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Foreign Relations

  • International Relations
    This new sub-section will contain documents and links dealing with global and regional issues from various perspectives - perhaps useful for those thinking about Burma/Myanmar's future in the world. See also the Roots and Resources pages under Development and sustainability

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Foreign Relations (Burmese) ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ဆက္ဆံေရး burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 December 2013


    Title: Google search results for "globalisation"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Google
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 June 2013


    Title: Google search results for "international relations - conservative"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Google
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 June 2013


    Title: Google search results for "international relations - liberal"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Google
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 June 2013


    Title: TomDispatch
    Description/subject: See the current material but also the Archive...The list of "What We're Reading" (lower right-hand) has useful links to global issues.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: TomDispatch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 June 2013


    Title: Z Communications
    Description/subject: " Welcome to Z Communications This is what we call a splash page, or brief introductory page, for new people first coming to the site. Rolling over the links to the left changes the text in the viewing area to let you read a little about each major component of ZCom you may be interested in. If you click any link to the left, you can go straight to that part of ZCom. Most users bookmark ZNet as the most comprehensive and efficient way to access our offerings regularly. However, if you are using a mobile phone or tablet to access us, we recommend using ZMobile. It is more suited to small monitors!"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Z Communications
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 June 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: New role for India in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 13 September 2013
    Description/subject: "Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing. With ongoing communal and ethnic violence on one hand and the implementation of bold reform initiatives on the other, Myanmar's transition from authoritarianism to democracy presents immense challenges as well as opportunities for neighboring India. How New Delhi reacts to these tests will have wide-ranging impacts on the future of India-Myanmar relations. The challenges are many. The diplomatic row over pillar number 76 in the northeastern Indian state of Manipur on the Indo-Myanmar border in Holenphai village near Moreh has added to long-running border problems. Although the two sides have agreed to negotiate the issue peacefully, past misunderstandings and alleged intrusions have raised alarm bells on both sides of the border..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2014


  • Burma democracy movement's international supporters

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Actions Birmanie (Belgium)
    Description/subject: Groupe de soutien belge. Beaucoup de documents tres utiles sur le site. "De website "Actions Birmanie" heeft als ambitie de sensibilisering van het Belgische publiek inzake de Birmaanse situatie waar het volk al bijna 40 jaar lang ontzegd wordt van enige democratische inspraak en repressief onderdrukt wordt door een militaire junta. De website geeft een nadere verklaring van de politieke en economische factoren op het Birmaanse toneel en tracht aan ieder de mogelijkheid te geven om de Birmaanse democraten en hun leider Mevr. Aung San Suu Kyi (Nobelprijs voor de vrede 1991) een helpende hand te bieden in hun pacifistische strijd voor het herstel van de democratie. Namelijk: -door het verstrekken van informatie aan de toeristen die zich in dit land wensen te begeven. -door het informeren van het grote publiek van de akties ondernomen door "Actions Birmanie". -door het aanklagen van de aanwezigheid van ondernemingen zoals TOTALFINA die de repressieve junta ondersteunen. Actions Birmanie, le site Le site d'Actions Birmanie a pour ambition de sensibiliser le public la situation vcue par le peuple birman qui se voit depuis bientt quarante ans dnier tout droit dmocratique et est la victime d'une junte militaire particulirement rpressive. Il explique les enjeux politiques et conomiques de la question birmane et donne chacun des moyens d'agir pour aider les dmocrates birmans et leur leader Mme Aung San Suu Kyi (prix Nobel de la paix 1991) dans leur lutte pacifique pour le retour la dmocratie. Notamment... - en informant les touristes qui veulent se rendre dans ce pays - en dnonant la prsence de firmes comme TOTALFINA qui contribuent renforcer le pouvoir de la junte - en informant le public des actions entreprises chez nous pour relayer les dmocrates birmans Enfin, il prsente les actions de diffrents mouvements qui oeuvrent pour la Birmanie... en Belgique francophone: - l'Action Birmanie Cohrence qui milite au sein de l'UCL pour une politique cohrente de soutien aux dmocrates birmans, - l'Action Ptrole ou Birmanie qui met en garde les consommateurs l'encontre du groupe ptrolier Total-Fina, sponsor principal de la dictature Birmane, - l'Association des Elus pour la Birmanie qui regroupe des parlementaires dsireux d'apporter un appui leurs collgues birmans emprisonns et qui travaille faire interdire par l'Union Europenne toute relation commerciale avec la Birmanie...Actions Birmanie's site aims at increasing awareness, among the francophone public, of the situation of the people of Burma who for nearly 40 years have been denied all democratic rights under the particularly repressive rule of a military junta. It attempts to highlight the political and economic factors at stake in the Burmese crisis and to suggest means of actions to help the Burmese democrats and their leader Aung San Suu Kyi (Nobel Peace Prize 1991) in their non-violent struggle to restore democracy. These actions are, for instance - To inform tourists who wish to visit the country - To denounce the presence of companies like TotalFinaElf, whose investment and presence reinforce the power of the junta - To inform the public of steps taken at home to relay the message of Burmese democrats It presents the initiatives of different groups working for Burma..."
    Language: Francais, Nederlands, English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Asien House
    Description/subject: SEARCH FO9R "BURMA"....Databases, documentation on Asia and Europe-Asia relations. Magazines from the South. Access to books and articles in the Asiahouse library and sales of German-language books on Burma in the online bookstore... Zentrum für Information und Begegnung. Datenbankrecherche zu Büchern und Aufsätzen zu Burma in der Asienhausbibliothek und Angebot aller deutschsprachigen Titel im Online-Buchladen des Asienhauses. There's also an unmoderated Discussion-group
    Language: English, Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Asien House
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.asienhaus.de/index.php
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Association Suisse-Birmanie
    Description/subject: Nouvelles sur la Birmanie, documents en francais de l'ONU, BIT etc. "Créée en janvier 1992 par un groupe de personnes passionnées par la Birmanie, l'Association s'est donné pour mission d'apporter aide et soutien aux peuples opprimés de ce pays et de faire entendre leur voix. En 1993 déjà, elle s'est fait connaître du grand public par l'organisation de la mission des Prix Nobel de la Paix auprès du siège genevois de l'ONU... Ses buts sont : Faire connaître les différents aspects du pays (politique, social, culturel) soutenir les mouvements démocratiques de Birmanie; apporter une aide concrète aux populations, en particulier celles des minorités ethniques en difficulté. Ses activités sont : l'organisation de conférences publiques thématiques sur les réalités actuelles de la Birmanie; la diffusion du "Guide alternatif: Birmanie", ainsi que de diverses publications et livres. l'accueil et le soutien des démocrates de Birmanie dans leurs démarches auprès des Organisations Internationales, notamment à l'occasion des sessions de la Commission des Droits de l'Homme et de ses Sous-Commissions; l'appui à la campagne, appelant au boycott économique et financier du gouvernement militaire du SPDC/SLORC, lancée par la leader des démocrates (Aung San Suu Kyi), aussi longtemps que des négociations sérieuses pour le transfert du pouvoir ne seront entamées; la récolte de fonds pour soutenir les populations nécessiteuses..."
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Association Suisse-Birmanie
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Birmania Libre
    Description/subject: La Campana por la Libertad de los Pueblos de Birmania. Desde este lugar se denuncia la terrible situaci�n en la que se encuentran los 50 millones de birmanos que viven bajo uno de los reg�menes m�s atroces del mundo. En ella se puede encontrar enlaces de inter�s relacionados con ete pa�s asi�tico, documentos, textos de an�lisis, informaciones de actualidad, fotos y c�mo realizar voluntariado en el terreno.
    Language: Espanol, some English.
    Source/publisher: La Campana por la Libertad de los Pueblos de Birmania
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.facebook.com/BirmaniaLibre
    http://twitter.com/birmanialibre
    http://www.margencero.com/musica/birmania/principal.htm
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Burma Action Group (Seattle Burma Roundtable)
    Description/subject: INACTIVE SITE...The Seattle Campaign for a Free Burma. "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed it is the only thing that ever has" -Margaret Mead. Campus and local action; good photos on site; links
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Action, Ireland
    Description/subject: "Burma Action Ireland was set up in May 1996 to raise awareness of the current situation in Burma and the repressive nature of the ruling regime, currently named the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). It is composed of individuals involved in development, human rights and justice issues. The association is non-party political, non-denominational and committed to non-violent means. It does not take policy positions on issues unrelated to Burma. Membership is open to individuals and organisations who accept the aims and objectives of BAI and who pay the annual subscription..... OUR MAIN OBJECTIVES: 1. Campaign for democracy and human rights in Burma and for the immediate initiation of dialogue between the ruling SPDC, the National League for Democracy (NLD) and the leaders of the ethnic nationalities which would lead to a new constitution, democratic government and the ending of internal conflicts; the release of all political prisoners of conscience and full respect for human rights;the safe return of all refugees to their homes with international protection; 2. Inform the people of Ireland about the situation in Burma and seek their active involvement; 3. Provide material and moral assistance to those forces within Burma and exile who work for democracy and human rights; 4. Lobby the Irish government on its stand on Burma in international fora; 5. Take whatever other legitimate steps necessary for the achievement of its aims. This website brings you information on all the latest activities and happenings in Ireland and abroad on behalf of concerned individuals and groups working to create awareness of Burma. The website shows how you can get involved and informs you of the many activities that Burma Action Ireland are currently involved with. By clicking any of the links above you can inform yourself of the situation in Burma and learn where it is and why the attention of the world remains fixed on its progress. Most importantly, you can learn how you can help..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Action, Ireland
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Center, Sweden
    Description/subject: Dagliga nyheter på svenska ...Aktuellt om Burma; Arkiv 2003; Arkiv 2002; Arkiv 2001; Kalendarium; Festivaler.
    Language: Swedish, English
    Source/publisher: Burma Center Sweden
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Centrum Nederland (BCN)
    Description/subject: One of the leading Burma activist/lobby groups in Europe. Newly-furbished website. Dutch.
    Language: Nederlands,
    Source/publisher: Burma Centrum Nederland
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Canadian Friends of Burma/Les Amis Canadiens de la Birmanie
    Description/subject: "Canadian Friends of Burma is a national non-governmental organization founded in 1991 as an outcome of a Canadian NGO seminar about Burma. In partnership with solidarity organizations at home and abroad, CFOB works for the cause of peace, human rights and democracy in Burma. Its primary objectives are to raise awareness about the political, human rights and socio-economic conditions in Burma and to encourage more Canadians to take action in this regard. CFOB supports Canadian groups engaged in Burma educational activities, produces educational materials about Burma, and monitors the involvement of Canadian businesses. Accordingly, CFOB has become an important national locus of NGO and grassroots activity and government relations..."
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Christians Concerned for Burma
    Description/subject: Useful site with reports on IDPs, narcotics, human rights, relief missions etc. Good links page. Prayer days for Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Christians Concerned for Burma
    Format/size: html (only configured for Internet Explorer - the drop-down menus don't work with Netscape)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Den Danske Burma Komité ( Danish Burma Committee)
    Description/subject: Close links with trade unions. The Danish Burma Committee was founded in 1992 by former president of the Danish Food and Allied Workers' Union, Mr. Anton Johannsen... The Danish Burma Committee has 17 member organisations, and is open to any organisation, who support the objectives: * To support the Burmese opposition * To create awareness about the situation in Burma * To lobby for support at the political level * To carry out projects that are promoting democracy and human rights issues in Burma..."
    Language: Danish, Dansk, English
    Source/publisher: Den Danske Burma Komité
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Den norske Burmakomite (The Norwegian Burma Committee)
    Description/subject: Hovedside; Om NBK; Presse; Bakgrunn; Tema; Linker; Kontakt oss.
    Language: Norsk
    Source/publisher: Den norske Burmakomite
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: People's Forum on Burma, Japan
    Description/subject: Site entirely in Japanese
    Language: Japanese
    Date of entry/update: 12 January 2011


    Title: Project Maje
    Description/subject: "Project Maje is an independent information project on Burma's human rights and environmental issues. It was founded by its project director, Edith T. Mirante in 1986." Reports on site in pdf and Text
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Burma Campaign UK (TBC)
    Description/subject: "TBC, formerly Burma Action Group UK, campaigns for human rights and democracy in Burma. TBC works for the freedom of all the peoples of Burma regardless of race, ethnicity, gender or age. We provide analysis to the media and government, and we lobby and campaign to improve government and commercial policy on Burma. Objectives: TBC aims to achieve the restoration of human rights and democracy in Burma through; the discouragement of trade, investment and tourism (including pressure for sanctions), the raising of public awareness of issues relating to Burma in order to exert international pressure on the UK government, on the European Union EU), the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the United Nations (UN)."
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Jubilee Campaign
    Description/subject: "is a human rights pressure group, lobbying to protect children's rights and the persecuted church".
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Minerals, militants and Myanmar peace
    Date of publication: 23 October 2013
    Description/subject: "A recent spate of bombings in Myanmar was attributed by police to local mining businessmen intent on stopping foreign investment. These rogue commercial elements were seemingly worried of the impact on their business interests. The shadowy assaults, including a bomb that detonated in a room occupied by an American in the Traders Hotel, demonstrates just how complex the climate for investors is in Myanmar. It also reveals how opaque mining interests could derail the peace process underway between the government and armed rebels and jeopardize the country's democratic transition. Hype persists over Myanmar's resource wealth, with the country gearing up for new waves of investment and new mining laws predicted to shortly come into effect. A recent Asian Development Bank study noted that Myanmar could become Asia's next "rising star" if it can leverage its rich resource potential. However, regardless of much optimism, difficulties remain and if not addressed could unsettle the peace process. The most important issue for investors, but also populations living near resources, is the reform of legal and regulatory frameworks. The current uncertainty in these frameworks has undermined the investment climate. Similarly, land tenure must be defined and a sustainable agreement reached with armed ethnic groups for their greater inclusion into the democratic process. Greater transparency is also needed to boost confidence in local actors that remain entangled with military powerbrokers. If such a prudent approach is not achieved, resources could become more of a burden than a boon in the country's transformation..."
    Author/creator: Elliot Brennan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2014


    Title: International Friends of Burma
    Date of publication: December 2009
    Description/subject: Burma profiles of Desmond Tutu, VÁclav Havel, Mark Canning.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17325
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: Oxford Burma Alliance
    Description/subject: "Created by two Oxford students and former volunteers on the Thai-Burma border, the general aim of the Oxford Burma Alliance is to spread awareness about Burma issues and create a long-lasting advocacy movement in Oxford supporting the movement towards change within Burma."...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: oxfordburmaalliance.org
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2014


  • International parliamentary action

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus (AIPMC)
    Description/subject: " Since its inaugural meeting in Kuala Lumpur, on 26-28 November 2004, AIPMC has been calling on the military government in Burma to bring about changes and democratic reforms in the country. The grouping of ASEAN Legislators from Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines and Cambodia have continuously called for the unconditional release of Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, as well as for the freedom of over a thousand other political prisoners in Burma. One of AIPMC's initial campaigns was to urge ASEAN to deny Burma its turn at chairing the regional bloc in 2006. Having succeeded in its campaign, members of the Caucus have now further called on ASEAN to suspend the military government's ASEAN membership if it fails to show concrete democratic reforms in the country, such as acknowledging the 1990 national general election results and convening Parliament. AIPMC has affiliate members and partners in the form of national caucuses and parliamentary groups outside ASEAN, such as in India, the Republic of Korea, Japan and countries in Europe. The body also works closely with the civil-society Burma movement and members of Burma's government-in-exile."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus (AIPMC)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 August 2006


    Title: European Parliament
    Description/subject: 22 languages.
    Language: English (21 other languages available)
    Source/publisher: European Parliament
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.europarl.eu.int/
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
    Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Union interparlementaire
    Description/subject: Pour trouver la resolution sur Myanmar d'une session specifique du Conseil, rechercher Myanmar AND 168ieme, Myanmar AND 168ieme etc. (a partir de la 157ieme)
    Language: Français, French
    Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Asean: Time to Interfere
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: The Burma Asean chair issue is only first on lawmakers’ list... "In the middle of 2004, both ruling Barisan Nasional Government MPs and those from the opposition benches of the Dewan Rakyat (People’s Assembly) established the Pro-Democracy Myanmar [Burma] Caucus of the Malaysian parliament. It was something of an historical event as it was one of the rare occasions when there was a consensus among Malaysian parliamentarians from a broad political spectrum that the region was about to encounter a major diplomatic crisis which would potentially have grave implications for the region’s political and economic future. Thus, as the MP entrusted with the task of finding a realistic and practical way out of the embarrassing prospect of Myanmar taking its turn as chairman of Asean in 2006, I drew up a plan, together with my fellow members of the caucus, to treat this as an Asean-wide concern. It was decided that the best way to assess the commitment of other Asean MPs was to gather them together on a friendly basis to hear their views regarding the impending dangers that the region would inevitably face in its relations with partners who had been traditionally engaged with Asean in bilateral and multilateral dialogues.Invitations were sent to other Asean parliamentarians. Positive responses were received from five of them: Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The outcome was the formation in Kuala Lumpur in November 2004 of the Asean Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus, of which I am privileged to be the chairman..."
    Author/creator: Zaid Ibrahim
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/print_article.php?art_id=4581
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 170th session of the Governing Council, (Marrakech, March 2002)
    Date of publication: 23 March 2002
    Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 170th session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 and 23 March 2002)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Union interparlementaire (Marrakech, mars 2002)
    Date of publication: 23 March 2002
    Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 170me session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 et 23 mars 2002)
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Ouagadougou, September, 2001)
    Date of publication: 14 September 2001
    Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 169th session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 and 14 September 2001.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Union interparliamentaire (Ouagadougou, septembre 2001)
    Date of publication: 14 September 2001
    Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 169me session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 et 14 septembre 2001
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Havana, April 2001)
    Date of publication: 07 April 2001
    Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 168th session (Havana, April 2001).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Union Interparlementaire (Havane, avril 2001)
    Date of publication: 07 April 2001
    Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 168me session (La Havane, avril 2001)
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Jakarta, October 2000)
    Date of publication: 21 October 2000
    Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 167th session (Jakarta, 21 October 2000).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Union Interparlementaire (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
    Date of publication: 21 October 2000
    Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 167me session (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rapport d'information N° 1859 depose par la Commission Des Affaires Étrangeres
    Date of publication: 13 October 1999
    Description/subject: Sur le rôle des compagnies pétrolières dans la politique internationale et son impact social et environnemental.
    Author/creator: Mme Marie-Helene Aubert, M. Pierre Brana, M. Roland Blum (rapporteurs)
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Assemblee Nationale (France)
    Format/size: 976K
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rapport d'information N°1859 (Sommaire Des Comptes Rendus d'Auditions)
    Date of publication: 12 October 1999
    Description/subject: sur le rôle des compagnies pétrolières dans la politique internationale et son impact social et environnemental. (Report by a French parliamentary commission on the political, social and environmental impact of oil companies, including Total's activities in Burma - French only)
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Assemblee Nationale (France)
    Format/size: 953K
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/i1859-02.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Foreign relations, general

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Diplomatic Visits to and from Burma, 2000-2003
    Date of publication: April 2003
    Description/subject: Date, Country, Person, Position, Detail
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Foreign Embassies to Burma
    Date of publication: March 2003
    Description/subject: Clickable list giving addresses, phone, fax and email of embassies in Rangoon Bangkok and elsewhere. I am intrigued that two thirds of the embassies are ascribed the email address mofa.aung@mptmail.net.mm which is presumably that of the Burmese Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: List of diplomatic missions in Burma
    Description/subject: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is a list of diplomatic missions in Burma. In November 2005, the Myanmar government transferred its seat from Yangon to Naypyidaw. At present, the former capital of Yangon hosts 29 embassies. 43 countries and the European Union have ambassadors accredited to Burma, with most being resident in elsewhere in New Delhi and Bangkok. Contents [hide]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: New role for India in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 13 September 2013
    Description/subject: "Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing. With ongoing communal and ethnic violence on one hand and the implementation of bold reform initiatives on the other, Myanmar's transition from authoritarianism to democracy presents immense challenges as well as opportunities for neighboring India. How New Delhi reacts to these tests will have wide-ranging impacts on the future of India-Myanmar relations. The challenges are many. The diplomatic row over pillar number 76 in the northeastern Indian state of Manipur on the Indo-Myanmar border in Holenphai village near Moreh has added to long-running border problems. Although the two sides have agreed to negotiate the issue peacefully, past misunderstandings and alleged intrusions have raised alarm bells on both sides of the border..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2014


    Title: Myanmar, North Korea stay brothers in arms
    Date of publication: 05 September 2013
    Description/subject: "If a press statement from the US Department of Defense is to be believed, President Barack Obama is quite pleased with the reform process underway in Myanmar, especially recent progress ''that's been made on human rights''. The message was conveyed by US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in late August when he met with his counterparts from the 10 member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Brunei, including Lieutenant-General Wai Lwin, the current defense minister of Myanmar, a former pariah state turned darling of the West. But there was an important caveat in Hagel's statement that indicated Washington's main concern in Myanmar is not democracy and human rights. Rather, he stressed ''it's important that Myanmar sever ties with North Korea''. Evidently Myanmar has not rolled back relations with Pyongyang despite persistent pressure from Washington, including during then secretary of state Hillary Clinton's historic visit to Myanmar in December 2011, and believed behind-the-scenes prodding from Japan and South Korea..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: India-China make a Myanmar tryst
    Date of publication: 13 August 2013
    Description/subject: "As India and China have emerged as major powers in Asia, their interests and concerns have transcended their geographical boundaries. There is particularly the case in Myanmar, where those interests have converged. This is largely due to the fact that Myanmar shares common borders with both the countries. Myanmar shares a 2,185-kilometer border with China, and 1,643-kilometer border with India. It has long been argued that Myanmar has always been a strategic concern for governing the dynamics of India-China relations. Myanmar's strategic location is considered as an important asset for India and China that offers tremendous opportunities for the countries of the region. Therefore, recent developments in Myanmar are a matter of concern for both India and China..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: [Burma in 2009] Main Players
    Date of publication: December 2009
    Description/subject: Than Shwe ("The Dictator Dons His Gloves "); Aung San Suu Kyi ("The Lady Reaches Out "); Win Tin ("A Hard-line Maverick Leader "); Nyan Win and Kyi Wynn ("The Defense that Never Rests")
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17321
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: [Burma in 2009] Regional Players
    Date of publication: December 2009
    Description/subject: Regional criticism of the SPDC from Goh Chok Tong ("Straight Talk from Singapore"); Abhisit Vejjajiva (" New Thai Leader with a Fresh-faced Approach to Burma"); Wen Jiabao ("China Turns Up the Heat on the Generals"); Debbie Stothard ("The Activist Who Puts the Bite into Sound Bites")
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17324
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: [Burma in 2009] Supporting Roles
    Date of publication: December 2009
    Description/subject: Tu Ja ("Campaigning for the Kachin"); Mong Thongdee ("Stateless Boy Aims High"); The anonymous Whistleblowers ("Daring to Defy Their Military Masters"); Jack Dunford ("‘Mr Fixit’ for 140,000 Refugees"); Lin Lat Kyei ("Targeted for Aiding Cyclone Survivors")
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17322
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: [Burma in 2009] Visitors
    Date of publication: December 2009
    Description/subject: Profiles of John W Yettaw ("American’s Obsession has Severe Repercussions for Suu Kyi"); Jim Webb ("A Swashbuckling US Senator"); Kurt Campbell ("The Face of ‘Pragmatic Engagement’")
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17323
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: Democracy in Myanmar and the Paradox of International Politics
    Date of publication: February 2009
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar has been an international media flash point on and off, and a persistent point of contention in international relations since 1990, when the country held general elections in which the National League for Democracy (NLD) led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi won a majority of seats in the National Assembly or Constituent Assembly. The military, ruling under the name of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), refused to hand over power as demanded by the winner, which duly provoked outcries from the international community. Nearly two decades on, the country's government remains in the hands of the military despite the popular desire for change, Aung San Suu Kyi continues to be under house arrest, and the NLD is seeing its influence as an alternative political force to the military government dwindle. The public protests that broke out in 2007, triggered by a sudden surge in the fuel price, faded in due course from international headlines as other global events took center stage. The road to democracy in Myanmar remains as challenging as ever, while the country in its isolation continues to struggle with poverty ensuing from long drawn-out economic stagnation and decades of negligence under repressive and unrepentant military rule, which has been compounded by limited foreign investment under international sanctions aimed at encouraging and facilitating democratic change in Myanmar. In dealing with Myanmar, there is a general good-versus-bad analysis dominating international politics, and that has inadvertently prolonged the political standoff. Cyclone Nargis in May 2008 raised the issue of the urgency of humanitarian aid, prompting thinking outside of the box. However, ideologically charged objectives appear to hinder a review of international policy-making vis-à-vis Myanmar, which has instead placed an emphasis on sanctions. Contrasting this rigid policy-making stands the pragmatism guiding regional actors, namely, ASEAN (of which Myanmar is a member), China, and other countries that share land borders with Myanmar. The rift between the regional actors and the world powers (and 6 Xiaolin Guo their allies in Asia) has, to a degree, reduced the potential impact of external influence on Myanmar. From time to time, calls for change in Myanmar are reiterated in international headlines. The question is not that Myanmar has not changed in the past two decades, but rather that the change taking place may not necessarily be viewed by the international community outside of the region as positive or as the kind of change desired. While it is fairly easy to demand change from the military government, the real challenge remains, that is, how to break the political deadlock and make any meaningful political transition tenable. Attempts to employ sanctions as a way to bring about change in Myanmar mirrors post-Cold War international politics with a strong ideological base. The rhetoric of humanitarian intervention that came to dominate the play of international politics in the 1990s has encouraged and facilitated political change in selected countries around the world in the form of sanctions, and sometimes, military action. Myanmar has been a target of humanitarian intervention, albeit that military action has never been an option. Paradoxically, today�s practice of intervention as underwritten by liberals and neo-conservatives alike shares, as indeed shown in the case of Myanmar, some common features with nineteenth-century colonialism (though the parallel is often overlooked), in that indigenous conditions essential to change are generally pronounced irrelevant, and at the same time, the capacity of foreign influence to re-shape the domestic politics of another country tends to be overestimated. In a way, ideology and geopolitics are now, like then (more than a century ago), part of a global game of doing �good deeds� in distant lands. Revisiting political developments in Myanmar, this paper draws attention to the unintended consequences of a �politically correct� contemporary practice, raising questions not about the values of democracy per se, but rather about the practice of intervention in that very name, irrespective of indigenous conditions. Equally, it dwells not on the technicality of �humanitarian intervention� that falls within the purview of the UN mandate, but instead, the paper challenges the use of that concept as a foreign policy tool without giving sufficient consideration to its socio-economic consequences in another country. The paper argues that without taking into account its history, ethnic complexity, and socio-economic conditions, any policy-making toward Democracy in Myanmar and the Paradox of International Politics 7 Myanmar is likely to remain irrelevant to what is going on inside the country. Finally, the relative fading of rhetoric concerning �building democracy� from foreign policy speeches in the new U.S. Administration under President Obama is eye-opening, and being watched closely by the international community to determine how the change will materialize in policy-making toward Myanmar."
    Author/creator: Xiaolin Guo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
    Format/size: pdf (330K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2010


    Title: BACK TO THE OLD HABITS Isolationism or the self-preservation of Burma’s military regime
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: Table of Contents: Authors’ Biographies... Introduction... Chapter One: Isolation chosen or endured? A Burmese history of isolationist withdrawals since Independence.... 1 - Neutralism, Insurgency and Autarchy: Burma’s uneasy relations with the outside world (1948-1988)... 2 - Enter the SLORC: a tactical breaking out of isolation throughout the 1990s... The entrenchment of the Burmese junta: the return of nationalist hardliners since 2003 ... 1 - Depayin crackdown and its regional implications (2003)... 2 - Khin Nyunt’s sacking and the purge of the “MI” (2004) 3 - Naypyidaw’s transfer and the isolation within... of “Isolationism without Isolation”.... 1 - Backing away from ASEAN (2006-2007) 2 - Limits to the Sino-Burmese partnership.... 3 - Cautiously gentling with India... 4 - Diversifying its partnerships outside its direct neighbourhood ... Conclusion... Academic References.
    Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau & Larry Jagan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Research on Contemporary South East Asia (IRASEC)
    Format/size: pdf (712K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 December 2008


