township have on a rotation basis used 15 villagers as porters and as human-shields while they lunched offensives against the Mon splinter group. Many villagers were beaten, fed with insufficient food and had to carry heavy ammunitions. The villagers who were suspected supporting splinter group were killed and tortured,” said Mr. Nai Lwi Mon who arrived Hlockhani refugee resettlement camp..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Testing for HIV in Burma
          Date of publication: 17 July 2004
          Description/subject: 17 July 2004: "People in Burma have little incentive to test their HIV status, said Jamie Uhrig, a former employee of the World Health Organization (WHO) in that country. A young man from Rangoon agreed that many people in Burma don’t want to have the HIV test because it is expensive and even if they discover they are infected it is difficult to get treatment. He said most people even don’t know that what ARV drugs are. So, if they know they are infected, they would become depressed as there is a lot discrimination against people who are HIV positive..."
          Author/creator: Loa Htaw (IMNA)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Almost furniture and lacquer factories in Three Pagoda Pass closed down after the order
          Date of publication: 14 July 2004
          Description/subject: July 14, 2004: "Almost furniture and lacquer factories are ordered to close down after the government rigidly pressure them to make logging permission although the leaders of Furniture Factory Association compromises with SPDC authorities in Three Pagoda Pass town to reduce tax for permission, accordingly to a member of the Association. “The authorities want us to pay for the logs that we use in the factories as concession or permission cost again. But we don’t want to pay because we bought the logs that already paid tax for their concessions,” said Mr. Nai Tin Win, a Furniture Factory Association member..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Carrying Condoms is a “Crime” for Burmese Women
          Date of publication: 14 July 2004
          Description/subject: July 14, 2004" "Burmese women can be jailed for a maximum of three years if military police find them carrying a condom, says Liz Hilton the spokesperson of EMPOWER, a Thai organisation that supports and educates sex workers. Hilton, who is representing EMPOWER (Chiang Mai) at the 2004 AIDS Conference, said that women in Burma are at risk - regardless of whether they are sex workers, domestic workers, or teachers. "What women are saying is that the police assume any woman with a condom is a sex worker. And the result is that many women in Burma are now too afraid to carry condoms, in case the police arrest them"..."
          Author/creator: Ms.Hong Sar
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (16K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Total ban on furniture export to Thailand
          Date of publication: 13 July 2004
          Description/subject: July 13, 2004: "Burmese military government, SPDC, authorities in Three Pagoda Pass border town totally banned the funiture and log exports to Thailand, according to a furniture factory owner. “The authorities already ordered to the logging bussinessmen and funiture factory owners to not export furniture and logs in Thailand since July 9, after an order came from Karen State Peace and Development Council. But they totally banned at mid-day today that they will not allow any furniture and logs to export to Thai side of the border,” said Mr. Nai Htay a funiture trader.."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (15K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: No exam result for 10th Standard students who are not from State High Schools
          Date of publication: 11 July 2004
          Description/subject: July 11, 2004: "The students from outside the State schools those entered 10th Standard of High School Level Education exam in March 2004 are confused after the SPDC’s Education Ministry issued a statement which force them to re-exam lower level 9th Standard exam accordingly to the source from teacher..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Force Labor for Fencing Kanbauk-Myaing-kalay Gas Pipeline.
          Date of publication: 30 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 30, 2004: "The Burmese military government authorities in Mon state are forcing the local villagers in southern Mon State to fence along the route of gas pipeline on a daily basis in order to prevent potential sabotages. “They ordered to fence the gas pipeline which across the streams and fill earth on the iron pipes in order to put the gas-pipelines under the ground,” said Mr. Nai Khit Chai, a Wae-win-kara villager, Thanbyuzayart Township..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: A strange foreign ship arrived at Kalar-gote Island in Mon State
          Date of publication: 29 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 29, 2004: "A strange foreign ship with no passenger arrived in the west beach of Kalar-gote Island in Ye township, southern Burma and the Burmese Army’s navy took it away, according to villagers from island. “The ship arrived on June 25 Friday and we do not found anyone on board of the ship. It has three stairs and some foods and clothes are on the up-stair floor,” said Mr. Nai Win. The floated ship slow reached in the beach west of the island,” he added..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: SPDC and NMSP continue maintaining cease-fire agreement
          Date of publication: 29 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 29, 2004: "New Mon State party (NMSP) and the SPDC’s Military Intelligence said they continue maintaining cease-ire agreement in the 9th annual ceremony for cease-fire agreement in NMSP office in Moulmein, the capital of Mon State this morning. NMSP leader opened ceremony at 9 a:m and NMSP leaders read formal message from NMSP President Nai Htin..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: SPDC measured about 1700 acres land for confiscation
