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Ceasefire Groups

Individual Documents

Title: THE SITUATION IN MON STATE
Date of publication: 16 June 2010
Description/subject: "As pressure mounts on the ceasefire groups to transform into Border Guard Forces, media attention has focussed on those groups, especially the Wa in Shan State and the possibility of impending conflict. While there is no doubt that the situation there is precarious, with the oncoming rainy season, it is unlikely that there will be any military action until at least November 2010. Instead, the Burma Army has increased its pressure on the New Mon State Party (NMSP), a smaller and easier target, bordering Karen State and Thailand in the South of the country. While no official statements have been made, recent reports suggest that the NMSP is already considered illegal. At a 7 May meeting with the USDA, Major General Thet Naing Win of the South-east Command reportedly told the audience that the NMSP should be considered an illegal armed group. A source within the NMSP confirmed the group's new status.1 With the NMSP's uncertain future, a new political party, the All Mon Region Democracy Party (AMRDP), has registered its intention to contest the election. Although, at the time of writing, the new party remains to be officially approved by the election commission, it remains the only glimmer of hope of Mon representation in the near future..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Euro-Burma Office (EBO) - EBO Analysis Paper No. 1, 2010
Format/size: pdf (657K)
Alternate URLs: http://euro-burma.eu/doc/EBO_Analysis_Paper_No_1_2010_-_The_Mon_Situation.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 June 2010


Title: Disquiet on the Northern Front
Date of publication: April 2010
Description/subject: The uneasy peace in Kachin State is under constant pressure, as the Burmese junta's border guard force scheme meets continued resistance
Author/creator: Wai Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 4
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=18223
Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


Title: A Matter of Autonomy and Arms
Date of publication: March 2010
Description/subject: The NMSP, one of the smaller ethnic cease-fire groups, defies the Burmese generals by rejecting their border guard force order... "It was dawn when I reached Palanjapan, a remote village near Three Pagodas Pass in Burma’s Mon State. People in every household were busy preparing for celebrations to mark the 63rd anniversary of Mon National Day. Slide Show (View) Following the rhythm of military drum beats, several columns of Mon soldiers dressed in their best green camouflage uniforms and holding aging AK-47 assault rifles marched toward the parade ground in the center of the village, where a crowd of about 1,000 Mon waited for their leaders to officially open the national day ceremony. Nai Htaw Mon, the chairman of the New Mon State Party (NMSP), delivered a speech reaffirming the party’s pledge to work for a federal union and self-determination for the Mon people. “This year is important for our people and our political strength, based on our united nationalist spirit,” Nai Htaw Mon said in a statement. “Until the realization of a genuine multi-party democracy and the self-determination of the Mon people, we will continue to resist and fight hand-in-hand with our allied ethnic brothers.”..."
Author/creator: Htet Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


Title: A Fragile Peace
Date of publication: February 2010
Description/subject: The Kachin negotiate with the regime on the border guard force issue, while recruiting and training more soldiers... "At the traditional Manau dance this year—held in Myitkyina, the capital of Burma’s northern Kachin State—Kachin soldiers were not allowed to dance in military uniforms. Earlier, the Burmese regime sent three members of the notorious Press Scrutiny and Registration Division to censor stories in the Kachin language newspaper that published articles about the festival, held annually on Kachin State Day, Jan. 10. To show their unhappiness, the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), which signed a cease-fire agreement with the junta in 1994, sent only 200 soldiers to the festival. Last year, about 2,000 KIA personnel joined the festivities..."
Author/creator: Yeni
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17702
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


Title: Peace in Name only
Date of publication: October 2009
Description/subject: War and refugees will remain a fact of life in Burma as long as the root causes of conflict in the country’s borderlands remain unaddressed... "The rout of the ethnic Kokang militia, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army, in northern Burma in late August has brought into stark relief what millions of people live with in Burma every day: conflict between the central state and non-state armed militias. For decades, clashes between the Burmese regime’s army and its myriad enemies have been forcing people into hiding or across borders. What is different about the recent fighting is that it involved China—not usually a country that tolerates refugees from Burma or instability along its borders..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