    Title: Burma and the Threat of Invasion: Regime Fantasy or Strategic Reality?
    Date of publication: August 2008
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: Even before 1988, when the armed forces crushed a pro-democracy uprising and took back direct political power, Burma’s government feared an invasion of the country. Then, the danger was seen to emanate mainly from China, but over the past 20 years the US and major EU countries have been viewed as Burma’s greatest military threat.... In the wake of the 1988 uprising, the new regime feared that the US, or a coalition of countries led by the US, planned to invade Burma and restore democratic rule. Fears of foreign intervention were renewed after the regime’s refusal to hand over power to the civilian government elected in 1990. Perceptions of a significant external threat were strengthened by the measures subsequently taken by the US, EU and a range of other countries. The economic sanctions levelled against Burma, for example, were seen as part of a wider effort to weaken the military government and precipitate its downfall.... Fears of an invasion have fluctuated since 1990, but the regime has remained convinced that the US and some other states are determined to replace it with an elected civilian administration. Strong criticism of the military government, and public references to Burma alongside notorious ‘rogue’ regimes, has seemed to presage armed intervention. Attempts in the UN Security Council to declare Burma a threat to regional security, open support for opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, and aid to dissident groups, have all been interpreted as part of a campaign to subvert the military government. If it could not be brought down by the direct application of military force, it was believed, the US and its allies would try to cause the regime’s collapse by fomenting internal unrest.... When the US, UK and France positioned warships off the Burmese coast in May 2008, after Cyclone Nargis struck Lower Burma, the regime was immediately suspicious of those countries’ motives. Its fears were greatly strengthened by statements made by senior officials and others about the international community’s overriding ‘responsibility to protect’ the cyclone victims. There were calls for coercive humanitarian intervention and even an invasion of Burma to provide aid to those in need, regardless of the regime’s wishes and broader issues relating to national sovereignty. Such statements seem to have hardened the military leadership’s conviction that it still faced the possibility of an attack by the US and its allies, against which it must remain vigilant.... Since 1988, there has never been any likelihood that Burma would actually be invaded, by the US or any other country. In international relations, however, threat perceptions are critical. Fears of armed intervention, and of indirect foreign interference in Burma’s internal affairs, have been strong influences on Burma’s defence planning and foreign policy. In that sense they are a strategic reality, and must be taken into account in the consideration of future approaches towards the military government. Failure to do so will make the continued delivery of humanitarian assistance, and the search for viable long term solutions to Burma’s many complex problems, much more difficult.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Griffith Asia Institute Regional Outlook Paper No. 17, 2008
    Format/size: pdf (356K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Burma’s Long Road to Democracy
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: • In August and September 2007, nearly twenty years after the 1988 popular uprising in Burma, public anger at the government’s economic policies once again spilled into the country’s city streets in the form of mass protests. When tens of thousands of Buddhist monks joined the protests, the military regime reacted with brute force, beating, killing, and jailing thousands of people. Although the Saffron Revolution was put down, the regime still faces serious opposition and unrest. • Burma’s forty-five years of military rule have seen periodic popular uprisings and lingering ethnic insurgencies, which invariably provoke harsh military responses and thereby serve to perpetuate and strengthen military rule. The recent attack on the monks, however, was ill considered and left Burma’s devoutly religious population deeply resentful toward the ruling generals. • Despite the widespread resentment against the generals, a successful transition to democracy will have to include the military. Positive change is likely to start with the regime’s current (though imperfect) plan for return to military-dominated parliamentary government, and achieving real democracy may take many years. When Than Shwe, the current top general, is replaced, prospects for working with more moderate military leaders may improve. In the end, however, only comprehensive political and economic reform will release the military’s grip on the country. • Creating the conditions for stable, effective democracy in Burma will require decades of political and economic restructuring and reform, including comprehensive macroeconomic reform, developing a democratic constitution and political culture, re- establishing rule of law, rebuilding government structures at national and state levels, and building adequate health and educational institutions. • The international community must give its sustained attention to Burma, continuing to press the regime for dialogue with the forces of democracy, beginning with popular democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi, and insisting on an inclusive constitutional process. International players should also urge the regime immediately to establish a national commission of experts to begin studying and making recommendations for economic restructuring to address the underlying concerns that brought about the Saffron Revolution. • Though China is concerned about the Burmese regime’s incompetence, it has only limited sway with the generals, who are fiercely anticommunist and nationalistic. Nonetheless, Beijing will cautiously support and contribute to an international effort to bring transition, realizing that Burma will be seen as a test of China’s responsibility as a world power. • The United States should restrain its tendency to reach simply for more unilateral sanctions whenever it focuses on Burma. Because a transition negotiated with opposition parties is still likely to produce an elected government with heavy military influence, the United States must prepare to engage with an imperfect Burmese democracy and participate fully in reconstruction and reform efforts, which will require easing some existing sanctions.
    Author/creator: Priscilla Clapp
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United States Institute for Peace (Special Report 193 November 2007)
    Format/size: pdf (215K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Burma%27s%20long%20road%20to%20democracy%20-%20Clapp.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


    Title: Engaging with the Issue of Myanmar: A New Perspective
    Date of publication: October 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Street protests and bloody suppressions are recurrent events in the history of Myanmar. Since the 1980s, when the military government crushed the democracy movement in Myanmar, these events have become the focus of friction and conflict between Myanmar and the international community. Notwithstanding nearly two decades of international sanctions, the military rulers have managed to cling to power. The street protests that took place in Yangon and other parts of Myanmar in August-September 2007 brought anew many painful memories and rekindled the undying desire for change. Unlike many other international issues, the international community seems reasonably united on the issue of Myanmar. Pressure for change is mounting, and a solution has to be found. The question is how? In the light of the encouraging outcome of the Six-Party Talks on the Korean Peninsula crisis, we believe that coordinated international efforts can help turn the situation around in Myanmar, notwithstanding that the Korean Peninsula is an international conflict whereas Myanmar is primarily a domestic issue. With that aim in mind, this paper analyzes the need for CBMs, the role of different players and their potential contribution to the process of national reconciliation, and ultimately democratization, in Myanmar. It emphasizes competence and a balanced approach. In this process, the domestic players—the incumbent government and all opposition and interest groups that have a stake in the process of national reconciliation—naturally form the inner circle. The outer ring comprises two sets of players: regional and international, including those who have both influence on the Myanmar domestic players and a stake of their own in regional stability, and the body of the ultimate representative of the international community. Other facilitators include the EU, US, and countries with special CBM profiles, all having unique and important roles to play in different circumstances and at different times. Engaging with the Issue of Myanmar: A New Perspective 7 All in all, a solution to the issue of Myanmar is pressing, since unless one can be found, there may well be serious consequences detrimental to the stability of the country and the region around it. As much as it is the problem of the Myanmar government and its people, finding a solution to the issue of Myanmar is also the responsibility of the international community."
    Author/creator: Xiaolin Guo, Johan Alvin
    Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
    Format/size: English
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2010


    Title: Building Democracy in Burma
    Date of publication: 04 July 2007
    Description/subject: "There is no easy answer to the question of whether and to what degree external actors should intervene to trigger or force transition in extreme cases of autocratic or failed governance. Often in the zeal to hasten the demise of bad regimes inadequate consideration is given ahead of time to how the international community can best prepare a backward country for effective democratic governance. Burma – a prime case of arrested development brought about by decades of stubborn, isolationist military rule – provides ample illustration of this dilemma. The great hope for instant transition to democracy that was raised by the 1990 parliamentary elections in Burma was dashed almost immediately by the failure of the military regime to seat the elected parliament. Motivated by despair, many governments adopted policies making regime change a sine qua non for engagement with Burma, hoping this would force the military to follow through on its original promise to return to elected government. Seventeen years later, however, the military remains firmly entrenched in power and the country’s political, economic, and human resources have seriously deteriorated. Even if an elected government could be seated tomorrow, it would find itself bereft of the institutions necessary to deliver stable democratic rule. Starting from the assumption that some degree of transition is inevitable in the not-toodistant future, this study explores the depth of Burma’s deprivations under military rule, focusing on questions of how to make the country’s political, social, and economic institutions adequate to the task of managing democratic governance. It identifies the international mechanisms available to assist in this task, as well as innate strengths that can still be found in Burma, and it discusses what the limitations on assistance might be under various scenarios for political transition. Concluding that some degree of political transition will have to be underway before it will be possible to deliver effective assistance, the study suggests that the most productive policy approaches will require greater coordination and collaboration with Burma’s Asian neighbors."
    Author/creator: PRISCILLA CLAPP
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United States Institute for Peace
    Format/size: pdf (820K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Building_democracy_in_Burma-Clapp.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


    Title: Foreign policy as a political tool: Myanmar 2003–2006
    Date of publication: January 2007
    Description/subject: "...International attitudes to Myanmar will continue to face difficulty in gaining acceptance by the Myanmar government until the international community makes it clear with a single voice that the issues surrounding Myanmar are its legitimate concern. Myanmar’s leadership is adept at identifying rifts in international opinion that work to its advantage, and will not stop trying to deflect pressure on it to change policies. Moreover, the capacity of the current Myanmar military leadership to stand stubbornly in the face of international opinion should not be underestimated. This makes it all the more necessary for the international community, led by the United Nations, to draw the Myanmar government into a more focused and managed reconciliation process than has hitherto been the case, with sufficient incentives to persuade the current military leadership to participate fully in such a process. Ultimately, however, success can be achieved only if Myanmar believes that it ‘owns’ the process, that it has not been imposed from the outside..."
    Author/creator: Trevor Wilson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
    Format/size: pdf (136K)
    Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf_instructions.html
    http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf/whole_book.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


    Title: La dimension des droits de l’homme dans les relations internationales : le cas de la Birmanie (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: August 2006
    Description/subject: Introduction: "L’étude politique des droits de l’homme ne peut se faire sans tenir compte du contexte politique, géographique et historique dans lequel ces derniers ont évolué. Souvent brandis comme l’étendard que des hommes et des femmes ont porté dans l’espoir de faire valoir leur individualité face à des gouvernements, ces valeurs n’en continuent pas moins d’être souvent traitées avec cynisme, ironie ou utopisme. Cela s’avère encore plus véridique lorsque nous choisissons de transposer l’étude de ces droits à la sphère des relations internationales où il existe un dilemme entre l’universalité proclamée des principes fondamentaux et le poids des états dans l’élaboration de politiques parfois nuisibles aux droits de l’homme mais justifiées par un recours systématique au principe de souveraineté étatique. Cependant, ce concept des droits de l’homme revient constamment, au travers de discours, articles, essais et discussions, alimenter la thèse selon laquelle ces droits, bien que proclamés déjà en 1789, restent à être pleinement réalisés en ce début de 21° siècle. S’ils sont déjà considérés comme acquis et immuables en occident principalement, il n’est pas inutile de rappeler que les valeurs qu’ils défendent (liberté, égalité…) sont des concepts relativement nouveaux dans l’histoire humaine et que leur application au niveau international est loin d’être évidente. Notre optique n’est pas de se livrer à une condamnation de l’application du respect des droits de l’homme que certains diront secondaires à la prise en compte de considérations économiques, politiques ou géostratégiques mais plutôt de comprendre comment la défense des droits de l’homme trouve sa place dans la justification des politiques internationales en comparant leur promotion faite en occident et leur application dans une région aussi lointaine que l’Asie. Ce mémoire analysera donc l’importance du non-respect des droits de l’homme au sein des relations internationales en analysant le cas de la Birmanie, également connue sous le nom de Myanmar.2 Nous partirons du principe que le gouvernement militaire birman ne respecte pas les droits contenus dans la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme de l’ONU de 1948 et que cela complique ses relations avec des gouvernements étrangers ainsi qu’avec des institutions internationales qui ont un devoir de veiller à ce que leur politique extérieure avec des pays tiers tienne compte du respect des droits de l’homme. Les instances analysées sont les Etats-Unis, l’Union Européenne (UE) et l’Organisation des Nations Unies (ONU) et nous nous focaliserons sur la place que tiennent les droits de l’homme dans leurs rapports avec la Birmanie. Le choix de ces trois protagonistes permet de mettre en évidence une institution internationale (l’Organisation des Nations Unies) ainsi que deux niveaux différents d’organisations politiques au sein de ce que l’on nomme communément l’"occident" : un état (les Etats-Unis) et une institution régionale (l’Union Européenne). Le noeud de ce travail portera donc sur la question suivante : « Dans quelle mesure le non-respect des droits de l’homme influence-t-il les relations qu’entretient la Birmanie avec les Etats-Unis, l’UE et l’ONU depuis 1988 ? » L’idée n’est pas de savoir si le gouvernement birman nuit aux droits de l’homme ou pas. Ce fait est unanimement reconnu aussi bien par la communauté internationale que par le gouvernement birman lui-même. La question est plutôt de savoir jusqu’à quel point les considérations éthiques relatives au respect des droits de l’homme devancent les intérêts économiques, politiques ou géostratégiques dans la région du sud-est asiatique..."
    Author/creator: Bryan Carter
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Université libre de Bruxelles, Faculté des sciences sociales, politiques et économiques -- Section de science politique
    Format/size: pdf (509K), Word (457K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/M%e9moire.doc
    Date of entry/update: 30 September 2006


    Title: Defending Burma, Protecting Myanmar
    Date of publication: May 2006
    Description/subject: "Over half a century has wrought profound changes in Burmese strategic perspectives that should be understood by those concerned about stability in the region..."
    Author/creator: David I Steinberg
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


    Title: King Mindon’s Ruined Vision
    Date of publication: October 2005
    Description/subject: His “Look West” Policies Are Now in Tatters... "...Today, Burma’s relations with the West, particularly the US, are rocky, and they’re unlikely to get better as long as the two sides pull in opposite directions. Since the 1988 democracy uprising, the US has downgraded its diplomatic relations with Burma, and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has famously labeled Burma as an “outpost of tyranny,” along with North Korea, Cuba and Iran. In Rangoon, the military leaders maintain their critical stance vis-à-vis the West, bitterness and hatred simmering together in editorials published by the junta’s mouthpiece journals, while clearly harboring hopes for a better relationship with the West. While the generals pursue closer ties with neighbors such as Russia, India and China, they still don’t send their children to study in Moscow, Beijing or North Korea. Before the visa bans took hold, many children of the Rangoon elite were sent to study in Britain, Australia and the US..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Wege aus der Isolation. Birmas nationaler und internationaler Aussöhnungsprozess
    Date of publication: August 2003
    Description/subject: Zu Beginn der neunziger Jahre reagierten die EU und die USA auf die 1988 erfolgte Machtübernahme des Militärs in Birma und die Nichtanerkennung des 1990 errungenen Wahlsiegs der Opposition mit der öffentlichen Verurteilung dieses Regimes und einer Reihe wirtschaftlicher und politischer Sanktionen. Die ASEAN-Staaten wie auch UNO-Generalsekretär Kofi Annan setzten hingegen auf eine Strategie des »konstruktiven Engagements«, die durch einen intensiven Dialog mit der Regierung in Rangun den Weg zu politischen Reformen zu ebnen versuchte. Beide Strategien haben bislang nicht zu den beabsichtigten Ergebnissen geführt. Ausgangspunkt dieser Studie ist daher die Frage, welche Faktoren zu jener fast unauflöslich erscheinenden Konfrontation zwischen der Militärregierung einerseits und der birmanischen Opposition sowie den westlich orientierten Staaten andererseits geführt haben und welche Strategie von außen, vor allem von der EU, entwickelt werden sollte, um eine Neugestaltung der politischen Machtverhältnisse und eine Verbesserung der mehr als desolaten Lebensverhältnisse vieler Einwohner Birmas zu erzielen. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluß, daß die politische und wirtschaftliche Krise Birmas nur durch einen langfristigen und umfassenden Transformationsprozeß bewältigt werden kann, in dem Veränderungen der sozioökonomischen Basis und der politischen Strukturen eng miteinander zu verknüpfen sind. Von Seiten des Auslands - nicht zuletzt der EU - kann und sollte dieser Transformationsprozeß nach Kräften und in den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen gefördert werden. Hierbei müssen positive Anreize und Druck einander nicht ausschließen, sondern es wäre im jeweiligen Einzelfall zu prüfen, ob eine Zusammenarbeit möglich und nützlich erscheint oder aber verweigert werden muß. Ways out of isolation, Burma's national and international reconciliation process, transition and democratisation
    Author/creator: Gerhard Will
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2005


    Title: Burmese Whispers
    Date of publication: May 2003
    Description/subject: "The war in Iraq once again has the Burmese chattering classes speculating about outside intervention. But as in 1988, more pressing geo-political concerns serve as a distraction from the country’s internal misery...If the recent military interventions in the Middle East have again triggered Burmese whispers that outside help is coming, just as in 1988 there will be disappointment. For ordinary Burmese, the significance of the overthrow of the Taliban and Saddam is not that something similar might occur in their own country. It is that the junta is once again exploiting a major international distraction as cover for political inertia at home. Yet another opportunity for a discreet domestic settlement is being squandered..." The article also covers recent Burmese history, including 1988 and Min Ko Naing.
    Author/creator: Dominic Faulder
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


    Title: The EU & the Assoc. of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
    Date of publication: 28 January 2003
    Description/subject: Overview: Latest update: 28 January 2003
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EU via Euro-Burma Office (EBO)
    Format/size: html (17K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 August 2003


    Title: Burma and superpower rivalries in the Asia-Pacific
    Date of publication: April 2002
    Description/subject: "The Western democracies have declared that their strong stances against the current military regime in Burma reflect principled stands against the 1988 massacres of pro-democracy demonstrators, the failure of the regime to recognize the results of the 1990 general elections (which resulted in a landslide victory for the main opposition parties), and the regime?s continuing human rights abuses. Yet it can be argued that such a strong and sustained position would have been less likely had the Cold War not ended and Burma?s importance in the global competition between the superpowers not significantly waned. Lacking any pressing strategic or military reason to cultivate Burma, and with few direct political or economic interests at stake, countries like the United States and the United Kingdom can afford to isolate the Rangoon regime and impose upon it pariah status. If this was indeed the calculation made in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it is possible that the changes that have occurred in the strategic environment since then may prompt a reconsideration of these policies. Burma lies where South, Southeast, and East Asia meet; there the dominant cultures of these three subregions compete for influence. It lies also across the ?fault lines? between three major civilisations?Hindu, Buddhist, and Confucian.1 At critical times in the past, Burma has been a cockpit for rivalry between superpowers. Today, in the fluid strategic environment of the early twenty-first century, its important position is once again attracting attention from analysts, officials, and military planners. Already, Burma?s close relationship with China and the development of the Burmese armed forces have reminded South and Southeast Asian countries, at least, of Burma?s geostrategic importance and prompted a markedly different approach from that of the West..." The PDF version (222K) has a map and a 4-page presentation of Burma's geostrategic position not contained in the html version.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Naval War College Review, Spring 2002, Vol. LV, No. 2
    Format/size: html (Google cache), pdf (226K)
    Alternate URLs: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JIW/is_2_55/ai_88174228
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses (full report)
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: A collection of essays, mostly written by activists, on Burma's bilateral and multilateral relations: ASEAN-Burma, Bangladesh-Burma, China-Burma, India-Burma, Thailand-Burma, International Policies towards Burma - Western governments, NGOs and multilateral institutions. "Report looking at Burma/Myanmar's relations with neighbouring states and other governments, and the policies and measures adopted by the international community that may strengthen or reduce the prospects of democratization in Burma/Myanmar."
    Author/creator: David Arnott, Kavi Chongkittavorn, Zunetta Liddell, Kaiser Morshed, Soe Myint, Thin Thin Aung, Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: PDF (1.3MB) See also separate chapters.
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2003


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses - Executive Summary, TOC etc.
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: Contents: Acronyms; Preface; Acknowledgements; About the authors; Executive summary; Introduction; Background; Relations with ASEAN; Bilateral relations; International policies towards Burma; Conclusions... 1 ASEAN-Burma relations: I Historical context; II Origins of constructive engagement; III Burma and ASEAN: A troubled marriage; IV ASEAN and Aung San Suu Kyi; V ASEAN and the NCGUB; VI Bilateral relations; VII Assessment of constructive engagement; VIII Opportunities and challenges for opening political space in ASEAN and Burma; IX Conclusions... 2 Bangladesh–Burma relations: I Bangladesh’s policy towards Burma/Myanmar in historical context; II The present phase of Bangladesh–Burma relations; III Trade and economic relations 64 IV Conclusions... 3 China–Burma relations: I Historical preface; II Strategic relations; III Drugs in the China–Burma relationship; IV China-Burma border: the HIV/AIDS nexus; V Chinese immigration: cultural and economic impact; VI Opening up southwest China; VII Gains and losses for various parties where Burma is (a) democratizing or (b) under Chinese “suzereinty”; VIII Possible future focus; IX Conclusions... 4 India–Burma relations: I Introduction; II Historical background; III India’s policies towards Burma; IV Major factors contributing to the relationship between India and Burma; V Indo-Burmese trade relationship; VI Indo-Burmese military cooperation; VII India’s support to the Burma democracy movement; VIII Suggestions for Burma pro-democracy activists; IX Conclusions... 5 Thai–Burma relations: I Thai perceptions of Burma; II Ties with Thailand: a short history; III Border trade from 1948–1999; IV Evolution of Thailand’s constructive engagement policy; V Thai-Burmese technical cooperation 123VI Key issues; VII New Thai policy towards Burma; VIII Conclusions... 6 International Policies towards Burma: Western governments, NGOs and multilateral institutions: I Introduction; II The European Union, Japan and the United States; III Multilateral organizations; IV Western NGOs, foundations, IDOs and exiled groups; V Conclusions; VI Recommendations.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (376K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 1 - ASEAN-Burma relations
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Historical context; II Origins of constructive engagement; III Burma and ASEAN: A troubled marriage; IV ASEAN and Aung San Suu Kyi; V ASEAN and the NCGUB; VI Bilateral relations; VII Assessment of constructive engagement; VIII Opportunities and challenges for opening political space in ASEAN and Burma; IX Conclusions. "... This paper will attempt to assess ASEAN–Burmese relations and the prospects for ASEAN to take a more active critical role in Burma’s politics by asking the following questions: What is constructive engagement? What have been the driving objectives behind it? What are the prospects of ASEAN altering its modus operandi of non-interference? What indicators might signal a change in ASEAN’s approach to Burma? To begin to answer these questions, we must first have some understanding of ASEAN’s approach to Burma in the context of its evolution as an organization..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (244K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 2 - Bangladesh–Burma relations
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Bangladesh’s policy towards Burma/Myanmar in historical context; II The present phase of Bangladesh–Burma relations; III Trade and economic relations 64 IV Conclusions. "...For Bangladesh, its relations with Burma have been dominated by a refugee crises provoked by the actions of the Burmese Army under the military governments of Ne Win and SLORC/SPDC. These crises generated unbearable economic, political and social pressures within Bangladesh thus limiting its room for creative initiatives. These crises also significantly increased Bangladesh dependence on foreign assistance to relieve the burden of the continued presence of the refugees. In the latest crisis, this dependence has led leading donor countries to openly seek to influence Bangladesh bilateral policies towards Burma. On the other hand, it is submitted, that Burma’s general standing in Southeast Asia and in South Asia has greatly improved since 1997, increasing its bargaining power vis-à-vis Bangladesh. Burma's improved economic position, its greatly expanded armed forces, its relative success in neutralizing the major insurgencies within the country, its close links with China, its admission into ASEAN, have all contributed to Myanmar's new strength and greater negotiating power. The ruling SPDC is in a position to dangle the promise of trade access to the rich resources of their country before the eager Bangladesh business community. Moreover, the occupation of the Burmese Embassy in Bangkok and the holding of hostages was expected to harden public opinion against the so-called “terrorist” activities of the student supporters of Aung San Suu Kyi..."
    Author/creator: Kaiser Morshed
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (188K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 3 - China–Burma relations
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Historical preface; II Strategic relations; III Drugs in the China–Burma relationship; IV China-Burma border: the HIV/AIDS nexus; V Chinese immigration: cultural and economic impact; VI Opening up southwest China; VII Gains and losses for various parties where Burma is (a) democratizing or (b) under Chinese “suzereinty”; VIII Possible future focus; IX Conclusions. " This paper has argued that China’s support for the military regime in Burma has had negative consequences for both Burma and China. The negative impact on Burma of its relationship with China is that it preserves an incompetent and repressive order and locks the country into economic and political stagnation. The negative impact on China is that Burma has become a block to regional development and an exporter of HIV/AIDS and drugs. China’s comprehensive national interests would be best served by an economically stable and prosperous Burma. China could help the development of such an entity by encouraging a political process in Burma that would lead to an opening up of the country to international assistance and a more competent and publicly acceptable administration..."
    Author/creator: David Arnott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (274K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2003