          Date of publication: 29 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 29, 2004: "Burmese military government recently measured about 1700 acres land for confiscation in the middle part of Mon State and in southern Mon State Burma for building dam, the local Mon people said. In southern part of Ye township, the military government measured more than 700 acres land in east part of Ka-lort village near a water fall in 2002 where the government planned to build dam for hydroelectric power and water for cultivation, said Mr. U Shwe Tin a leader of land surveyor this area. “I am not sure what is the government going to do in this land. But I heard from the government authorities that they will create plantation and farms in lower part of the proposed dam and take water from there,” Mr. Tin added..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Endless illegal Car Trading
          Date of publication: 27 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 27, 2004: "Although there is heavy rains and most parts of motor road are destroyed by the rain, the traders continue illegally importing second hand car from Japan into Burma. “Every day more than 15 cars are imported into Burma through Mae-katha road across jungles,” said the source close to the KNU checkpoint officer Kyaw Tint. “Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) and a Karen surrender group called KPF (Karen Peace Force) has taken responsibility in bringing these cars,” added the source..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Illegally soccer gambling likely legal during Euro 2004 (UEFA)
          Date of publication: 26 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 26, 2004: "During UEFA, in the capital and in southern part of Burma, Burmese people are widely gambling as legal game after bribed to Military Intelligence and gambling organizers won in the French vs Greece match according to the gambling organizer in Rangoon..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: KPF, a Karen cease-fire armed group kidnapped six sex workers
          Date of publication: 25 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 25, 2004: "A Karen cease-fire armed group, KPF (Karen Peace Force - which stands literally in Burmese – Kayin Nyein Chan Ye Ah Pwae) kidnapped six sex workers from a brothel house and this armed group threatened the owner to close down that house situates in No.2 city quarter, Three Pagoda Pass, a Thai-Burma border townin southern Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Ethnic armed groups are barred for forcibly use boat ferry
          Date of publication: 22 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 22, 2004: "Ferry association set a new rule restricting the ceased-fire groups to not use boat ferry by force where those groups always use it along Zami river, a main route in rainy season from Three-Pagoda-Pass border town to a town in Karen State, Kya-inn-seikyi. “We do not allow cease-fire armed groups to use boat ferries by force along the route from Three-Pagoda-Pass– Kya-inn-seikyi. We will only allow the government officers to use those ferries as they like,” said Mr. U Than Win, Boat Ferry Transport Association chairperson..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Release of Mon political prisoners with a restriction
          Date of publication: 19 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 19, 2004: "The Burmese military government released the leaders of Mon National Democratic Front with a suspension that they released them in early time and they would be imprisoned again if they against the regime, said Dr. Min Kyi Win, a MNDF’s MP who released recently..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Burmese Police extorted and tortured the deported migrant workers
          Date of publication: 18 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 18, 2004: "Burmese Police based in Three Pagoda Pass interrogated and asked for money from migrant workers who are deported back from Thailand. “If the migrant worker can’t pay the amount they asked, they are tortured” said a migrant worker who was deported on yesterday. Recently even the government media MRTV and MRTV 3 reported the government would help the migrant workers as much as possible, but the Three Pagoda Pass polices just asking money from them and also seized the belongings said by the migrant worker..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Ethnic armed groups monopolized buying bamboo-shoot
          Date of publication: 18 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 18, 2004: "Three ethnic armed groups monopolized buying bamboo-shoot this year in Three Pagoda Pass area, opposite of Thailand’s Kanchanburi Province, according to Ms. Mi Mor a former bamboo shoot trader said. “New Mon State Party, Karen National Union and Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (which base in the area) forbid the former bamboo shoot traders to buy bamboo-shoot this year and the armed groups will do buying with their own arrangment today,” Ms. Mor added..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Burma Regime’s Dramatic Art Council ordered Mon artists to put old fashion opera in their shows
          Date of publication: 11 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 11, 2004: "Burmese military regime’s Dramatic Art Council ordered to Mon dramatic performers in Mon State and Karen State to put a piece of Burmese traditional opera in their show..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Use of porters by Burmese Army amid Ethnic rebels’ ceasefire
          Date of publication: 07 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 7, 2004: "Seven people returned home yesterday after six days of serving as porters for Burmese Army’s troops in their military operations in the area along Three-Pagoda-Pass – Thanbyuzayat motor road, where most ethnic rebel cease fighting against the regime. “Infantry Battalion No.289 used nine porters from our village to carry their military supply from Chaung-zon to Yetagon village for 6 days,” said Mr. Nai Myaing a villager who know those porters..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Pub taxes jump up in Mon State
