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General studies and surveys on health in Burma

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: "BurmaNet News" Health archive
Description/subject: Health-related articles from 2008 to October 2016
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2012

Title: "BurmaNet News" Health/HIV archive
Description/subject: HIV/Health-related articles from 2008 to October 2016
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012

Title: *Youtube search for Burma OR Myanmar - health* (video)
Description/subject: About 242,000 results (August 2017)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2017

Title: Center for Disease Control and Information (CDC)
Description/subject: Health Information for Travelers to Burma (Myanmar) .... Also Search for "Myanmar" or "Myanmar Health"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Center for Disease Control and Information
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.cdc.gov/search.do?queryText=myanmar&searchButton.x=0&searchButton.y=0&action...
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010

Title: Health in Burma
Description/subject: "The general state of health care in Burma is poor. The military government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world. Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment... Contents: 1 HIV/AIDS... 2 Maternal and child health care... 3 Health education... 4 See also... 5 References... 6 External links.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012

Title: MD Travel Health: Myanmar page
Language: English
Source/publisher: MD Travel health
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010

Title: Myanmar Health Articles on MSF website
Description/subject: Articles and activity reports on Myanmar health
Language: English
Source/publisher: Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/publications/ar/report.cfm?id=4447&cat=activity-report
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010

Title: Public Health in Myanmar -- blog
Description/subject: About this blog: This blog is jointly written by a group of Myanmar Public Health Professionals... Our objectives are: 1. To disseminate public health concepts and practices 2. To present contemporary international public health issues 3. To present and discuss public health problems of Myanmar..... Note This blog is written using Zawgyi-One (Burmese Unicode) font. You would be able to see the messages in Burmese without requiring font installation if you use Internet Explorer. Blog Archive..... * â–¼ 2008 (115) o â–¼ December (7) + Genetic Diseases and Inheritance Patterns (1) + Introduction to Genetic Inheritance + HIV / AIDS (3) + Adult ADHD + Hypertension + HIV / AIDS (2) + Rhesus Factor o â–º November (9) + Healthy Diet + Essential Nutrients for Healthy living (2) + Melamine & Health Problems + HIV / AIDS (1) + Ischemic Heart Disease + Tropical Medicine + Emergency Contraception !!! + Methods of Contraception ... + When you eat recklessly, ... o â–º October (16) + Allergic Rhinitis + Ringworm Infection + Scabies + Peptic Ulcer + United Nations' first Global Handwashing Day + Prohibition against import, processing, distributi... + Anorexia Nervosa + TELEVISION, COMPUTER VISION AND YOUR EYES + Prohibition against import, processing, distributi... + Premarital screening + Sunshine, Skin and Tomato + Fake Penicillin Injections in Market + Sinusitis + Treatment Of Meningitis + Essential Nutrients for Healthy Living (1) + Symptoms of Meningitis o â–º September (23) + Notice for Melamine and Milk products + Quit Smoking + Smoking and Heart + Melamine found in sweets !!! + Dementia Syndrome (2) + Influenza + Influenza Prevention + Dementia Syndrome (1) + Unnoticed Causes Of Fatigue + Malnutrition + Attension Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (3) + Attension Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (2) + Medical Diseases of US + Attension Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - ... + Calculate your BMI + Schizophrenia + Good Boy, Good Girl ... + Dental Caries o â–º August (23) o â–º July (4) o â–º June (10) o â–º May (2) o â–º April (1) o â–º March (3) o â–º February (13) o â–º January (4) * â–º 2007 (50)
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Public Health in Myanmar
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://health.ngoinmyanmar.org/
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2008

Title: World Health Organisation - Myanmar Country Office
Description/subject: Public health and other articles: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Myanmar; Progress, Plans and Challenges... Report on National TB Prevalence Survey 2009-2010, Myanmar... Guidelines for the clinical management of HIV infection in adults and adolescents in Myanmar... Guidelines for the clinical management of HIV infection in children in Myanmar... Guidelines for the clinical management of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Myanmar... Review of the National Tuberculosis Programme, Myanmar, 7-15 November 2011... MARC advocacy fact sheet (English version)... MARC advocacy fact sheet (Myanmar version)... Strategic Framework for Artemisinin Resistance Containment in Myanmar (MARC) 2011 - 2015, April 2011... Report of the informal consultation on Myanmar Artemisinin Resistance Containment (MARC), Nay Pyi Taw, 4 - 5 April 2011
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organisation - Myanmar Country Office
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012

Title: World Health Organisation -- Myanmar page
Description/subject: OVERVIEW: - Country cooperation strategy - International travel and health PARTNERS: - Collaborating centres... OUTBREAKS AND CRISES: - Emergencies... - Disease outbreaks... MORTALITY AND BURDEN OF DISEASE: - Mortality profile... - HIV/AIDS treatment... - Malaria... - Tuberculosis... - TB prevalence and incidence... - HIV prevalence... - HIV/AIDS epidemiological fact sheet... HEALTH SERVICE COVERAGE: - Immunization profile... RISK FACTORS: - Chronic diseases... - Anaemia... - Child malnutrition... - Access to water, sanitation... - Alcohol, tobacco consumption... - Undernutrition and overweight... HEALTH SYSTEMS: - Health workforce... - Health financing.
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organisation
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 February 2009

