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Home > Main Library > Internal armed conflict > Internal armed conflict in Burma > Ceasefire and ex-ceasefire Groups
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Ceasefire and ex-ceasefire Groups
Though these groups agreed ceasefires at some point in the past, the ceasefires have broken down in some cases

Individual Documents

Title: The Draft Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement
Date of publication: 01 May 2015
Description/subject: "After seven rounds of talks between armed ethnic groups and the Thein Sein Government, progress was finally achieved on 31 March 2015 with the signing of the Draft Nationwide Ceasefire agreement. While there is still a long way to go in securing an equal and stable Burma, the finalisation of a draft Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement text was a fundamental step in satisfying ethnic group’s demands for a genuine federal union. The signing, which took place in Rangoon, was the culmination of talks that have lasted over seventeen months and have seen armed ethnic groups through the NCCT, the Union Peace Working Committee (UPWC) led by U Aung Min, and the Myanmar Peace Centre (MPC) debate the various conditions necessary to bring about a nationwide ceasefire. While the signing, with the endorsement of the President, is the most positive step yet – there remain a number of issues to be addressed including ongoing conflict in Kachin State, Shan State, and the Kokang region. The draft Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) is only the first stage in a lengthy process that hopes to bring peace to the country. One of the main issues that needed to be clarified prior to the signing was chapter six of the agreement, entitled the Interim period. The interim arrangement involves how both parties will act after a ceasefire has been put in place and during the political dialogue phase..."
Author/creator: Paul Keenan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies Peace and Reconcilition (Briefing Paper No. 24,/2015)
Format/size: pdf (120K-reduced version; 137K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://burmaethnicstudies.net/pdf/BCES_BP24.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2015


Title: THE SITUATION IN MON STATE
Date of publication: 16 June 2010
Description/subject: "As pressure mounts on the ceasefire groups to transform into Border Guard Forces, media attention has focussed on those groups, especially the Wa in Shan State and the possibility of impending conflict. While there is no doubt that the situation there is precarious, with the oncoming rainy season, it is unlikely that there will be any military action until at least November 2010. Instead, the Burma Army has increased its pressure on the New Mon State Party (NMSP), a smaller and easier target, bordering Karen State and Thailand in the South of the country. While no official statements have been made, recent reports suggest that the NMSP is already considered illegal. At a 7 May meeting with the USDA, Major General Thet Naing Win of the South-east Command reportedly told the audience that the NMSP should be considered an illegal armed group. A source within the NMSP confirmed the group's new status.1 With the NMSP's uncertain future, a new political party, the All Mon Region Democracy Party (AMRDP), has registered its intention to contest the election. Although, at the time of writing, the new party remains to be officially approved by the election commission, it remains the only glimmer of hope of Mon representation in the near future..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Euro-Burma Office (EBO) - EBO Analysis Paper No. 1, 2010
Format/size: pdf (657K)
Alternate URLs: http://euro-burma.eu/doc/EBO_Analysis_Paper_No_1_2010_-_The_Mon_Situation.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 June 2010


Title: Disquiet on the Northern Front
Date of publication: April 2010
Description/subject: The uneasy peace in Kachin State is under constant pressure, as the Burmese junta's border guard force scheme meets continued resistance
Author/creator: Wai Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


Title: A Matter of Autonomy and Arms
Date of publication: March 2010
Description/subject: The NMSP, one of the smaller ethnic cease-fire groups, defies the Burmese generals by rejecting their border guard force order... "It was dawn when I reached Palanjapan, a remote village near Three Pagodas Pass in Burma’s Mon State. People in every household were busy preparing for celebrations to mark the 63rd anniversary of Mon National Day. Slide Show (View) Following the rhythm of military drum beats, several columns of Mon soldiers dressed in their best green camouflage uniforms and holding aging AK-47 assault rifles marched toward the parade ground in the center of the village, where a crowd of about 1,000 Mon waited for their leaders to officially open the national day ceremony. Nai Htaw Mon, the chairman of the New Mon State Party (NMSP), delivered a speech reaffirming the party’s pledge to work for a federal union and self-determination for the Mon people. “This year is important for our people and our political strength, based on our united nationalist spirit,” Nai Htaw Mon said in a statement. “Until the realization of a genuine multi-party democracy and the self-determination of the Mon people, we will continue to resist and fight hand-in-hand with our allied ethnic brothers.”..."
Author/creator: Htet Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