          Date of publication: 06 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 6, 2004: "The Burma regime’s Custom Department collects ten times tax in comparison with last year from pubs in Mon State this year, in order to raise more revenue for the local authorities, said the pub owners in Mon State..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Army ordered to the villages PDC to seize farm 800 acres for army
          Date of publication: 04 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 4, 2004: "Burmese Army bases in Mon State ordered to Village Peace and Development Council to confiscated 800 acres farmland for army after they held a meeting with village PDC chairpersons in Thanbyuzayat Town, the villages PDC members said. “The Infantry Battalion No.31’s Army Officer ordered to confiscate farmlands for four battalions that base in Thanbyuzayat,” said Hnee Padaw village PDC members and Kwanhlar villge PDC members..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Three Mon Leaders Released from Moulmein Jail
          Date of publication: 04 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 4, 2004: "Three Mon political leaders from Mon National Democratic Front (MNDF) are released today about noon time from the Mon State’s capital Moulmein jail, confirmed MNDF spokeperson. Mr. Nai Pan Aung, MNDF spokeperson said, the SPDC authorities and Military Intelligence Officers send three Mon political leaders Nai Ngwe Thein, Dr. Min Soe Lin and Dr. Min Kyi Win back to their homes at noon time..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Order to make TV license in Mon State
          Date of publication: 01 June 2004
          Description/subject: June 1, 2004: "The Burmese government television and communication department has ordered the people to register their TV to have a license and the State authorities are strictly implementing for it in southern Burma. “The government ordered it last week and it authorities are collecting the number of TV from every home in southern Mon state,” said a TV owner U Hla Khaing..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Broker created expensive cost for applying (Mon State) Ma La Ma motorbike license
          Date of publication: 25 May 2004
          Description/subject: May 25, 2004: "Because of payment to broker too expensive, the cost for applying to get (Mon State) Ma La Ma motorbike license costs are higher than before, the local traders said..."
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: The Government Tried to Stop more than 13,000 Mon student from learning
          Date of publication: 25 May 2004
          Description/subject: May 25, 2004: "The Burmese military regime SPDC has tried to close down Mon National School where there are more than 13,000 Mon student attended and operated by by New Mon State Party’s Edccation Department in Ye township in order to transform them as government schools, but NMSP will oppose the attempts, NMSP spoke person said..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: A Sergeant killed by a soldier after unfair giving supply
          Date of publication: 23 May 2004
          Description/subject: May 23, 2004: A military government sergeant from Battalion No-106 that based in Mawkanin, Ye township, Mon State, shot death by a soldier after unfair giving supply to low rank soldier according to source close to this battalion said. Sergeant Aung Kyi Myint shot on yesterday while he is giving military supply to lower rank soldier inside the battalion and he died at the hospital today. For more information contact to imna_news@yahoo.com See: www.monnews-imna.com/burmese
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (41K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Missing three children and a woman after the water inundated houseboats
          Date of publication: 21 May 2004
          Description/subject: May 21, 2004: "Three children and a woman are missing after the strong water destroyed seven houseboats in a village in western part of the three Pagoda Pass Township..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: More than Four hundreds Mon Youth finished “Mon History” exam
          Date of publication: 19 May 2004
          Description/subject: May 19, 2004: "More than four hundreds Mon youth community from two states and a division finished “Mon History” exam in Mon State City under the leading of a famous monk, Tala Goon Ajar Par Li Ta yesterday. The exam intends for teenager and upper teenager age Mon to understand Mon literature and Mon old town history, Summery Mon Literature School leader, Ajar Par Li Ta organized it at the 2500 Buddhist Years temple in Mawlamyine..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K), jpg (8K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/IMNA2004-05-19.jpeg
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Not Genuine National Convention, Mon Leaders Dialogue Decides
          Date of publication: 18 May 2004
          Description/subject: May 18, 2004: "Today Mon Leaders make a decision that the National Convention is not genuine one after they have theoretically analyzed on the NC, said the meeting spoke-person Nai Banya Dean..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: NMSP representatives already arrived Ragoon for attending National Convention (NC)
          Date of publication: 11 May 2004
          Description/subject: May 11, 2004: "The representatives from New Mon State Party, the biggest Mon armed group already arrived Ragoon for attending Burmese government’s National Convention that will hold on May 17. New Mon State Party, which made cease-fire since 1995, sent its five representatives to Ragoon on yesterday after it party central member held a meeting at the beginning of May..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