Title: WWW Virtual Library: Public Health: Myanmar Page
Description/subject: Links to NGO and UN agency pages
Language: English
Source/publisher: The WWW Virtual Library: Public Health
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar’s Public Health system and policy: Improving but inequality still looms large
Date of publication: 30 August 2017
Description/subject: "Elliot Brennan examines Myanmar’s health system, its successes and challenges... In late July, panic swept Yangon and parts of Myanmar as news of an “outbreak” of H1N1 erupted on social media. This followed a press conference where Myanmar’s Ministry of Health announced that two people had died from H1N1, commonly known as swine flu. A further 13 had been diagnosed with the illness in Yangon. Five hospitals were preparing to receive new patients. Other cases were detected in remote areas of Myanmar, including 10 cases in Matupi in Chin State, and others reported in Bago region, Ayeyarwady Region and Naypyidaw. Hitherto far from being an outbreak by the World Health Organisation’s definition of such, what the H1N1 cases really highlighted was how far Myanmar has come in health communication and cooperation..."
Author/creator: Elliot Brennan
Language: English
Source/publisher: teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 September 2017

Title: Myanmar: Health Care in a Changing National Landscape - Lessons, Challenges and Aspirations on the Way Forward
Date of publication: April 2017
Description/subject: "On the 30th anniversary of the foundation of the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU), a seminar was held on 13-14 December 2016 in Mae Sot, Thailand, to examine the theme, "Health care in a changing national landscape", with a focus on malaria, maternal health and TB/HIV. At a time of critical change, the SMRU anniversary marked an opportune moment to reflect, and look forward, on important issues in national transition in Myanmar at the junction between health, science, economics and politics. Attended by over 200 participants, the meeting represented a diversity of national backgrounds, specialisms and interests. The proceedings were mainly in English, and simultaneous translations were provided in Burmese, Karen and Thai languages. Discussion was under Chatham House Rules, but it was agreed that a position paper would be produced afterwards to summarise the main issues and conclusions during the meeting. To facilitate debate, panels were held on six themes: the changing landscape, community perspective, medical perspective, funding mechanisms and performances, looking forward, and conclusions. The aim was to promote analyses and ideas that address a number of basic health issues in relation to malaria, maternal health and TB/HIV. Areas of concern included the present status of health delivery, disease trends, community participation, the effectiveness of health-funding strategies, and ensuring that health care reaches to all peoples. Most of Myanmar’s population still needs access to proper health care..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU) MAHIDOL - OXFORD TROPICAL MEDICINE RESEARCH UNIT
Format/size: pdf (102K-reduced version; 805K-original)
Alternate URLs: https://twitter.com/TniMyanmar?lang=en
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2017

Title: Myanmar’s New Dawn - Opportunities for Aung San Suu Kyi and U.S. Myanmar Relations
Date of publication: 26 September 2016
Description/subject: The Generals and Aung San Suu Kyi...New Government Moves Cautiously on Economic Reform...Building a New Peace Architecture...Rebuilding the Neglected Health Care System...Addressing Communal Conflict in Rakhine...Myanmar and the United States...Next Steps in U.S. Policy toward Myanmar..... "Five months after Aung San Suu Kyi and her National League for Democracy (NLD) swept to power in Myanmar in April following their stunning landslide victory in the November 2015 national elections, the new government is still very much in transition. Although the military that ran the country for 50 years did its best not to turn over the top slot to Aung San Suu Kyi, the country’s leading generals appear to be trying to prove they can play ball with the new largely civilian government. It will now be up to Aung San Suu Kyi to push forward the reforms that former president Thein Sein launched in 2011. The Myanmar she is leading today is a better place than it was six years ago when the military freed her from house arrest, launched peace talks with ethnic armed groups, and mounted tentative economic reforms. It is a much freer country that has expanded its foreign ties far beyond its one -time patron China, which the military junta heavily depended on for investment and military equipment. The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) between May 29 and June 4 organized a delegation to Myanmar to evaluate the country’s political and economic transition, the peace process with the country’s ethnic armed groups, the situation of Muslims in Rakhine State, the health care system, and role of the United States in supporting reform and development. CSIS’s Southeast Asia Program and the Global Health Policy Center jointly organized the trip, which included several senior congressional staff. The delegation visited Yangon, Naypyitaw, and Rakhine State, and met with senior Union government officials, parliamentarians, Rakhine State officials, internally displaced persons in camps near Sittwe, U.S. Embassy officials, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, business representatives, journali sts, and scholars and activists. This report is a summary of the group’s observations and findings. It was obvious to the group that the new government still faces daunting tasks on the road to democracy and its success is by no means assured. One of its biggest challenges is trying to hammer out a peace deal with the country’s roughly two -dozen ethnic armed groups that have fought the central government since the 1950s. Another challenge is achieving harmony between the country’s majority Buddhists and minority Muslims, particularly in Rakhine State, and forging a nation from a patchwork of different ethnic and religious groups that never worked together before. The country’s majority Burman population is highly enthusiastic that Aung San Suu Kyi has assumed power, and most ordinary Burmans seem convinced that she can somehow magically fix the country’s longstanding challenges. Meanwhile, many among the ethnic minorities, who make up roughly a third of the population, are concerned that their grievances and interests will continue to be neglected under the new government. A third task is promoting inclusive economic growth in a country where most of the wealth was long controlled by a small military -backed elite and the infrastructure is woefully dilapidated and overextended. A fourth is reducing the outsized role of the military in controlling the government and the economy. Aung San Suu Kyi and her party are wildly popular, but because they have never run a government before, they are still figuring out how to craft and implement policies. All decisions seem to go to Aung San Suu Kyi, who assumed the newly created position of state counselor because her route to the presidency was blocked by the military -drafted 2008 constitution, which bars individuals with foreign family ties from the highest office. So far the newly minted leader tends to be a bit of a micromanager and not a great consulter, resulting in considerable gridlock across various government agencies. She also acts as her own spokesperson, which means the new government has been slow in effectively communicating and marketing its policies..."
Author/creator: Murray Hiebert, Audrey Jackson, Phuong Nguyen
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (3.43MB)
Date of entry/update: 30 September 2016