Title: The First Shots are Fired
Date of publication: October 2009
Description/subject: Recent clashes on the Sino-Burmese border ended almost as soon as they began, but the threat of an all-out war remains... "The fall of the Kokang capital of Laogai to Burmese government troops on Aug. 24 has put other ethnic cease-fire groups based along Burma’s border with China on the alert and raised questions about how close ties between Naypyidaw and Beijing are likely to affect the future of ethnic struggle in Burma. Although the Burmese junta’s forces managed to seize control of Laogai without firing a single shot, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA), the main Kokang militia, put up some resistance before retreating to the Chinese side of the border. The guns have since fallen silent, but with other armed groups now preparing for war, many people, including Chinese immigrants, are fleeing before the next outbreak of hostilities..."
Author/creator: Wai Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


Title: Neither War Nor Peace - The Future of the Ceasefire Agreements in Burma
Date of publication: July 2009
Description/subject: Introduction: "This year marks the twentieth anniversary of the first ceasefire agreements in Burma, which put a stop to decades of fighting between the military government and a wide range of ethnic armed opposition groups. These groups had taken up arms against the government in search of more autonomy and ethnic rights. The military government has so far failed to address the main grievances and aspirations of the cease-fire groups. The regime now wants them to disarm or become Border Guard Forces. It also wants them to form new political parties which would participate in the controversial 2010 elections. They are unlikely to do so unless some of their basic demands are met. This raises many serious questions about the future of the cease-fires. The international community has focused on the struggle of the democratic opposition led by Aung San Suu Kyi, who has become an international icon. The ethnic minority issue and the relevance of the cease-fire agreements have been almost completely ignored. Ethnic conflict needs to be resolved in order to bring about any lasting political solution. Without a political settlement that addresses ethnic minority needs and goals it is extremely unlikely there will be peace and democracy in Burma. Instead of isolating and demonising the cease-fire groups, all national and international actors concerned with peace and democracy in Burma should actively engage with them, and involve them in discussions about political change in the country. This paper explains how the cease-fire agreements came about, and analyses the goals and strategies of the ceasefire groups. It also discusses the weaknesses the groups face in implementing these goals, and the positive and negative consequences of the cease-fires, including their effect on the economy. The paper then examines the international responses to the cease-fires, and ends with an overview of the future prospects for the agreements"
Author/creator: Tom Kramer
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Insititute
Format/size: pdf (1.74MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/TNIceasefires.pdf
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2009