          Title: Twenty illegal car traders from Three Pagodas were arrested by (SA Tone lone), police intelligent group
          Date of publication: 10 May 2004
          Description/subject: May 10, 2004: "(Sa Tone Lone) police intelligent group from Karen State Peace and Development Council arrested twenty of illegal car traders, from Three Pagoda..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: MNDF chairperson explained to people NLD can join NC if all of it’s CEC member were released and held a meeting, But UNA is not sure
          Date of publication: 29 April 2004
          Description/subject: April 29, 2004: “NLD can join to national convention if all of it’s central executive committee can be held a meeting for it,” Chairperson of Mon National Democratic Front, who meet with NLD central members regularly, said in front of the crowded people at the 8th honoring ceremony for Nai Aung Tun, Mon Affair minister who passed away in Paca village, Thanpyuzayart township..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Two Leaders from non-politic group were Invited to National Convention as Mon National Delegates
          Date of publication: 24 April 2004
          Description/subject: April 24, 2004: "Two non-politician leaders were invited to national convention as the Mon national delegates by the government according to the source who live close with these leaders. Nai Sike, Chair Person of Mon National Literature and Culture of Mawlamyine and Nai Kyin Phay, former Mon State Peace and Development Council Chair person and also the leader and the founder of Yar Ma Nya Newspaper, currently has been publishing in Mon State in Burmese,were invited after the Military Southeast Command Commander met with them..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Government Municipal Department bad treated the poor with tax
          Date of publication: 22 April 2004
          Description/subject: April 22, 2004: "Recently the Burmese Government Municipal of Pegu town, in east of Rangoon, taxation made the poor and old couple feel uncomfortable when the couple repairing their own house. The municipal collect taxed 20,000 kyat on the couple, Nai Hpood in Socialist quarter, when the couple trying to repair and straight their house that lean long time ago. The poor couple faced the problems that they cannot pay because they tried to repair their house with a few amount. However, the municipal officer collect taxed on them with many amount of money by order later..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Do development for corruption in Three Pagoda
          Date of publication: 21 April 2004
          Description/subject: April 21, 2004: "Quarter Peace and Development Council in Three Pagoda Town measured land in it quarter and again sell it to people for their pocket money today. Three Pagoda Town quarter No.3 PDC officer, U Hlaing Myit and a surveyor, U Khin Soe lead, a group of people remeasured the land by passing one by one home and made 40 feet Wide and 60 feet Length measurement for a home..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Shwe Marn and Min Kyi friend fled to Thailand for escape
          Date of publication: 19 April 2004
          Description/subject: April 19, 2004: :One Mon,who parents joined UN and he also come from Pegu, in east of Rangoon, left his family to free from arrest of the Burmese government authority and arrived in Thai-Burma border after have interrogated. Nai Mraok Done is a friend of Shwe Marn and Min Kyi who contacted with ILO and have been sentenced to death by the military government .Because of being friend with them Mraok also been interrogated and checked by the government Military Intelligent (MI) many time..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: A new Computer Technology and Science University in Rangoon has been closed down
          Date of publication: 12 April 2004
          Description/subject: April 12, 2004: "A computer technology and science university in Ragoon has been closed down with no limited time, after more than a hundred of student who dismissed from the exam, protested for allowing them to exam in this year. The university is in Thar Du Kan, Hlaw Kar, it closed on March 20, after the government education minister met the protester who did not attend 75% school time at the school and dismissed from the exam for this year by the university teacher..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Yesterday, more Than ten thousand students finished Mon Literature Study.
          Date of publication: 10 April 2004
          Description/subject: April 10, 2004: "Yesterday night, in Mudon township, the local Mon community celebrated closing ceremony of the Summer time Mon literature school which are under leading of a famous monk,Talagoon on Aiarr Par li Tha in Kamawet village. In the celebration, the community leader, schoolteacher, students and thousands of communities, from different circles in Mudon Township, attended..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (13K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Forced to form Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association in the village
          Date of publication: 09 April 2004
          Description/subject: April 9, 2004: "Yesterday, in the township village’s headman workshop and meeting the government authority forced to form Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association. In two days workshop meeting in Mudon town ship, southern Mon State city, Mawlamyine the authority ordered the village men to form Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association in each village..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Oil price and tax stopped 200 more small four wheel car in Three Pagoda-Thanpyuzayart route from transporting oil
          Date of publication: 06 April 2004
          Description/subject: April 6, 2004 : "In this year, the small four wheels car in Three Pagoda-Thanpyuzayart route stop transporting oil to Burma because the oil price getting down and the tax also getting increased..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (11K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Free gambling of the authorities for water festival creates robbery
          Date of publication: 05 April 2004
          Description/subject: "Free gambling for the coming Thingyan, water festival in Southern Mon State started creating thief cases and robbery after the gambling started. The coming Thingyan starts on April 12 to 17, and to get money from the gambler by tax, the Burmese government authorities announced to the people that they allow the people for gambling from the beginning of April 1 to April 17..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (8K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Police in the New Town of Mon State, makes money with jackfruit stalk from the cow owner
          Date of publication: 04 April 2004
          Description/subject: "Polices from the new town in Southern Mon State, makes their pocket money by fined on the cows that ate their jackfruit stalk. Lamaing twon polices throwing the jack fruit stalk that have good smell around it station for attracting the cow to eat it. Everyday the police caught three or two cows while the cow eating the jackfruit stalk and the police made money more then 10,000 kyat in a day..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (7K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: HRP under pressure of it competition armed groups
          Date of publication: 02 April 2004
          Description/subject: "Mon rubble [rebels?-OBL], refused to talk for cease fire with the Burmese government in late February, Hongsarwatoi Restoration Party (HRP) under pressured of it competition armed groups. HRP leader said “some HRP member were killed by KNU, arrested buy Thai army, and HRP faced heavy military operation from the Burmese army and NMSP.” " For more information read the attached file in Burmese. Contact: imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (57K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Demanding Illegal Money From Motorbikers
          Date of publication: 31 March 2004
          Description/subject: "The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and No.5 Intelligence in Mon State not allowing people to use it new kind of license called Mon State motorbike licenses in the future and they are announcing to the people to change using Mon state license to Mawlamyine City license..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (14K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Training for Militia to Commando Soldier