Title: Closing the gap: Expanding access to social services (English, Burmese မန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 24 February 2016
Description/subject: "Myanmar has an important opportunity to improve the health status and education outcomes of its people after decades of underspending and institutional neglect in the social sectors. Low access to health, education and social protection services has severely worsened human development outcomes, which ranked among the lowest in the region. Since 2011, there has been a sea change in public policy with rapidly rising social spending to expand access to services and protect families from poverty. The payoffs are immense – in Myanmar, an additional year of schooling is estimated to be associated with 6.7 percent higher income (World Bank, 2014a), which will be compounded with better health and social protection. Although significant progress has been made recently, immense challenges and opportunities remain. Policies to close the gap in access to social services are fundamental to inclusive growth in Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Pyne, Hnin Hnin; Dutta, Puja Vasudeva; Sondergaard, Lars M.; Stevens, James A.; Thwin, Mar Mar; Kham, Nang Mo; Palu, Toomas; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arulpragasam, Jehan;
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-Closing_the_Gap-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2016

Title: Ceasefires and health: challenges and opportunities for health equity in eastern Burma/Myanmar - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 19 August 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "From 2011 to 2015, eight separate ceasefires were signed between the Myanmar government and armed groups across eastern Myanmar. Although sporadic fighting continues, this region of the country is receiving both humanitarian and development interventions. In other contexts, the transition from conflict to post conflict has been accompanied by a transition in donor funds from humanitarian to development programs. This funding transition can impact people’s health: analyses of these situations suggest that the nature of aid instruments, donor behavior and politics, and the government’s capacity and legitimacy are all determinants of health in transition periods. The transition in eastern Myanmar is made more complex by the existence of two parallel health systems—one run by the Ministry of Health and one run by a network of ethnic health authorities and community-based providers. Although both sides have indicated their willingnessto coordinate and collaborate on health interventions in a process called "convergence," the changing donor environment and gaps in funding could create additional barriers to equitable and universal health service delivery in Myanmar. This paper describes how the transition from humanitarian aid to development can impact health service delivery in Eastern Myanmar. The paper outlines how the transition creates challenges and opportunities for delivering healthcare, and it makes recommendations on how donors and implementing agencies can best navigate these challenges.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tara Russell
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (132K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015

Title: The Myanmar Health Report: A Comprehensive diagnosis of health care in 2015
Date of publication: 22 June 2015
Description/subject: Common maladies and how to prevent them... Seeing is believing - Cataracts rob our sight, and the people of Myanmar are particularly at risk.... Are we overprescribing antibiotics?... Why our teeth matter... The dangers of giving birth in Myanmar... Stats and interviews making sense of the big picture... ‘Mental health should always be part of public social welfare services’... World health check-up... Dengue: how to spot it, how to avoid it... Vital signs - What census results tell us about our nation’s health... Cheap drugs build drug resistance... VOXDOC: An apple a day? Good start – but it’ll take more than that... Hospital Management Asia conference coming in September...Taking stock of traditional med... The first 1000 days - Conception to age two provides a once-in-a-lifetime ‘window of opportunity’ for mother-and-child nutrition...Where we all come from - Women worldwide talk about their experiences giving birth... Hospital Management Asia conference coming in September... Taking stock of traditional med... The first 1000 days Conception to age two provides a once-in-a-lifetime ‘window of opportunity’ for mother-and-child nutrition... Where we all come from Women worldwide talk about their experiences giving birth... Around 800 women die each day from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth...‘In every state and region’ ...India’s street dentists filling gap for the poor...How the abortion taboo is killing women... World Health Organization 68th Health Assembly Geneva, Switzerland May 18-26, 2015.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 July 2015