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 4 - India–Burma relations
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Introduction; II Historical background; III India’s policies towards Burma; IV Major factors contributing to the relationship between India and Burma; V Indo-Burmese trade relationship; VI Indo-Burmese military cooperation; VII India’s support to the Burma democracy movement; VIII Suggestions for Burma pro-democracy activists; IX Conclusions. "India and Burma have a historical connection that goes back to the fifth century and since then have enjoyed mutual contact in the realm of trade, commerce, religion, law, political philosophy and culture. Both countries came under British colonial rule, and Burmese leaders associated with Indian leaders during the struggle for national independence. Nehru and U Nu built up a personal friendship that formed the basis of good Indo-Burmese relations, which with ups and downs have lasted 50 years The two countries have not once reached a point of diplomatic stand-off or conflict since independence. The lowest point came after the 1988 people’s uprising when India was the first neighbouring country to criticize the Burmese military government. The Indian Embassy in Rangoon actively supported the pro-democracy student activists and many entered India for shelter after the military coup in 1988.143 From 1988 to 1990, India followed a policy committed to open support of the forces of democracy and “complete disengagement” with the ruling military junta in Burma. However, in the 1990s, relations between India and Burma thawed again. Now India and Burma are cooperating in many fields, including countering insurgency on the border, checking narcotics smuggling across the border, sharing intelligence on a real-time basis, promoting trade and investment. India has also extended economic aid to India. In this research paper, an attempt is made to map out the policies of India towards Burma from the post-independence era to the present time and to analyse the major factors behind these policies. The authors also look at the implications of these policies with regard to democraticization in Burma; and they put forward some suggestions for Burmese pro-democracy groups on how to get political support from India..."
    Author/creator: Thin Thin Aung, Soe Myint
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (316K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.mizzima.com/mizzima-works/researchs/2001/index.htm
    http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 5 - Thai–Burma relations
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Thai perceptions of Burma; II Ties with Thailand: a short history; III Border trade from 1948–1999; IV Evolution of Thailand’s constructive engagement policy; V Thai-Burmese technical cooperation 123VI Key issues; VII New Thai policy towards Burma; VIII Conclusions. "...Thai-Burmese relations have reached a critical juncture. Never before have Thai policy-makers expressed such frustration over bilateral ties, especially over the issue of narcotics suppression. Before the extensive political reform in Thailand in 1997, Thai-Burmese ties were mainly driven by personal friendship. For instance, the leaders of the armed forces from the two countries met often and resolved conflicts on an ad hoc basis and through gentlemen’s agreements. That helped explain why certain problems could be settled quickly and other problems dragged on. It must be noted that some of the issues settled through political expediency have returned to haunt the leaders of the two countries. In the past, strong military ties omitted and obliterated other key policy-makers including the Foreign Ministry, the National Security Council, the Interior Ministry and other related organizations. But with reform, the Foreign Ministry took the lead in the formation and execution of Burma policy. The international community would like to see Thailand take a firm stand against the Burmese junta. As in the Cambodian conflict between 1978 and 1992, Thailand was able to provide leadership during the 14-year conflict and was a prime mover behind ASEAN solidarity and policy initiatives. Unfortunately, during the crucial days of Burma–ASEAN relations between 1995 and 1997, when key ASEAN decisions were made, Thailand was troubled by political uncertainty at home. However, the political reform that has taken place since 1997 should serve as political bedrock. However, when the government under Prime Minister Thaksin Sinawatra came to power in early 2001, he turned the Burmese policy upside down. With strong support from his coalition partner, Defense Minister Gen Chavalit Yongchaiyudh, he has followed a policy of appeasement to further economic ties and, in particular, gain cooperation in narcotics suppression. The long-term prospects of joint anti-narcotic suppression and proposed demarcation of the border remain doubtful. With an absolute majority in the house, the Thaksin government is likely to continue the current policy which stimulates cross border trade regardless of political conditions inside the country..."
    Author/creator: Kavi Chongkittavorn
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (208K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 6 - International Policies towards Burma: Western governments, NGOs and multilateral institutions
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Introduction; II The European Union, Japan and the United States; III Multilateral organizations; IV Western NGOs, foundations, IDOs and exiled groups; V Conclusions; VI Recommendations. "...That human rights reform and political change in Burma are urgently needed is strikingly evident. It is also evident that each of the three protagonists in Burma’s drama over the past 10 years – the Tatmadaw, the political opposition represented by the NLD and the ethnic minorities– has publicly expressed their desire for such changes. What this report has shown is that thus far, the efforts of the international community have failed to assist in a transition from military rule, and may even have prolonged military rule by giving the government a much-needed external enemy on which all its failings can be blamed. Western policies, encouraged by NGOs and the external and internal opposition, have had a short-term aim of getting rid of the military government as fast as possible. While this is a laudable aim, and perhaps realistic in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with the military still in power and with no signs of changes, there has to be a rethink of this position. Neither sticks, nor carrots, will be able to move them. Sanctions against the Tatmadaw are important and necessary, but they must be well defined, both in kind and in intention. They should signal that the behaviour of the Tatmadaw in perpetrating human rights abuses, the failure to allow democratic processes and refusal to comply with UN resolutions, is totally unacceptable, and that such behaviour will have negative consequences. Once sanctions are imposed, this should not be the end of the policy. Rather, governments must take active measures to make the sanctions effective, at the same time avoiding ossification of positions..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (484K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Myanmar: The Military Regime's View of the World
    Date of publication: 07 December 2001
    Description/subject: On the basis of an examination of Burma's foreign relations and the world views and actions of the Burmese generals, this important report makes the case for gradual engagement and against an international policy of confrontation. Whether or not one agrees with all or any of the conclusions and recommendations, the analysis is one which must inform any international approach to Burma. "Since coming to power in 1988, the most recent military rulers of Burma/Myanmar have effectively resisted external demands to turn over power to a democratic government. Most of the outside pressure has failed to take into account how this government sees and responds to the world beyond its borders. This paper examines the military's perspective on foreign relations and explains why many current international strategies have failed to push it towards democracy or economic reforms. The modern state of Myanmar was forged under colonialism and born in the aftermath of World War II. Since independence in 1947, continuous domestic conflict and the failure of successive governments to forge a stable and prosperous nation have sustained fears of foreign intervention and reinforced a mindset that foreigners are to blame for the country's many problems. During four decades of military rule, Myanmar's leaders have grown increasingly inward-looking and alienated. They are driven by an obsession with national sovereignty to seek almost total autonomy from international influences. The hallmark of a foreign policy driven by insecurity has been self-reliance. Since 1962, military leaders have insisted that Myanmar, as much as possible, do things its own way and rely on its own resources. They perceive their country and its problems to be not only unique, but also essentially unfathomable to outsiders. They also exhibit a clear lack of understanding of international affairs and the motivations, and values of other nations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
    Format/size: PDF (445K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: BURMA: A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: For centuries, that part of Southeast Asia which eventually became modern Burma was largely isolated from, and ignorant of, the wider world. While visited by travelers and traders from a very early date, and Europeans from the 14th century, Burma was really only of strategic interest to its immediate neighbors, with whom it fought a number of wars. India, China, and Thailand have all invaded, and been invaded by, Burma at different times. As the major European empires expanded, however, and geopolitics began to be practiced on a global scale, this situation changed and it became more widely recognized that Burma occupied a geostrategic position of some importance. It was, and still is, the place where South, Southeast, and East Asia meet, and where the dominant cultures of these three subregions compete for influence. In Samuel Huntington’s terms, it lies across the fault lines between three major civiliza - tions, those of the Hindus, Buddhists, and Confucians. Also, at critical times, Burma has been a cockpit for rivalry between the superpowers and, in the fluid strategic environment of the early 21st century, its important position is once again attracting attention from analysts and officials.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australian National University Working Paper #13
    Format/size: pdf (293K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2009


    Title: Strategic Rivalries on the Bay of Bengal: the Burma/Myanmar Nexus
    Date of publication: 01 April 2001
    Description/subject: Edited version of the Georgetown University Conference of 1 February 2001 (q.v.)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VII, No. 3, Spring 2001
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Strategic Rivalries on the Bay of Bengal: The Burma/Myanmar Nexus
    Date of publication: 01 February 2001
    Description/subject: Conference co-sponsored with the Georgetown University Asian Studies Program, the Center for Naval Analysis, and the Sasakawa Peace Foundation, Japan. "This conference, sponsored by the Asian Studies Program & the Center for Peace and Security Studies, both of Georgetown University, The Center for Strategic Studies of the CNA Corporation, The Asia Foundation, and the Sasakawa Peace Foundation, Japan, was an effort to approach the contemporary issues connected with Burma/Myanmar from a perspective that had been ignored in the policy debate on this increasingly important country. Although human rights and internal political issues are critical for the future of that state, and there have been many conferences and meetings on those subjects, the sponsors believe that analyses of these admittedly vital problems should be supplemented by discourse on other questions that have generally been unarticulated. Thus, this conference on strategic issues was intended to provide a different lens through which policy makers and analysts could consider a broader range of questions including the importance of political/human rights and democracy issues, the usual subject of other fora. There were no preconceived conclusions advocated by the sponsors, but rather a spectrum of views, hitherto unarticulated in a larger meeting, was intentionally sought. The meeting was held on February 1, 2001 at the Cosmos Club in Washington, D.C. Approximately 140 individuals accepted the invitations sent by the sponsors. The proceedings were conducted on a not-for-attribution basis. Speakers were present from China, Japan, India, Thailand, United Kingdom, Australia, Myanmar, and the United States. This report thus reflects the private views of all the speakers. This conference report amalgamates views of different participants and sometimes adds information for context and continuity..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Georgetown University via "Burma Debate"
    Format/size: 153K
    Alternate URLs: http://www.georgetown.edu/sfs/programs/asia/burmaconference.htm
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2010


    Title: Turning Passion into Policy
    Date of publication: September 2000
    Description/subject: As Burma's ruling junta steps up its repression, the international community's support for the democratic opposition should move beyond the plane of rhetoric.
    Author/creator: Min Zin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/print_article.php?art_id=2022
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


  • Boundary and other bilateral treaties and agreements.

    Individual Documents

    Title: How South Asia Resolves Maritime Disputes
    Date of publication: 10 July 2014
    Description/subject: "As Ankit noted earlier today, the Hague-based Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) ruled on the maritime dispute between India and Bangladesh in the Bay of Bengal this week. According to news reports, the court awarded 19,467 square kilometers (7,516 square miles) of a total disputed area of 25,602 km to Bangladesh. More importantly, both countries praised the ruling. “It is the victory of friendship and a win-win situation for the peoples of Bangladesh and India,” Bangladesh’s Foreign Minister Abul Hassan Mahmood Ali told a news conference on Tuesday, Reuters reported. He added: “We commend India for its willingness to resolve this matter peacefully by legal means and for its acceptance of the tribunal’s judgment.” India’s Ministry of External Affairs also released a statement hailing the court’s ruling in Bangladesh’s favor. “The settlement of the maritime boundary will further enhance mutual understanding and goodwill between India and Bangladesh by bringing to closure a long-pending issue,” the statement said. “This paves the way for the economic development of this part of the Bay of Bengal, which will be beneficial to both countries.” This is not the first time that India and Bangladesh have peacefully resolved a territorial dispute. Back in 2011, India and Bangladesh reached a bilateral agreement to resolve their disputed land borders This is also not the first time an international tribunal has peacefully resolved a maritime border dispute in South Asia. At the same time it filed the case with India, Bangladesh asked another tribunal to resolve its maritime dispute with Myanmar according to the terms of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Myanmar, like India, agreed to submit the case to the tribunal and abide by its ruling..."
    Author/creator: Zachary Keck
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 July 2014


    Title: India-China make a Myanmar tryst
    Date of publication: 13 August 2013
    Description/subject: "As India and China have emerged as major powers in Asia, their interests and concerns have transcended their geographical boundaries. There is particularly the case in Myanmar, where those interests have converged. This is largely due to the fact that Myanmar shares common borders with both the countries. Myanmar shares a 2,185-kilometer border with China, and 1,643-kilometer border with India. It has long been argued that Myanmar has always been a strategic concern for governing the dynamics of India-China relations. Myanmar's strategic location is considered as an important asset for India and China that offers tremendous opportunities for the countries of the region. Therefore, recent developments in Myanmar are a matter of concern for both India and China..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: Burma – India Boundary
    Date of publication: 15 May 1968
    Description/subject: I. The Background... II. Alignment... III. Treaties and Other Acts: A. Treaty of Peacesigned at Yandaboo, February 24, 1826 (Aitcheson, C.U., A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads, vol. XII, Calcutta, 1931... B. Agreement regarding the Kubo Valley, negotiated at Sunnyachil Ghat January 9, 1834... C. Government of India Act, 1935 (25 and 26 GEO. 5. Chap 42) of the Republic of India and the Government of the Union of Burma, signed at Rangoon on March 10, 1967... V. Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Govt.: International Boundary Study No. 80
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


    Title: Burma–Thailand Boundary
    Date of publication: 01 February 1966
    Description/subject: I. Boundary Brief ... II. Geographical Background: A. Physical; B.Historical: C. Socio-economic... III. Analysis of Boundary Alignment... IV. Treaties and Other International Acts... V. Summary See map in Alternate URL
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Govt.: International Boundary Study No. 63
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/maps/bs63small.php (map)
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


    Title: Burma-China boundary
    Date of publication: 30 November 1964
    Description/subject: Geographic Background: A. Physical; B. Socio-economic;. C. Historical; D.Political... Analysis of Boundary Alignment... Treaties ... Summary. See separate links for maps
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Govt.: International Boundary Study No. 42
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


    Title: Burma – Laos Boundary
    Date of publication: 18 June 1964
    Description/subject: Boundary Brief... Background: A. Geographical; B. Ethnographical; C. Historical... III. Analysis of Boundary Alignment... IV. Treaties... A. Declaration relative to the delimitation of French and English possessions along the frontiers of the Kingdom of Siam made January 15, 1896... V. Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Govt.: International Boundary Study No. 33
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2005


  • Multilateral Relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: ESCAP, Bangkok
    Description/subject: Another big site without an overall search engine
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010


    Title: IMF Myanmar Page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
    Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: International Labour Organisation
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: UN human rights documents on Burma (Myanmar), by year (from 1991)
    Description/subject: Resolutions of the General Assembly and Commission on Human Rights; reports by the Secretary-General and the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar; written statements by NGOs; reports with references to Myanmar by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Special Rapporteur on toxic wastes, Special Rapporteur on Torture, Report of the High Commissioner on human rights and mass exoduses, Report of the Secretary-General on the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, Report of the Secretary-General on the national practices related to the right to a fair trial.
    Language: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
    Source/publisher: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: UN New York
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: UNDP
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: UNICEF Country Statistics
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: United Nations main page
    Language: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Interview zur Lage in Burma: Der Unmut der Bevölkerung ist enorm
    Date of publication: 09 May 2008
    Description/subject: Naturkatastrophe in Burma – Erst blieb die Warnung durch die Burmesische Regierung vor dem Zyklon „Nargis“ aus, dem bis zu 100.000 Menschen zum Opfer fielen. Und jetzt muss die Welt tatenlos zusehen, darf nicht ausreichend mit Versorgungsgütern helfen. Zur Lage in Burma befragte ich für Readers Edition Ulrike Bey von der Burma Initiative; Internationale Organisationen; Opposition; Stimmung in der Bevölkerung; Bürgerkrieg; Aufstände 2007; interview with Ulrike Bey on the situation in Burma; opposition; mood of the society; civil war; uprisings 2007
    Author/creator: Felix Kubach
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Readers Editioin, Asienhaus
    Format/size: Html (44kb)
    Date of entry/update: 15 May 2008


    Title: Wer lässt wen im Stich?
    Date of publication: 30 January 2008
    Description/subject: Die jüngsten Demonstrationen in Burma sind eine erneute Bewährungsprobe für demokratische Werte in einer Welt, die zumindest in politischer Hinsicht größtenteils demokratisch ist. Ebenso wie der Kampf der Werte auf den blutigen Straßen in Teilen Burmas sichtbar war, beschloss die benachbarte "größte Demokratie der Welt", die gleichzeitig ein strategischer Partner des Landes ist, eben jene Werte, die es tendenziell vertritt, aufs Spiel zu setzen. Der Rest der Welt – insbesondere die USA und Europa – tat kaum mehr als diplomatische Statements abzugeben und Indien und China zu drängen, entschieden vorzugehen. Indisch-burmesische Beziehungen, Burma-US Amerikanische Beziehungen, Burma-EU Beziehungen, Sanktionen; Indian-burmese, US-Burmese, EU-Burmese relations; sanctions;
    Author/creator: Sachin Joshi
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Südasien
    Format/size: Html (41k)
    Date of entry/update: 03 February 2008


    Title: Problemstaat Myanmar: Zum schwierigen Umgang mit dem Militärregime
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: Eine Analyse über den Charakter und die Geschichte des Militärregimes, die Rolle der intnernationalen Gemeinschaft, der EU, USA und China und die Wirkung von Sanktionen, insbesondere nach den Aufständen 2007. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen eines UN-Engagements; character and history of the military regime, international community, USA, EU, China; impact of sanctions, uprisings 2007, UN-Engagement
    Author/creator: Marco Buente
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010


    Title: Myanmars Waffenstillstände und die Rolle der internationalen Gemeinschaft
    Date of publication: August 2007
    Description/subject: Ein interessanter Artikel zu dem Zusammenhang von Waffenstillständen, der Nationalversammlung und der Roadmap to Democracy. Weiterhin werde die Interesssen der einzelnen Parteien (ethnsiche Minderheiten, Regierung, internationale Gemeinschaft) dargelegt und Handlungsempfehlungen für die internationale Gemeinschaft abgeleitet; ceasefires, national convention and roadmap to democracy; interests of ethnic minorities, government and international community; recommendations for the international community
    Author/creator: Jasmin Lorch; Dr. Paul Pasch
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: FES
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2008


    Title: TOTAL unethisch
    Date of publication: 15 March 2006
    Description/subject: Ein weltweiter Aktionstag gegen den französischen Ölkonzern TOTAL am 3. Februar 2006 wirft wieder einmal Licht auf die Frage nach der unternehmerischen Verantwortung bei Geschäften mit dem diktatorischen Regime. TOTAL wird vorgeworfen, mitverantwortlich für schwere Menschenrechtsverletzungen im Zusammenhang mit dem Bau einer Pipeline zwischen 1995 und 1998 zu sein. Außerdem mache sich der Konzern heute zum Komplizen für die Machenschaften des für seine Verbrechen gegen die Zivilbevölkerung bekannten Regimes ganz einfach durch Bereitstellung finanzieller Ressourcen aus den enormen Erlösen des Erdgasverkaufs. Dafür soll sich der Konzern in Frankreich und in Belgien vor Gericht verantworten. Burmas Öl- und Gaspolitik; Rolle der EU und Asiens;
    Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 6 - International Policies towards Burma: Western governments, NGOs and multilateral institutions
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Introduction; II The European Union, Japan and the United States; III Multilateral organizations; IV Western NGOs, foundations, IDOs and exiled groups; V Conclusions; VI Recommendations. "...That human rights reform and political change in Burma are urgently needed is strikingly evident. It is also evident that each of the three protagonists in Burma’s drama over the past 10 years – the Tatmadaw, the political opposition represented by the NLD and the ethnic minorities– has publicly expressed their desire for such changes. What this report has shown is that thus far, the efforts of the international community have failed to assist in a transition from military rule, and may even have prolonged military rule by giving the government a much-needed external enemy on which all its failings can be blamed. Western policies, encouraged by NGOs and the external and internal opposition, have had a short-term aim of getting rid of the military government as fast as possible. While this is a laudable aim, and perhaps realistic in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with the military still in power and with no signs of changes, there has to be a rethink of this position. Neither sticks, nor carrots, will be able to move them. Sanctions against the Tatmadaw are important and necessary, but they must be well defined, both in kind and in intention. They should signal that the behaviour of the Tatmadaw in perpetrating human rights abuses, the failure to allow democratic processes and refusal to comply with UN resolutions, is totally unacceptable, and that such behaviour will have negative consequences. Once sanctions are imposed, this should not be the end of the policy. Rather, governments must take active measures to make the sanctions effective, at the same time avoiding ossification of positions..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (484K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Turning Passion into Policy
    Date of publication: September 2000
    Description/subject: As Burma's ruling junta steps up its repression, the international community's support for the democratic opposition should move beyond the plane of rhetoric.
    Author/creator: Min Zin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/print_article.php?art_id=2022
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Can the UN Save Burma?
    Date of publication: February 2000
    Description/subject: Aung Thu Nyein examines the role of the UN in Burma
    Author/creator: Aung Thu Nyein
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 2
    Format/size: htm;
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burma's relations with the region

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Regional archive
    Description/subject: Burma/Myanmar's relations with countries in the region
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 April 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma: Protracted Conflict, Governance and Non-Traditional Security Issues
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Of all countries in Southeast Asia, Burma has the unenviable reputation of having the largest number of armed ethnic insurgencies, as well as an entrenched civil opposition to the ruling military regime. The ethnic insurgencies began in 1948 while civil opposition has grown more open during the last decade. These conditions of protracted conflict raise a number of related questions: (1) Why has the conflict been so persistent and how is this related to “governance” in Burma? (2) Is it possible to distinguish non-traditional security issues in this conflict and, if so, what are the implications in relation to regional co-operation and stability? This paper seeks to address these questions through an examination of developments in Burma since 1988, a watershed year in domestic politico-military relations. It also seeks to establish a clear delineation of “governance” as an analytical concept and to set out non-traditional security issues arising from the conflict in Burma. The non-traditional security issues arise principally from the existence of approximately 120,000 refugees in Thailand, cross-border violations of Thailand’s territorial sovereignty, and the massive influx of narcotics from Burma into Thailand and China. These issues are situated in relation to developments in Burma and proximate inter-state interactions. Finally, the paper examines the implications of these issues in the broader context of regional co-operation and stability, and undertakes a re-assessment of the relationship between non-traditional security issues and traditional (politico-military) issues."
    Author/creator: Ananda Rajah
    Source/publisher: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies Singapore (Working Paper 14)
    Format/size: pdf (430K) 32 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.rsis.edu.sg/
    Date of entry/update: 20 July 2010


  • Constructive Engagement

    Individual Documents

    Title: Wege aus der Isolation. Birmas nationaler und internationaler Aussöhnungsprozess
    Date of publication: August 2003
    Description/subject: Zu Beginn der neunziger Jahre reagierten die EU und die USA auf die 1988 erfolgte Machtübernahme des Militärs in Birma und die Nichtanerkennung des 1990 errungenen Wahlsiegs der Opposition mit der öffentlichen Verurteilung dieses Regimes und einer Reihe wirtschaftlicher und politischer Sanktionen. Die ASEAN-Staaten wie auch UNO-Generalsekretär Kofi Annan setzten hingegen auf eine Strategie des »konstruktiven Engagements«, die durch einen intensiven Dialog mit der Regierung in Rangun den Weg zu politischen Reformen zu ebnen versuchte. Beide Strategien haben bislang nicht zu den beabsichtigten Ergebnissen geführt. Ausgangspunkt dieser Studie ist daher die Frage, welche Faktoren zu jener fast unauflöslich erscheinenden Konfrontation zwischen der Militärregierung einerseits und der birmanischen Opposition sowie den westlich orientierten Staaten andererseits geführt haben und welche Strategie von außen, vor allem von der EU, entwickelt werden sollte, um eine Neugestaltung der politischen Machtverhältnisse und eine Verbesserung der mehr als desolaten Lebensverhältnisse vieler Einwohner Birmas zu erzielen. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluß, daß die politische und wirtschaftliche Krise Birmas nur durch einen langfristigen und umfassenden Transformationsprozeß bewältigt werden kann, in dem Veränderungen der sozioökonomischen Basis und der politischen Strukturen eng miteinander zu verknüpfen sind. Von Seiten des Auslands - nicht zuletzt der EU - kann und sollte dieser Transformationsprozeß nach Kräften und in den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen gefördert werden. Hierbei müssen positive Anreize und Druck einander nicht ausschließen, sondern es wäre im jeweiligen Einzelfall zu prüfen, ob eine Zusammenarbeit möglich und nützlich erscheint oder aber verweigert werden muß. Ways out of isolation, Burma's national and international reconciliation process, transition and democratisation
    Author/creator: Gerhard Will
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2005


    Title: Constructive Engagement: A Critical Evaluation
    Date of publication: December 2000
    Description/subject: "Constructive Engagement is a euphemism for doing business with thugs, so proclaimed former Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan in referring to the US policy towards China. While this may be the view of its outspoken opponents, the proponents of Constructive Engagement defend it with equal fervor as an enlightened approach, and one that is frequently the only realistic option, in dealing with rouge states in the post-Cold War era of globalization...."
    Author/creator: Minn Naing Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 7 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
    Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found on http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%207.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Don't Expect Junta to Respect Human Rights
    Date of publication: 22 August 2000
    Description/subject: Will Australia's approach to the human rights problems in Burma succeed where others have failed? No, writes Josef Silverstein.
    Author/creator: Josef Silverstein
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Australian"
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Sanctions
    See also under Economy

    Individual Documents

    Title: New role for India in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 13 September 2013
    Description/subject: "Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing. With ongoing communal and ethnic violence on one hand and the implementation of bold reform initiatives on the other, Myanmar's transition from authoritarianism to democracy presents immense challenges as well as opportunities for neighboring India. How New Delhi reacts to these tests will have wide-ranging impacts on the future of India-Myanmar relations. The challenges are many. The diplomatic row over pillar number 76 in the northeastern Indian state of Manipur on the Indo-Myanmar border in Holenphai village near Moreh has added to long-running border problems. Although the two sides have agreed to negotiate the issue peacefully, past misunderstandings and alleged intrusions have raised alarm bells on both sides of the border..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2014


    • De Facto Sanctions

      Individual Documents

      Title: Can sanctions bring democracy to Burma?
      Date of publication: April 1998
      Description/subject: When the U.S government announced its plans to impose sanctions o­n Burma, opposition groups both inside the country and abroad hailed the decision. In April 1997 the US administration moved to outlaw new investments by American businesses in military-ruled Burma. But after almost a year some anti-sanctions critics in Rangoon are speaking out.
      Author/creator: By FEER, IHT, BurmaNet
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Sanctions impact
      Date of publication: April 1998
      Description/subject: It is hard to measure the direct economic impact of the U.S. investment ban. Apart from some natural gas ventures and a few high profile manufacturers, the country has not attracted many U.S. businesses. For o­ne thing, Burma’s consumers earn o­n average less than $300 per year and pay with a currency that is not easily convertible.
      Author/creator: IHT
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Formal Sanctions

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: EU arms embargo on Myanmar (Burma)
      Description/subject: "The European Union established an arms embargo on Burma at some point prior to the agreement on a Common Position on Burma/Myanmar 1996/635/CFSP in October 1996. The Common position reaffirms the following measures that had already been adopted in 1990 and confirmed in a Declaration by the General Affairs Council on 29 July 1991:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Stockholm Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 October 2010


      Title: European Union – Burma/Myanmar cooperation, an overview
      Language: English
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.deltha.ec.europa.eu/Myanmar/MM_overview.htm
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Wer lässt wen im Stich?
      Date of publication: 30 January 2008
      Description/subject: Die jüngsten Demonstrationen in Burma sind eine erneute Bewährungsprobe für demokratische Werte in einer Welt, die zumindest in politischer Hinsicht größtenteils demokratisch ist. Ebenso wie der Kampf der Werte auf den blutigen Straßen in Teilen Burmas sichtbar war, beschloss die benachbarte "größte Demokratie der Welt", die gleichzeitig ein strategischer Partner des Landes ist, eben jene Werte, die es tendenziell vertritt, aufs Spiel zu setzen. Der Rest der Welt – insbesondere die USA und Europa – tat kaum mehr als diplomatische Statements abzugeben und Indien und China zu drängen, entschieden vorzugehen. Indisch-burmesische Beziehungen, Burma-US Amerikanische Beziehungen, Burma-EU Beziehungen, Sanktionen; Indian-burmese, US-Burmese, EU-Burmese relations; sanctions;
      Author/creator: Sachin Joshi
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Südasien
      Format/size: Html (41k)
      Date of entry/update: 03 February 2008


      Title: Problemstaat Myanmar: Zum schwierigen Umgang mit dem Militärregime
      Date of publication: November 2007
      Description/subject: Eine Analyse über den Charakter und die Geschichte des Militärregimes, die Rolle der intnernationalen Gemeinschaft, der EU, USA und China und die Wirkung von Sanktionen, insbesondere nach den Aufständen 2007. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen eines UN-Engagements; character and history of the military regime, international community, USA, EU, China; impact of sanctions, uprisings 2007, UN-Engagement
      Author/creator: Marco Buente
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
      Format/size: PDF
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010


      Title: Rot wie Blut - Edelsteine aus Burma finanzieren diktatorisches Regime
      Date of publication: November 2007
      Description/subject: Burma verfügt über das weltweit größte Vorkommen von Rubinen. Unter unmenschlichen Bedingungen abgebaut, fließen die Erlöse direkt in die Taschen des diktatorischen Regimes, egal ob offiziell exportiert oder illegal gehandelt. Boykott von Rubinen; Kimberley-Prozess; Boykott of Rubins, Kimberley-Process
      Author/creator: Jolien Schure
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Fatal Transactions - Eine europäische Kampagne zur Rohstoffgerechtigkeit
      Format/size: pdf (402.75 KB)
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2010


      Title: Myanmar: sanctions, engagement or another way forward?
      Date of publication: 26 April 2004
      Description/subject: "...Since 1990, most Western governments have taken a self-consciously principled approach to Myanmar, applying coercive diplomacy and economic sanctions in an effort to force the military government to implement the results of the multiparty election held that year. The 30 May 2003 attack on Aung San Suu Kyi and her followers increased both political pressure and justification for strengthening this approach. However, the military government today is more entrenched and more recalcitrant than when it took power. The prodemocratic opposition -- although it maintains broad popular support -- has lost much of its momentum, and international actors have demonstrably failed to protect even Aung San Suu Kyi, not to speak of less prominent figures, from persecution. Meanwhile, the socio-economic conditions for a majority of the population have greatly deteriorated. In short, things are moving the wrong way. The much gentler 'engagement' policy embraced by most of Myanmar's Asian neighbours for most of the period of military rule has been equally unproductive. In the absence of any external pressure at all for change, it is highly unlikely that any change at all will occur. The people of Myanmar need greater say in the governance of their country. The failure of 40 years of military rule to provide human welfare and security consonant with the country's great natural potential is closely linked to the absence of popular participation in decision-making. For now, however, the configuration of power and interests inside the country are not conducive to major, quick change -- and there are no "magic bullets", no realistic policy options that can change that. In such circumstances, efforts are required to change political, social and economic realities over a longer period in ways that would facilitate better governance and the gradual introduction and consolidation of genuinely democratic institutions. That is only likely to happen if coercive measures are allied to a more flexible, intensive and sustained diplomatic strategy that does not in any way embrace the military government, but rather includes a greater willingness to pursue some half-measures, small steps and even limited cooperation in order to begin to move the country forward while protecting those who suffer under the status quo or might be hurt by future reforms. International objectives have to be rethought, new benchmarks for change adopted, a more supportive approach toward creating a positive internal climate of change adopted, and more support given to the UN in its important mediation and facilitation role. The road map put forward by the SPDC and realignments within the military government offer a sign of movement, slight though it may be, in the political situation. This provides an opportunity to encourage progress and should not be dismissed out of hand. Any government or institution that deals with Myanmar needs to maintain an acute sense of the realities of the country: change is often painfully slow and easily reversed, the military is an intensely difficult institution with which to deal, and outside influence on any of the actors is very limited. The international community should take whatever opportunity is presented to encourage whatever progress is possible. That means developing a new policy approach -- containing elements of the present sanctions approach of the West and engagement policy of the region, but more productive than either -- that brings together international actors rather than divides them, creates an environment for change in the country and offers a way out for all parties that has a chance of being accepted..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
      Format/size: pdf (635K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 April 2004