Title: A Rocky Road
Date of publication: November 2005
Description/subject: Kachin State's growing ethnic and environmental troubles... "In recent years, many political analysts in Burma and abroad have predicted growing strife in the country’s troubled ethnic regions, warning that ceasefire agreements with the ruling junta would not guarantee lasting peace. The current instability in Burma’s Kachin State bears these warnings out..."
Author/creator: Khun Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: Waiting Game
Date of publication: November 2005
Description/subject: Junta tightens control in Monland... "As in other ethnic regions of Burma, where ceasefire agreements have been a growing source of frustration and bitterness, Monland in southern Burma has also seen its share of broken promises and the increasing likelihood that lasting peace is still a long way off. The New Mon State Party—the region’s principal ethnic opposition group—entered a ceasefire agreement with Rangoon in 1995, at the urging of the country’s military leadership as well as members of Thailand’s political and business communities, who were eager to increase investments in the region. Foreign oil companies, such as France’s Total and Unocal in the US, saw peace in the region as good for business. Each had proposed a natural gas pipeline through contested areas of Mon State—a fact that caused the regime to exert greater pressure in the interest of increasing vital foreign investment. In 1996, the NMSP received 17 industrial concessions in areas such as logging, fishing, inland transportation, trade agreements with Malaysia and Singapore, and gold mining. The regime, however, had cancelled the majority of these contracts by 1998, leaving NMSP leaders with little in terms of economic support and weakening the opposition party..."
Author/creator: Louis Reh
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: Mon Colonel Resumes Anti-Rangoon Struggle
Date of publication: September 2001
Description/subject: "A military commander from the New Mon State Army (NMSA) has severed ties with the New Mon State Party (NMSP) and resumed fighting against Rangoon, according to reliable sources on the Thai-Burma border. Col Naing Pan Nyunt, former Tactical Commander of the NMSA, and about 100 soldiers loyal to him have reportedly already begun engaging in skirmishes with Rangoon troops..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 7 (Intelligence section)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Resignation Rumors Fuel Ceasefire Concerns
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Rumors that Sr Gen Than Shwe may soon step down as head of Burma's ruling junta have raised questions about the possible implications for a number of shaky ceasefire agreements with ethnic insurgent groups.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No .6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: SPDC Build-up in Northern Shan State
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Shan sources say that the proliferation of groups "joining the legal fold" and signing ceasefire agreements with the State Peace and Development Council SPDC, Burma's ruling military junta, has done nothing to slow down the pace of militarization in northern Shan State.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No .6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: War on Drugs, War on the Wa
Date of publication: April 2000
Description/subject: In April, Thailand and Burma held a high-level meeting in Tachilek, where Burmese officials agreed to cooperate in fighting the flow of drugs into Thailand. But as it becomes increasingly apparent that Rangoon has no intention of delivering on its promise, Thailand may be looking to take matters into its own hands.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Fireworks of Peace
Date of publication: October 1999
Description/subject: The military's attempts at ethnic reconciliation have been all show and no substance, writes Thar Nyunt Oo
Author/creator: Thar Nyunt Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7, No. 8
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ETHNIEN UND BEWAFFNETE ETHNISCHE GRUPPEN IN MYANMAR / BURMA
Description/subject: Die Karte zeigt eine Übersicht mit befriedeten und nicht befriedeten ethnischen Minderheiten in Burma; map of ethnic minorities with /without ceasefire agreements
Source/publisher: Wikipedia / Heinrich Böll Stiftung
Format/size: Html (17k)
Alternate URLs: http://www.boell.de/weltweit/asien/asien-5372.html
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2010


  • Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA)

    Individual Documents

    Title: Shooting in Dooplaya District
    Date of publication: 21 November 2012
    Description/subject: "On September 12th 2012, Saw M---, from P--- village, was shot in the leg by DKBA Klo Htoo Baw Platoon Commander Neh Raw, led by Company Commander Saw Pah Dee and based in P--- village, while he was driving his tractor to Waw Lay village in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District. According to the community member who spoke with Saw M--- after the incident, Commander Neh Raw fired at Saw M---, striking him in the leg, after a request for food, which was inaudible to Saw M--- due to the noise of the tractor, was ignored. According to recent information received by KHRG on October 24th 2012, the community member who spoke with the nurse who has been overseeing Saw M---'s recovery reported that Company Commander Saw Pah Dee ordered Neh Raw to travel to P--- village and express his apology to Saw M---, however, the soldier in question has so far failed to go..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (108K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b82.html
    Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


    Title: Dooplaya Situation Update: Kawkareik Township and Kya In Township, April to June 2012
    Date of publication: 14 September 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in June 2012 by a community member who described events occurring in Dooplaya District during the period between April 2012 and June 2012, specifically in relation to landmines, education, health, taxation and demand, forced labour, land confiscation, displacement, and restrictions on freedom of movement and trade. After the 2012 ceasefire between the Burma government and the KNU, remaining landmines still present serious risks for local villagers in Kawkareik Township because they are unable to travel. Details are provided about 57-year-old B--- village head, Saw L---, 70-year-old Saw E--- and Saw T---, who each stepped on landmines. During May 2012, Tatmadaw soldiers ordered three villagers' to supply hand tractors to transport materials for them from Aung May K' La village to Ke---, plus Tatmadaw soldiers ordered five hand tractors to transports materials from Kyaik Doh village to Kya In Seik Gyi Town. Also described in the report are villagers' opinions on the ongoing ceasefire and whether or not they feel it is benefiting them, as well as village responses to land confiscation by Tatmadaw forces. After a village head was informed that any empty properties found would be confiscated, villagers in the area stayed temporarily in other peoples' houses on request of the owner..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (215K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b76.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2012