Title: The Long Road to Recovery - Ethnic and Community-Based Health Organizations Leading the Way to Better Health in Eastern Burma
Date of publication: February 2015
Description/subject: "This report summarizes the results of a large-scale, population-based health survey, which covered 64 townships, 6,620 households, and a target population of 456,786 people. The survey was jointly conducted by members of the Health Information System Working Group (HISWG). The survey results demonstrate that remote and conflict-affected regions of eastern Burma continue to face critical health challenges. Some health outcomes in the region have improved, though it is clear that significant challenges remain. Mortality rates among infants and children under 5 in eastern Burma are far higher than Burma’s official figures for the country as a whole and more closely resemble other areas where complex humanitarian disasters have unfolded, such as Somalia. The three main causes of death across all age groups are attributable to largely preventable diseases such as diarrhea, malaria, and acute respiratory infections. Ethnic and community-based health service providers are responding strategically to health needs at the community level, but increases in support are needed in order to expand their reach and to address the chronic health crisis in the region.....TABLEOF CONTENTS: Foreword by Dr. Cynthia Maung... Executive Summary... Context: Political background; Health in Burma... Ethnic and Community-Based Health Systems in Eastern Burma: Governance and leadership; Health service delivery; Health workforce; Health information systems... Methodology: Sampling; Instrument design and health outcomes measurement; Surveyor training and ethical approval; Data collection, compilation, and analysis; Limitations... Survey Areas... Survey Findings and Discussion: Demographics; Mortality; Maternal and child health; 1 Skilled birth attendants; Antenatal care; Family planning and contraceptive use; Maternal nutrition; Child nutrition; Childhood diarrhea; Breastfeeding practices; Malaria; Malaria prevalence; Malaria: cause-specific mortality; Malaria health seeking behavior; Malaria prevention; Access to Health Care; 1 Proximity to healthcare facilities; Health access and birth registration ; Human rights violations; Health and Human Rights... Conclusions... Recommendations... Appendices: Acronyms; Data for Shan State Development Foundation; Background; Methodology; Demographics; Maternal and child health; Malaria; Access to health care; Human rights violations; Primary Health Care Convergence Model; Survey questionnaire; Website links for references; ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Health Information System Working Group
Format/size: pdf (5MB-reduced version; 6.6MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://hiswg.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/The-Long-Road-to-Recovery-2015_Eng-1.pdf
Date of entry/update: 10 March 2015

Title: Myanmar Regressed, Stalled, or Moving Forward?
Date of publication: October 2014
Description/subject: "...The burning question in Washington about Myanmar’s transition is: are things regressing, stalled, or moving forward? The short answer is all of the above. The Union of Myanmar is in the third year of a historic transition. Like other comparable transitions of countries emerging from decades of misrule and repression, the process is exceedingly complex and cannot be reduced to simple, categorical, or fixed characterizations. Change is fluid and nonlinear, spread across the multiple, interlocking sectors: health and development, human rights, constitutional change, electoral preparations, the search for peace, and economic reform and revitalization. A transition scorecard paints a mixed picture that is simultaneously positive, bewildering, and downright frustrating. Myanmar elicits a full range of emotions and interpretations. The current process unfolding calls for humility, patience, realism, and the long view. A rush to snap judgments is ill-advised. For better or worse, Myanmar is presently beset with turbulence and uncertainty...What follows is a summary of CSIS’s observations and thoughts on strengthening U.S. support for Myanmar’s transition. It attempts to synthesize, succinctly and fairly, what was learned through rich conversations with a multitude of individuals representing diverse interests and perspectives..."
Author/creator: J. Stephen Morrison, Murray Hiebert RADM Thomas Cullison (USN Ret.), Todd Summers, Sahil Angelo
Language: English
Source/publisher: Center for Strategic & International Studies
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://csis.org/files/publication/141019_Morrison_Myanmar_Web.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2014

Title: On the cusp of disease transition in Myanmar
Date of publication: 29 October 2013
Description/subject: "Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death and disability. Between and within countries, however, there is still a marked diversity in the causes and nature of this disease transition. In Myanmar, economic and political reforms, and the ways in which these intersect with health, have created a unique public health and development context with major ramifications for public health. Myanmar’s transition creates anl opportunity to learn from the public health and development mistakes made elsewhere, but signs are at present that the rush towards short term economic opportunities is taking precedence. This piece illustrates some of the local dynamics that drive NCDs in Myanmar, and potential entry points for the international community to help address Myanmar’s next major health challenge..."
Author/creator: Sam Byfield and Maeve Kennedy, Guest Contributors
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014

Title: State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2013 (Burma/Myanmar section)
Date of publication: 24 September 2013
Description/subject: "State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2013" presents a global picture of the health inequalities experienced by minorities and indigenous communities. The report finds that minorities and indigenous peoples suffer more ill-health and receive poorer quality of care. - See more at: http://www.minorityrights.org/12071/state-of-the-worlds-minorities/state-of-the-worlds-minorities-and-indigenous-peoples-2013.html#sthash.4jaxgXrf.dpuf
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group (MRG)
Format/size: pdf (153K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.minorityrights.org/12071/state-of-the-worlds-minorities/state-of-the-worlds-minorities-a...
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2013