      Title: Burma/Myanmar: Reconciliation without Capitulation (a critique of the NBR report)
      Date of publication: 31 March 2004
      Description/subject: "The recent report by the National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR), Badgley, J.H. (2004) “Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma”[3 March 2004], presented a shamelessly one-sided set of arguments for changing United States policy towards Myanmar. This paper tries to redress the balance, and to present both sides of the argument concerning what is, after all, a complex and heated issue. Two “core arguments” of the NBR report are identified and discussed, and in contrast the author develops two “core counter-arguments” for maintaining, with modifications, the existing U.S. policies with respect to Myanmar..."
      Author/creator: Adam McCarty
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mekong Economics Ltd.
      Format/size: html (83K),Word
      Alternate URLs: http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au/pdf/staff/acde/paul_burke/mccarty_burke_myanmar_burma_reconciliation...
      http://www.mekongeconomics.com/details_team.php?id=4
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


      Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004
      Date of publication: 25 March 2004
      Description/subject: Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives... HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS SUBCOMMITTEE ON ASIA AND THE PACIFIC... March 25, 2004... Testimony on Burma... David I. Steinberg [Distinguished Professor & Director, Asian Studies, Georgetown University]
      Author/creator: David I. Steinberg
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
      Format/size: pdf (446.74 K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.foreignaffairs.house.gov/
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


      Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Statement by Chairman Elton Gallegly
      Date of publication: 25 March 2004
      Description/subject: Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives... Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation, and Human Rights... Statement of Chairman Elton Gallegly... Developments in Burma... March 25, 2004.
      Author/creator: Elton Gallegly
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


      Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Lorne W. Craner
      Date of publication: 25 March 2004
      Description/subject: Testimony by Assistant Secretary Lorne W. Craner Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Bureau U.S. Department of State At a hearing entitled Developments in Burma By the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and the Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights March 25, 2004
      Author/creator: Lorne W. Craner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Dept. of State via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.internationalrelations.house.gov/archives/108/cran032504.htm
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


      Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Matthew P. Daley
      Date of publication: 25 March 2004
      Description/subject: Matthew P. Daley, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs Testimony before the House International Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights Washington, DC March 25, 2004
      Author/creator: Matthew P. Daley
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Dept. of State via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


      Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Morten B. Pedersen
      Date of publication: 25 March 2004
      Description/subject: Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives ... The record includes various interventions including a prepared statement by Morten Pedersen, Senior Analyst International Crisis Group (Search for Pedersen). before the House Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific and The Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Non-proliferation and Human Rights March 25, 2004... US State Department Briefing Washington, DC., 24 March 2004 ASSESSING INTERNATIONAL POLICIES ON BURMA* International Crisis Group
      Author/creator: Morten B. Pedersen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
      Format/size: pdf (447K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


      Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Tom Malinowski
      Date of publication: 25 March 2004
      Description/subject: Human Rights and U.S. Strategy in Burma... Testimony by Tom Malinowski, Washington Advocacy Director, Human Rights Watch.
      Author/creator: Tom Malinowski
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


      Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Veronika Martin
      Date of publication: 25 March 2004
      Description/subject: Testimony by Veronika A. Martin Policy Analyst, U.S. Committee for Refugees... Developments in Burma... Before the House Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific and The Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Non-proliferation and Human Rights... March 25, 2004... Myanmarese Refugees in Thailand and The Human Rights Situation in Eastern Myanmar.
      Author/creator: Veronika A. Martin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


      Title: Ready, Aim, Sanction!
      Date of publication: 20 November 2003
      Description/subject: 1 FOREWORD BY ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU; INTRODUCTION:- 3 FLAWED IMPLEMENTATION; 3 MOVING AHEAD; 4 RESISTANCE; 4 BROKEN PROMISES; 5 NO DELAY; 6 SMART SANCTIONS... PART 2: THE STORY SO FAR:- 7 CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS; 9 ROADMAPS LEADING NOWHERE: * Thai �road map' _ Much Ado About Nothing; * The SPDC Roadmap_ the Perfect Stalling Tactic; * National Convention background; * What's missing from the �road map'; * What the convention does offer; * NLD & ethnic nationality participation not required; 12 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS; 14 BROADER INDIRECT IMPACT OF SANCTIONS; 17 LIMITATIONS OF SANCTIONS: * �Carroty Sticks'; 18 SANCTIONS & THE ECONOMY... PART 3: CURRENT SANCTIONS:- 21 CANADA'S SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 22 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 23 JAPAN'S POLICY ON BURMA; 24 UNITED STATES SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 25 SANCTIONS & ACTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT; 25 IMPORT BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 26 BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 28 FOREIGN INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 30 ARMS EMBARGO / NON-PROVISION OF ARTICLES/SERVICES THAT COULD BE USED FOR REPRESSION * Direct Impacts: * Room For Improvement; 33 ASSETS FREEZE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 34 TRAVEL/VISA BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 35 BAN ON DIRECT FOREIGN ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; * Japan Suspends Aid to Burma; * Drug Eradication Assistance; * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 37 SUSPENSION OF MDB & IFI ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 38 TRADE PREFERENCE SUSPENSIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 40 DIPLOMATIC DOWNGRADES; 40 INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO): * A Model For Sanctions; 43 UNITED NATIONS: * SPDC Thumbing Their Nose At The UN; * UN Interventions; * Extreme Violations; * Broad Based Support; 46 WHAT ABOUT THE UNSC? 47 UN SECRETARY GENERAL'S SPECIAL ENVOY TO BURMA: * Turning of the Tide; * A New Strategy; * UN Special Envoy's Mandate; 49 THE UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR'S OBLIGATION: * A Different Tune; 50 UNDERMINING ITSELF; PART 4: RECOMMENDED ACTIONS & SANCTIONS:- 51 �RECIPE FOR RECONCILIATION'; 51 PRINCIPLED ENGAGEMENT: * Nominations for the Burma Diplomatic Squad; * Components of the Recipe; * Reconstruction of Burma; 54 NO MORE TOYS FOR THE BAD BOYS; 54 WIDEN BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA; 55 IMPORT BAN ON GOODS FROM BURMA: * 10% of Exports Profits Directly Fund the Regime; 58 BAN ON CONFLICT RESOURCES: * SPDC Involvement; * Examples of SPDC �unofficial' involvement in logging; * Local Communities – Logging often hurts more than it helps; * Gems; * Environmental Destruction; * Employment; * Forced Labor; * Ethnic Nationalities – Between A Rock & A Hard Place; * Drugs, HIV/AIDS & Money Laundering; * Resource Diplomacy; * Who's Operating? * Some of the Big Boys... 70 BAN ON NATURAL GAS IMPORTS FROM BURMA; 71 RESTRICTION ON FUEL SALES TO BURMA; 72 BAN ON OIL & GAS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI): * Oil & Gas; * New Pipeline Proposal; * Yadana Partners Strike Again; * Greater Mekong Subregion Project; 74 FULL INVESTMENT BAN: * Major FDI Players; * FDI 2001-2002; * Trade Fairs; * FDI Exposure to Money Laundering; * What About the Workers? 79 SPECIAL FOCUS: TENTACLES 'S HOLD ON THE FORMAL ECONOMY: * The BIG Tentacles – A Snapshot! * Ministry of Defense; * DDP: Directorate of Defense Procurement; * DDI: Directorate of Defense Industries; * MEC: Myanmar Economic Corporation; * UMEH (UMEHL): Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings; * MOGE/MPE/MPPE; * Ministry of Industry I; * Ministry of Industry II; * Myanmar Agricultural Produce Trading (MAPT); * Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE); * Myanmar Export-Import Services (MEIS); * Ministry of Post and Telegraphs (MPT); * Ministry of Hotels & Tourism; * Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE); * Directorate of Ordnance; * State-Owned/Controlled Banks; 86 A CLOSER LOOK: UNION OF MYANMAR ECONOMIC HOLDINGS LTD (UMEH/UMEHL/UMEHI): * Gems; * Jade; * UMEH Business Ventures; * Keeping It In The Family: Industrial Estates; * It Gets Worse; * Six Degrees Of Separation; * Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA); * Na Sa Ka: Making Human Rights Violations Profitable... 95 WIDEN THE ASSETS FREEZE; 95 IMPLEMENT FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) RECOMMENDATIONS; 98 WITHHOLD ASSISTANCE FROM IFI/MDBS: * Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS); * East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC); * Power Trade Operating Agreement (PTOA); * Technical Assistance; * Withhold GMS Funding For Projects In Burma... 102 SUSPEND JAPAN'S OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) TO BURMA: * Options; 105 PRESSURE ON JAPAN; 105 BOYCOTT AND DIVESTMENT CAMPAIGNS; 108 DELAY TOURISM: * Benefiting Whom? 109 ASEAN TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY: * The Reality; * Credibility on the Line; 111 INCREASE PRESSURE ON THE REGIME'S KEY PARTNERS; 112 SPORTS EMBARGO; 113 OFFICIAL RECOGNITION FOR THE CRPP; 113 INCREASE CAPACITY OF THE DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT; 114 PUT SPDC ON PROBATION; 114 TAKE BURMA TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC): * Rampant Military Growth; * Known weapons procurement during 2001-July 2003; * Civilian Military Porters; * Child Soldiers; * Drugs; * Civil War; * Displacement of People; * Systematic human rights abuses; * Failure to recognize democratic elections; * Regional Implications... PART 5: MYTHS & REALITIES:- 132 MYTH 1: Sanctions on Burma have not worked.; 133 MYTH 2: The effectiveness of sanctions is too limited to beconstructive; 134 MYTH 3: The SPDC is not influenced by international pressure; 135 MYTH 4: Sanctions can be used as a scapegoat by the SPDC for internal policy failures; 136 MYTH 5: Sanctions will alienate the �moderates' in the regime; 137 MYTH 6: Sanctions take away incentives for the regime to make progress; 138 MYTH 7: Constructive engagement would be successful in bringing reforms in Burma; 139 MYTH 8: Sanctions and principled engagement cannot work as complementary approaches; 141 MYTH 9: Western nations' economic stake in Burma is not large enough for sanctions to be effective; 142 MYTH 10: Sanctions will not impact the regime but will mostly hurt civilians: * Formal and Informal Economy; * Reality Check; * Jobs Lost? 146 MYTH 11: Sanctions are starving the population: * Very Low Nutrition and Life Expectancy Rates; * More Displacement in Ethnic and Central Areas; * Logging and Increased Poverty; * Military Forces and Arms Procurement Have Increased; * More Oppression; * Four-Cuts Program; * Mawchi Township: Impoverished by the SPDC; 151 MYTH 12: Investment and trade has brought better working conditions; 153 MYTH 13: Sanctions destroyed Burma's investment climate: * Mandalay Brewery: A Cautionary Tale; 156 MYTH 14: Sanctions created Burma's current financial crisis; * Foreign Exchange Certificates (FECs); 158 MYTH 15: Burmese people do not want sanctions; 159 MYTH 16: International pressure & sanctions will isolate the regime, push it closer to China; PART 6: IRREVERSIBLE STEPS FORWARD:- 162 LESSONS FROM AFGHANISTAN: * A Few Steps Behind; * Engagement & Reward – A Dangerous Game; * Transformation; 164 SANCTIONS FOR CHANGE: * Clear Recipe; * Period of Leverage & Enforcement Actions; * Timing & Strength; * Committee oversight; * Communication; * Moderates?; * Lose-Lose Situation; * Premature Action; 172 EU'S NEW STRATEGY APRIL 2003 – WHY IT DIDN'T MEASURE UP; 174 LESSONS FROM HAITI, NIGERIA, AND SOUTH AFRICA: * Haiti; * Nigeria; * South Africa; 179 RECIPE FOR SUCCESS: * A Non-Zero Sum View of the Conflict; * Sticks as Well as Carrots; * Asymmetry of Motivation Favoring the State Employing Coercive Diplomacy; * Opponent's Fear of Unacceptable Punishment for Noncompliance; * No Significant Misperceptions or Miscalculations; * Democracy Movement's Support For Sanctions; * Support on the Thailand-Burma Border; * What Armed Resistance & Ethnic Nationality Groups Think; * NCGUB; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION & OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES; 185 CHECKLIST FOR ASEAN; 185 CHECKLIST FOR CHINA; 185 CHECKLIST FOR JAPAN; 186 CHECKLIST FOR INDIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR AUSTRALIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR CANADA; 187 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED STATES; 187 CONCLUSION; 188 INDEX.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (ALTSEAN-Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (1.2MB) 212 pages
      Date of entry/update: 21 November 2003


      Title: Presidential Executive Order implementing the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003,
      Date of publication: 29 July 2003
      Description/subject: "...The United States has begun to implement the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003, which immediately prohibits financial transactions with entities of the ruling military junta in Burma and will bar the importation of Burmese products into the United States after 30 days, according to the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). OFAC issued a bulletin July 29 that includes the text of President Bush's July 28 Executive Order regarding the blockage of the Burmese junta's property, the prohibition of financial transactions with entities of the Rangoon regime, and the ban on Burmese imports into the United States. According to President Bush's executive order, such steps are necessary due to the military junta's "continued repression of the democratic opposition in Burma" and the national emergency declared in Executive Order 13047 of May 20, 1997. Following is the text of the OFAC bulletin:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Office of Foreign Assets Control via US Dept of State
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 August 2003


      Title: Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act -- Text and associated links
      Date of publication: 28 July 2003
      Description/subject: This legislation was signed into law by the US President on 28 July 2003.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: U S Government via Trillium Asset Management
      Format/size: pdf (42 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h2330rh.txt.pdf
      http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/legal/statutes/bfda_2003.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


      Title: The EU's relations with Myanmar / Burma
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: Overview lists Political Context; Legal basis of EU relations; Trade/Economic Issues; Community Aid, General data. Other sections include: Conclusions of the General Affairs & External Relations Council (GAERC), Updates on the EU position.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: European Commission
      Format/size: pdf (71.51 K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.europarl.europa.eu
      Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


      Title: Council Common Position of 29 October 2001 extending and amending Common Position 96/635/CFSP on Burma/Myanmar
      Date of publication: 30 October 2001
      Language: English (10 other languages avaialble)
      Source/publisher: European Council via EUR-Lex
      Format/size: html., pdf (89K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.eulaw.egov.bg/DocumentDisplay.aspx?ID=65731
      http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2001:286:0001:0001:EN:PDF
      Date of entry/update: 08 October 2010


      Title: Council Regulation (EC) No 1081/2000 of 22 May 2000 prohibiting the sale, supply and export to Burma/Myanmar of equipment which might be used for internal repression or terrorism, and freezing the funds of certain persons.....
      Date of publication: 22 May 2000
      Description/subject: Council Regulation (EC) No 1081/2000 of 22 May 2000 prohibiting the sale, supply and export to Burma/Myanmar of equipment which might be used for internal repression or terrorism, and freezing the funds of certain persons related to important governmental functions in that country
      Language: English (18 other languages available)
      Source/publisher: European Council via EUR-Lex
      Format/size: html, pdf (148K)
      Alternate URLs: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:122:0029:0038:EN:PDF
      Date of entry/update: 08 October 2010


      Title: Defending the Massachusetts Burma Law (background materials)
      Date of publication: 07 March 2000
      Description/subject: "A moral standard for avoiding businesses that support oppression. A guide to Natsios v NFTC, Supreme Court REview of the Massachusetts Burma Law..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Harrison Institute for Public Law
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Natsios v. NFTC, S.Ct. 99-474 (
      Date of publication: 13 January 2000
      Description/subject: Arguments of the Plaintiffs to the US Supreme Court in the case of the Massachusetts Burma Law.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Harrison Institute for Public Law, Georgetown University Law Center
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Is Total the next Unocal?
      Date of publication: August 1999
      Description/subject: As the French government examines Total's involvement in Burma, Win Htein asks if the oil giant is facing the same fate as US-based Unocal.
      Author/creator: Win Htein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Massachusetts Burma Law
      Date of publication: June 1999
      Description/subject: Articles on the Massachusetts Burma Law and selective purchasing laws
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VI, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmadebate.org/archives/bdsummer99.html
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts_Burma_Law
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


      Title: U.S. SANCTIONS AGAINST BURMA A Failure on All Fronts
      Date of publication: 26 October 1998
      Description/subject: "Trade Policy Analysis No. 1" Executive Summary: The U.S. policy of imposing unilateral trade and investment sanctions against Burma has proven to be a failure on all fronts. By forcing U.S. firms to disengage from Burma, that policy has harmed American economic interests and done nothing to improve the living conditions or human rights of the people of Burma. Sanctions have denied Burmese citizens the benefits of increased investment by American multinational companies--investment that brings technoloygy, better working conditions, and Western ideas. State and local sanctions against Burma have compounded the problem caused by federal sanctions and raised troubling constitutional questions.
      Author/creator: Leon T. Hadar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Treasury
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: Trade Policy Analysis No. 1 March 26, 1998
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010


    • Sanctions - general

      Individual Documents

      Title: European sanctions against Myanmar
      Date of publication: 20 January 2010
      Description/subject: "The European Union's Myanmar policy has been paved with good intentions. The intention has been to help establish a legitimate, democratically elected civilian government in Myanmar. This would end repression, violation of fundamental freedoms and lead to prosperity. These are no small objectives and they are all published in the Council Conclusions and Presidency Statements. In addition to this, the personal interest of political leaders and the impact of European advocacy groups have lead to the perception that they are on "the right side of history"... One part of the positively-intended EU policy has been the imposition of sanctions. The existing ar-ray of sanctions are 1) unilaterally imposed as a result of the EU Common Policy; 2) unilaterally imposed by the EU through statutory regulations; and 3) informal sanctions applied by individual EU countries. All EU sanc-tions against Myanmar are autonomous measures, i.e. not endorsed by the UN. Apart from the US and Canada, whose sanctions are similar, there is no state or region that has the same comprehensive sanctions regime as the EU. EU sanctions against Myanmar have been a long line of failures, as most sanctions are. What we see today in Myanmar is not a weakened government and political change, but stronger governmental control of resources and people, and increased interaction with, and influence of primarily China, but also India, Thailand, Russia and other actors, with the marginalization of European inter-action and influence. This was not what the EU sought. An open-minded analysis needs to be made by the EU regarding the continuation of the its sanctions policy..."
      Author/creator: Agnes Frittin and Niklas Swanstrom
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
      Format/size: pdf (299K)
      Date of entry/update: 19 February 2010


      Title: Towards Resolution: China in the Myanmar Issue
      Date of publication: March 2007
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: The issue of Myanmar has been in the limelight of international affairs for almost two decades now. Economic sanctions and political isolation have consistently been the principal policies of the international community in dealing with the incumbent government in Myanmar. Despite the mounting pressure, the country’s military rulers have so far chosen to defy the international outcry, and as a result, a political stalemate has persisted, while the population of the country continues to struggle to make ends meet. Twenty years after 1987, Myanmar remains on the UN list of the world’s Least Developed Countries. Yet, the government that stole the country’s election is still in power. The impasse itself now becomes a problem, and the practice, if not the concept, of intervention is open to scrutiny. Whatever problems Myanmar has today and however severe they may be, they did not just spring up overnight after the military took power — the country’s history, beleaguered by violence and turmoil in the past two centuries, tells us that. Recounting the country’s struggle for independence and the political upheavals in the decades that followed allows us to gain insights into the nature of the problems with which the country is grappling today. Accountable for the problems that presently hinder the democratic process in Myanmar is a combination of colonial legacy, multi-ethnicity, a wide range of political interests across communities and, above all, a lack of national identity that bonds the country together. Without the necessary step of state building and a process of national reconciliation from within, a host of political, economic, and ethnic problems cannot be solved. In regard to the issue of Myanmar, China has all along spoken with a different voice. The difference is rooted in regional identity and shared views of history and development. Like many Asian countries, China has had peaceful as well as troubled relations with Myanmar. The export of Mao’s revolution and fervent support for ‘a people’s war’ to bring about regime change in neighboring countries and beyond during the most radical period of China’s modern history bears a striking resemblance to international 10 developments unfolding on the Indo-China Peninsula and elsewhere in the world today. China’s current foreign policy and, in particular, China’s stance on the issue of Myanmar, reflects lessons that China has drawn from its own experience in the past. Economic reform that prospered and served to stabilize China in the post-Mao era is now making its way to neighboring Myanmar. This cross-border development (in part joined by ASEAN) has brought significant changes to the war-torn country of Myanmar; and more coordinated efforts from the international community along the same lines would certainly benefit the country and its people in a meaningful way. Intention and sincerity are crucial in the search for solutions, as indeed the Six-Party Talks on North Korea demonstrate.
      Author/creator: Xiaolin Guo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program - Silk Road Paper, March 2007
      Format/size: pdf (2.23 MB) - 92 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/
      Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


      Title: Sanktionen zur Förderung von Frieden und Menschenrechten? Fallstudien zu Myanmar, Sudan und Südafrika
      Date of publication: 2006
      Description/subject: Eine kontroverse Diskussion zur Wirksamkeit internationaler Sanktionen (UNO; USA; EU; ILO) in Burma/Myanmar nach den Aufständen von 1988; der Einfluss Aung San Suu Kyis; die Rolle westlicher NGOs; Fallstudien zu Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, Südafrika A study on the efficacity of intnernational sanctions after the protests of 1988; the influence of Aung San Suu Kyi; the role of western NGOs; case studies of Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Africa
      Author/creator: Sina Schüssler
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Zentrum der Konfliktforschung der Philipps-Universität Marburg
      Format/size: PDF (890k)
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2007


    • Sanctions and/or engagement

      Individual Documents

      Title: New role for India in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 13 September 2013
      Description/subject: "Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing. With ongoing communal and ethnic violence on one hand and the implementation of bold reform initiatives on the other, Myanmar's transition from authoritarianism to democracy presents immense challenges as well as opportunities for neighboring India. How New Delhi reacts to these tests will have wide-ranging impacts on the future of India-Myanmar relations. The challenges are many. The diplomatic row over pillar number 76 in the northeastern Indian state of Manipur on the Indo-Myanmar border in Holenphai village near Moreh has added to long-running border problems. Although the two sides have agreed to negotiate the issue peacefully, past misunderstandings and alleged intrusions have raised alarm bells on both sides of the border..."
      Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 May 2014


      Title: Considerations for Future Economic Engagement with Myanmar
      Date of publication: 20 November 2010
      Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "We have come to a critical juncture in international economic engagement with Myanmar. We must recognize that this is an end to an era that has been characterized by two decades of frustration and disappointment with a lack of progress on national reconciliation, human rights, and a democratic transition that is genuinely inclusive. Despite all the criticisms of the new election laws, it seems inevitable the 2010 elections will usher in a new era of national governance, and the next two years will be critical ones for setting new directions for the future. Changes in economic policies and management will matter greatly in this period to build confidence that positive change can be real and sustainable. The international community faces a choice of maintaining distance from the new government by continuing existing “sticks-based” economic engagement policies, or of seeking to make a positive contribution to domestic efforts to implement the new constitution, which does contain elements of economic policy principles that we can broadly endorse and support. The time has come to make a bet on the younger generation and seek to engage in ways that can help move Myanmar in a positive direction in economic policy, in governance, and in the pursuit of broadly-held national aspirations."
      Author/creator: Bradley O. Babson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.
      Format/size: pdf (112K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 November 2010


      Title: Burma, the International Community, and Human Rights (with Particular Attention to the Role of Foreign Aid)
      Date of publication: November 2010
      Description/subject: There is a need, generally, in the international community for more honest assessments of the consequences of existing policies on Burma and clearer thinking about how change can be brought about. The paradigm of change favored by many democracy activists, envisioning the defeat of the incumbent regime followed by wholesale reform by new elected leaders, is entirely unrealistic, given the distribution of power and interests in Burma today and the deep-rooted structural obstacles to democracy, peace, development, and human rights. The expectation that authoritarian leaders will eventually come to respect universal human rights and “do the right thing” is equally unrealistic and too often, little more than a cover for the naked pursuit of national interests. Principled engagement may be neither politically nor economically attractive to foreign policymakers, but it is a practical approach, which puts human rights, humanitarianism, and the welfare of the Burmese people at the center and is true to the spirit of the International Bill of Human Rights, which holds that all human rights are inalienable and indivisible. Burma, the International Community, and Human Rights (with Particular Attention to the Role of Foreign Aid) | 127 | This not to say that principled engagement provides the answer to all of Burma’s human rights problems, or that it is the optimal approach to every issue all the time. In some areas, stronger international pressure may be necessary to induce the government to cooperate, possibly including carefully targeted and calibrated sanctions. Also, it must be acknowledged that the impact of foreign aid on development and poverty reduction in any country is secondary to that of other capital flows such as trade, investment, and remittances. These caveats underscore the need for a comprehensive international approach that exploits synergies between different tools and influence mechanisms. Yet, rather than the “poor cousin” to sanctions (or trade and investment) that principled engagement is often portrayed as, the evidence suggests that it must be the linchpin for any effective human rights strategy. While well-targeted, coercive pressure may create incentives for change, the net effect is likely to be counterproductive unless others are willing and able to engage with the government to help reduce the nationalistic backlash, co-opt local reformers, and identify compromise solutions. In a similar vein, principled engagement holds the key to promoting economic reforms and capacity-building, which can enhance the benefits of international trade and investment, both nationally and at the grassroots.
      Author/creator: Morten B. Pedersen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.
      Format/size: pdf (148K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 November 2010