Title: A Fragile Peace
Date of publication: February 2010
Description/subject: The Kachin negotiate with the regime on the border guard force issue, while recruiting and training more soldiers... "At the traditional Manau dance this year—held in Myitkyina, the capital of Burma’s northern Kachin State—Kachin soldiers were not allowed to dance in military uniforms. Earlier, the Burmese regime sent three members of the notorious Press Scrutiny and Registration Division to censor stories in the Kachin language newspaper that published articles about the festival, held annually on Kachin State Day, Jan. 10. To show their unhappiness, the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), which signed a cease-fire agreement with the junta in 1994, sent only 200 soldiers to the festival. Last year, about 2,000 KIA personnel joined the festivities..."
Author/creator: Yeni
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17702
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


Title: Peace in Name only
Date of publication: October 2009
Description/subject: War and refugees will remain a fact of life in Burma as long as the root causes of conflict in the country’s borderlands remain unaddressed... "The rout of the ethnic Kokang militia, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army, in northern Burma in late August has brought into stark relief what millions of people live with in Burma every day: conflict between the central state and non-state armed militias. For decades, clashes between the Burmese regime’s army and its myriad enemies have been forcing people into hiding or across borders. What is different about the recent fighting is that it involved China—not usually a country that tolerates refugees from Burma or instability along its borders..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


Title: The First Shots are Fired
Date of publication: October 2009
Description/subject: Recent clashes on the Sino-Burmese border ended almost as soon as they began, but the threat of an all-out war remains... "The fall of the Kokang capital of Laogai to Burmese government troops on Aug. 24 has put other ethnic cease-fire groups based along Burma’s border with China on the alert and raised questions about how close ties between Naypyidaw and Beijing are likely to affect the future of ethnic struggle in Burma. Although the Burmese junta’s forces managed to seize control of Laogai without firing a single shot, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA), the main Kokang militia, put up some resistance before retreating to the Chinese side of the border. The guns have since fallen silent, but with other armed groups now preparing for war, many people, including Chinese immigrants, are fleeing before the next outbreak of hostilities..."
Author/creator: Wai Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


Title: Neither War Nor Peace - The Future of the Ceasefire Agreements in Burma
Date of publication: July 2009
Description/subject: Introduction: "This year marks the twentieth anniversary of the first ceasefire agreements in Burma, which put a stop to decades of fighting between the military government and a wide range of ethnic armed opposition groups. These groups had taken up arms against the government in search of more autonomy and ethnic rights. The military government has so far failed to address the main grievances and aspirations of the cease-fire groups. The regime now wants them to disarm or become Border Guard Forces. It also wants them to form new political parties which would participate in the controversial 2010 elections. They are unlikely to do so unless some of their basic demands are met. This raises many serious questions about the future of the cease-fires. The international community has focused on the struggle of the democratic opposition led by Aung San Suu Kyi, who has become an international icon. The ethnic minority issue and the relevance of the cease-fire agreements have been almost completely ignored. Ethnic conflict needs to be resolved in order to bring about any lasting political solution. Without a political settlement that addresses ethnic minority needs and goals it is extremely unlikely there will be peace and democracy in Burma. Instead of isolating and demonising the cease-fire groups, all national and international actors concerned with peace and democracy in Burma should actively engage with them, and involve them in discussions about political change in the country. This paper explains how the cease-fire agreements came about, and analyses the goals and strategies of the ceasefire groups. It also discusses the weaknesses the groups face in implementing these goals, and the positive and negative consequences of the cease-fires, including their effect on the economy. The paper then examines the international responses to the cease-fires, and ends with an overview of the future prospects for the agreements"
Author/creator: Tom Kramer
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Insititute
Format/size: pdf (1.74MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/TNIceasefires.pdf
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2009