Title: Community Health Worker
Date of publication: 15 March 2013
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Health Organization
Format/size: pdf (4.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 June 2015

Title: "Health" "က်န္းမာေရး"
Date of publication: July 2012
Description/subject: "Myanmar Times" special supplementary issue July 2012.... ျမန္မာတိုင္း (မ္) အထူးထုတ္ အခ်ပ္ပို - ဇူလိုင္ ၂၀၁၂
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: pdf (888K-OBL version; 966K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.mmtimes.com/2012/news/579/health/MTM%20Health.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 August 2012

Title: Burma: health and transition
Date of publication: 23 June 2012
Description/subject: "...Despite signs of political reform in Burma, the military retains a strong presence in regions of ethnic tension, and health and human rights abuses are certain to continue without adequate monitoring. Other members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are complicit in their silence. Whether elements of the former military junta will eventually be brought to justice for crimes under international law remains to be seen. The government must begin to shift resources from the military back to the health of its people. As Aung San Suu Kyi completes her historic European visit this week, and the country opens to international investment, health and human rights must be protected for all of Burma's people."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Lancet"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012

Title: Groups Warn of Health Needs in Burma
Date of publication: 10 April 2012
Description/subject: This is the VOA Special English Health Report. In the past year, Burma has opened its political system and reached cease-fire agreements with some ethnic militias. The government has also eased media restrictions. But many aid groups say their jobs have not gotten any easier. Health workers are warning about the spread of a form of drug-resistant malaria. The malaria is resistant to treatment with artemisinin. It was first seen several years ago in Cambodia.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Voice of America (VOA)
Format/size: pdf (83K)
Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012

Title: Burma: Rights Abuse Fuels Health Crisis
Date of publication: 21 October 2010
Description/subject: Dire heath crisis in Burma is driven by disinvestment in health, protracted conflict and widespread abuses of human rights. The health of civilians in the conflict-affected zones of eastern Burma, particularly women and children, is among the worst in the world, says a new report released in Bangkok on Tuesday, Oct. 19. Having surveyed 21 townships in conflict zones, researchers discovered that over 40 percent of children below 5 years of age are acutely malnourished and one in seven of them will die before reaching this age.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNPO/ Burma
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010

Title: For Sex Workers, A Life of Risks
Date of publication: 25 February 2010
Description/subject: RANGOON, Feb 25, 2010 (IPS) - When Aye Aye (not her real name) leaves her youngest son at home each night, she tells him that she has to work selling snacks. But what Aye actually sells is sex so that her 12-year-old son, a Grade 7 student, can finish his education.
Author/creator: Mon Mon Myat
Language: English
Source/publisher: IPS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010

Title: Results of HIV Sentinel Sero-surveillance 2009 Myanmar
Date of publication: 2010
Description/subject: "...Since 1992, the National AIDS Programme has been carrying out the yearly HIV Sentinel Sero-surveillance (HSS) among selected sentinel groups on different (8) sentinel groups. In fact, HSS is the systematic and regular collection of information on the occurrence, distribution and trends of HIV infection and factors associated with the infection for use in Public Health Action. In concentrated epidemics, HSS is usually conducted among selected groups who may be at highest risk and are most critical to be targeted for interventions. In Myanmar, HSS is conducted among Pregnant Women attending the antenatal clinics (ANC), New Military Recruits, Blood Donors as low risk groups, and; Injecting Drug Users (IDU), Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), Female Sex Workers (FSW) and Male patients attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic as high risk groups. The newly diagnosed TB patients became one of the sentinel groups in 2005..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Health - National AIDS Programme
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 June 2015

Title: Three major diseases in Myanmar
Date of publication: June 2008
Description/subject: JAPAN International Cooperation is leading the fight against three major diseases in Myanmar. The Myanmar Times’ Khin Myat met with JICA project leader and tuberculosis specialist, Mr Kosuke Okada, and malaria expert Mr Masatoshi Nakamura to ask about their activities. 1. How much money is JICA spending annually to control these diseases? Our project period is from January 2005 to January 2010. We have been spending around ¥150 million per year on long- and short-term experts, international and domestic training, provision of equipment such as vehicles, lab equipment, microscopes, mosquito nets, lab test kits, local training and consumables.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 22, No. 425)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.mmtimes.com/feature/healthcare/health018.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010

Title: Myanmar Country Paper for Revisiting Primary Health Care
Date of publication: 2008
Description/subject: I. Background The foundation of Primary Health Care and its evolution The Thirtieth World Health Assembly in 1977 identified the attainment by all peoples of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that would permit them to lead socially and economically productive lives as a main social target of governments, international organizations and communities. This was reaffirmed by the International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978 held in Alma Ata, Kazakhstan in September, 1978.1 The declaration of Alma-Ata formally adopted primary health care as means for providing a comprehensive, universal, equitable and affordable healthcare service for all countries. It was unanimously adopted by all WHO member countries at the Primary Health Care Conference. The conference defined PHC as "essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford. The ideology behind Primary Health Care is based on the recognition that health promotion and protection are essential for sustained economic and social development and contribute to better quality of life. PHC is a cost-effective approach and its principles include social-justice, equity, human rights, and universal access to services, community involvement and priority to the most vulnerable and underprivileged.
Author/creator: Dr. Nyo NYo Kyaing
Language: English
Source/publisher: Department of Health, Ministry of Health via WHO SEAR
Format/size: pdf (362.44 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Myanmar-Cyclone_Myanmar_Country_Paper.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010