    Title: Villagers return home four months after DKBA and Border Guard clash, killing one civilian, injuring two in Pa'an
    Date of publication: 27 June 2012
    Description/subject: "On February 19th 2012, the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) ambushed a truck carrying a group of soldiers from Border Guard Battalion #1015 near Myaing Gyi Ngu town in Pa'an District, after the Border Guard soldiers stole weapons from the DKBA base at M--- village. Two villagers living near the site of the ambush were injured, and one was killed. Since then, movement restrictions have been imposed on Border Guard and DKBA troops operating in the Myaing Gyi Ngu area by the Burma government, which prohibits military units in possession of weapons from travelling within three miles of Myaing Gyi Ngu town. As of June 6th 2012, villagers living near Border Guard and DKBA camps, including the two villagers who were injured on February 19th, were reported to have returned to their villages, after having previously moved away. Directly after the clash in February, community members described their safety concerns and the possible consequences for civilians should the January 12th ceasefire agreement between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Tatmadaw be broken."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (126K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b61.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2012


    Title: Pa'an Interview: Saw Bw---, September 2011
    Date of publication: 13 June 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during September 2011 in Lu Pleh Township, Pa'an District by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed Saw Bw---, a 25-year-old logger from Eg--- village, who described events that occurred while he was carrying out logging work between the villages of A--- and S---. He provides information on military activity in the area, specifically about shifting relations between armed groups, with Border Guard and DKBA troops ceasing to cooperate, and a heightened Tatmadaw presence in the area. Saw Bw--- also explained the disruptive impact of fighting between Border Guard and armed groups in the area on A--- villagers, who are described as fleeing to avoid conflict, as well as providing information on one instance in which A--- villagers were ordered to relocate by the commander of Border Guard Battalion #1017, but instead chose strategic displacement into hiding. He mentions the difficulties that he had in logging following the Border Guard's increased presence in the area. Saw Bw--- also described the presence of landmines in the area around A--- and how his employer paid approximately US $1222.49 to DKBA troops to have them removed. This incident concerning landmines is also described in a thematic report published by KHRG on May 21st, 2012, Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (164K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b58.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 July 2012


    Title: Thai Army Increases Troops by DKBA Border
    Date of publication: 04 May 2012
    Description/subject: "BURMA Thai Army Increases Troops by DKBA Border By LAWI WENG / THE IRRAWADDY| May 4, 2012 | Hits: 30 Share on facebook Share on twitter Share on email Share on print The Thai Army has increased troop numbers around Mae Sot. (Photo: Reuters) The Thai Army has deployed more troops at border towns around Mae Sot, in northern Thailand’s Tak Province, due to escalating tensions with the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) after a faction leader was accused of being a drug trafficker. Thai Army chief Gen Prayut Chan O Cha told Thai Rath news on May 3 that his soldiers are taking extra care by the frontier and the number of troops in the area has been increased. “We are already there, but the situation is not yet risky,” he said. The move comes after the Thai Office of the Narcotics Control Board (ONCB) placed Saw Lah Pwe, the leader of the Brigade 5 breakaway faction of the DKBA, in the top five of its list of Thailand’s 25 most wanted drug dealers..."
    Author/creator: Lawi Weng
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2012


    Title: Papun Interview Transcript: Naw P---, November 2011
    Date of publication: 11 April 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during November 2011 in B--- village, Bu Tho Township, Papun District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed 30-year-old hill field farmer Naw P---, who described how B--- villagers were forced to porter supplies for the Border Guard and Tatmadaw, and porter ammunition for the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA). She also detailed an incident in which all of the B--- villagers were ordered by Border Guard Company Commander Hpu Meh Ka to repair the B--- village vehicle road and clear vegetation and discarded coconut skins from the roadside, and villagers were violently abused by Border Guard soldiers. Naw P--- also provided information pertaining to the killing of three villagers; the former B--- village head was killed by a remote controlled explosive device in approximately April 2011 whilst portering for the Tatmadaw, and a T--- villager named L--- was killed in 2010 by a Border Guard landmine when portering for the DKBA. Also in Papun District, the DKBA was reported to have killed 50-year-old N--- from W--- village. Tatmadaw, Border Guard, and DKBA soldiers were consistently implicated in the theft and looting of villagers' livestock, as well as demands for food. Tatmadaw soldiers were also described as issuing demands for building materials, such as bamboo poles."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (308K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b35.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