Title: A Rocky Road
Date of publication: November 2005
Description/subject: Kachin State's growing ethnic and environmental troubles... "In recent years, many political analysts in Burma and abroad have predicted growing strife in the country’s troubled ethnic regions, warning that ceasefire agreements with the ruling junta would not guarantee lasting peace. The current instability in Burma’s Kachin State bears these warnings out..."
Author/creator: Khun Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: Waiting Game
Date of publication: November 2005
Description/subject: Junta tightens control in Monland... "As in other ethnic regions of Burma, where ceasefire agreements have been a growing source of frustration and bitterness, Monland in southern Burma has also seen its share of broken promises and the increasing likelihood that lasting peace is still a long way off. The New Mon State Party—the region’s principal ethnic opposition group—entered a ceasefire agreement with Rangoon in 1995, at the urging of the country’s military leadership as well as members of Thailand’s political and business communities, who were eager to increase investments in the region. Foreign oil companies, such as France’s Total and Unocal in the US, saw peace in the region as good for business. Each had proposed a natural gas pipeline through contested areas of Mon State—a fact that caused the regime to exert greater pressure in the interest of increasing vital foreign investment. In 1996, the NMSP received 17 industrial concessions in areas such as logging, fishing, inland transportation, trade agreements with Malaysia and Singapore, and gold mining. The regime, however, had cancelled the majority of these contracts by 1998, leaving NMSP leaders with little in terms of economic support and weakening the opposition party..."
Author/creator: Louis Reh
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: Mon Colonel Resumes Anti-Rangoon Struggle
Date of publication: September 2001
Description/subject: "A military commander from the New Mon State Army (NMSA) has severed ties with the New Mon State Party (NMSP) and resumed fighting against Rangoon, according to reliable sources on the Thai-Burma border. Col Naing Pan Nyunt, former Tactical Commander of the NMSA, and about 100 soldiers loyal to him have reportedly already begun engaging in skirmishes with Rangoon troops..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 7 (Intelligence section)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Resignation Rumors Fuel Ceasefire Concerns
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Rumors that Sr Gen Than Shwe may soon step down as head of Burma's ruling junta have raised questions about the possible implications for a number of shaky ceasefire agreements with ethnic insurgent groups.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No .6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: SPDC Build-up in Northern Shan State
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Shan sources say that the proliferation of groups "joining the legal fold" and signing ceasefire agreements with the State Peace and Development Council SPDC, Burma's ruling military junta, has done nothing to slow down the pace of militarization in northern Shan State.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No .6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: War on Drugs, War on the Wa
Date of publication: April 2000
Description/subject: In April, Thailand and Burma held a high-level meeting in Tachilek, where Burmese officials agreed to cooperate in fighting the flow of drugs into Thailand. But as it becomes increasingly apparent that Rangoon has no intention of delivering on its promise, Thailand may be looking to take matters into its own hands.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Fireworks of Peace
Date of publication: October 1999
Description/subject: The military's attempts at ethnic reconciliation have been all show and no substance, writes Thar Nyunt Oo
Author/creator: Thar Nyunt Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7, No. 8
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ETHNIEN UND BEWAFFNETE ETHNISCHE GRUPPEN IN MYANMAR / BURMA
Description/subject: Die Karte zeigt eine Übersicht mit befriedeten und nicht befriedeten ethnischen Minderheiten in Burma; map of ethnic minorities with /without ceasefire agreements
Source/publisher: Wikipedia / Heinrich Böll Stiftung
Format/size: Html (17k)
Alternate URLs: http://www.boell.de/weltweit/asien/asien-5372.html
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2010


  • Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA)