Title: The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma
Date of publication: July 2007
Description/subject: "Decades of repressive military rule, civil war, corruption, bad governance, isolation, and widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have rendered Burma’s health care system incapable of responding effectively to endemic and emerging infectious diseases. Burma’s major infectious diseases—malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis (TB)—are severe health problems in many areas of the country. Malaria is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease in Burma. Eighty-nine percent of the estimated population of 52 million lived in malarial risk areas in 1994, with about 80 percent of reported infections due to Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of the disease. Burma has one of the highest TB rates in the world, with nearly 97,000 new cases detected each year.4 Drug resistance to both TB and malaria is rising, as is the broad availability of counterfeit antimalarial drugs. In June 2007, a TB clinic operated by Médecins Sans Frontières–France in the Thai border town of Mae Sot reported it had confirmed two cases of extensively drugresistant TB in Burmese migrants who had previously received treatment in Burma. Meanwhile, HIV/AIDS, once contained to high-risk groups in Burma, has spread to the general population, which is defined as a prevalence of 1 percent among reproductive-age adults.5 Meanwhile, the Burmese government spends less than 3 percent of national expenditures on health, while the military, with a standing army of over 400,000 troops, consumes 40 percent.6 By comparison, many of Burma’s neighbors spend considerably more on health: Thailand (6.1%7), China (5.6 %8), India (6.1%9), Laos (3.2%10), Bangladesh (3.4%11), and Cambodia (12%12).....The report recommends that: • The Burmese government develop a national health care system in which care is distributed effectively, equitably, and transparently. • The Burmese government increase its spending on health and education to confront the country’s long-standing health problems, especially the rise of drug-resistant malaria and tuberculosis. • The Burmese government rescind guidelines issued last year by the country’s Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development because these guidelines have restricted such organizations as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from providing relief in Burma. • The Burmese government allow ICRC to resume visits to prisoners without the requirement that ICRC doctors be accompanied by members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association or other organizations. • The Burmese government take immediate steps to halt the internal conflict and violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma that are creating an unprecedented number of internally displaced persons and facilitating the spread of infectious diseases in the region. • Foreign aid organizations and donors monitor and evaluate how aid to combat infectious diseases in Burma is affecting domestic expenditures on health and education. • Relevant national and local government agencies, United Nations agencies, NGOs establish a regional narcotics working group which would assess drug trends in the region and monitor the impact of poppy eradication programs on farming communities. • UN agencies, national and local governments, and international and local NGOs cooperate closely to facilitate greater information-sharing and collaboration among agencies and organizations working to lessen the burden of infectious diseases in Burma and its border regions. These institutions must develop a regional response to the growing problem of counterfeit antimalarial drugs."
Author/creator: Eric Stover, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Andrew Moss, David Tuller, Thomas J. Lee, Emily Whichard, Rachel Shigekane, Chris Beyrer, David Scott Mathieson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley; Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.jhsph.edu/humanrights/images/GatheringStorm_BurmaReport_2007.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 June 2007

Title: Responding to AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
Date of publication: 10 October 2006
Description/subject: In 2004 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (“Global Fund”) awarded program grants to Burma (Myanmar) totaling US$98.4 million over five years—recognizing the severity of Burma’s HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics, and noting that malaria was the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and the leading killer of children under five years old [1]. For those individuals working in health in Burma, these grants were welcome, indeed [2]. In that same year, Burma’s authoritarian military regime—the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)—was accused of severe and ongoing human rights violations, and United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan appointed a Special Rapportuer on Human Rights, signaling a high level of concern about the junta’s governance. Given these occurrences, the Global Fund imposed additional safeguards on their Burma grants—including additional monitoring of activities and expenditures—and requested and received written guarantees from the junta to respect the fund’s safeguards and performance-based grant system.
Author/creator: Chris Beyrer*, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Luke C. Mullany, Adam K. Richards, Nicole Franck, Aaron Samuels, Thomas J. Lee
Language: English
Source/publisher: PLoS Medicine
Format/size: html,pdf (293.64 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal...
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010