    Title: Thaton Situation Update: October 2010 to June 2011
    Date of publication: 29 March 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG by a villager describing events occurring in Thaton District between October 2010 and June 2011. It contains updated information concerning the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) Border Guard transformations and Tatmadaw and Border Guard camp locations. It also provides details on the forced recruitment of villagers by former members of the DKBA, who were not accepted into the Border Guard, towards the establishment of pyi thu sit (people’s militia). While the villager who wrote this report notes a significant reduction in the frequency of human rights abuses, they also note the persistence and expansion of several kinds of abuses, namely: indirect demands for forced labour levied on villagers by the Tatmadaw through religious leaders; expropriation of villagers’ lands by extractive industry companies; monetary demands on villages in lieu of forced recruitment of villagers into local pyi thu sit units; and taxation and demands by the Border Guard, accompanied by threats for non-compliance. Furthermore, the villager expressed concerns regarding the impact of abnormal weather patterns on rice and plantation crops, which have exacerbated food scarcity and prompted many villagers to seek work abroad in Thailand and Malaysia."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (136K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b31.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


    Title: Boom or Bust?
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: The Burmese junta is moving ahead with the Myawaddy special economic zone, which may or may not benefit the DKBA... "The Burmese military regime has long talked about, but never implemented, a special economic zone (SEZ) near the Burma-Thailand border. But the junta’s cabinet recently approved the official creation of the SEZ, along with a plan to increase investment in the project. This could result in a business boom for Col. Chit Thu and his Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) cronies who control the area surrounding the SEZ and have already established their own commercial empire on the border. But if the project is too successful, it could turn into a bust for Chit Thu, because the junta might want to keep control in the hands of its own generals..."
    Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


    Title: Mr. Beard Breaks Away
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: Col. Saw Lah Pwe has led a major defection of DKBA troops, and now the remaining DKBA leaders must make a choice between their business interests and their fellow Karen... "Col. Saw Lah Pwe, the commander of Brigade 5 of the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), led a late-July defection of as many as 1,500 troops from five DKBA battalions that will potentially join forces with the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA)..."
    Author/creator: Saw Yan Naing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


    Title: The Monk in Command
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: A charismatic monk with a vision of a peaceful Karen State is credited with making the DKBA decision to reject the junta’s border guard force plan "... Unknown to most Westerners is that a Buddhist monk, U Thuzana, 67, weilds equal or even greater power within the DKBA. He is credited with making the recent DKBA decision to reject the regime’s border guard force order. According to some, U Thuzana is the most powerful person in the DKBA. It is difficult for officers and soldiers not to follow his decisions because of his role in the creation of the DKBA, one of the junta’s closest allies..."
    Author/creator: Mikael Gravers
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 August 2010


    Title: Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw: A Jahan who Shines the light of Dhamma
    Date of publication: 30 July 1998
    Description/subject: "This book is not a biography of Myainggye: Ngu Sayadaw U Thu Za-na. In fact it is a personal record of Sayadaw's life experiences. As mortal being Sayadaw has passed through many ups and downs in his life. This has been recorded and narrated without any bias. Facts, even though they may be bitter are being presented in this book...U Thu Za-na is a young monk with a few years in monkhood (Vassa). The author has reached an agreement with U Thu Za-na—not to write about his biography. Therefore, my purpose is not to write Sayadaw's biography, or for any cause or causes, but merely to write everything as it was, as I saw and understand it. As everybody knows that Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw U Thu Za-na has become a wellknown person in the country. Also rumours have been rife in the country. Some said Sayadaw stands on this side. Some accused him that he is from the other side. Who and What Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw is? This book will after all answer all these questions. The readers will, after reading this book, understand to some extent Who and What Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw is..."
    Author/creator: Myaing Nan Swe; Shin Khay Meinda (trans)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Democratic Karen Buddhist Association (DKBA)
    Format/size: pdf (646K - OBL version; 13 MB - original scan)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/U%20Thuzanas%20Book%20(for%20PC%20reading).pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 June 2011