    Individual Documents

    Title: Shooting in Dooplaya District
    Date of publication: 21 November 2012
    Description/subject: "On September 12th 2012, Saw M---, from P--- village, was shot in the leg by DKBA Klo Htoo Baw Platoon Commander Neh Raw, led by Company Commander Saw Pah Dee and based in P--- village, while he was driving his tractor to Waw Lay village in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District. According to the community member who spoke with Saw M--- after the incident, Commander Neh Raw fired at Saw M---, striking him in the leg, after a request for food, which was inaudible to Saw M--- due to the noise of the tractor, was ignored. According to recent information received by KHRG on October 24th 2012, the community member who spoke with the nurse who has been overseeing Saw M---'s recovery reported that Company Commander Saw Pah Dee ordered Neh Raw to travel to P--- village and express his apology to Saw M---, however, the soldier in question has so far failed to go..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (108K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2012-11-21-Shooting_in_Dooplaya_District-en.pdf
    http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg12b82.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


    Title: Dooplaya Situation Update: Kawkareik Township and Kya In Township, April to June 2012
    Date of publication: 14 September 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in June 2012 by a community member who described events occurring in Dooplaya District during the period between April 2012 and June 2012, specifically in relation to landmines, education, health, taxation and demand, forced labour, land confiscation, displacement, and restrictions on freedom of movement and trade. After the 2012 ceasefire between the Burma government and the KNU, remaining landmines still present serious risks for local villagers in Kawkareik Township because they are unable to travel. Details are provided about 57-year-old B--- village head, Saw L---, 70-year-old Saw E--- and Saw T---, who each stepped on landmines. During May 2012, Tatmadaw soldiers ordered three villagers' to supply hand tractors to transport materials for them from Aung May K' La village to Ke---, plus Tatmadaw soldiers ordered five hand tractors to transports materials from Kyaik Doh village to Kya In Seik Gyi Town. Also described in the report are villagers' opinions on the ongoing ceasefire and whether or not they feel it is benefiting them, as well as village responses to land confiscation by Tatmadaw forces. After a village head was informed that any empty properties found would be confiscated, villagers in the area stayed temporarily in other peoples' houses on request of the owner..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (215K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg12b76.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/KHRG/KHRG%202012/KHRG-2012-09-14-Dooplaya_Situation_Update_Kawkareik_To...
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2012


    Title: Villagers return home four months after DKBA and Border Guard clash, killing one civilian, injuring two in Pa'an
    Date of publication: 27 June 2012
    Description/subject: "On February 19th 2012, the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) ambushed a truck carrying a group of soldiers from Border Guard Battalion #1015 near Myaing Gyi Ngu town in Pa'an District, after the Border Guard soldiers stole weapons from the DKBA base at M--- village. Two villagers living near the site of the ambush were injured, and one was killed. Since then, movement restrictions have been imposed on Border Guard and DKBA troops operating in the Myaing Gyi Ngu area by the Burma government, which prohibits military units in possession of weapons from travelling within three miles of Myaing Gyi Ngu town. As of June 6th 2012, villagers living near Border Guard and DKBA camps, including the two villagers who were injured on February 19th, were reported to have returned to their villages, after having previously moved away. Directly after the clash in February, community members described their safety concerns and the possible consequences for civilians should the January 12th ceasefire agreement between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Tatmadaw be broken."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (126K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg12b61.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2012-06-27-Villagers_return_home_four_months_after_DKBA_and...
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2012


    Title: Pa'an Interview: Saw Bw---, September 2011
    Date of publication: 13 June 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during September 2011 in Lu Pleh Township, Pa'an District by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed Saw Bw---, a 25-year-old logger from Eg--- village, who described events that occurred while he was carrying out logging work between the villages of A--- and S---. He provides information on military activity in the area, specifically about shifting relations between armed groups, with Border Guard and DKBA troops ceasing to cooperate, and a heightened Tatmadaw presence in the area. Saw Bw--- also explained the disruptive impact of fighting between Border Guard and armed groups in the area on A--- villagers, who are described as fleeing to avoid conflict, as well as providing information on one instance in which A--- villagers were ordered to relocate by the commander of Border Guard Battalion #1017, but instead chose strategic displacement into hiding. He mentions the difficulties that he had in logging following the Border Guard's increased presence in the area. Saw Bw--- also described the presence of landmines in the area around A--- and how his employer paid approximately US $1222.49 to DKBA troops to have them removed. This incident concerning landmines is also described in a thematic report published by KHRG on May 21st, 2012, Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (164K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg12b58.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/KHRG/KHRG%202012/KHRG-2012-06-13-Paan_Interview_Saw_Bw_September_2011-e...
    Date of entry/update: 13 July 2012