Title: Chronic Emergency - Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma
Date of publication: 07 September 2006
Description/subject: This link leads to a document containing the Table of Contents of the report, with links to the English, Burmese and Thai versions... Executive Summary: "Disinvestment in health, coupled with widespread poverty, corruption, and the dearth of skilled personnel have resulted in the collapse of Burma’s health system. Today, Burma’s health indicators by official figures are among the worst in the region. However, information collected by the Back Pack Health Workers Team (BPHWT) on the eastern frontiers of the country, facing decades of civil war and widespread human rights abuses, indicate a far greater public health catastrophe in areas where official figures are not collected. In these eastern areas of Burma, standard public health indicators such as population pyramids, infant mortality rates, child mortality rates, and maternal mortality ratios more closely resemble other countries facing widespread humanitarian disasters, such as Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Niger, Angola, and Cambodia shortly after the ouster of the Khmer Rouge. The most common cause of death continues to be malaria, with over 12% of the population at any given time infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of malaria. One out of every twelve women in this area may lose her life around the time of childbirth, deaths that are largely preventable. Malnutrition is unacceptably common, with over 15% of children at any time with evidence of at least mild malnutrition, rates far higher than their counterparts who have fled to refugee camps in Thailand. Knowledge of sanitation and safe drinking water use remains low. Human rights violations are very common in this population. Within the year prior, almost a third of households had suffered from forced labor, almost 10% forced displacement, and a quarter had had their food confiscated or destroyed. Approximately one out of every fifty households had suffered violence at the hands of soldiers, and one out of 140 households had a member injured by a landmine within the prior year alone. There also appear to be some regional variations in the patterns of human rights abuses. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) living in areas most solidly controlled by the SPDC and its allies, such as Karenni State and Pa’an District, faced more forced labor while those living in more contested areas, such as Nyaunglebin and Toungoo Districts, faced more forced relocation. Most other areas fall in between these two extremes. However, such patterns should be interpreted with caution, given that the BPHW survey was not designed to or powered to reliably detect these differences. Using epidemiologic tools, several human rights abuses were found to be closely tied to adverse health outcomes. Families forced to flee within the preceding twelve months were 2.4 times more likely to have a child (under age 5) die than those who had not been forcibly displaced. Households forced to flee also were 3.1 times as likely to have malnourished children compared to those in more stable situations. Food destruction and theft were also very closely tied to several adverse health consequences. Families which had suffered this abuse in the preceding twelve months were almost 50% more likely to suffer a death in the household. These households also were 4.6 times as likely to have a member suffer from a landmine injury, and 1.7 times as likely to have an adult member suffer from malaria, both likely tied to the need to forage in the jungle. Children of these households were 4.4 times as likely to suffer from malnutrition compared to households whose food supply had not been compromised. For the most common abuse, forced labor, families that had suffered from this within the past year were 60% more likely to have a member suffer from diarrhea (within the two weeks prior to the survey), and more than twice as likely to have a member suffer from night blindness (a measure of vitamin A deficiency and thus malnutrition) compared to families free from this abuse. Not only are many abuses linked statistically from field observations to adverse health consequences, they are yet another obstacle to accessing health care services already out of reach for the majority of IDP populations in the eastern conflict zones of Burma. This is especially clear with women’s reproductive health: forced displacement within the past year was associated with a 6.1 fold lower use of contraception. Given the high fertility rate of this population and the high prevalence of conditions such as malaria and malnutrition, the lack of access often is fatal, as reflected by the high maternal mortality ratio—as many as one in 12 women will die from pregnancy-related complications. This report is the first to measure basic public health indicators and quantify the extent of human rights abuses at the population level amongst IDP communities living in the eastern conflict zones of Burma. These results indicate that the poor health status of these IDP communities is intricately and inexorably linked to the human rights context in which health outcomes are observed. Without addressing factors which drive ill health and excess morbidity and mortality in these populations, such as widespread human rights abuses and inability to access healthcare services, a long-term, sustainable improvement in the public health of these areas cannot occur..."
Language: English, Burmese, Thai
Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB, 2.2MB - English; 1,2MB - Burmese; 1.6MB - Thai)
Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs3/ChronicEmergencyE-ocr.pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010

Title: Responding to AIDS, TB, Malaria and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
Date of publication: March 2006
Description/subject: "...This report seeks to synthesize what is known about HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB and other disease threats including Avian influenza (H5N1 virus) in Burma; assess the regional health and security concerns associated with these epidemics; and to suggest policy options for responding to these threats in the context of tightening restrictions imposed by the junta..." ...I. Introduction [p. 9-13] II. SPDC Health Expenditures and Policies [p.14-18] III. Public Health Status [p.19-42] a. HIV/AIDS b. TB c. Malaria d. Other health threats: Avian Flu, Filaria, Cholera IV. SPDC Policies Towards the Three "Priority Diseases" [p. 43-45] and Humanitarian Assistance V. Health Threats and Regional Security Issues [p. 46-51] a. HIV b. TB c. Malaria VI. Policy and Program Options [p. 52-56] VII. References [p. 57-68] Appendix A: Official translation of guidelines Appendix B: Statement by Bureau of Public Affairs Appendix C: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Avian Flu notification.
Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Luke Mullany, PhD; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Aaron Samuals, MHS; Voravit Suwanvanichkij, MD, MPH; om Lee, MD, MHS; Nicole Franck, MHS
Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
Source/publisher: Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-bu.pdf (Executive Summary, Burmese, 83K)
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-ch.pdf (Executive Summary, Chinese, 144K)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006

Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2004: Rights to Education and Health
Date of publication: August 2005
Description/subject: Situation of health; Access to Healthcare; Malnutrition; Access to Clean Water and Sanitation; Malaria; Tuberculosis; HIV/AIDS; Mental Health; Support for People with Disabilities; International Humanitarian Aid.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006

Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003-2004: Rights to Education and Health
Date of publication: November 2004
Description/subject: Government Spending on Health and Education; Situation of Education: Adult Illiteracy; High School Education; University Education; Disparity between Civilian and Military Education; Universities Supported by the Military; Access to IT Education; Updates on Education...Situation of Health: Access to Health Care; Malnutrition; Access to Clean Water and Sanitation; Malaria; Tuberculosis; HIV/AIDS; Mental Health; Support for People with Disabilities; International Humanitarian Aid...Personal Accounts: Personal Accounts Related to Heath - High cost of medical care in Mon State... Personal Accouts Related to Education - Excessive fees for primary education; The miserable conditions of Mandalay university students;
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentaqtion Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 May 2005

Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-2003: Rights to Education and Health
Date of publication: October 2003
Description/subject: Government Spending on Health and Education... Situation of Education: Adult Illiteracy; High School Education; University Education; Disparity between Civilian and Military Education; Universities Supported by the Military; Access to IT Education; Troops Shut Down Two Universities Following Gang Fighting; Military University Closed and 2 Students Arrested Following Strikes... Situation of Health: Access to Health Care; Access to Clean Water and Sanitation; Malaria; Tuberculosis; HIV/AIDS; Mental Health; International Humanitarian Aid...Personal Account (on education)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 May 2005

Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002: Rights to Education and Health
Date of publication: September 2002
Description/subject: "...Burma has one of the poorest health records and lowest standards of living in the developing world. Health and education are given incredibly low priorities in the national budget, and lip-service to these issues often take the place of substantial reforms or programs. Because of political considerations the root causes of problems in these arenas, such as the affects of landmines and forced labor on health and the effect of school closings and censorship on education, are not dealt with in meaningful ways. Low salaries and lack of transparent and effective supervision has made it easy for corruption to flourish among medical personnel and educators. Patients more often than not have to pay a bribe to be seen by a doctor, get a bed in a hospital, or receive essential medicine. Primary school students can pay to receive better grades or get private tutoring from their teachers. Higher education in Burma is particularly substandard with students, during those times that the universities are actually open, being given rush degrees in order to prevent any political opposition to the military regime to spring up on college campuses..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Rights to Education and Health
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: Situation of Education: Partial Re-opening of Universities; Closure of Dagon and Rangoon Cultural University; No Housing for Students at Pa-an college; Technical Institute moved to remote areas and tuition too high for most students; Quality Higher Education Lost for a Generation of Students; Disparity Between Civilian and Military Education... Situation of Health: HIV/AIDS; SPDC Ministry of Health Data on HIV (also see chapter on Women); HIV Prevalence Rates Among Injecting Drug Users; Mental Health; Prisoners' Health; Health Related INGOs Working in Burma; Health Situation in Border/Conflict Areas; Health situation in relocation sites; Health situation for villagers in hiding villages; Health Situation in Toungoo District, Karen State; Epidemic Kills thousands in Maung Yawn; Villagers forced to pay for UNICEF provisions; Families forced to buy health care cards for mothers and children to support military fund; Bribes demanded to attend Nurse Training; Lack of medicine among SPDC soldiers; Shortage of Medicine and Importation of Counterfeit Medicine in Karenni State... Personal Account.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Ri9ghts Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 May 2005

Title: FATAL SILENCE? Freedom of Expression and the Right to Health in Burma
Date of publication: July 1996
Description/subject: The Online Burma Library contains two versions of this 1996 report -- in html with added URLs of references not available online in 1996 and a Word version, without these additions, which keeps, so far as possible, the format of the hard copy. "Censorship has long concealed a multitude of grave issues in Burma (Myanmar. After decades of governmental secrecy and isolation, Burma was dramatically thrust into world headlines during the short-lived democracy uprising in the summer of 1988. But, while international concern and pressure has since continued to mount over the country's long-standing political crisis, the health and humanitar­ian consequences of over 40 years of political malaise and ethnic con­flict have largely been neglected. Indeed, in many parts of the country, they remain totally unaddressed. There are many elements involved in addressing the health cri­sis which now besets Burma's peoples. A fundamental aspect, in ARTICLE 19's view, is for the rights to freedom of expression and information, together with the right to democratic participation, to be ensured. In a context of censorship and secrecy, individuals cannot make informed decisions on important matters affecting their health. Without freedom of academic research and the ability to disseminate research findings, there can be no informed public debate. Denial of research and information also makes effective health planning and provision less likely at the national level. Without local participation, founded on freedom of expression and access to information, the health needs of many sections of society are likely to remain unaddressed. Likewise, secrecy and censorship have a negative impact on the work of international humanitarian agencies..."
Author/creator: Martin Smith
Language: English
Source/publisher: Article 19
Format/size: html (1.1MB), Word (589K), pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.article19.org/pdfs/publications/burma-fatal-silence-.pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 July 2003

Title: WHO - Myanmar page
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009