      Title: US engagement with Myanmar falters
      Date of publication: 17 May 2010
      Description/subject: BANGKOK - After the only outcomes of a visit to Myanmar by a high-level United States diplomat were "profound" disappointment over its election preparations and a stronger line over its nuclear links with North Korea, President Barack Obama on Friday formally extended sanctions against the country. Washington's extension of the sanctions followed the visit of US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia and the Pacific Kurt Campbell to Naypyidaw, the capital, on May 9 for a two-day visit. Campbell met top officials such as Foreign Minister Nyan Win, Information Minister Kyaw Hsan, Science and Technology Minister U Thaung - the point man for US-Myanmar engagement - and Labor Minister U Aung Kyi
      Author/creator: Brian McCartan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: First Do No Harm: Myanmar Trade Sanctions and Human Rights
      Date of publication: July 2007
      Description/subject: I. Introduction ¶ 1 One problem that has plagued international law has been the enforcement of human rights. There is no global supranational body to hold a state in breach of international human rights accountable for its action. Short of using force to initiate a regime change, the common options taken by international actors have been to either impose trade sanctions or to participate in engagement. Both these options have significant drawbacks. ¶ 2 One influential study on sanctions concludes from an analysis of more than a hundred cases that economic sanctions have only worked to some extent about a third of the time.1 However, even this relatively positive assessment has been disputed on the grounds that the authors were overly generous in judging what were successful sanctions and in not properly separating the effects of sanctions from the impact of the threat or use of military force.2 The study also does not clearly differentiate between sanctions imposed to affect relatively modest behavior modifications in a friendly state and those imposed to cause regime change in a rogue state. It has been suggested that sanctions are usually more effective in the former and less effective in the latter due to conflict expectations.3
      Author/creator: Michael Ewing-Chow
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Northwestern University Journal of International Human Rights/ Vol.5, Issue.2
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.law.northwestern.edu/journals/jihr/v5/n2/1/Ewing-Chow.pdf'>http://www.law.northwestern.edu/journals/jihr/v5/n2/1/Ewing-Chow.pdf
      http://www.law.northwestern.edu/journals/jihr/v5/n2/
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: MYANMAR: Immune to Sanctions and Pressures
      Date of publication: 02 August 2006
      Description/subject: "The Generals don't care because they are looking for the regional legitimacy, and they have it with China and India" (Newsweek March 21, 2005). "One school of thought holds that its (Myanmar's) generals are indifferent to both carrots and sticks" (The Economist July 23, 2005). Introduction" Media reports keep appearing regularly on the mounting pressure over the military junta, raising hopes for some democratic reforms and release of the political prisoners including Aung San Suu Kyi. Every time hopes fade away till the next initiative is taken to pressurize the junta by some regional or international forum. Neither the sanctions imposed by the west nor the constructive engagement by ASEAN have had any impact on the military junta to initiate any meaningful reforms. The military junta has been shrewd enough to forego its turn for the chairmanship of ASEAN for the year 2006, so that the country does not come into limelight for the wrong reasons and thereby gained more time for its so called "roadmap to democracy". Though the anti-Myanmar lobby is growing by the day, the military junta is undeterred, thanks to the support of China, Japan, India and Thailand.
      Author/creator: C. S. Kuppuswamy
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: South Asia Analysis Group: paper No.1696
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Myanmar and the Argument for Engagement: A Clash of Contending Moralities?
      Date of publication: March 2006
      Description/subject: Abstract: The domestic environment of Myanmar, in the wake of half a century of civil war and instability, has not shown any sign of an improvement. The Generals remain in control; the health and education systems are collapsing; and the people in the borderlands live under some of the worst conditions of poverty imaginable. Meanwhile, a clash of contesting moralities has emerged through a growing fissure (at least until recently) between those in favour of engagement (ASEAN) and those wanting to isolate and sanction (the West). Of these contesting moralities the most damaging has been economic isolation. Today, Myanmar receives less Official Development Assistance (ODA) per capita than any other developing country in East Asia. Laos, by contrast, is arguably little better in terms of governance yet it receives nineteens times more ODA per capita. Nevertheless, during the course of the past two decades neither engagement nor isolation has produced a tangible shift towards better governance and/or democracy. Through an analysis of the consequences of isolation and instability in Myanmar this paper argues that the international community needs to overcome its policy divide by embracing a combination of diplomatic pressure and targeted engagement designed to enhance, in the long-term, the security and stability of Myanmar and its people. Given the dire nature of the economy in Myanmar, large scale aid packages designed to alleviate the humanitarian crisis and also build the capacity of the state need to be implemented. For the purpose of capacity building and engagement, broad sweeping sanctions targeting the economy in general should be abolished while targeted sanctions (directed at the leadership) should have clear benchmarks for their removal. While the idea of even limited engagement may be repugnant to some; the analysis will show that the 'middle path' advocated by this paper represents the best sustainable option to resolve the crisis in Myanmar.
      Author/creator: Christopher B. Roberts
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies Singapore (Working Paper 108)
      Format/size: pdf (540K - 47 pages)
      Date of entry/update: 02 March 2009


      Title: Myanmar: Sanctions, Engagement or Another Way Forward?
      Date of publication: 26 April 2004
      Description/subject: Myanmar's National Convention, dormant since the mid 1990s, is due to reconvene on 17 May 2004. If Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and National League for Democracy (NLD) Deputy Chairman Tin Oo are released before then (as it is now widely assumed they will be) and if the NLD is able to effectively participate in its work (which is much less certain), the Convention process provides an opportunity to move beyond the desolate political stalemate which has prevailed in one form or another since the suppression of the pro-democracy movement in 1988.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Internal Crisis Group: Asia Report N°78
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/078_myanmar_sanctions_e...
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


  • ASEAN-Burma relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar as middle power
    Date of publication: 21 May 2014
    Description/subject: "Burma is becoming a regional player in Southeast Asia. Just a few years ago the suggestion that Burma might become a responsible stakeholder in the Southeast Asian community would have been derided and laughed off. Yet 2014 sees Burma chairing the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) for the first time. It is an unprecedented moment in the country’s history given its isolation from the international community for much of the last fifty years..."
    Author/creator: Gareth Robinson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


    Title: Myanmar’s ASEAN challenges
    Date of publication: 13 May 2014
    Description/subject: "What can Myanmar’s chairmanship learn from the European Union members’ divided position on external affairs, such as the deep, public disagreements associated with the Iraq war, the incapacity to produce collective action during the EU’s reaction to the 2011 Libyan crisis, and again the unwillingness to share a common initiative in response to the more recent developments in Mali? It is a discouraging question, particularly in the light of the EU High Representative’s apparent obsession with the ‘reality of 27 member states who are sovereign, who believe passionately in their right to determine what they do’, as Ashton argued in 2011. As disagreements within the European Union have seriously damaged the relations among the member states as well as the political development of the EU as a whole, a major message from a European view lies in the conviction that divisions weaken any project of integration and the attempt to create a united community, which ASEAN plans to achieve by 2015..."
    Author/creator: Ludovica Marchi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


    Title: Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia - text
    Date of publication: 24 February 1976
    Description/subject: "The Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia is a peace treaty among Southeast Asian countries established by the founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia." [Wikipedia]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2009


    Title: "BurmaNet News" ASEAN archive
    Description/subject: Archive from March 2005
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2012


    Title: ASEAN Secretariat
    Description/subject: Treaties, economic, political, cultural, strategic interaction, home pages of ASEAN countries etc.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: ASEAN Secretariat's Profile of Union of Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Results of a Google site-specific search for "Myanmar" on the ASEAN secretariat site
    Description/subject: 8,250 results (May 2005)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia - Wikipedia page
    Description/subject: "The Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia is a peace treaty among Southeast Asian countries established by the founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2009


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar, ASEAN, and the China Challenge
    Date of publication: 07 August 2014
    Description/subject: As this year’s ASEAN Chair, Myanmar will face pressure from the pro- and anti-China camps...As Myanmar gears up to host this weekend’s ASEAN Regional Forum, it may find that its role is both a blessing and a curse. While Myanmar welcomes its chance in the spotlight as ASEAN Chair, that role is increasingly difficult to play. Maritime disputes in the South China Sea threaten to turn each ASEAN meeting into a tug of war between anti- and pro-China forces...Myanmar’s role as ASEAN Chair is a huge diplomatic headache. The ASEAN Chair wields enormous influence over ASEAN meetings, and there’s a lot of pressure for the host nation to fall in line with either the anti-China or pro-China camps. In 2010, for example, Vietnam made the South China Sea disputes a major issue in regional summits (much to China’s dismay). By contrast, in 2012, Cambodia scuttled talks rather than allow the maritime disputes to dominate the agenda. This pressure is multiplied for Myanmar. On the one hand, the country is making concerted efforts to improve its relations with other ASEAN members, and with the West, which adds pressure not to sideline the South China Sea disputes. On the other hand, China remains incredibly important to Myanmar, especially economically—China remains Myanmar’s largest trading partner and largest source of foreign direct investment. An anti-China ASEAN summit could have huge economic and political ramifications for Myanmar..."
    Author/creator: Shannon Tiezzi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


    Title: Asean and the Lady
    Date of publication: 26 December 2010
    Description/subject: Aung San Suu Kyi’s release from house arrest offers Asean a chance to re-engage with Burma on the issue of democratic reform
    Author/creator: Kavi Choingkittavorn
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 12
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Myanmar’s 2010 Elections and International Legitimacy: A Perspective on ASEAN’s Stance vis-à-vis Naypyidaw
    Date of publication: November 2010
    Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "ASEAN governments appreciate that Myanmar’s elections are going to be flawed in more ways than one and—given the constitutional framework— will also leave the military controlling the reins of political power. However, they are not likely to question Myanmar’s international legitimacy on the back of the country’s first elections in 20 years. Indeed, the expectation is that the elections will be an important step toward a different political order, which will be able to positively impact on domestic stability and reform. Some may thus hope that over time, giving life to the new constitution will serve to break at least some internal cycles of conflict. Equally, ASEAN countries are bound to maintain that Myanmar’s overall track record in conducting its bilateral affairs and in working toward ASEAN’s stated objectives in the context of the formation of the ASEAN Community also does not project the question of international legitimacy. Whether (and how) the allegations surrounding Myanmar’s interest in a secret nuclear program might do remains to be seen."
    Author/creator: Jürgen Haacke
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.
    Format/size: pdf (176K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 November 2010


    Title: A HUMANITARIAN CALL - The ASEAN Response to Cyclone Nargis
    Date of publication: 31 August 2010
    Description/subject: Contents: Chapter One. Cyclone Nargis and the Need for Action from ASEAN... Chapter Two. The ASEAN-Led Coordinating Mechanism... Chapter Three. Needs Assessment, Planning and Monitoring... Chapter Four. ASEAN Volunteers Programme... Chapter Five. Contributions from ASEAN Member States to the Post-Nargis Effort... Chapter Six. Mobilising Resources, Delivering Results... Chapter Seven. Operationalising the ASEAN Humanitarian Task Force... Chapter Eight. Lessons Learnt for ASEAN from the Post-Nargis Experience.....THIS PUBLICATION IS THE FIRST OF 6, ISSUED SIMULTANEOUSLY. EACH CARRIES THE FOLLOWING: Foreword by the Secretary-General of ASEAN: "Death, destruction and despair followed in the path of Cyclone Nargis. As news spread that the Cyclone had flattened entire villages, killing or injuring hundreds of thousands of people, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) felt compelled, out of a sense of compassion, urgency and fraternity, to support one of our Member States. The ASEAN community immediately reached out to help Myanmar recover from the worst natural disaster in the country’s recorded history. The complexity of the emerging tragedy called for a cohesive and coordinated plan. ASEAN was urged to take the lead. Never before had we carried out such an ambitious and large-scale undertaking. But buttressed by the Government of Myanmar and the international community, ASEAN’s confidence grew and our association was “baptised” by the Cyclone that wreaked havoc on one of our Member States. Cyclone Nargis occurred at a pivotal time, when ASEAN Member States were embracing the ASEAN Charter and the association was striving to become a more collective, dynamic and inclusive entity. The disaster provided ASEAN with a window of opportunity to make meaningful progress on the goals of the Charter to bring ASEAN closer to the people, enhance the well-being and livelihood of ASEAN peoples, and alleviate poverty and narrow development gaps through close cooperation with the Government of Myanmar. Experience from Nargis demonstrates that ASEAN, with support from partners, can strengthen disaster risk reduction among Member States and provide an effective coordinating mechanism to facilitate the delivery of international assistance in a Member State during the post-disaster relief and recovery process. Our collective response in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis is an example of the benefits that broader integration and closer partnerships can yield. ASEAN’s response to Nargis, in cooperation and collaboration with the United Nations, the international humanitarian community and civil society, helped ease the pain and suffering that the Cyclone inflicted on people living in Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions of Myanmar. Since the region as a whole is prone to disasters, it is imperative, particularly as we reach the end of the mandate of the ASEAN-led coordination mechanism in Myanmar, to document and disseminate the lessons ASEAN has learned in the wake of Nargis. This publication chronicles the events that led to ASEAN’s historic decision to launch the ASEAN-led humanitarian operation from the perspective of many of the people who figured prominently in the story. Through this publication, we wish to share within and across the region what we have gained from our experience carrying out ASEAN’s first-ever large-scale humanitarian operation in a Member State. It is our sincere hope that our lessons will be of service to others and our best practices replicated in the event of future disasters." SURIN PITSUWAN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
    Format/size: pdf (3.05MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 September 2010


    Title: Bringing ASEAN Closer to the People: The Experience of ASEAN Volunteers in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 31 August 2010
    Description/subject: Contents: Chapter One. Serving as Young ASEAN Ambassadors for Change... Chapter Two. Advocating Volunteers for ASEAN Community Building: • Delivering on a Promise; • Mission and Value Statement; • Spheres of Action; • Encouraging Involvement for a Common Purpose... Chapter Three. Integrating Volunteers into Sustainable Livelihoods and Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies: • Pioneering Volunteers in Kunyangon; • Rebuilding Small-Farm Livelihoods during the Dry Season in Pyapon; • Building Resilient Communities in Bogale; • Restoring Livelihood Opportunities through Community Building in Kunyangon and Kawhmu; • Supporting Safer and Productive Communities in Labutta; • Strengthening and Restoring Livelihood Capacities in Pyapon... Chapter Four. Harnessing Lessons for Capacity Building... Chapter Five. Advancing Development through ASEAN Volunteers
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
    Format/size: pdf (1.66MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 September 2010


    Title: Charting a New Course: ASEAN-UN Post-Nargis Partnership
    Date of publication: 31 August 2010
    Description/subject: Contents: Chapter One. The Path to a New Model of Humanitarian Partnership... Chapter Two. Launching the Post-Nargis Humanitarian Response... Chapter Three. Collaborative Coordination: From Relief to Recovery... Chapter Four. Assessment, Planning & Monitoring... Chapter Five. ASEAN-UN Partnership: Moving Forward
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
    Format/size: pdf (1.71MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 September 2010


    Title: Compassion in Action: The Story of the ASEAN-Led Coordination in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 31 August 2010
    Description/subject: Contents: Chapter One A Storm Like No Other... Chapter Two The Tipping Point... Chapter Three Three Voices as One... Chapter Four Pioneering Joint Assessment... Chapter Five Without Trust There is Nothing... Chapter Six Where There’s a Will There’s a Way... Chapter Seven Pivotal Moments in ASEAN's Cyclone Nargis Response... Chapter Eight Moving Forward
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
    Format/size: pdf (1.98MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 September 2010


    Title: Post-Nargis Needs Assessment and Monitoring: ASEAN’s Pioneering Response
    Date of publication: 31 August 2010
    Description/subject: Contents: Chapter One Introduction... Chapter Two Assessment... Chapter Three Review and Monitoring... Chapter Four Information System... Chapter Five Lessons and Way Forward..... List of Figures: Figure 1: The Four Phases of Post-Disaster Assessment... Figure 2: Post-Cyclone Nargis Assessments Progressed through the Whole Monitoring and Evaluation Cycle... Figure 3: Humanitarian Community’s Coordination Structure in Myanmar during the Emergency and Recovery Periods... Figure 4: Timeline of Events for the ASEAN-ERAT to PONJA... Figure 5: Timeline of Events for the VTA... Figure 6: Map of the Cyclone Nargis-Affected Area with Quadrats Overlaid... Figure 7: Timeline of Events for the DALA... Figure 8: Schedule Followed by each PR... Figure 9: Spatial Sampling Frame for the PR over the Nargis-Affected Area... Figure 10: Detailed Schedule Followed by a SIM Study... Figure 11: SIM’s Analytical Framework... Figure 12: General Schedule Followed by a SIM Study
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
    Format/size: pdf (3.71MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 September 2010


    Title: Voices of Nargis Survivors: The Story of Survivors from Cyclone Nargis
    Date of publication: 31 August 2010
    Description/subject: Contents: Introduction... 1. Myint Myint Aye, Back from the brink... 2. Bhaddanda Kosalla, “I’d made no practical preparations. But I was prepared in my heart”... 3. Myint Swe, “Many elders were dead, and the young people asked me to help”... 4. Tun Nyein, “A snake-bite to the head”... 5. Htay Aung, “We have a brain to think, and it is up to us to work out what to do”... 6. Chit Oo “After the experience I have had, I can do a lot more to help people”... 7. The’ Su Hlaing, Building schools to be proud of... 8. Tin Win, “You just have to get your strength back and work hard”... 9. Htin Aung, Helping Myanmar help itself... 10. Ye Yint Aung, From boy to breadwinner... 11. San San Mar, Fighting for the health of her neighbours ... 12. Zaw Moe, “I’m starting to care about the future again”
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
    Format/size: pdf (1.71MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 September 2010


    Title: Asean’s Democratic Divide
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: "The regional grouping must overcome its ideological differences if it wants to have a real impact on Burma’s upcoming election...The Asean members calling for a free and fair election in Burma must ... persuade the rest of the grouping to join them in pressing their demands. If they fail to do this, only the junta will benefit. A sham election will be a blow not only to the hopes of the people of Burma, but also to Asean’s relevance as a regional body..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


    Title: The Myanmar imbroglio and ASEAN: heading towards the 2010 elections
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: "...three particular questions are addressed here: 1 How strong is ASEAN’s record when it comes to influencing the SPDC in relation to matters of national reconciliation and political transition? 2 What factors explain ASEAN’s role vis-à-vis Myanmar? 3 What prospect, if any, is there that ASEAN will play a significant part in trying to influence the regime to make political concessions before the 2010 elections to ensure their credibility? The article argues that, as a grouping, ASEAN has as yet not moved beyond collective criticism to induce Naypyidaw to respond positively to the main demands of its international detractors. ASEAN’s norms, different political identities, geopolitical interests and the SPDC’s prickliness have all limited ASEAN’s consensus on Myanmar. Naypyidaw’s relations with Washington, rather than ASEAN’s ‘enhanced interactions’ with the military government, and—especially—the domestic political dynamics in Myanmar, are likely to be the crucial determinants of further developments in the context of the 2010 elections..."
    Author/creator: Jürgen Haacke
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "International Affairs" 86: 1, 2010
    Format/size: pdf (238K)
    Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


    Title: As Burma Draws Fire, Asean Gets Burned
    Date of publication: July 2009
    Description/subject: "Asean leaders forge a tougher policy aimed at speaking the truth to Burma’s military government, but the generals fire back in words and armed clashes against ethnic Karen along the border...Needless to say, Burma has remained a major source of concern as regime leaders recently detained opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi inside the notorious Insein Prison, ignoring the outcry of regional leaders and the international community. If Burmese leaders are finding it difficult to find excuses to confine the Lady of the Lake, Asean leaders also are facing a dilemma: how to nurture the rogue regime into democratic reconciliation..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: DEPUTY SECRETARY STEINBERG’S MAY 30, 2009 CONVERSATION WITH SINGAPORE MINISTER MENTOR LEE KUAN YEW
    Date of publication: 04 June 2009
    Description/subject: "...China is active in Latin America, Africa, and in the Gulf. Within hours, everything that is discussed in ASEAN meetings is known in Beijing, given China’s close ties with Laos, Cambodia, and Burma, he stated..."...."...Beijing is worried about its dependence on the Strait of Malacca and is moving to ease the dependence by means like a pipeline through Burma..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Singapore, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2010


    Title: THE 14th ASEAN SUMMIT: LITTLE CHANGE DESPITE CHARTER
    Date of publication: 10 April 2009
    Description/subject: "ASEAN leaders’ promotion of the newly enacted ASEAN Charter as an instrument of change rang hollow at the 14th ASEAN summit because of the organization’s failure to effectively deal with the problems created by the Burmese military regime. The failure was glaring. In the weeks before the ASEAN summit, ASEAN Sec-Gen Surin Pitsuwan delivered promising statements and speeches that indicated significant change for the organization. Surin’s speeches were peppered with the terms “people-centered” and “people-caring” to describe the “reinvented” ASEAN – an ASEAN with a new guiding charter. Surin said that the Charter made “all issues relevant”, and “all issues were on the table” and “nothing could be hidden”. Of all the provisions in the charter, the most widely heralded was the call for the establishment of the ASEAN Human Rights Body (AHRB). The ASEAN Secretariat’s public relations hype over the summit would have been much easier had it not been for the Rohingya boat people. The plight of the Rohingya fleeing Burma because of religious persecution represented the first test of the ASEAN Charter’s promise to make human rights and the rule of law common currency throughout the region. The test fell flat. Surin was undermined by the Terms of Reference for the ASEAN Human Rights Body and by the inability of ASEAN to unite to confront and resolve the Rohingya problem. .ASEAN leaders have not caught up with the rights and entitlements implemented in the Charter. ASEAN’s failure to address the Rohingya issue and other pressing regional problems caused by the SPDC seriously undermines authority and effectiveness of the ASEAN Charter, and ASEAN itself. ASEAN leaders must realize that the current situation threatens the credibility and the integrity of the organization..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
    Format/size: pdf (148K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 April 2009


    Title: Getting Serious about Democracy - An Interview with Anwar Ibrahim
    Date of publication: May 2006
    Description/subject: Malaysia’s former deputy PM takes Asean to task for coddling Burma, and advocates greater strides towards democracy there and throughout the region
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


    Title: Die ASEAN als Impulsgeber ostasiatischer Integration
    Date of publication: February 2006
    Description/subject: Eine Analyse des 11. ASEAN-Gipfels 2005, der Sonderrolle Burmas, das Prinzip der Nicht-Einmischung und das "konstruktive Engagement"; ASEAN-summit No. 11 in 2005, role of Burma/Myanmar; non-engagement; constructive engagement
    Author/creator: Howard Loewen
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: GIGA Hamburg
    Format/size: Pdf
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2008


    Title: Maybe It’s the Same Old Asean
    Date of publication: January 2006
    Description/subject: On the surface, it seems Asean has adopted a tougher policy towards fellow member Burma. But the grouping’s history, and the West’s new pressure for change in Rangoon, suggest otherwise... "Much has been made of Asean’s apparent new tough attitude towards its troublesome member, Burma. At the December Asean summit in Kuala Lumpur, the grouping called for movement along the Burmese regime’s professed path to democracy; a release of political prisoners, including icon Aung San Suu Kyi; and made plans for a delegation to visit Rangoon in January, to see what the generals are up to. The regime has since postponed the visit on grounds it is too busy. Even when it does happen, don’t hold your breath. The stubborn generals might simply smile nicely for photo-ops with Malaysian Foreign Minister Syed Hamid Albar and his entourage, followed by a bit of lip-service about political reforms, a promise to release Suu Kyi sometime and so forth. That way the Asean group doesn’t lose too much face. And the generals can then go back to business as usual, as they have done so many times in the past..."
    Author/creator: Bruce Kent
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: All for One, and One for All
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: The 10 Asean members are seeking a new, more binding charter... "Asean leaders have finally agreed to draft a common, legally-binding charter which will serve as the 38-year-old grouping’s new pillar. Up to now, Asean has been a loose organization based on mutual trust and consensus. No plans could proceed without all members’ agreement. There were times when all agreed on a plan, but some members would still show recalcitrance, particularly on sensitive areas of economic cooperation...The Burma issue has prompted Asean to do some much–needed soul searching. Leaders have come to grips with the harsh reality that the organization needs a more powerful binding framework that all members will respect and follow, with all committed to the same values and principles. Any violator will be reprimanded..."
    Author/creator: Kavi Chongkittavorn
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


    Title: The Upturned Chair
    Date of publication: August 2005
    Description/subject: Did Burma’s Asean move hide an ulterior motive?... "Burma is full of ironies. One surfaced at the recent Asean annual meeting in Laos, where a sigh of relief could be heard at the announcement that Burma would renounce its chairmanship of the bloc in 2006. The irony is that when Burma was welcomed into Asean in 1997, member governments thought they would be able to tame the generals and persuade them to accept social and political reforms. A bonus was offered by the possibility of plucking Burma out of China’s sphere of influence. This year, however, Asean foreign ministers wanted Burma to forgo the controversial Asean chairmanship. When it did, they were pleased. But didn’t Asean want Burma on board in order to foster movements there towards democracy? Why was it still not suitable for chairmanship?..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: "Show Some Self-respect!" - An Interview with Debbie Stothard
    Date of publication: 26 April 2005
    Description/subject: Burma activist group leader speaks out on Asean dilemma... "As the 2006 date for Burma’s assumption of the Asean chairmanship draws ever closer, the organization’s policy towards Rangoon comes under increasingly close scrutiny from the Alternative Asean Network on Burma. Formed in 1996, ALTSEAN is a network of Southeast Asia activists, NGOs, academics and politicians who are working for democracy and respect for human rights in Burma. The Irrawaddy recently talked to Altsean’s co-ordinator, Debbie Stothard, about her movement’s approach to the thorny question of Burma’s suitability for chairing Asean..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    Title: Asean: Time to Interfere
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: The Burma Asean chair issue is only first on lawmakers’ list... "In the middle of 2004, both ruling Barisan Nasional Government MPs and those from the opposition benches of the Dewan Rakyat (People’s Assembly) established the Pro-Democracy Myanmar [Burma] Caucus of the Malaysian parliament. It was something of an historical event as it was one of the rare occasions when there was a consensus among Malaysian parliamentarians from a broad political spectrum that the region was about to encounter a major diplomatic crisis which would potentially have grave implications for the region’s political and economic future. Thus, as the MP entrusted with the task of finding a realistic and practical way out of the embarrassing prospect of Myanmar taking its turn as chairman of Asean in 2006, I drew up a plan, together with my fellow members of the caucus, to treat this as an Asean-wide concern. It was decided that the best way to assess the commitment of other Asean MPs was to gather them together on a friendly basis to hear their views regarding the impending dangers that the region would inevitably face in its relations with partners who had been traditionally engaged with Asean in bilateral and multilateral dialogues.Invitations were sent to other Asean parliamentarians. Positive responses were received from five of them: Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The outcome was the formation in Kuala Lumpur in November 2004 of the Asean Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus, of which I am privileged to be the chairman..."
    Author/creator: Zaid Ibrahim
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/print_article.php?art_id=4581
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Manila Stands Firm on Burma - An Interview with Alberto G. Romulo
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: Foreign Secretary Romulo Says Philippines Position “Very Clear”... "...Political disquiet within Southeast Asia about Burma’s assumption of the chairmanship of Asean at the end of 2006 is particularly strong in the Philippines. But where does the Manila government stand on the issue? The Irrawaddy interviewed Philippine Foreign Affairs Secretary Alberto G. Romulo on this issue, and others now occupying his government… Question: Singapore’s foreign minister George Yeo and the President of the Philippine Senate, Franklin Drilon, are among those opposed to Burma taking over the chairmanship of Asean at the end of 2006. What is the policy position of the Philippines on the issue? Answer: The Philippines’ position has been very clear, repeated by President Arroyo in various Asean forums...Hanoi, Vientiane, Jakarta [and during] the visit of Burma’s Prime Minister Soe Win [to the Philippines] last month. We believe the roadmap to democracy should be followed. We urge that in that roadmap to democracy, Aung San Suu Kyi be released and that the NLD [take part in] the all-inclusive party convention. We have urged them to consider the request of UN Secretary General Kofi Annan for his special envoy Ismael Razali to be received and invited in Myanmar. So these are points that we have been stressing..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    Title: Asean’s Albatross - An Interview with Asda Jayanama
    Date of publication: March 2005
    Description/subject: "Veteran Thai diplomat Asda Jayanama was recently interviewed by The Irrawaddy. Asda, now retired, was Thai ambassador to the UN from 1996-2001. In the interview, Asda—known for his outspokenness—pulls no punches as he reviews the “failed” approach by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or Asean, to Burma, called “constructive engagement.” He further warns of a potential deepening Asean rift over Burma’s looming rotating chairmanship of the grouping..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 August 2005


    Title: With Friends like You ...
    Date of publication: March 2005
    Description/subject: - Asean countries start to worry about partner Burma... "As the countdown to Burma assuming the rotating chairmanship of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or Asean, in 2006 continues, even some of Rangoon’s neighbors are becoming nervous. Military-controlled Burma as a member of Asean is one thing, but if it becomes chairman the regional grouping stands to suffer even more damage to its image, and possible harm to its trading relations with western countries. Soon after being invited to join Asean in 1997, mainly as part of a move to include all 10 Southeast Asian countries in the grouping, Burma has proved a liability for some of its partners. With its longstanding military regime presiding over a distinctly undemocratic political system and allegedly allowing, if not taking part in, human rights abuses, it was an easy target for criticism from the United States and EU, backed by sanctions. With the regime showing no sign of easing its grip on power, other Asean countries have been thrust into a position of being more apologists for Burma than regional friends. As Singapore’s Foreign Minister George Yeo reportedly told parliament on March 4: “Our hope is that the Asean spirit of consultation and consensus will enable us to find a solution for next year.”..."
    Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 August 2005


    Title: A Regional Perspective on Burma
    Date of publication: July 2004
    Description/subject: "M.R. Sukhumbhand Paribatra is the chairman of the Asia Dialogue Society, a group of Asian former government officials and scholars that promotes regional cooperation. He has served as a Democrat Party Member of the Thai Parliament since 1996 and was the deputy minister of foreign affairs between 1997 and 2001. In 1999, when gunmen seized the Burmese Embassy in Bangkok, he negotiated the release of their hostages and accompanied the attackers by helicopter to the Thai-Burma border. He talked to The Irrawaddy about Burma’s membership in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the consequences for Asian diplomacy. Question: Burma’s inclusion in Asean continues to mar the grouping’s international image but, aside from the recent fallout with the EU over the Asia-Europe Meeting [ASEM] what damage has really been done?..."
    Author/creator: An Interview with M.R. Sukhumbhand Paribatra
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 October 2004