    Title: Thai Army Increases Troops by DKBA Border
    Date of publication: 04 May 2012
    Description/subject: "BURMA Thai Army Increases Troops by DKBA Border By LAWI WENG / THE IRRAWADDY| May 4, 2012 | Hits: 30 Share on facebook Share on twitter Share on email Share on print The Thai Army has increased troop numbers around Mae Sot. (Photo: Reuters) The Thai Army has deployed more troops at border towns around Mae Sot, in northern Thailand’s Tak Province, due to escalating tensions with the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) after a faction leader was accused of being a drug trafficker. Thai Army chief Gen Prayut Chan O Cha told Thai Rath news on May 3 that his soldiers are taking extra care by the frontier and the number of troops in the area has been increased. “We are already there, but the situation is not yet risky,” he said. The move comes after the Thai Office of the Narcotics Control Board (ONCB) placed Saw Lah Pwe, the leader of the Brigade 5 breakaway faction of the DKBA, in the top five of its list of Thailand’s 25 most wanted drug dealers..."
    Author/creator: Lawi Weng
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2012


    Title: Boom or Bust?
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: The Burmese junta is moving ahead with the Myawaddy special economic zone, which may or may not benefit the DKBA... "The Burmese military regime has long talked about, but never implemented, a special economic zone (SEZ) near the Burma-Thailand border. But the junta’s cabinet recently approved the official creation of the SEZ, along with a plan to increase investment in the project. This could result in a business boom for Col. Chit Thu and his Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) cronies who control the area surrounding the SEZ and have already established their own commercial empire on the border. But if the project is too successful, it could turn into a bust for Chit Thu, because the junta might want to keep control in the hands of its own generals..."
    Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


    Title: Mr. Beard Breaks Away
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: Col. Saw Lah Pwe has led a major defection of DKBA troops, and now the remaining DKBA leaders must make a choice between their business interests and their fellow Karen... "Col. Saw Lah Pwe, the commander of Brigade 5 of the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), led a late-July defection of as many as 1,500 troops from five DKBA battalions that will potentially join forces with the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA)..."
    Author/creator: Saw Yan Naing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


    Title: The Monk in Command
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: A charismatic monk with a vision of a peaceful Karen State is credited with making the DKBA decision to reject the junta’s border guard force plan "... Unknown to most Westerners is that a Buddhist monk, U Thuzana, 67, weilds equal or even greater power within the DKBA. He is credited with making the recent DKBA decision to reject the regime’s border guard force order. According to some, U Thuzana is the most powerful person in the DKBA. It is difficult for officers and soldiers not to follow his decisions because of his role in the creation of the DKBA, one of the junta’s closest allies..."
    Author/creator: Mikael Gravers
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 August 2010


    Title: Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw: A Jahan who Shines the light of Dhamma
    Date of publication: 30 July 1998
    Description/subject: "This book is not a biography of Myainggye: Ngu Sayadaw U Thu Za-na. In fact it is a personal record of Sayadaw's life experiences. As mortal being Sayadaw has passed through many ups and downs in his life. This has been recorded and narrated without any bias. Facts, even though they may be bitter are being presented in this book...U Thu Za-na is a young monk with a few years in monkhood (Vassa). The author has reached an agreement with U Thu Za-na—not to write about his biography. Therefore, my purpose is not to write Sayadaw's biography, or for any cause or causes, but merely to write everything as it was, as I saw and understand it. As everybody knows that Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw U Thu Za-na has become a wellknown person in the country. Also rumours have been rife in the country. Some said Sayadaw stands on this side. Some accused him that he is from the other side. Who and What Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw is? This book will after all answer all these questions. The readers will, after reading this book, understand to some extent Who and What Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw is..."
    Author/creator: Myaing Nan Swe; Shin Khay Meinda (trans)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Democratic Karen Buddhist Association (DKBA)
    Format/size: pdf (646K - OBL version; 13 MB - original scan)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/U%20Thuzanas%20Book%20(for%20PC%20reading).pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 June 2011


  • Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "Kachinland News"
    Description/subject: News, Opinion/Analysis, Interview, Photo, Video
    Language: English, Kachin
    Source/publisher: Kachinland News
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2015


  • Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army-MNDAA (Kokang)

    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar’s Fight With Rebels Creates Refugees and Ill Will With China
    Date of publication: 21 March 2015
    Description/subject: "When rumors spread around the sugar-cane farms in northern Myanmar that the army was advancing, Li Jiapeng and his family packed some clothes, grabbed some cash and joined a long line of people fleeing in cars and on foot. Everyone was heading for safety on the other side of the border in China, just six miles away. The next day, he could hear the sounds of battle. “We came to the Chinese side early in the morning, and we began to hear gunshots that afternoon from Laogai, our hometown,” Mr. Li, 23, a university student whose family grows walnuts, tea and sugar cane, said by phone from Yunnan Province in southern China. In the last six weeks, the Myanmar Army has been fighting rebels of the Kokang, a Chinese ethnic group that has lived in the mountains of northern Myanmar for more than 400 years, and keeps strong linguistic, education and trading ties to China. Myanmar has been afflicted with fighting between its various ethnic groups and the army for decades, but the current battle, fueled by rebels armed with weapons bought with the proceeds of a flourishing drug trade, is potentially more serious because it touches on the country’s sensitive relationship with China..."
    Author/creator: Jane Perlez
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New York Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 March 2015


    Title: Kokang: The Backstory
    Date of publication: 09 March 2015
    Description/subject: "The sudden outbreak of hostilities in northern Shan State’s remote Kokang region has taken many by surprise. Some have posted messages on social media sites saying that “those people” are not Myanmar citizens, and a government official even branded the hostilities a “Chinese invasion.” While it is true that 90 percent of Kokang’s inhabitants are ethnic Chinese and few can speak the Myanmar language, reality is not quite that simple. The area is definitively on Myanmar’s side of the border with China, and the ethnic Kokang are one of the “135 national races” officially recognized by the government. But how did they end up in Myanmar and who are they?..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2015


    Title: Wa Asked Not to Provide Arms to Kokang Rebels
    Date of publication: 06 March 2015
    Description/subject: "The Burma Army this week summoned representatives of the United Wa State Army (UWSA) to ask them not to provide arms or ammunition to Kokang rebels in eastern Burma, where conflict has raged between rebels and government troops since early February. UWSA spokesperson Aung Myint told The Irrawaddy that seven representatives, including a Brigadier-General, were called to the meeting in Lashio, Shan State. “Our delegates told us that [the Burma Army] asked them not to provide Kokang with arms,” he said. The delegates were invited by Lt-Gen Aung Than Htut, of the office of the commander-in-chief, he said. On Feb. 22, state media reported that Kokang rebels, known as the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA) had rebuilt their strength to regain their area with the help of the UWSA” and other armed groups. The report, which was based on a press conference led by Lt-Gen Mya Tun Oo, said that the MNDAA possessed a number of weapons “including Type 81-1assault rifle said to be manufactured by UWSA.” The UWSA has denied allegations of providing arms to the MNDAA, claiming instead that the weapons in question were acquired long before the current conflict erupted..."
    Author/creator: BONE MYAT
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 March 2015