          Date of publication: 30 March 2004
          Description/subject: "Burmese Government is starting it advance basic militia training for the trainee who finished last year basic militia training in Mon State southern Burma at the same time. The training started on March 25 and 30 trainees attend in each training camp where the government local based battalion arranged." For more information read the attached file in Burmese.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (63K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Mass Destruction of Economy by SPDC
          Date of publication: 29 March 2004
          Description/subject: "It seems to the international communities that the ruling Burmese military junta is leading to national reconciliation and building for a disciplined democratic country by having cease fire agreement with ethnic nationalitie's armed groups, inviting these groups to participate in the national convention to implement 7 step roadmap proposed by self-appointed Prime Minister Gen Khin Nyunt. But its real policy is just to bring the ethnic armed groups under the SPDC's control, in order that the junta can maintain the power longer. There is nothing for the people, the junta didn't care about the life of the majority people in the country. It is leading to the destruction for the country's economy because of their own policy and their mismanagement, no economic sanction from the outside did destroy their country..."
          Author/creator: Sunthorn Sripanngern (IMNA)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (21K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Huge extortion by SPDC Army in southern Ye Township
          Date of publication: 22 March 2004
          Description/subject: Dear Reader, In order to buy cars and food expenses, No.3 Tactical Command, under the Southeast Command collected many million kyaw from civilians in Southern part of Ye Township. Read the news in Burmese. Regard, Editor, IMNA
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon Mews Agency
          Format/size: jpeg (177K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Mon National Conference asks for national unity and national fund
          Date of publication: 22 March 2004
          Description/subject: Dear Reader, After 5 days Mon National Conference the representatives called for unity among Mon and establishing of national fund. Read the news in Burmese. Regard, Editor, IMNA
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: jpeg (208K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Mon State Constitution and Mon National Affairs Seminar Demands for Tripalite Dialogue and Political Freedom
          Date of publication: 18 March 2004
          Description/subject: Dear Reader, After 5 days Mon State Constitution and Mon National Affair Seminar, the Mon representatives demands for Tripatite Dialogue for the political solution in Burma and for the political freedom. Read the News in Burmese Regards, Editor, IMNA
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: jpeg (214K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: New Mon State party sent appeal letter to SPDC
          Date of publication: 09 March 2004
          Description/subject: "ICRC held the New Mon State Party leader met two New Mon State party member who were sentence by the Burmese government, the Mon leader got a chance to happen and they know real happening, and then New Mon State party sent appeal letter to SPDC." For more information read the attached file in Burmese. Contact to imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Format/size: jpeg (101K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Nai Yekha, who were sentenced to death by the government suffering stomach disease in Rangoon prison.
          Date of publication: 03 March 2004
          Description/subject: "Nai Yekha who included with other nine democracy activists those were sentenced to death by the Burmese government, he is suffering stomach diseas in Insein Prison, Rangoon." For more information read the attached file in Burmese. Contact to imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (39K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Continue Forced Labor For Road Construction in Ye township, Southern Burma
          Date of publication: 01 March 2004
          Description/subject: March 1, 2004 Every day, Military Operation Strategy No.3, under the command of government Military Southeast Command forced 50 villagers from four villages in Ye township rotation to work at the Hungan-Hparound road construction. 50 people included women, were forced to work at the 3 and half miles long road, that military planned to construct it with only villagers forced labor. For more information read the attached file in Burmese. Contact to imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (63K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Mon Splinter Group, HRP refused to meet with the Burmese government representative for it today appointment to talk for cease-fire
          Date of publication: 29 February 2004
          Description/subject: "Mon splinter group, Hongsarwatoi Restoration Party (HRP) refused to meet with the Burmese government representative for it today appointment to talk for cease-fire process after Burmese government changed place from Thai Side, Ranaung to Burma Side Kawthoung said HRP Chair Person, Colonel Nai Pan Nyunt. Nai Pan Nyunt said “it is impossible to meet in Burma side.”" For more information read the attached file in Burmese. Contact imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (52K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Peace Talks Between the Mon Splinter Groups and SPDC Cancelled
          Date of publication: 29 February 2004
          Description/subject: "The HRP (Hongzarwati Restoration Party) president said yesterday that the truce talks with the military regime were almost cancelled because they were to take place in Burmese territory in Kawthaung Township. In accordance with the regime, the talks have now been moved to Rannoong, on Thai territory..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: html (6K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: The local Burmese government authorities compensation are made the house owners unsatisfied
          Date of publication: 26 February 2004
          Description/subject: "Mon State City people, almost of the people who house forced to move for the Mawlamyine-Mattaban Bridge construction unsatisfied with the local Burmese government authorities because of so few compensation and unequal compensation paid to the people Because of the authorities paid different amount of compensation to the owner of 1500 more houses that moved for the longest Bridge in Burma construction, some house owner got amount the compensation only half of the amount of the damage. But for the people who bribed to the authorities paid more than the amount of the damage when they move their house." For more information read the attached file in Burmese or contact to imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (42K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Banned producing driving license is a new way for corrupt of traffic policemen in Mon State
          Date of publication: 24 February 2004
          Description/subject: "In Mon State, local military authorities stopped from producing driving license to the people for their corruption after they gave license to illegal motorcycle imported from neighbor countries said Nai Thu Kha a motorcycle trader." For more information read the attached file in Burmese or contact us imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (42K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: Today, Ya Ma Nya Damma Siriya Mon Monk Association finished it annual examination for graduate the Mon Monk
          Date of publication: 23 February 2004
          Description/subject: "The strongest Mon Buddhist monk association, Ya Ma Nya Nicarya held it annual examination for graduate the Mon monk finished today in Mon State city and 262 monks passed the examination with their level. The examination started on February 19 hold for 4 days for the 912 monks at the Buddha Year 2500 temple." For more information read the attached file in Burmese or contact to Independent Mon News Agency. imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (80K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 August 2004