    Title: Quality of Partnership: Myanmar, ASEAN and the World Community
    Date of publication: 15 December 2003
    Description/subject: "... The primary objective of the report is to offer ideas that can assist the main actors on the political stage of Myanmar - the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) government, the National League for Democracy (NLD) and other political parties, and the ethnic nationalities - to break the current political deadlock and to find a solution that will be creative, pragmatic, and mutually acceptable and one that will reinforce the sovereignty and integrity of the Union of Myanmar. The report is in 3 parts. The first part explains the nexus between Myanmar, ASEAN/Japan/China/India and the west. The second part clarifies the critical issues that constrain cooperation among the internal forces within Myanmar. The last part presents recommendations for breaking the Myanmar deadlock. In writing the report, the ADS members were mindful of the prevailing realities, including the following: the dominant position of the SPDC government in preserving national sovereignty and developing the country; the pressures from the political parties and the ethnic nationalities for a legitimate participatory role; the increasing pressure on Myanmar from the international community; and the limited opportunity for Myanmar’s friends and neighbors to play a more positive role in bringing about stability to the country and region. The ADS is of the view that the ultimate “solution” to end the deadlock, one which can initiate a genuine process of national reconciliation, must come from the aforementioned 3 stake holding groups and the Myanmar people themselves. The report therefore has outlined some broad principles that can be a useful platform from which dialogue can be initiated between and among the SPDC, the political parties, and the ethnic groups. The report makes several recommendations but the most important concerns the principle that can help break the deadlock The ADS has looked very carefully at the “road map” to democracy announced by the SPDC. To enhance the navigability of this road map to democracy, the ADS has recommended the setting up of a Council for National Reconciliation and Concord (CNRC). This Council should include members from all 3 groups and several eminent persons who can be nominated by a collective decision of the 3 groups (Article 75). The role of this CNRC is to be advisory: for instance, it can advise on the composition and role of the National Convention and other committees and agencies (Article 76-79). The CNRC can be an inclusive process and will give those currently outside the fold of government a genuine opportunity to participate in the process of reconciliation as stakeholders through dialogue and debate. The report has been careful to stress that the details of the modalities, if this framework is considered attractive, are to be worked out among the various groups in a spirit of give and take. The spirit of compromise itself will be enhanced if other self-confidence measures from all sides are also undertaken. The role of the international community is also critical. The report calls upon ASEAN to be more fully engaged with Myanmar in the spirit of “flexible engagement”, that is, as neighbors, they should be more proactively involved in finding a solution to the Myanmar question. The ADS also believes that to prevent instability in an important corner of Asia, it is in the long-term interests of China, Japan and India to fully cooperate, especially with ASEAN and with one another, to promote policies that can contribute to the stability of Myanmar and Southeast Asia, and of Asia as a whole. Finally, in offering this report to the leaders and people of the Union of Myanmar, the ADS is guided not by any sense of “activism” but by their collective experience and their belief that Myanmar can and should contribute to the strengthening of ASEAN solidarity and stability." 15 December 2003
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Dialogue Society (ADS)
    Format/size: pdf (784K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.asiandialogue.com
    Date of entry/update: 21 March 2004


    Title: Shaping Civil-Military Relations in Burma: Learning Lessons from ASEAN
    Date of publication: 06 August 2002
    Description/subject: Workshops in Thailand and Indonesia - Summary Report... "Highlights of Workshop Results: The workshops built critical capacity and linkages for TBF and TAN to work with key opinion makers and think tanks within the ASEAN region and to provide informed policy inputs that can shape ASEAN strategies in dealing with current political situations as well as future transitions in Burma. The following list of achievements at the workshop: A. Learning Lessons from Country Experiences in Civil-Military Relations: The workshops produced a number of practical ideas and interesting thoughts for the development of effective policies toward securing democratic control of the armed forces in Burma. The workshops have identified opportunities and challenges facing each country, many of which are relevant to the Burmese context... B. Promoting Awareness and Mutual Understanding of Burma and her Neighbors: The workshops have increased the understanding of transitional issues facing Burma, and greater knowledge sharing and cooperation between Burmese experts and academics with those from the neighboring countries. They have facilitated a productive interaction between Burmese and ASEAN experts in learning lessons of transition from one another, and applying them in their related work... C. Laying foundations for regional security dialogue: TBF aims to foster more initiatives on regional security dialogue that can help academics and security experts in collaborating between their respective national projects on a regional basis. These new partnerships will certainly create and enhance long-lasting and productive relationships between a future democratic Burma and its neighbors..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Burma Fund, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS Indonesia), International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (648K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaguide.net/res-en/BIG19_15_en/view
    Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


    Title: Stop Interfering, Mahathir
    Date of publication: August 2002
    Description/subject: "Ending his one-day visit to Burma accompanied by a 300-member delegation of Malaysian officials and businessmen, Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad concluded that the process of change in Burma must be gradual. The visit paid by the staunchest backer of Burma�s pariah regime could be seen as a promotional trip for oil, gas, telecommunications and other Malaysian business interests. Of course, Dr Mahathir did not visit Aung San Suu Kyi..."
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 10, No. 6, July-August 2002
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma: Asean’s Perennial Problem Child
    Date of publication: May 2002
    Description/subject: "Burma continues to earn its reputation as the black sheep of the Asean family. Thanks to a three-week anti-Thai tirade, Burma has confirmed its reputation as the problem child of the Southeast Asian family, Asean. After hosting a series of anti-Thai demonstrations around the country, Rangoon even stepped into the sports arena to express displeasure at its neighbor, preventing Burmese youth from participating in an Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) amateur swimming competition recently held in Bangkok. This episode comes in the wake of other anti-Thai sentiments being openly expressed after border skirmishes began in late May. Burma has expelled Thai workers, denied visas for Thai officials, and even ordered the Burmese media to tarnish both Thailand�s present and past..."
    Author/creator: Marwaan Macan-Markar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 1 - ASEAN-Burma relations
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Historical context; II Origins of constructive engagement; III Burma and ASEAN: A troubled marriage; IV ASEAN and Aung San Suu Kyi; V ASEAN and the NCGUB; VI Bilateral relations; VII Assessment of constructive engagement; VIII Opportunities and challenges for opening political space in ASEAN and Burma; IX Conclusions. "... This paper will attempt to assess ASEAN–Burmese relations and the prospects for ASEAN to take a more active critical role in Burma’s politics by asking the following questions: What is constructive engagement? What have been the driving objectives behind it? What are the prospects of ASEAN altering its modus operandi of non-interference? What indicators might signal a change in ASEAN’s approach to Burma? To begin to answer these questions, we must first have some understanding of ASEAN’s approach to Burma in the context of its evolution as an organization..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (244K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Dr. Mahathir's House Call
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: The Association of Southeast Asian Nation's Asean self-appointed political physician has a new prescription for what ails Burma: a dose of Cambodia.
    Author/creator: John S. Moncrief
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Taking a single stand on human rights
    Date of publication: 06 February 2001
    Description/subject: It hardly needs to be stated that while the 10 countries of Southeast Asia have managed to become part of a regional organisation in the form of Asean, the political physiognomy of each country is very different. They vary from the democratic to the undemocratic, from the pluralistic to the less pluralistic. Given such an environment, is it possible to converge and co-operate in some area of human rights? Also, are there lessons for co-operation between Asean and other regions, particularly the European Union?
    Author/creator: Vitit Muntarbhorn
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bangkok Post
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: ASEAN's Hostage Shame
    Date of publication: July 2000
    Description/subject: "...few hostage-taking incidents can match the present situation in Burma in terms of the sheer number of people involved and the long-term damage it is likely to inflict on virtually every aspect of their lives..." The sight of gunmen jeopardizing the lives of innocent hostages is shocking to people everywhere, regardless of their social, political or religious sympathies. Recent incidents such as the ones in Fiji and Mindanao in the Philippines also have deeper implications, as they show how the selfish actions of a handful of men can threaten not only the lives of a few people, but also the futures of entire communities and nations.
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ႊThe Irrawaddy: Vol 8 No.7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: ASEAN's Chance for Renewal
    Date of publication: October 1999
    Description/subject: "...While the egos of Asean members were bruised by the Asian economic crisis and the diplomatic assault by the West for their embracement of Burma, Asean leaders took consolation in that fact that the Asean Regional Forum (ARF) remained arguably the preeminent regional security organization in the world. But rather than risk antagonizing Indonesia and violating Asean’s principle of non-interference, the organization balked at any involvement in alleviating the East Timorese situation and participation in a UN-mandated intervention. This has turned Asean’s successful record in security maintenance into another victim of non-interference. However, new leadership in Indonesia promises to bring changes to Asean..."
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar Has Damaged ASEAN
    Date of publication: December 1998
    Description/subject: Myanmar has provided a valuable lesson, that you can't really change a country. Even though ASEAN tries to constructively engage Myanmar, the change has been too slow...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: " "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Asean needs "flexible engagement"
    Date of publication: August 1998
    Description/subject: "In a concerted effort to overcome opposition from Asean member countries, the Foreign Ministry has redefined the concept of “flexible engagement” which will be officially presented as a non-paper when the Asean foreign ministers meet in Manila. Several Asean members have expressed reservations after Foreign Minister Surin Pitsuwan urged in his proposal last month that they should be more open with each other and have frank discussions on domestic issues which have implications on other members and the group’s destiny. In effect, he called for a review of the Asean way of doing things. Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos and Burma believe that member countries should not tamper with the principle of non-interference. In other words, they view the Thai initiative as a non-starter. The Philippines, which is host to the meeting, is the only country which has given strong endorsement to Surin’s proposal, and said it will be one of the major subjects on the agenda to be discussed. The other Asean countries are lying low adopting a wait-and-see attitude..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 6, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2009


    Title: Asean sees no evil in Burma
    Date of publication: August 1998
    Description/subject: "In June, Thai Foreign Minister Surin Pitsuwan proposed the “flexible engagement” policy saying that Asean members need to discuss existing problems more openly and frankly. Although the proposal did not receive a warm welcome at the Asean Summit in Manila, Burma’s democrats, including ordinary Burmese who listened to foreign broadcasts, quietly showed a keen interest and welcomed it. The reason: few Burmese except the ruling junta known as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) support Asean’s controversial and unpopular “constructive engagement” policy. Burma joined the regional club last year despite strong noisy protests in the West, and from human rights activists in the region and the opposition inside and outside of the country. Since the brutal crackdown in 1988 and on-going human rights violations and repression in Burma, the military government had been shunned by democratic governments. The only club the sullen generals could join was Asean. To boost its image and to borrow legitimacy, the junta leaders realised Asean was the best choice..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Cook's Order
    Date of publication: September 1997
    Description/subject: Members of the Association of South East Asian Nations, ASEAN, knew there would be a price to be paid for admitting Burma in July to full membership of their well-regarded club. But they may not have guessed that they would have been faced with it so soon.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: SLORC Needs to Repay ASEAN
    Date of publication: September 1997
    Description/subject: Since Burma was admitted into ASEAN in July, there has been a growing sense of exasperation within the grouping on what to do with the country. Previous attempts by ASEAN to discreetly pressure Slorc to adopt a more flexible approach have failed, including the call for dialogue with the NLD ...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: ASEAN: Facing a New Dilemma
    Date of publication: August 1997
    Description/subject: "...Asean also worries of itself developing into a "two-tier" club pitting wealthier nations against its newest members. Such worries are well-founded (see pg.16). Vietnam, Laos and Burma have a combined average per capita GDP of US$1,244, nearly ten times lower than the other six members. While Singapore vaults towards becoming an industrialised country, newcomers Burma and Laos remain fixtures on the list of least developed nations. Burma’s entry and Thailand’s economic malaise spreading virulently throughout the region have recently tarnished Asean’s image. Members have been chivalrous supporting each other during this financial crunch, although it’s doubtful that Asean will be as eager to rescue the Burmese kyat which is plummeting quickly..."
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: Engish
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Tests Asian Values
    Date of publication: August 1997
    Description/subject: If Asian values are about encouraging a harmonious relationship between the state and society, then ASEAN leaders have their work cut out in Burma. Now that Burma is a member of ASEAN, it would not be illogical to assume that ASEAN will now take some responsibility for the well-being of that unfortunate country - which is now an economic, political and social "basket case" in the regional forum.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: ASEAN and Myanmar
    Date of publication: June 1997
    Description/subject: This article appeared in the state-controlled newspaper, Kyemon, on February 21, 1997. Translated from Burmese by the US Govt. Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS).
    Author/creator: Maung Saw Tun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. IV, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Enlist Asean's Help With Burma
    Date of publication: June 1997
    Description/subject: "...Washington should continue to seek support from Burma’s neighbours against Slorc even if it can’t count o­n them to "urge Slorc to enter into a productive dialogue with democratic forces in Burma," as Deputy State Department spokesman John Dinger asked o­n June 2. The democracy rationale was never the most useful with Asean. After all, the majority of Asean’s members are authoritarian states, unlikely to pressure Slorc decisively o­n issues of democracy and human rights. In fact, it is in the interests of most if not all Asean countries to have a member with an abysmal human rights record about which they can say, "Hey, we’re not that bad." However, individual Asean members like Indonesia and Malaysia have o­n occasion played constructive roles in discrete areas, like supporting a UN presence in Burma to protect Muslims in the western state of Arakan. Thailand and the Philippines, who resisted the decision to admit Burma, should be enlisted to continue similar efforts and advance democratic principles within Asean..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Which Direction for ASEAN?
    Date of publication: June 1997
    Author/creator: Walden Bello
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. IV, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Shameful for ASEAN to Embrace Burma
    Date of publication: May 1997
    Description/subject: ASEAN will never be the same again. By embracing Burma as a member it has itself become a pariah organisation.
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: ASEAN Sees No Evils in Burma
    Date of publication: January 1997
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 1
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Foreign Relations
    Date of publication: January 1997
    Description/subject: The Suharto Inc., in Burma • Surrender of Khun Sa has lasting impact
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: SLORC's Big Brother in Asean
    Date of publication: January 1997
    Description/subject: The mouthpiece of the regime, the New Light of Myanmar newspaper, once dubbed the relationship between Indonesia and Burma as "two nations with a common identity" as it reported the sharp increase in exchange of official visits between the two governments.The visits, which had increased significantly since 1993, marked not only the progress in Burma-Indonesia diplomatic ties but also the growing eagerness of the Burmese junta to copy the political system of its more established neighbour.
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 1
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Australia-Burma relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar for Australia
    Date of publication: 16 November 2012
    Description/subject: "For as long as I can remember Australian governments have maintained Myanmar and Burma as the two names for one of Southeast Asia’s most important countries. Now — on websites and in public statements — consistency reigns among Australia’s officialdom. This recently updated fact sheet sums it up neatly: “The Australian Government refers to the country as Myanmar”. Check out the government’s travel advice website for the newly Myanmarised presentation. I did a cheeky Control-F for “Burma” and came up with nothing. Downunder, at least, the linguistic transition has occurred. And, for those who are interested in some archival matter, my April 2012 thoughts on the topic are available here."
    Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 July 2014


    Title: Australia: Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Description/subject: 454 search results for "Burma". (August 2003)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australia: Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Australian Embassy in Burma (Myanmar)
    Description/subject: The pages include information about services for Australian travellers overseas, advice about immigration and visas, information about Australia's foreign policy and development assistance programs, and general information about Australia. This website also contains links to other websites which outline the roles and responsibilities of the different agencies and departments of the Australian government.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australian Embassy Burma
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burma.embassy.gov.au/rang/relations.html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Ministerial Statement on Burma
    Date of publication: 10 February 2010
    Author/creator: STEPHEN SMITH
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australian Government
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: Burma/Myanmar: internal issues and regional and international responses
    Date of publication: 16 October 2009
    Description/subject: Burma’s military government dominates the country’s politics and its economy.[1] It has continued to repress political opponents (including Aung San Suu Kyi) and its record in economic development and human rights is considered widely to be poor. While a number of Western governments have condemned the Burma regime’s policies, its relations with neighbouring countries (most notably China) have facilitated the regime in resisting external influence. The government has recently unveiled a new Constitution and has declared that elections will be held in 2010. Attention will focus in the next two years on whether the proposed elections will simply result in the consolidation of the military’s dominance or provide an avenue for some change. This Background Note outlines major recent developments in relation to Burma and Australia’s policies towards it.
    Author/creator: Frank Frost
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Parliment of Australia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: Letter to Australian Foreign Minister Stephen Smith on a Burma Policy Review
    Date of publication: 05 October 2009
    Description/subject: On October 5, 2009, Human Rights Watch sent a letter to Australia's Foreign Minister Stephen Smith, urging Australia to work closely with its Asian neighbors to ensure a united front in addressing the human rights situation in Burma.
    Author/creator: Kenneth Roth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: Dealing with Burma the Australian Way
    Date of publication: October 2002
    Description/subject: "Breaking ranks with the international community, Australia�s Foreign Minister Alexander Downer became the first Western official to visit Burma in decades... It is clear that despite calls from the international community the junta has no real commitment to improving human rights or bringing about real political change, in Burma. It only took 24 hours in Burma to confirm that for Australian Foreign Minister, Alexander Downer. After meeting with junta leaders and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Downer told the world that the junta has no current plans to discuss national reconciliation with the opposition. He also told the Thai Foreign Minster in Bangkok that the time had come to increase the pressure on Burma. Now, Australia says it will put more public and moral pressure on Rangoon to show good faith and begin talks with the opposition. On his visit to Burma, Downer�s remarks made many observers think that Australia was considering a policy shift on Burma. Unlike most Western democratic countries, Australia previously believed it could persuade the junta with friendly "limited engagement" to respect human rights and restore democracy in Burma. Australia never held much faith in isolating Burma and has continued to maintain diplomatic ties with Rangoon..."
    Author/creator: Dr Myint Cho
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Don't Expect Junta to Respect Human Rights
    Date of publication: 22 August 2000
    Description/subject: Will Australia's approach to the human rights problems in Burma succeed where others have failed? No, writes Josef Silverstein.
    Author/creator: Josef Silverstein
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Australian"
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Fact Sheet (Australian Govt.)
    Description/subject: One-pager. Some general country info and recent economic indicators but the main focus is on Australia-Burma trade.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australia: Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Radio Australia Burmese service launches
    Description/subject: Radio Australia’s new Burmese language service began on 9th November 2009, with two news broadcasts. Radio Australia’s Chief Executive, Hanh Tran, said Burma’s elections next year and increased international attention on the military-led country prompted the decision to start the new radio service.
    Language: Burmese,English
    Source/publisher: Australia Network/Radio Australia
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://blogs.rnw.nl/medianetwork/radio-australia-begins-burma-broadcasts
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


  • Bangladesh-Burma relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Bangladesh–Burma relations
    Description/subject: The neighboring countries of Bangladesh and Burma (officially, Myanmar) currently have a ambiguous bilateral relationship. Tensions exist between the two countries due to border disputes and the presence of over 270,000 Burmese Muslim refugees in Bangladesh, however.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Narinjara News
    Description/subject: This news service covers Bangladesh-Burma relations, the Bangladesh-Burma border, events in Arakan and human rights violations against both the Buddhist and Muslim population of Arakan. Email delivery of the reports may be requested from narinjara@yahoo.com
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Narinjara News
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: How South Asia Resolves Maritime Disputes
    Date of publication: 10 July 2014
    Description/subject: "As Ankit noted earlier today, the Hague-based Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) ruled on the maritime dispute between India and Bangladesh in the Bay of Bengal this week. According to news reports, the court awarded 19,467 square kilometers (7,516 square miles) of a total disputed area of 25,602 km to Bangladesh. More importantly, both countries praised the ruling. “It is the victory of friendship and a win-win situation for the peoples of Bangladesh and India,” Bangladesh’s Foreign Minister Abul Hassan Mahmood Ali told a news conference on Tuesday, Reuters reported. He added: “We commend India for its willingness to resolve this matter peacefully by legal means and for its acceptance of the tribunal’s judgment.” India’s Ministry of External Affairs also released a statement hailing the court’s ruling in Bangladesh’s favor. “The settlement of the maritime boundary will further enhance mutual understanding and goodwill between India and Bangladesh by bringing to closure a long-pending issue,” the statement said. “This paves the way for the economic development of this part of the Bay of Bengal, which will be beneficial to both countries.” This is not the first time that India and Bangladesh have peacefully resolved a territorial dispute. Back in 2011, India and Bangladesh reached a bilateral agreement to resolve their disputed land borders This is also not the first time an international tribunal has peacefully resolved a maritime border dispute in South Asia. At the same time it filed the case with India, Bangladesh asked another tribunal to resolve its maritime dispute with Myanmar according to the terms of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Myanmar, like India, agreed to submit the case to the tribunal and abide by its ruling..."
    Author/creator: Zachary Keck
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 July 2014


    Title: Myanmar conflict threatens regional stability
    Date of publication: 16 August 2012
    Description/subject: "AGARTALA and IMPHAL - As a rising number of Rohingya Muslims flee sectarian conflict in Myanmar and take sanctuary in India's northeastern states, the flow of refugees is putting a new strain on bilateral relations. New Delhi has called on Naypyidaw to stem the rising human tide, a diplomatic request that Indian officials say has so far gone unheeded. Ongoing sporadic violence between Rohingya Muslims and Buddhist Rakhines in western Myanmar has left more than 80 dead and displaced tens of thousands. The Myanmar government's inability or unwillingness to stop the persecution of Rohingyas has provoked strong international reaction, raising calls for retribution in radical corners of the Islamic world, including a threat from the Pakistani Taliban to attack Myanmar's diplomatic missions abroad. Fears are now rising that Myanmar-borne instability is spreading to India's northeastern frontier regions, threatening to spiral into a wider regional security dilemma. At the same time that Muslim Rohingyas and Buddhist Rakhines clashed in Myanmar, fighting erupted between Muslims and Hindus in India's northeastern Assam State. As in Myanmar, where the Rohingyas are considered illegal Bangladeshi settlers, the Muslims targeted in Assam are accused of being ethnic Bengalis who have migrated illegally from Bangladesh..."
    Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 September 2012


    Title: “The Government Could Have Stopped This” - Sectarian Violence and Ensuing Abuses in Burma’s Arakan State
    Date of publication: 01 August 2012
    Description/subject: Summary: "In June 2012, deadly sectarian violence erupted in western Burma’s Arakan State between ethnic Arakan Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims (as well as non-Rohingya Muslims). The violence broke out after reports circulated that on May 28 an Arakan woman was raped and killed in the town of Ramri allegedly by three Muslim men. Details of the crime were circulated locally in an incendiary pamphlet, and on June 3, a large group of Arakan villagers in Toungop stopped a bus and brutally killed 10 Muslims on board. Human Rights Watch confirmed that local police and soldiers stood by and watched the killings without intervening. On June 8, thousands of Rohingya rioted in Maungdaw town after Friday prayers, destroying Arakan property and killing an unknown number of Arakan residents. Sectarian violence then quickly swept through the Arakan State capital, Sittwe, and surrounding areas. Mobs from both communities soon stormed unsuspecting villages and neighborhoods, killing residents and destroying homes, shops, and houses of worship. With little to no government security present to stop the violence, people armed themselves with swords, spears, sticks, iron rods, knives, and other basic weapons, taking the law into their own hands. Vast stretches of property from both communities were razed. The government claimed that 78 people were killed—an undoubtedly conservative figure—while more than 100,000 people were displaced from their homes. The hostilities were fanned by inflammatory anti-Muslim media accounts and local propaganda. During the period after the rape and killing was reported and before the violence broke out, tensions had risen dramatically in Arakan State. However, local residents from each community told Human Rights Watch that the Burmese authorities provided no protection and did not appear to have taken any special measures to preempt the violence. On June 10, fearing the unrest would spread beyond the borders of Arakan State, Burmese President Thein Sein announced a state of emergency, transferring civilian power to the Burmese army in affected areas of the state. At this point, a wave of concerted violence by various state security forces against Rohingya communities began. For example, Rohingya in Narzi quarter—the largest Muslim area in Sittwe, home to 10,000 Muslims—described “THE GOVERNMENT COULD HAVE STOPPED THIS” 2 how Arakan mobs burned down their homes on June 12 while the police and paramilitary Lon Thein forces opened fire on them with live ammunition. In northern Arakan State, the Nasaka border guard force, the army, police, and Lon Thein committed killings, mass arrests, and looting against Rohingya. In the aftermath, local Arakan leaders and members of the Arakan community in Sittwe have called for the forced displacement of the Muslim community from the city, while local Buddhist monks have initiated a campaign of exclusion, calling on the local Buddhist population to neither befriend nor do business with Muslims..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
    Format/size: pdf (630K-original; 575K-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/The_Government_Could_Have_Stopped_this-HRW-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 02 August 2012


    Title: Bangladesh FM leaves for Germany for Maritime dispute verdict
    Date of publication: 14 March 2012
    Description/subject: "Bangladesh Foreign minister Dr Dipu Moni is leaving for Germany to hear the maritime dispute verdict delivered by the judges of The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS). She is scheduled to arrive in Hamburg at 3:10 am Bangladesh time on Wednesday, to be present during the deliberation of the verdict. The ITLOS will deliver its verdict on the dispute concerning delimitation of the maritime boundary between Bangladesh and Myanmar in the Bay of Bengal on Wednesday..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Narinjara News
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 March 2012


    Title: The Maritime Boundary Dispute between Bangladesh and Myanmar: Motivations, Potential Solutions, and Implications
    Date of publication: July 2010
    Description/subject: This article examines the major catalysts of the surge in activity over the maritime boundary dispute between Myanmar and Bangladesh and explores both the likely avenues for resolution and the resulting implications for the two countries and the region at large.
    Author/creator: Jared Bissinger
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The National Bureau of Asian Research, Seattle, Washington
    Format/size: pdf (167.77 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.nbr.org/publications/asia_policy/AP10/AP10_D_Maritime.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Bangladesh, Myanmar agree to compromise on sea boundary dispute
    Date of publication: 21 January 2010
    Description/subject: Dhaka, Jan 9 (DPA) Bangladesh and Myanmar Saturday agreed to compromise to resolve a long-standing maritime border dispute in the Bay of Bengal, officials said. The lack of a clear boundary has caused tensions between the two neighbours over offshore hydrocarbon exploration in the bay in 2008.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Thaindian News
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: BANGLADESH – MYANMAR RELATIONS- THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION
    Date of publication: 06 November 2009
    Description/subject: 37 years is a relatively long time to build up a viable economic relationship between two neighboring countries- Bangladesh & Myanmar. Let us take stock of what we have institutionally done so far- 1. Before independence (in 1966), an agreement to demarcate land boundary was signed with Myanmar; 2. In 1980, border agreement for cooperation was signed; 3. In 1988, an agreement for demarcation of land section of the boundary north of Naaf river was signed; 4. An understanding to have foreign secretary level annual talks touching on economic links has been agreed to; 5. A joint trade commission was established to discuss trade matters; 6. Talks on delimitation of maritime boundary has now been agreed to.
    Author/creator: Ambassador Ashfaqur Rahman
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Centre for Foreign Affairs Studies (CFAS)
    Format/size: pdf (48.24 K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Bangladesh-Myanmar in standoff
    Date of publication: 09 November 2008
    Description/subject: Troops on alert as row over oil and gas exploration in Bay of Bengal simmers. Bangladesh's border guards have been placed on high alert after reports that Myanmar strengthened its security along the 270km land border between the countries. The move came as Myanmar's government said on Sunday that oil and gas exploration operations in contested waters in the Bay of Bengal had been completed.
    Source/publisher: Aljazeera
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia-pacific/2008/11/20081194956933121.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: The Bangladesh-Myanmar maritime boundary dispute
    Date of publication: 06 November 2008
    Description/subject: On the 1st of November four drilling ships from Myanmar started exploration for oil and gas reserves within 50 nautical miles south west of St. Martins Island, in Bangladesh. A South Korean company was awarded the oil and gas exploration contract in that place and two Myanmar naval ships escorted the drilling ships. Three naval ships of Bangladesh went to challenge them but the Myanmar Navy responded by alleging that the Bangladesh Navy ships are trespassing.
    Author/creator: Rezwan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: E-Banglades
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 2 - Bangladesh–Burma relations
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Bangladesh’s policy towards Burma/Myanmar in historical context; II The present phase of Bangladesh–Burma relations; III Trade and economic relations 64 IV Conclusions. "...For Bangladesh, its relations with Burma have been dominated by a refugee crises provoked by the actions of the Burmese Army under the military governments of Ne Win and SLORC/SPDC. These crises generated unbearable economic, political and social pressures within Bangladesh thus limiting its room for creative initiatives. These crises also significantly increased Bangladesh dependence on foreign assistance to relieve the burden of the continued presence of the refugees. In the latest crisis, this dependence has led leading donor countries to openly seek to influence Bangladesh bilateral policies towards Burma. On the other hand, it is submitted, that Burma’s general standing in Southeast Asia and in South Asia has greatly improved since 1997, increasing its bargaining power vis-à-vis Bangladesh. Burma's improved economic position, its greatly expanded armed forces, its relative success in neutralizing the major insurgencies within the country, its close links with China, its admission into ASEAN, have all contributed to Myanmar's new strength and greater negotiating power. The ruling SPDC is in a position to dangle the promise of trade access to the rich resources of their country before the eager Bangladesh business community. Moreover, the occupation of the Burmese Embassy in Bangkok and the holding of hostages was expected to harden public opinion against the so-called “terrorist” activities of the student supporters of Aung San Suu Kyi..."
    Author/creator: Kaiser Morshed
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (188K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