    Title: Govt Wrong to Suggest Wa, China Involvement in Kokang Conflict: UWSA
    Date of publication: 27 February 2015
    Description/subject: "A representative of the United Wa State Army (UWSA), Burma’s most powerful ethnic armed group, on Friday denied allegations made by the Burma Army that the UWSA is involved in the ongoing Kokang conflict in northern Shan State. The Wa officer also urged the army to end speculation over the involvement of Chinese nationals in the fighting, saying that it risked misrepresenting the Wa and Kokang as tied to China, while they are in fact ethnic minorities of Burma. Aung Myint, a spokesperson of UWSA, told The Irrawaddy on Friday that the group sent a letter to President Thein Sein on Thursday informing him that the Wa were in no way supporting the Kokang rebels, while also calling for a meeting with the president. Aung Myint said since the start of the conflict the government appeared to be playing nationalist politics by associating the Wa with the Kokang and China. “They tried to involve our name in the fighting, but they do not have any evidence for it. We found that this case is used in current politics; they wanted to divert public attention in the country by doing this,” he said..."
    Author/creator: LAWI WENG
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 March 2015


    Title: Is Myanmar’s Peace Process Unraveling?
    Date of publication: 24 February 2015
    Description/subject: "Over the last three weeks, fighting has broken out in Myanmar’s northeast between the military and several ethnic minority militias, including the ethnic Kokang Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army and, allegedly, the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). The KIA is one of the most powerful insurgent groups in Myanmar. At least 30,000 civilians have fled across the border into China, and the fighting has killed at least 130 people. The Myanmar military has attacked rebel groups with air strikes, and the fighting shows no sign of letting up. The fighting began on February 9, when Kokang rebels attacked government troops in the town of Laukkai and the Myanmar army launched a fierce counterattack. The exact reasons for the clash on February 9 remain somewhat unclear. The fighting may stem from a personal feud between the Kokang group’s leader and the Myanmar armed forces’ commander in chief, or it may have been sparked by a desire by the Kokang militia to take back control of Laukkai. Or, the attack may have been retaliation for previous unreported attacks on Kokang fighters by the Myanmar military. Or, it may have stemmed from a dispute over drug trafficking and its profits; the northeast of Myanmar is one of the biggest producers of opium and synthetic methamphetamine stimulants in Asia. Still, the broader security environment in Myanmar clearly has played a role in this recent outbreak of fighting. Indeed, the Kokang clashes with the Burmese army are reflective of several disturbing trends in Myanmar – trends that, if they continue, could undermine the country’s peace process and possibly lead to a wider outbreak of civil war..."
    Author/creator: Joshua Kurlantzick
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: [US] Council on Foreign Relations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 February 2015


    Title: Kokang needs a political solution
    Date of publication: 23 February 2015
    Description/subject: "The Kokang region traces its roots to the anti-Chinese riots that broke out in June 1967 under General Ne Win. A series of attacks on Chinese people took place in Yangon and other towns. During the riots, the Chinese embassy was also attacked. A lot of Myanmar-born Chinese fled in the aftermath of the riots, which incensed the Communist Party of China and its leaders. Some armed groups that took refuge in China, including those of Kachin leader Naw Saing and Kokang leader Pheung Kya-shin, took part in a massive Burma Communist Party (BCP) push into Shan State on January 1, 1968. The BCP force also included a lot of Chinese volunteers. Some of these volunteers would go on to hold senior positions in the BCP. Chinese advisers and BCP leaders chose to launch the offensive into Myanmar from the Kokang region. On January 1, a combined force of BCP, Chinese and Naw Saing’s troops captured the camp of the Tatmadaw’s No 45 Infantry Regiment at Mone Koe in Kokang region. Two days later, Chinese troops, together with Pheung Kya-shin forces and BCP soldiers, occupied Lone Htan, another Tatmadaw military position in Kokang. The Kokang region became the first Myanmar territory to succumb to BCP forces with the help of Chinese soldiers. The BCP army consisted of hundreds of thousands of soldiers and a “liberated region” appeared later in northeast Myanmar. This region included what were known as the Kokang, Wa, Mong La and Kachin War Zone 101 areas. General Ne Win was so concerned by the Chinese occupation of northeast of Myanmar that he took steps to rebuild relations with China."
    Author/creator: Sithu Aung Myint
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times" (English)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 March 2015