          Title: A Mon woman who has 8 months old pregnant gave a birth while she was caught and gang raped by the soldiers
          Date of publication: 19 February 2004
          Description/subject: "Mi Aye Lwin who has 8 months old pregnant also gave a birth in first week of January 2004 after she caught and gang raped by the soldier from Military Operation Strategies No.3 under the command of military Southeast Command, that lunching offensive against the Mon Splinter Group. Mi Aye Lwin, age 20 years who caught by military battalion No.586 with accusation of her husband joined the Mon Splinter Group that moving in Southern Burma, gave a birth in Yin Ye village, Southern Ye township while this battalion took her to front line..." For more information read the attached file in Burmese or contact to IMNA imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (75K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 February 2004


          Title: Burmese Government extend town in Mon State
          Date of publication: 18 February 2004
          Description/subject: "Local Burmese Government authorities in Southern Burma are making the Lamine village main road bigger with it plans to develop the village to be a town after they decided in a meeting that hold for extend town in Mon state. The Mon State Peace and Development Council held in last year November decided to develop ten biggest villages to be a town and now they are going to develop these villages..." For more information read the attached file in Burmese or contact to IMNA imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (79K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 February 2004


          Title: A biggest funeral ceremony for the head of monastic association monk finished today
          Date of publication: 17 February 2004
          Description/subject: "A biggest Mon traditional funeral ceremony for the head of monastic association monk in Northern Ye township celebrated by local villager with Mon Traditional Celebration finished today. For the head of monastic association monk, Thilawonhta, 84 years, funeral ceremony celebration local Mon Buddhism celebrated 7 days for local Buddhism to join and worship the passed away monk. For the celebration local Buddhism built a tiered roof building, high 127 foots to put the dead body for the worshiper and they also built a funeral pyre building for a dead monk with had high 45 foots. Last night after 12 PM, the local Buddhism burned the dead body of the monk and many of local Buddhism who respected the monk passed away felt sad and crying at the funeral." For More information read the attached file in Burmese or contact to imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (83K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: Ask For Native English Speaker Volunteer for Language Editing
          Date of publication: 17 February 2004
          Description/subject: Dear Monnet Reader Now our Independent Mon News Agency wanted to write new in English. Although we want to write it we are very poor in English and we wanted an native English Speaker volunteer for editing our Agency news that we wrote in English drafty . We wanted Sir/ Madam to edit or rewrite our news to be published every day. So all Monnet reader please looking for a volunteer and if sir or madam want to be our volunteer please contact us. Editor Independent Mon News Agency
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: The biggest Mon Traditional Funeral Ceremony For the Head of Monastic Association Finished Today
          Date of publication: 17 February 2004
          Description/subject: "The biggest Mon traditional funeral ceremony for the head of monastic association in Northern Ye township, that was honored by local villagers with a Traditional Mon Celebration, finished today..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (3K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 February 2004