    Title: Bangladesh-Myanmar Relations and the Stateless Rohingyas
    Date of publication: June 2001
    Description/subject: I have lately been disturbed by two developments. Firstly, at the very moment when 'realism' has lost its post-Westphalian glories and is suffering from disrepute, the stateless people continue to be at the mercy of the state. In the case of the Rohingyas it is even more pathetic for their refuge across the border brought no change to their sufferings. On the contrary, as camped and non-camped refugees, they ended up becoming victims of yet another state power, this time of Bangladesh. Secondly, when the power of the state has been eroded considerably, particularly in the wake of misgovernance and globalization, the state is brought in to resolve the issue of statelessness. Indeed, the Rohingyas were sent home, amidst criticism of 'involuntary' repatriation, with the hope that the government of Myanmar (GOM) after over half-a-century would change its position and make them all worthy citizens of Myanmar. What we have is a representation of a dialectic in the constitution of the state, that is, state as usurper and state as salvation, without of course realizing that the former cancels the latter and vice versa.
    Author/creator: Imtiaz Ahmed
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Department of International Relations, University of Dhaka
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


  • Burma and the Geopolitics of Oil and Gas

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Sino-Burma pipelines
    Description/subject: Sino-Burma pipelines refers to planned oil and natural gas pipelines linking Burma's deep-water port of Kyaukphyu (Sittwe) in the Bay of Bengal with Kunming in Yunnan province of China.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: China Backs Burma’s Junta Leaders
    Date of publication: 15 September 2010
    Description/subject: Burma's junta leader comes back happy from China after getting backing for his November election and a pledge from Beijing to snub ethnic militias inside Burma. “May I propose a toast for the long-lasting Sino-Myanmar Pauk-phaw friendship?” So said Li Jinjun, China's Ambassador to Myanmar, or Burma, speaking at an official reception in Rangoon five years ago. Meaning 'brother' in Burmese, the wording is as a hat-tip to the growing commercial and strategic ties between the two countries – links which Burmese opposition leaders and exiles have slammed for helping maintain an oppressive status quo in Burma, which is scheduled to hold elections on 7 November. The real meaning of Pauk-phaw was underlined last week with the visit of Burma's junta leader Sen. Gen. Than Shwe to China, marking the 60th anniversary of bilateral relations between the two countries.
    Author/creator: Simon Roughneen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Oil Price
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://oilprice.com/Search/newest-first.html?searchphrase=any&searchword=Myanmar
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Regional Political Economy of China Ascendant:- Pivotal Issues and Critical Perspectives. Chapter 4: China Engages Myanmar as a Chinese Client State?
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Introduction: The Role of Energy in Sino-Myanmar Relations; Myanmar Plays the China Card; China Engages Myanmar in the ASEAN Way; Conclusion: Norms, Energy and Beyond: "Conclusion: Norms, Energy and Beyond This chapter has demonstrated two points. First, although ASEAN, China, India, and Japan form partnership with Myanmar for different reasons, interactions among the regional stakeholders with regard to Myanmar have reinforced the regional norm of non-intervention into other states’ internal affairs. Both India and Japan, the two democratic countries in the region, have been socialized, though in varying degrees, into the norm when they engage Myanmar as well as ASEAN.67 The regional normative environment or structure in which all stakeholders find themselves defines or constitutes their Asian identities, national interests, and more importantly, what counts as rightful action. At the same time, regional actors create and reproduce the dominant norms when they interact with each other. This lends support to the constructivist argument that both agent and structure are mutually constitutive.68 This ideational approach prompts us to look beyond such material forces and concerns as the quest for energy resources as well as military prowess to explain China’s international behaviour. Both rationalchoice logic of consequences and constructivist logic of appropriateness are at work in China’s relations with Myanmar and ASEAN. But pundits grossly overstate the former at the expense of the latter. To redress this imbalance, this chapter asserts that China adopts a “business as usual” approach to Myanmar largely because this approach is regarded as appropriate and legitimate by Myanmar and ASEAN and practised by India and Japan as well, and because China wants to strengthen the moral legitimacy of an international society based on the state-centric principles of national sovereignty and nonintervention. As a corollary, we argue that regional politics at play have debunked the common, simplistic belief that Myanmar is a client state of China and that China’s thirst for Myanmar’s energy resources is a major determinant of China’s policy towards the regime. A close examination of the oil and gas assets in Myanmar reveals that it is less likely to be able to become a significant player in international oil politics. Whereas Myanmar may offer limited material benefits to China, it and ASEAN at large are of significant normative value to the latter. Ostensibly China adopts a realpolitik approach to Myanmar; however, the approach also reflects China’s recognition of the presence and prominence of a regional normative structure and its firm support for it.".....11 pages of notes and bibliographic references
    Author/creator: Pak K. Lee, Gerald Chan and Lai-Ha Chan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies, University of Malaya
    Format/size: pdf (892K - OBL version; 1.2MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/China_engages_Myanmar_as_client_state.pdf-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 17 September 2011


    Title: Bangladesh-Myanmar in standoff
    Date of publication: 09 November 2008
    Description/subject: Troops on alert as row over oil and gas exploration in Bay of Bengal simmers. Bangladesh's border guards have been placed on high alert after reports that Myanmar strengthened its security along the 270km land border between the countries. The move came as Myanmar's government said on Sunday that oil and gas exploration operations in contested waters in the Bay of Bengal had been completed.
    Source/publisher: Aljazeera
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia-pacific/2008/11/20081194956933121.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Es besteht Nachholbedarf
    Date of publication: 11 January 2008
    Description/subject: Es erhob sich in letzter Zeit der Ruf nach einem energischen Auftreten Indiens gegen das Militärregime in Burma immer lauter. Die Rufer übersahen allerdings, dass die indisch-burmesischen Beziehungen, wie auch die zum Rest Südostasiens, alles andere als eng und damit die Möglichkeiten der Einflussnahme ausgesprochen gering sind. Außenpolitik Indiens; Indisch-chinesische Beziehung; Südostasien; SEATO; India`s foreign policy; Indian-Burmese Relations; Indian-Chinese Relations; Southeast Asia; Uprising 2007
    Author/creator: Amit Das Gupta
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus
    Format/size: Html (47 kb)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.asienhaus.de/public/archiv/2007-4-008.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008


    Title: Myanmar's “Saffron Revolution”: The Geopolitics behind the Protest Movement
    Date of publication: 15 October 2007
    Description/subject: Burma’s “Saffron Revolution,” like the Ukraine “Orange Revolution” or the Georgia “Rose Revolution” and the various Color Revolutions instigated in recent years against strategic states surrounding Russia, is a well-orchestrated exercise in Washington-run regime change, down to the details of “hit-and-run” protests with “swarming” mobs of Buddhists in saffron, internet blogs, mobile SMS links between protest groups, well-organized protest cells which disperse and reform. CNN made the blunder during a September broadcast of mentioning the active presence of the NED behind the protests in Myanmar. There are facts and then there are facts. First it’s a fact which few will argue that the present military dictatorship of the reclusive General Than Shwe is right up there when it comes to world-class tyrannies. It’s also a fact that Burma enjoys one of the world’s lowest standards of living. A dramatic collapse in purchasing power resulted from the ill-conceived 100% to 500% price hikes in gasoline and other fuels in August.
    Author/creator: F. William Engdahl
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Global Research
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Step on the Gas
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: Asian nations are stumbling over each other in a rush to capture the concession rights to huge gas and oil resources controlled by the Burmese junta... "Despite the efforts of some Western governments to isolate the Burmese regime economically, the stark reality is that more private companies and countries than ever are courting the Burmese generals to obtain a share of the country’s vast oil and gas resources. International energy companies from nine countries are now competing for exploration or production rights for gas and oil both offshore and o­nshore in Burma. A Thai company recently discovered a huge offshore gas field that may harbor as much as two trillion cubic feet of gas..."
    Author/creator: William Boot
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: Burma. Ein Mosaikstein indischer Ost-Politik. Pragmatismus gegenüber der Militärjunta
    Date of publication: 25 April 2007
    Description/subject: Seit Beginn der 1990er Jahre arrangierten sich alle indischen Regierungen mit dem östlichen Nachbarn. Die größte Demokratie der Welt zeigte sich sehr zurückhaltend gegenüber der kürzlichen Protestbewegung in Burma. Energieinteressen, die burmesische Hilfe bei der Bekämpfung von Rebellen im indischen Nordosten und die angestrebte Neutralisierung des mächtigen chinesischen Einflusses führten zu einem sichtbaren Appeasement gegenüber der ebident die Menschenrechte verletzenden burmesischen Junta. Es mangelt an einer überzeugenden Initiative der indischen Regionalmacht, das Thema Burma offensiv anzugehen; chinesischer Einfluss in Burma; Geo-Politik Burmas; indische Wirtschaftsinteressen in Burma; indisch-burmesische Militärkooperationen; chinese Influence in Burma; geo-politics of Burma; indian economic interests in Burma; indian-burmese military cooperation
    Author/creator: Klaus Julian Voll
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008


    Title: Burma and Its Neighbours: The Geopolitics of Gas
    Date of publication: 24 August 2006
    Description/subject: "while countries in the neighbouring regions - particularly India and Thailand, but also Australia and Japan - may have important roles to play, China wields far more leverage. For those who wish to influence Burma in a positive direction, it is therefore essential to consider ways that change could be stimulated with the active participation of China, whether through sanctions, constructive engagement and/or any form of dialogue." The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Nautilus Institute. Readers should note that Nautilus seeks a diversity of views and opinions on contentious topics in order to identify common ground..."
    Author/creator: Ã…shild KolÃ¥s & Stein Tønnesson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Austral Policy Forum 06-30A 24 August 2006
    Format/size: html, pdf (137K)
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


    Title: Energy Security in Asia: China, India, Oil and Peace
    Date of publication: April 2006
    Description/subject: Report to the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs..."India and China are both characterized by a tremendous increase in energy consumption, of which an increasing share derives from imports. Very rapid economic growth always makes it difficult to arrive at a sound balance between demand and supply, and this tends to generate waste, bottlenecks and insecurity. Although both countries are trying hard to provide appropriate energy, increase their energy efficiency, and diversify their sources of supply, they are becoming increasingly dependent on imported oil, and the Persian Gulf is set to remain their predominant source of oil in the coming decades. Instability in the Middle East thus poses a serious challenge to the security of China and India, just as it does for Japan, the US and many European countries. The question of maintaining a stable supply of fossil fuels poses several security challenges. One is to boost one's own production, another to diversify one's sources of import, and a third to secure the transportation of oil and gas on vulnerable sea routes; or over land through pipelines that depend on long-term strategic relationships with the producing countries. In China and India a heightened awareness of the geopolitical implications of energy supply and demand has given energy issues an increasing prominence both in their domestic and foreign policies. However, it is difficult to say if this leads to more tension in their foreign relations or if instead it pushes them towards increased international cooperation. Plans are certainly being made for future possible ‘resource wars', but emphasis is presently being put on economic competition, and on seeking to maximise each country's position on the international energy market. Then again, such increasing resource competition may contribute to raising the stakes of conflict in areas where national jurisdiction has not been resolved (East China Sea, South China Sea), and also in some of the energy exporting countries. Burma is one such country, in which the energy security dynamics of India and China are played out, and this is detailed in an appendix to the report. The report is based on available literature, online energy data, and communication with Indian and Chinese researchers. We have used country reports and statistics provided by the International Energy Agency (IEA), statistics, forecasts and analyses by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), unpublished academic papers, books and articles by Indian and Chinese researchers, and reports by several European and American analysts. Based on our assessments of the energy security strategies and interests of the major players in the region, the report outlines three scenarios for the future of international relations in Asia. The first, called ' is the most positive and also, in our judgment, the most likely. The second scenario, ', presents a possible embargo against China, and is perhaps the least likely, at least in the near future. The third scenario, ' presents the nightmare scenario of a full scale ' with global impact and serious consequences for India and China. The situation in Iraq, and especially the ongoing developments with relation to Iran's nuclear programme, force us to say that this scenario is not just a fantasy fiction, but a real possibility, even in the short term. The final section of the report offers suggestions as to implications of the outlined scenarios for Norwegian foreign policy formulation. Four areas of cooperation that would improve energy security in China and India, as well as globally, are identified: 1) support for the promotion of energy efficiency, 2) assistance in the development of clean coal and gas technology for electricity production, 3) a campaign for engaging the world's great powers in a major research effort to develop transportation technologies that do not depend on oil, 4) assistance in the nomination and promotion of Indian and Chinese candidature for IEA membership..."
    Author/creator: Stein Tønnesson and Åshild KolÃ¥s
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)
    Format/size: pdf (185K)
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2007


    Title: TOTAL unethisch
    Date of publication: 15 March 2006
    Description/subject: Ein weltweiter Aktionstag gegen den französischen Ölkonzern TOTAL am 3. Februar 2006 wirft wieder einmal Licht auf die Frage nach der unternehmerischen Verantwortung bei Geschäften mit dem diktatorischen Regime. TOTAL wird vorgeworfen, mitverantwortlich für schwere Menschenrechtsverletzungen im Zusammenhang mit dem Bau einer Pipeline zwischen 1995 und 1998 zu sein. Außerdem mache sich der Konzern heute zum Komplizen für die Machenschaften des für seine Verbrechen gegen die Zivilbevölkerung bekannten Regimes ganz einfach durch Bereitstellung finanzieller Ressourcen aus den enormen Erlösen des Erdgasverkaufs. Dafür soll sich der Konzern in Frankreich und in Belgien vor Gericht verantworten. Burmas Öl- und Gaspolitik; Rolle der EU und Asiens;
    Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008


    Title: Articlesand Papers_Shwe Gas Movement
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.shwe.org/
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


  • Canada-Burma relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma Cyclone Relief Fund
    Description/subject: In May 2008, Canada announced it would match the contributions of Canadians to humanitarian organizations responding to Cyclone Nargis that struck Burma on May 2, 2008. To this end, the Government of Canada created the Burma Cyclone Relief Fund. For every dollar generously donated by individual Canadians to eligible Canadian charitable organizations, Canada contributed a dollar to the Burma Cyclone Relief Fund. The Canadian International Development Agency provided effective and accountable financial support to established Canadian and international humanitarian organizations for relief efforts that are benefiting the people in Burma most affected by the cyclone. ALSO FIND LINKS OF BURMA CYCLONE NARGIS PROJECTS DETAILS.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Canadian International Development Agency
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.international.gc.ca/humanitarian-humanitaire/cyclone_nargis.aspx?lang=eng
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Canadian Friends of Burma/Les Amis Canadiens de la Birmanie
    Description/subject: "Canadian Friends of Burma is a national non-governmental organization founded in 1991 as an outcome of a Canadian NGO seminar about Burma. In partnership with solidarity organizations at home and abroad, CFOB works for the cause of peace, human rights and democracy in Burma. Its primary objectives are to raise awareness about the political, human rights and socio-economic conditions in Burma and to encourage more Canadians to take action in this regard. CFOB supports Canadian groups engaged in Burma educational activities, produces educational materials about Burma, and monitors the involvement of Canadian businesses. Accordingly, CFOB has become an important national locus of NGO and grassroots activity and government relations..."
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Government of Canada
    Description/subject: Search for Burma
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://canada.gc.ca/main_e.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Canada's Policy on Burma
    Date of publication: October 2008
    Description/subject: Canada’s policy on Burma is a direct reflection of the severe problems that the military government has created for its people, and the security concerns that the policies of its leadership and the actions of its armed forces pose for the international community. Foremost among the concerns is the appalling mistreatment of the people of Burma, who are deprived of fundamental human rights and denied a voice in the way they are governed.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of Canada
    Format/size: pdf (134.10 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/thailand-thailande/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada-burm...
    http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/thailand-thailande/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/fs_burma-bi...
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: Export Controls to Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 29 January 2008
    Description/subject: Table of Contents: 1.0 Purpose 2.0 Background 3.0 Administration 4.0 Authority 5.0 General Instructions "This notice informs exporters of considerations which are applied to applications to export to Burma (Myanmar). This notice supersedes Notice to Exporters Serial No. 100, "Export Controls to Myanmar (Burma)", issued August 11, 1997."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada_ Serial No. 155
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Important information related to Canada's sanctions against Burma
    Date of publication: 13 December 2007
    Description/subject: On December 13, 2007 the Special Economic Measures (Burma) Regulations came into force. Canada's decision to impose robust and targeted sanctions against the Burmese regime, including a ban on all goods exported from Canada to Burma, and a prohibition on the provision of Canadian financial services to and from Burma, reflect Canada's condemnation of the Burmese regime's complete disregard for human rights and ongoing repression of the democratic movement. Canada's sanctions are targeted at the Burmese authorities and not the people of Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Special Economic Measures (Burma) Regulations, SOR/2007-285
    Date of publication: 13 December 2007
    Description/subject: INTERPRETATION [1.] -LIST [2.] 2.Designated person -PROHIBITIONS [3. - 13.] 3.Export 4.Import 5.Assets Freeze 6.Technical data 7.(1)Investment — property in Burma held by or on behalf of Burma or national of Burma not ordinarily resident in Canada 7.(2)Investment — property held by or on behalf of a person in Burma 7.(3)Property 8.Financial services 9.Docking — ship registered in Burma 10.Docking — ship registered under an Act of Parliament 11.Landing in Canada 12.Landing in Burma 13.Prohibition -DUTY TO DETERMINE [14.] 14.Determination -DISCLOSURE [15.] 15.(1)Report 15.(2)Immunity -APPLICATION TO NO LONGER BE A DESIGNATED PERSON [16.] 16.(1)Petition 16.(2)Decision 16.(3)Presumption 16.(4)Notice 16.(5)New application -APPLICATION FOR A CERTIFICATE [17.] 17.(1)Mistaken identity 17.(2)Certificate — time frame -EXCLUSIONS [18. - 19.] 18.Import and export 19.Financial services -APPLICATION PRIOR TO PUBLICATION [20.] 20.Application -COMING INTO FORCE [21.] 21.Registration SCHEDULE
    Language: English, Francais/ Français
    Source/publisher: Canadian Legal Information Institute
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.canlii.org/fr/ca/legis/regl/dors-2007-285/derniere/dors-2007-285.html (Français)
    http://canadagazette.gc.ca/archives/p2/2007/2007-12-26/html/sor-dors285-eng.html#tphp
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Looted Land, Proud People: The Case for Canadian Action in Burma
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: A useful and balanced overview. FACTS ABOUT BURMA... BURMA: A CHRONOLOGY... CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND TO 1988: Rise of Nationalism; Ne Win and Isolationism; Growth of Heroin Industry... CHAPTER 2: THE MEN BEHIND THE MASSACRES: The Ordeal of Aung San Suu Kyi... CHAPTER 3: THE HUMAN COSTS OF MILITARY RULE: Refugees; Political Prisoners; Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and Forced Relocation; Forced Labour; Students and Education; Political Prisoners; Freedom of the Press; The Militarization of Society; Women Living under a Military Dictatorship; Political Prisoners... CHAPTER 4: THE CRIMINAL ECOMONY: Sectors Complicit with Forced Labour; Opium, Heroin and a Drug Economy... CHAPTER 5: FORCED LABOUR AND THE ILO: ILO Commission of Inquiry, 1998 Report; Follow-up to the 1998 Report; CHAPTER 6: GEOPOLITICS AND INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCES: Neighbouring Countries; Malaysia,Singapore and ASEA; Canada and Other International Influences; The United Nations; Other National Governments; How Does Canada Measure Up?; Civil Society... CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS: Canada’s Role; Development Assistance; Trade and Investment... FURTHER READING... WEB CONNECTIONS.
    Author/creator: Clyde Sanger
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Canadian Friends of Burma
    Format/size: pdf (1.35MB) 52 pages
    Date of entry/update: 09 July 2003


    Title: Canada: Looking for More Than a Quick Fix
    Date of publication: July 1999
    Description/subject: With growing numbers of Canadians falling victim to the burgeoning trade in Burmese heroin ... the country's lawmakers have started to target Burma's military junta for its role in undermining security at home and abroad.
    Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Info Sheet On Burma: A GLIMPSE OF BURMA
    Description/subject: PROVIDED BY CANADIAN FRIENDS OF BURMA (CFOB) BASED ON FIRST AND SECOND BURMA FORUM REPORTS Included the OVERVIEW ON CANADA-BURMA RELATIONS.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Canadian Friends of Burma
    Format/size: MS
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


  • China-Burma relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: China and Myanmar’s reforms
    Date of publication: 10 February 2014
    Description/subject: "China has long been concerned about ineffective Myanmar political, social and economic policies, many of which had direct impacts on Chinese interests, although as is customary for China, it tended to blur its public criticisms of Myanmar policies. After around 2000, in private conversations with other countries Chinese diplomatic representatives did not bother to hide their frequent frustration with the negative impacts on China from Myanmar’s poor economic management (manifested most openly in their inability to repay Chinese loans, albeit concessional loans), in striking contrast to China’s own post-1978 economic liberalisation..."
    Author/creator: Trevor Wilson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


    Title: BURMA-CHINA CHRONOLOGY: 2nd Century BC to 1999
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: This chronology was compiled in 1999 by David Arnott as part of the research for his chapter on Burma-China relations in “Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 3 - China–Burma relations” published by International IDEA in 2001. Most of the extracts are from news sources, notably the official Burmese daily The Working People’s Daily (WPD), re-named The New Light of Myanmar (NLM) in April 1993. Most extracts from 1987-1996 are taken from The Burma Press Summary compiled by Hugh MacDougall. Other sources include the US Govt’s Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and the Internet version of NLM. A lighter China-Burma chronology updated to end 2001 exists on The Irrawaddy research pages at http://www.irrawaddy.org/research_show.php?art_id=446
    Author/creator: David Arnott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: WPD, NLM, FBIS ETC.
    Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 22 February 2008


    Title: China Daily
    Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: China Daily
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Google search in "The Irrawaddy" for "China"
    Description/subject: Searched on Google for China site:irrawaddy.org
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" via Google
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 May 2011


    Title: Inside China Today
    Language: English
    Format/size: Search for Myanmar, Yangon etc.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: People's Daily Online
    Description/subject: 337 hits for "Myanmar" (February 2005)...3191 hits (January 2009)...3944 hits (October 2009)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "People's Daily"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Website of Renaud Egreteau
    Description/subject: "Welcome to my Site ! Let me introduce myself. As a French researcher in International Relations, I have been working for the last 7 years on geopolitics in Asia, with a special focus on India and Burma (Myanmar). In December 2006, I successfully defended my Ph.D Dissertation (Political Science, Asian Studies) at the Institute of Political Science, Paris, France : "India, China and the Burmese Issue : Sino-Indian Rivalry through Burma/Myanmar and its Limits since 1988" (with distinction). You will find in this website a glimpse of the works I have done so far on those issues (articles, publications, fieldworks) as well as some links and contacts which could be of interest on these matters. Enjoy the visit "... Dr. Renaud EGRETEAU
    Language: Francais, French, English
    Source/publisher: Renaud Egreteau
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 June 2007


    Individual Documents

    Title: China, the United States and the Kachin Conflict
    Date of publication: January 2014
    Description/subject: KEY FINDINGS: 1. The prolonged Kachin conflict is a major obstacle to Myanmar’s national reconciliation and a challenging test for the democratization process. 2. The KIO and the Myanmar government differ on the priority between the cease-fire and the political dialogue. Without addressing this difference, the nationwide peace accord proposed by the government will most likely lack the KIO’s participation. 3. The disagreements on terms have hindered a formal cease-fire. In addition, the existing economic interest groups profiting from the armed conflict have further undermined the prospect for progress. 4. China intervened in the Kachin negotiations in 2013 to protect its national interests. A crucial motivation was a concern about the “internationalization” of the Kachin issue and the potential US role along the Chinese border. 5. Despite domestic and external pressure, the US has refrained from playing a formal and active role in the Kachin conflict. The need to balance the impact on domestic politics in Myanmar and US-China relations are factors in US policy. 6.A The US has attempted to discuss various options of cooperation with China on the Kachin issue. So far, such attempts have not been accepted by China.
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Stimson Center (Great Powers and the Changing Myanmar - Issue Brief No. 2)
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research-pdfs/Myanmar_Issue_Brief_No_2_Jan_2014_WEB.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2014


    Title: China still has it wrong in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 10 September 2013
    Description/subject: "China's policy of pursuing relations strictly at an inter-governmental level has spawned negative perceptions among various politically relevant grass roots communities in Myanmar. From controversial investments that have had negative social and environmental impacts, to single-minded efforts to protect its commercial interests, China is now part and parcel of many of Myanmar's deep-seated problem..."
    Author/creator: Bernt Berger
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 September 2013


    Title: China’s Troubled Myanmar Policy
    Date of publication: 23 August 2013
    Description/subject: A self-serving approach has clouded local perceptions of China’s presence, especially in troubled Kachin State...Over the years, China has expended considerable effort to improve its neighborhood relations, with the goal of maintaining stable borders and a viable trading environment. In so doing it has undertaken significant diplomatic efforts in maintaining networks among governments and governing elites. As time passes, one of the main shortcomings of this policy approach is becoming evident: China is increasingly finding itself at odds with non-governmental actors. Myanmar is a case study. China’s interests and investments in ethnic areas of Myanmar, and Kachin State in particular, are increasingly touching on fundamental questions of political self-determination and with it national conciliation. The issue of disposition over land and resources is a matter of a constitutional process, something that Chinese actors seem to ignore. In dealing with issues concerning Kachin State, a larger pattern of uncoordinated actors and self-serving interference has become evident. Until the transition from the Tatmadaw to civilian rule and the gradual lifting of international sanctions, China almost had carte blanche in its dealings with Myanmar. Deals with the elite did not go unnoticed but had no serious repercussions either inside or outside the country. Now, however, with an evolving civil society and greater prominence of inter-ethnic reconciliation on the national agenda, China’s operations have come under increasing scrutiny..."
    Author/creator: Bernt Berger
    Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
    Format/size: English
    Date of entry/update: 20 September 2013