          Title: Five members of Village PDC from Southern Burma, Ye township fled their village after tortured near to death
          Date of publication: 16 February 2004
          Description/subject: February 16, 2004 "Five members of Village Peace and Development Council from Southern Burma, Ye township fled their village after they were tortured near to death by the army said Nai Su, the general secretary of Khaw Zar circle and who fled to Thai-Burmese border." For the Photo contact to IMNA: For More information read the attached file in Burmese. imna_news@yahoo.com
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (70K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: Civil War In Mon Areas
          Date of publication: 12 February 2004
          Description/subject: "The civil war in the Mon areas has remained shocking. The Mon splinter group has been attacking the Burmese troops since Dec 15. Recently, six people were arrested and beaten badly by LIB 586 because they were accused of supporting the rebels. They were hanged on trees, burnt and had their faces cut. There are Mon splinter group bases in this area and they have often launched military offensives on the Burmese troops..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (5K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: A Mon Revolutionary leader Nai Dhama Nay, Passed Away
          Date of publication: 11 February 2004
          Description/subject: A Mon veteran revolutionary leader Nai Dhama Nay, who has involved since the beginning of Mon armed struggle passed away in his native home in Mon State and New Mon State Party honored to his funeral ceremony. Read the news in Burmese. Regard, Editor, IMNA
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: jpeg (129K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: Mon veteran revolutionary political leader Passed away
          Date of publication: 11 February 2004
          Description/subject: "A Mon veteran revolutionary leader Nai Dhama Nay, who had involved in since the beginning of Mon armed struggle against the Burmese military government, passed away in his native home, Mon State. New Mon State Party (NMSP) leaders will attend to honour his funeral ceremony today..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: Mon civilians in Southern Ye Township are inhumanely tortured
          Date of publication: 10 February 2004
          Description/subject: Dear Reader, The Mon civilians, including women, in Southern Ye Township who are suspected as “ Mon rebel-supporters” are inhumanely tortured by LIB No.586. Read the news in Burmese. Regard, Editor, IMNA
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: jpeg (171K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: A Mon woman has been gang-raped for 2 months by LIB No.586 soldiers
          Date of publication: 07 February 2004
          Description/subject: "A Mon woman from Kaw-hlaing village, Ye Township has been gang-raped by soldiers from LIB No.586." Read the news in Burmese. Regard, Editor, IMNA
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: jpeg (126K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: We feel sad that continue detaining political prisoner and it is banning basic democracy movement, NMSP stated on Mon National Day
          Date of publication: 06 February 2004
          Description/subject: "Today New Mon State Party stated a statement on 57th of Mon National Day Celebration about they feel sad that continue detaining political prisoner and it is banning basic democracy movement in Burma..." For more information read the attached file in Burmese.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (36K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: Burmese military army ordered to all the villager age older 12 years and under 60 years to wear white color clothe and red color Lonekyi
          Date of publication: 05 February 2004
          Description/subject: "Recently, in southern part Burma, the Burmese military army that launching military offensive against to the Mon Splinter groups ordered to all the villager age older 12 years and under 60 years to wear White Color Clothe and Red Color Lonekyi..." Burmese military battalions No.282 and 586 officers ordered to Your Htit, Kyone Kanya, Mi Htaw Hlar and the villages around these villages to wear this color uniform for checking villager traveling and stranger entering in to the area. For more information read the attached file in Burmese
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (32K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: Two innocent villagers took to the jungle and killed by the soldier
          Date of publication: 04 February 2004
          Description/subject: "Two innocent villagers from a southern Ye township village took to the jungle and killed by the soldier under the control of Burmese military government Battalion No. 586 that lunching military offensive to the Mon Splinter group. One Village Peace and Development Council Secretary, the two villagers fromm Coak Hline village were caught on January 24, last month..." For more information read the attached file in Burmese language.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (32K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: Who received Buddha hair, Tahputa and Bumleca picture signalized as Mon National Day Signal
          Date of publication: 03 February 2004
          Description/subject: "Two Mon trader, Tahputa and Bumleca receiving hair of Buddha picture signalized as Mon national day Signal on the Main road in Mon State city and other town in Southern Burma. It is a Mon people signal because of that picture shown how Mon people receiving Buddha dispensation said by a Central Mon National Celebrating Committee..." For More information read it in the attached file.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (28K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 February 2004


          Title: 6 police deserters were sentenced to one year in prison
          Date of publication: 01 February 2004
          Description/subject: Recently six police deserters, who do not want to serve the people cruelly, were sentenced one year in prison after they arrested in Mon State city, Mawlamyine One police chief from Kayah state, two police sergeants and three policemen from Mawlamyine ran away from their police station more than one month. For More information read the attached file in Burmese.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (24K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 February 2004


          Title: Mon State City police make money with anti-drug user law section No.47
          Date of publication: 31 January 2004
          Description/subject: January 31, 2004: Mon State City police makes money with anti-drug user law, section No. 47 every day. They caught and fine on the people who stay at dark place and the people who drunk after 9:00 PM. For more information read the attached file in Burmese.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (24K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 February 2004


          Title: Making Mon Traditional Foods Yarha Match in Mawlamyine University
          Date of publication: 30 January 2004
          Description/subject: January 30, 2004: Today at about 1:30 PM Mawlamyine University Students celebrated a match that making Traditional Mon food called Yarhu (Thaminae) in Mon State City, Mawlamyine. Students from 14 Major Subject joined in it and the teacher took respon for the match celebration. For more information read in the attached file in Burmese
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (31K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 February 2004


          Title: [Burmese military commanders] make lie and frighten the villager to working in their road construction.
          Date of publication: 29 January 2004
          Description/subject: January 29, 2004: No. 3 Strategy commanders from Burmese military Southeast Command frightens and makes lie to the villager to works in their road construction that located in Ye township, Southern Burma. No.282 and No. 586 battalion commanders that are lunching offensive against to the Mon splinter group in Southern Ye Township, frightened and made lie to local villager as a forcing villager to work in Khawzar-Mumkyi road construction. For More information read it in the attached file.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (41k)
          Date of entry/update: 01 February 2004


          Title: Three Women Whose Raped by SPDC battalion No 586 Feel Ashamed and Stay Away From the Native Village
          Date of publication: 28 January 2004
          Description/subject: Three women whose raped by SPDC battalion No.586 on January 19, 17 and 14, feel ashamed with the villager and they are staying away from the native village in Ye township, Southern Burma. Mi Myat Htay, 21 years, who raped by No. 586 battalion’s captain Hla Khine, Mi Soe Win, 25 years raped by unknown soldier, and Mi Sadike 17 years attempted by unknown soldier from this battalion stay away from their village in Southern Ye township and now they are staying in Ye, and northern Ye township with their relative. For more details see in Burmese in the attached file.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (49K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 January 2004


          Title: Mon State Farmer Organization MSFO Send a letter to the Burmese military top leader to stop banning farmer rights
          Date of publication: 24 January 2004
          Description/subject: Mon State Farmer Organization MSFO sent a letter with six points of asking to the Burmese military top leaders and other military departments to give the farmer free growing, trading, belonging, and stop buying paddy with low price from the farmer. The letter sent to the Burmese to the Senior General Than Shew, General Khin Nyaut and Mon State PDC, Mawlamyine district PDC and Mawlamyine PDC said a Farmer organization leader. For more information read it in the attached file in Burmese.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (34k)
          Date of entry/update: 28 January 2004


          Title: Basic militia training stops in Thanpyuzayart township, Mon State, Burma
          Date of publication: 20 January 2004
          Description/subject: January 20, 2004: Military authorities in Thanpyuzayart township, Mon State stopped it Basic Militia Training in this months local villager said. In the past year, this Township Peace and Development Council TPDC took villager to attend it militia training by forced in rotation, however TPDC stops taking villager now. For more information read it in the attached file in Burmese.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (36K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 January 2004


          Title: More traffic accident happening in Mon State after local government authorities gave licence to illegal Mortorcycle.
          Date of publication: 16 January 2004
          Description/subject: January 16, 2004: More traffic accident happening in Mon State, an accident killed two young on January 14, and it is happening after local government authorities gave licence to illegal mortorcycle imported from Thailand and China. For more information read in Burmese in the attached file.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (31K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 January 2004


          Title: Human Rights Foundation of Monland make press release about Murder, Rape, Forced Relocations in Ye township, Mon State, Burma (Myanmar)
          Date of publication: 15 January 2004
          Description/subject: January 15, 2004: Today, the local human rights group that watching human rights situation in southern Burma, Human Rights Foundation of Monland made press release about killing, rape, forced relocations and torture that happening in Ye township, Mon State, Burma. For more information read in the attached file in Burmese.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
          Format/size: gif (20K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 January 2004


          Title: In Mon State tornado crossed the villages and destroyed many houses
          Date of publication: 13 January 2004
          Description/subject: January 13, 2004: At 10:00 PM a tornado from Andaman Sea crossed the villages and destroyed many houses in Thanpyuzayart Township and Mudon Township in Mon state, Southern Burma Yesterday. For more information read it in the attached file in Burmese.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (10K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 January 2004


          Title: No. 299 military battalion forced women to works and rapes every day.
          Date of publication: 12 January 2004
          Description/subject: January 12, 2004: Three women from the villages around the Kawzar village, in southern Ye township, southern Burma, who forced to works in SPDC military battalion No.299 camp were raped by military soldiers said a raped woman. Ma Khin Hlaing, age 23 who raped in this battalion camp said three women from the village forced to cook and clean in the camp and most of the women raped by the camp soldier every day. She said “if you married the soldier will beat you, they don’t not allow for the married woman to come to work in the camp.” For more information read it in the attached file in Burmese
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (IMNA)
          Format/size: gif (26K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 January 2004