    Title: India-China make a Myanmar tryst
    Date of publication: 13 August 2013
    Description/subject: "As India and China have emerged as major powers in Asia, their interests and concerns have transcended their geographical boundaries. There is particularly the case in Myanmar, where those interests have converged. This is largely due to the fact that Myanmar shares common borders with both the countries. Myanmar shares a 2,185-kilometer border with China, and 1,643-kilometer border with India. It has long been argued that Myanmar has always been a strategic concern for governing the dynamics of India-China relations. Myanmar's strategic location is considered as an important asset for India and China that offers tremendous opportunities for the countries of the region. Therefore, recent developments in Myanmar are a matter of concern for both India and China..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: War trumps peace in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 19 March 2013
    Description/subject: "Things are seldom as they seem in Myanmar, a country still little understood by the outside world. On a visit to Europe in early March, Myanmar President Thein Sein - an ex-general turned civilian politician - claimed that ''There's no more fighting in the country, we have been able to end this kind of armed conflict'' between government forces and various ethnic resistance armies. Back at home, the Myanmar army continues its fierce offensive against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) in the country's far northern region. As KIA representatives and government officials met for yet another round of peace talks in the Chinese border town of Ruili on March 11, more than a hundred trucks carrying reinforcements and heavy equipment were seen entering Kachin State from garrisons in central Myanmar. In Shan State, almost daily skirmishes are reported with the Shan State Army, which has a shaky ceasefire agreement with the authorities. In Karen State, more government troops are taking up new positions in the hills bordering Thailand. The Myanmar government's doublespeak has not dissuaded Western nongovernmental organizations and think tanks from launching various peacemaking initiatives at a time an entirely different foreign power has taken charge of the process: China..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


    Title: Powers Seek Influence in Burma’s Conflict
    Date of publication: 18 March 2013
    Description/subject: "Burma’s President Thein Sein, while visiting Europe, announced that the government’s fighting against ethnic resistance forces has ended – even as the government moves more troops into the troubled areas. Meanwhile, the United States and China are scrambling for influence by brokering peace to end the ethnic conflicts. Dozens of think tanks and NGOs from the West are attracting donor funds and pouring into the country. “The outcome has been overlapping initiatives, rivalry among organizations – and, more often than not, a lack of understanding by inexperienced ‘peacemakers’ of the conflicts’ root causes,” explains journalist and author Bertil Lintner. China, unhappy with Burma’s embrace of the West, has been actively leading peace talks since January. Lintner points out that China’s Yunnan Province has more than 130,000 ethnic Kachin who sympathize with their fellow Burmese Kachin. Motivations may differ, but China and the US both want the conflicts to end. Burma’s leaders may find it difficult to pursue military solutions, continuing sending troops north, while playing China and the United States off each other..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Yale Global Online -Yale Center for the Study of Globalization
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 March 2013


    Title: China's Intervention in the Myanmar-Kachin Peace Talks
    Date of publication: 20 February 2013
    Description/subject: "Peace talks between Myanmar's government and the rebel Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) in Ruili, China, on February 4, finally rendered a glimpse of hope after 17 months of bloody conflict. Although the two sides still need more time and further dialogue to reach a peace agreement, major breakthroughs were achieved on key issues such as strengthening communications, easing tensions and holding further talks before the end of February. Peace talks are not unusual for the KIO and the Myanmar government. Since the most recent outbreak of the conflict in 2011, the two sides have engaged in multiple rounds of informal talks, including at least three rounds in Ruili. However, these latest talks set a new precedent because of the central role that China played in the process and signify a major intervention by Beijing that is unique. China was instrumental in arranging the latest round of dialogue between the two parties. Due to the lack of trust between the KIO and the Myanmar government, both preferred a third party location rather than Laiza--headquarters of the Kachin Independence Army (KIA)--or Naypyidaw. During the talks, China not only provided the venue, but also explicitly guaranteed the security of all participants..."
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Source/publisher: Brookings
    Format/size: English
    Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


    Title: China and the Changing Myanmar
    Date of publication: 15 January 2013
    Description/subject: Abstract: "The author argues that the democratic reform in Myanmar is rooted in profound internal and external factors. Since the beginning of the reform, the changes in Myanmar have taken tolls in a series of China’s exist- ing interests inside the country. Economically, Chinese investments have come under increasing scrutiny, criticism, and even oppositions, threatening the viability of strategic projects such as the oil and gas pipelines. Politically, the initial success of the democratic reform in Myanmar raises questions about Beijing’s continuous resistance to reform. Strategically, the changes in Myanmar undercut China’s original blueprint about the strategic utilities of Myanmar for China at ASEAN, in the Indian Ocean and more broadly in the region. In light of the changes, China has adjusted its policy toward Myanmar. Not only has Beijing dramatically reduced its economic invest- ments in Myanmar, it also cooled down the political ties while established relations with the democratic oppositions. At the same time, China also launched massive public relations campaigns inside Myanmar aimed at im- proving its image and relations with the local communities." Manuscript received 14 January 2013; accepted 23 February 2013 Keywords : PR China, Myanmar, Myitsone dam, bilateral relation
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 4/2012: 51–77
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


    Title: Danger Zone - Giant Chinese industrial zone threatens Burma’s Arakan coast (English and Burmese)
    Date of publication: 17 December 2012
    Description/subject: "China’s plans to build a giant industrial zone at the terminal of its Shwe gas and oil pipelines on the Arakan coast will damage the livelihoods of tens of thousands of islanders and spell doom for Burma’s second largest mangrove forest. The 120 sq km “Kyauk Phyu Special Economic Zone” (SEZ) will be managed by Chinese state-owned CITIC group on Ramree island, where China is constructing a deep sea port for ships bringing oil from the Middle East and Africa. An 800-km railway is also being built from Kyauk Phyu to Yunnan, under a 50 year BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) agreement, forging a Chinese-managed trade corridor from the Indian Ocean across Burma. Investment in the railway and SEZ, China’s largest in Southeast Asia, is estimated at US $109 billion over 35 years. Construction of the pipelines and deep-sea port has already caused large-scale land confiscation. Now 40 villages could face direct eviction from the SEZ, while many more fear the impacts of toxic waste and pollution from planned petrochemical and metal industries. No information has been provided to local residents about the projects. It is urgently needed to have stringent regulations in place to protect the people and environment before projects such as these are implemented in Burma."
    Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: pdf (810K-English; 1MB-Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Danger-Zone-bu-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 December 2012


    Title: APPETITE FOR DESTRUCTION - China’s trade in illegal timber (text, video and Burmese press release)
    Date of publication: 29 November 2012
    Description/subject: This report covers several countries in Asia and Africa....."Myanmar contains some of the most significant natural forests left in the Asia Pacific region, host to an array of biodiversity and vital to the livelihoods of local communities. Forests are estimated to cover 48 per cent of the country’s land. Yet other recent estimates put forest cover at just 24 per cent. These vital forests are disappearing rapidly. Myanmar has one of the worst rates of deforestation on the planet, with 18 per cent of its forests lost between 1990 and 2005. Myanmar’s forest sector is rife with corruption and illegality, leading to over-harvesting and smuggling. Natural teak from Myanmar is especially sought after on the international market for its unique characteristics and availability. Since the late 1990s, neighbouring China has imported large volumes of timber from Myanmar, the bulk of which have been logged and traded illegally. In 1997, China imported 300,000 cubic metres of timber from Myanmar; by 2005 this had risen to 1.6 million cubic metres....In April 2012, EIA investigators travelled to the southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Yunnan to examine current dynamics of the illicit cross-border trade in logs from Myanmar, especially Kachin State. The investigation involved monitoring crossing points on the Yunnan-Kachin border, surveying wholesale timber markets to assess the origin of wood supplies, and undercover meetings with Chinese firms trading and processing timber from Myanmar. The investigation revealed continuing transport of logs across the border, despite the 2006 agreements between the two countries to halt such trade. Chinese traders confirmed that as long as taxes are paid at the point of import, logs are allowed in despite a commitment from the Yunnan provincial government to allow in only timber accompanied by documents from the Myanmar authorities attesting to its legal origin. As the authorities dictate that all wood exports must be handled by the Myanmar Timber Enterprise and shipped via Rangoon, logs moving across the land border to Yunnan cannot possibly be legal. Field visits uncovered movement of temperate hardwood timber species from the mountains of Kachin State into central Yunnan via several crossing points, with trade in teak and rosewood centred around the border town of Ruili further south. The contrast in the condition of the forests along the border was striking; while forests in the mountainous region on the Chinese side of the border are relatively intact, with large areas protected in the Gaoligong Nature Reserve, across the border in Kachin the devastation wreaked by logging is clearly visible. Chinese wood traders confirmed that supplies were coming from further inside Kachin, as timber within a hundred kilometres of the border has been logged out, and told how deals are done with insurgent groups to buy up entire mountains for logging. One local community elder in Kachin interviewed by EIA summed up the situation: “Myanmar is China’s supermarket and Kachin State is their 7-11.”..."
    Language: English; (Burmese press release)
    Source/publisher: Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA)
    Format/size: pdf (1.42MB), 142K-Burmese press release; Adobe Flash (- 16 minutes, video)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/EIA-Appetite_for_Destruction-PR-bu.pdf (Press release, Burmese)
    http://vimeo.com/54229395 (video)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/EIA-Appetite_for_Destruction.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2012


    Title: Pipeline Nightmare (English and Burmese)
    Date of publication: 07 November 2012
    Description/subject: "Shwe Pipeline Brings Land Confiscation, Militarization and Human Rights Violations to the Ta’ang People. The Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) released a report today called “Pipeline Nightmare” that illustrates how the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, which will transport oil and gas across Burma to China, has resulted in the confiscation of people’s lands, forced labor, and increased military presence along the pipeline, affecting thousands of people. Moreover, the report documents cases in 6 target cities and 51 villages of human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army, police and people’s militia, who take responsibility for security of the pipeline. The government has deployed additional soldiers and extended 26 military camps in order to increase pressure on the ethnic armed groups and to provide security for the pipeline project and its Chinese workers. Along the pipeline, there is fighting on a daily basis between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army – North and Ta’ang National Liberation Army in Namtu, Mantong and Namkham, where there are over one thousand Ta’ang (Palaung) refugees. “Even though the international community believes that the government has implemented political reforms, it doesn’t mean those reforms have reached ethnic areas, especially not where there is increased militarization along the Shwe Pipeline, increased fighting between the Burmese Army and ethnic armed groups, and negative consequences for the people living in these areas,” said Mai Amm Ngeal, a member of TSYO. The China National Petroleum Corporation and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise have signed agreements for the Shwe Pipeline, however the companies have not conducted any Environmental Impact Assessments or Social Impact Assessments. While the people living along the pipeline bear the brunt of the effects, the government will earn an estimated USD$29 billion over the next 30 years. “The government and companies involved must be held accountable for the project and its effects on the local people, such as increasing military presence and Chinese workers along the pipeline, both of which cause insecurity for the local communities and especially women. The project has no benefit for the public, so it must be postponed,” said Lway Phoo Reang, Joint Secretary (1) of TSYO. TSYO urges the government to postpone the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, to withdraw the military from Shan State, reach a ceasefire with all ethnic armed groups in the state, and address the root causes of the armed conflict by engaging in political dialogue."
    Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO)
    Format/size: pdf (English, 2MB-OBL version; 6.77-original; 1.45-Burmese-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Pipeline%20Nightmare%20report%20in%20English%20version%20(Final).pdf (original)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Pipeline_Nightmare-bu-op--red.pdf (full report in Burmese)
    http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Immediate%20Release%207%20N... (Summary in Burmese)
    http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/For%20Immediate%20Release%2... (Summary in Thai)
    http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/2012-11%20Shwe%20Pipeline%2... (Summary in Chinese)
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


    Title: 
    Date of publication: 05 November 2012
    Description/subject: Burma’s government is trying to win over the Burmese people and the West, and one way has been to suspend unpopular deals with China. In September 2011, the government suspended construction of the controversial Myitsone hydroelectric dam. Now protests are underway against a Chinese firm, Wanbao Mining, which signed an agreement in June to mine copper in Monywa. Burma’s reactions could serve as a model for other countries with similar deals with China. The public outcry against projects that dislocate small communities, destroy fields or pollute waterways could force China to repackage its policies towards smaller countries in the region, explains Burmese-speaking journalist and author Bertil Lintner, reporting from Monywa after being barred from Burma for more than two decades. Two women who sell vegetables in Monywa started the campaign, taking advantage of Burma’s government allowing more freedom of expression, particularly when other nations are the target. Lintner reports that Burma’s new political winds are no accident – in in 2004 a master plan was drafted, aiming to diversify foreign relations and promote a new “era of globalization.”
    Author/creator: Burma: Trouble Brewing for China
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: YaleGlobal Online
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2012


    Title: Burma: Trouble Brewing for China
    Date of publication: 05 November 2012
    Description/subject: Burma’s government is trying to win over the Burmese people and the West, and one way has been to suspend unpopular deals with China. In September 2011, the government suspended construction of the controversial Myitsone hydroelectric dam. Now protests are underway against a Chinese firm, Wanbao Mining, which signed an agreement in June to mine copper in Monywa. Burma’s reactions could serve as a model for other countries with similar deals with China. The public outcry against projects that dislocate small communities, destroy fields or pollute waterways could force China to repackage its policies towards smaller countries in the region, explains Burmese-speaking journalist and author Bertil Lintner, reporting from Monywa after being barred from Burma for more than two decades. Two women who sell vegetables in Monywa started the campaign, taking advantage of Burma’s government allowing more freedom of expression, particularly when other nations are the target. Lintner reports that Burma’s new political winds are no accident – in in 2004 a master plan was drafted, aiming to diversify foreign relations and promote a new “era of globalization.”
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: YaleGlobal Online
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2012


    Title: China-Burma Relations (Special issue of the "Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs")
    Date of publication: May 2012
    Description/subject: Editorial: On China–Myanmar Relations, David I. Steinberg... China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War, Hongwei FAN... Myanmar in Contemporary Chinese Foreign Policy – Strengthening Common Ground, Managing Differences, Robert Sutter... China–Myanmar Comprehensive Strategic Cooperative Partnership: A Regional Threat? Chenyang LI... China’s Strategic Misjudgement on Myanmar, Yun SUN... The Vexing Strategic Tug-of-War over Naypyidaw: ASEAN’s View of the Sino–Burmese Ties, Pavin Chachavalpongpun... Burmese Attitude toward Chinese: Portrayal of the Chinese in Contemporary Cultural and Media Works, Min Zin... Conference Report: China–Myanmar Relations: The Dilemmas of Mutual Dependence, Maxwell Harrington... Chronology of the Myitsone Dam at the Confluence of Rivers above Myitkyina, Editor's Appendix...These items are also online separately in OBL
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs Vol. 31, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: China-Burma Relations (Special issue of the "Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs") Editorial
    Date of publication: May 2012
    Description/subject: Editorial to the special issue on China-Myanmar relations of the "Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs" (Vol. 31, No. 1)...It contains an introduction to recent thinking on China-Myanmar relations and introduces the individual papers.
    Author/creator: David I. Steinberg
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs" (Vol. 31, No. 1)
    Format/size: pdf (187K)
    Alternate URLs: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/article/view/509/507
    http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/issue/view/77
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: Burmese Attitude toward Chinese: Portrayal of the Chinese in Contemporary Cultural and Media Works
    Date of publication: February 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper argues that since at least the mid 1980s, there has been an observable negative attitude among the people of Burma against the Chinese. Such sentiment is not just transient public opinion, but an attitude. The author measures it by studying contemporary cultural and media works as found in legally published expressions, so as to exclude any material rejected by the regime’s censors. The causes of such sentiment are various: massive Chinese migration and purchases of real estate (especially in Upper Burma), Chinese money that is inflating the cost of everything, and cultural “intrusion.” The sentiment extends to the military, as well: the article examines a dozen memoirs of former military generals and finds that Burma’s generals do not trust the Chinese, a legacy of China’s interference in Burma’s civil war until the 1980s. The public outcry over the Myitsone dam issue, however, was the most significant expression of such sentiment since 1969, when anti-Chinese riots broke out in Burma. The relaxation of media restrictions under the new government has allowed this expression to gather steam and spread throughout the country, especially in private weekly journals that are becoming more outspoken and daring in pushing the boundaries of the state’s restrictions."...  Manuscript received 2 February 2012; accepted 7 May 2012... Keywords: PR China, Burma, culture, media, migration
    Author/creator: Min Zin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs Vol. 31, No. 1
    Format/size: pdf (260K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: China’s Strategic Misjudgement on Myanmar
    Date of publication: February 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Yun Sun argues that China’s policy failures on Myanmar in 2011 are rooted in several strategic post-election misjudgements. Following President Thein Sein’s inauguration in March 2011, the Sino–Myanmar relationship was initially boosted by the establishment of a “comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership,” and China sought reciprocation for its long-time diplomatic support in the form of Myanmar’s endorsement of China’s positions on regional multilateral forums. A series of events since August have frustrated China’s aspirations, however, including Myanmar’s suspension of the Myitsone dam and the rapid improvement of its relationship with the West. Several strategic misjudgements contributed to China’s miscalculations, including on the democratic momentum of the Myanmar government, on the U.S. –Myanmar engagement and on China’s political and economic influence in the country. China’s previous definition of Myanmar as one of China’s “few loyal friends” and the foundation of its strategic blueprint has been fundamentally shaken, and China is recalibrating its expectations regarding future policies."...  Manuscript received 18 February 2012; accepted 23 April 2012... Keywords: PR China, Myanmar, Myitsone dam
    Author/creator: Yun SUN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs Vol. 31, No. 1
    Format/size: pdf (264K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War
    Date of publication: January 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper explores the historical role of geography in the Sino– Burmese relationship in the context of the Cold War, both before and after the Chinese–American détente and rapprochement in the 1970s. It describes Burma’s fear and distrust of China throughout the Cold War, during which it maintained a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Burma’s geographic location, sandwiched between its giant neighbours India and China, led it to adopt a realist paradigm and pursue an independent foreign policy. Characterizing China’s threat to Burmese national security as “grave” during its period of revolutionary export, the article notes that Burma was cowed into deference and that it deliberately avoided antagonizing China. It also looks at the history of China’s attempts to break out of U.S. encirclement after the Korean War and its successful establishment of Burma as an important buffer state. After the U.S.–China rapprochement in 1972, however, Burma’s geographical significance for Beijing declined. In this context, Burma’s closed-door policy of isolation further lessened its strategic importance for China. Since 1988, however, Burma’s strategic importance to China has been on the rise once again, as it plays a greater role as China’s land bridge to the Indian Ocean and in its energy security and expansion of trade and exports."
    Author/creator: FAN Hongwei
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs Vol. 31, No. 1
    Format/size: pdf (284K)
    Alternate URLs: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/issue/view/77
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: China–Myanmar Comprehensive Strategic Cooperative Partnership: A Regional Threat?
    Date of publication: January 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper analyses the China-Myanmar ‘comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership’ in the framework of China’s diplomacy in the post- Cold War era and concludes that the partnership has no ‘significant negative impact’ on regional relations. China pursues its partnerships with Myanmar and other states to create a ‘stable’ and ‘harmonious’ surrounding environment, itself a ‘major’ prerequisite for China’s peaceful development. The author argues that China has not focused its diplomacy on Myanmar at the expense of other states; rather, he notes that in fact China established a ‘comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership’ with three other ASEAN states (Vietnam in 2008, Laos in 2009, and Cambodia in 2010) before it did so with Myanmar in May 2011. The article argues that the scope and depth of China’s partnerships with states such as Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia are actually above that of its partnership with Myanmar. It also argues that Myanmar’s strong nationalism will prevent China from, for example, building a base on Myanmar’s soil. The author also asserts that China does not seek to use Myanmar as an ally to weaken or dilute ASEAN or its unity on the South China Sea issue."...  Manuscript received 4 January 2012; accepted 16 May 2012 Keywords: PR China, Myanmar, comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership, Cold War
    Author/creator: LI Chenyang
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs Vol. 31, No. 1
    Format/size: pdf (281K)
    Alternate URLs: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/article/view/512/510
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: Chronology of the Myitsone Dam at the Confluence of Rivers above Myitkyina
    Date of publication: January 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This chronology incorporates very significant material related to 2002–2010, posted on the web by “ipea-editor” on 17 January 2011, down-loaded 26 October 2011. Efforts continue to contact that person/group to acknowledge their work. Note that quotations of statements here are probably translations. Corrections and additions to this chronology are welcome, the editors."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs Vol. 31, No. 1
    Format/size: pdf (315K)
    Alternate URLs: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/issue/view/77
    http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/article/view/517/515
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: Conference Report China–Myanmar Relations: The Dilemmas of Mutual Dependence Georgetown University, November 4, 2011
    Date of publication: January 2012
    Description/subject: Introduction" "Georgetown University’s Asian Studies program hosted a conference on November 4, 2011 entitled “China–Myanmar Relations: The Dilemmas of Mutual Dependence.” The conference included panel discussions by scholars and government officials from China, Myanmar, Thailand, India, Japan, the Netherlands, Germany, Canada, and the United States. With an attendance of over 150 people, it proved that discussions regarding the Sino– Myanmar relationship are able to attract interest in Washington. The conference was bookended by two critical events that have focused Washington’s attention on Myanmar’s relationship with its giant neighbour. On September 30, Naypyidaw unexpectedly suspended the construction of a major Chinese-backed infrastructure project, the Myitsone dam, a decision that was received with applause in Washington but consternation in Beijing. Then, only weeks after the conference finished, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made a historic visit to Myanmar from November 30 to December 2, the first by a Secretary of State since John Foster Dulles in 1955. “Clinton in Myanmar: All about China?” blared one headline. 1 While the truth is certainly not so simple, the role of China in America’s policy-making cannot be discounted. As Myanmar has accelerated its political and economic reforms, international interest in the Myanmar–China connection has only grown. While the Sino–Burmese relationship is complex, involving a number of layers of sometimes antithetical interests both in China and Myanmar, the conference discussions pointed to the emergence of several broad themes..."
    Author/creator: Maxwell Harrington
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs Vol. 31, No. 1
    Format/size: pdf (171K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: Myanmar in Contemporary Chinese Foreign Policy – Strengthening Common Ground, Managing Differences
    Date of publication: January 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This assessment first briefly examines recent features of China’s approach to foreign affairs, and then examines in greater detail features in China’s approach to relations with its neighbours, especially in Southeast Asia. It does so in order to discern prevailing patterns in Chinese foreign relations and to determine in the review of salient recent China–Myanmar developments in the concluding section how China’s approach to Myanmar compares with Chinese relations with other regional countries and more broadly. The assessment shows that the strengths and weaknesses of China’s recent relations with Myanmar are more or less consistent with the strengths and weaknesses of China’s broader approach to Southeast Asia and international affairs more generally. On the one hand, China’s approach to Myanmar, like its approach to most of the states around its periphery, has witnessed significant advances and growing interdependence in the post-Cold War period. On the other hand, mutual suspicions stemming from negative historical experiences and salient differences require attentive management by Chinese officials and appear unlikely to fade soon."  Manuscript received 25 January 2012; accepted 26 April 2012 Keywords: PR China, Myanmar, Southeast Asia, ASEAN, foreign policy
    Author/creator: Robert Sutter
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs Vol. 31, No. 1
    Format/size: pdf (290K)
    Alternate URLs: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/article/view/511/509
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: The Vexing Strategic Tug-of-War over Naypyidaw: ASEAN’s View of the Sino– Burmese Ties
    Date of publication: January 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This article argues that ASEAN’s policy toward Myanmar has been predominantly responsive, dictated by China’s activism in the region. It posits three arguments: First, that the release of political prisoners, including Aung San Suu Kyi, may have been a tactical move to convince ASEAN to award it the 2014 chairmanship and thereby consolidate the legitimacy of the current regime; second, that Thein Sein’s suspension of the Myitsone Dam was a strategic move intended to please both domestic and ASEAN constituencies; and third, that Myanmar’s chairmanship of ASEAN in 2014 will help justify the organisation’s past approach to Burma as well as accelerate the process of community-building. The paper argues that in spite of the growing interconnectedness between ASEAN and China, ASEAN is locked in a strategic tug-of-war with China over Myanmar. Myanmar has, on multiple occasions, played upon ASEAN’s suspicion of China by playing the “China card,” as I term it, forcing ASEAN to continually legitimise it through public statements."...  Manuscript received 13 January 2012; accepted 5 April 2012... Keywords: PR China, Burma, ASEAN, community-building
    Author/creator: Pavin Chachavalpongpun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs Vol. 31, No. 1
    Format/size: pdf (264K)
    Alternate URLs: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/article/view/514/512
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: Burma's Big Brother
    Date of publication: 02 December 2011
    Description/subject: China is emerging as the leading economic force in Burma, and the Burmese are starting to get uncomfortable... "With Western sanctions and endemic levels of corruption, Burma’s economy has typically been of little interest to international investors, except for those with significant strategic interests. Desperate and unstable, the country has been left wide open for exploitation by Chinese state actors seeking energy and access to the Indian Ocean. Referring to the growth of India and China at the 2011 Myanmar/Burma Update, historian Thant Myint U stated that it “will change Burma's prospects for better or worse, more [than] anything else that is happening at the moment.” Burma is definitely in a state of rapid transition. During the last 18-month period, the country has received 20-percent more official foreign direct investment (FDI) than in all of the previous 20 years put together. At the same time, hundreds of thousands of people in ethnic minority regions have suffered from a severe escalation of conflict and displacement. For the first time in 50 years, popularly elected politicians have been able to raise genuine topics of concern in parliament. However, the new constitution gives greater power and impunity to the military than any of those introduced previously..."
    Author/creator: Dan Beaker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Policy Studies/Foreign Policy in Focus
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


    Title: The Nature and Management of Myanmar’s Alignment with China: The SLORC/SPDC Years
    Date of publication: 02 November 2011
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Recent research has focused increasingly on the strategies that Southeast Asian countries have adopted vis-à-vis a rising China. This article aims to contribute to the literature by discussing Myanmar’s alignment posture towards China under the post-September 1988 military regime. In particular, the purpose is to specify and explain the nature and management of this alignment. The argument is as follows: first, during the two decades of SLORC/SPDC (State Law and Order Restoration Council/State Peace and Development Council) rule, Myanmar sought only limited alignment with China, focused primarily on diplomatic support and protection, with only a moderate record of bilateral defence and security cooperation. Second, Myanmar’s alignment with China after 1988 was shaped by at least three important factors: the core principles of the country’s previous foreign policy after colonial rule, a deeply embedded sense of nationalism among the military elite, and Burma’s Cold War interaction with China. Third, in managing its alignment with China over the last decade, the SPDC avoided compromises perceived as unpalatable in return for the promise of diplomatic protection and instead ‘rewarded’ Beijing by consenting to economic and infrastructure projects that were considered to advance the regime’s interest in either generating state revenue or contributing to the consolidation and expansion of control over state territory. The SPDC also pushed Beijing into reconsidering its position on the sensitive issue of armed ethnic groups in the Sino-Myanmar border region. The Myanmar case thus shows that lesser powers can obtain security benefits from a major power without this necessarily requiring more than limited alignment or entailing a serious erosion of political autonomy, particularly when the former possesses valuable natural resources and enjoys considerable geo-strategic significance for the latter."
    Author/creator: Jürgen Haacke
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 2/2011: 105-140
    Format/size: pdf (338K)
    Alternate URLs: http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/article/view/447
    http://hup.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/rt/metadata/447/0
    Date of entry/update: 04 March 2012


    Title: Between China And India Lies Myanmar's Future - Interview by Host Scott Simon with Thant Myint U (audio and transcript)
    Date of publication: 24 September 2011
    Description/subject: "Myanmar mostly makes news in the West these days with blood and iron, when the brutal military regime cracks down on monks and others protesting for democracy. Host Scott Simon chats with Thant Myint-U, author of "Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia", who says the country may have a bright and bold future as a bridge between China and India's growing economies."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: National Public Radio (NPR)
    Format/size: MP3 (audio - 6 min 23 sec ) and html (transcript)
    Date of entry/update: 25 September 2011


    Title: Beijing wary of Myanmar elections
    Date of publication: 03 October 2010
    Description/subject: "While the West would like Myanmar’s November elections to lead toward democracy, China is seeking something far more straightforward: stability. When the leader of Myanmar’s military government, Than Shwe, visited Beijing earlier this month, he sought to reassure Chinese leaders that elections would not produce any negative fallout along their 2,192-kilometer shared border. Conflict along the border has been an enduring characteristic of post-independence Myanmar, where a handful of ethnic groups maintain their own territory, militias and political representation. But Beijing has just cause for concern after the Myanmar military’s August 2009 offensive into the Kokang region shattered a 20-year cease-fire and sent more than 30,000 refugees into China’s Yunnan province..."
    Author/creator: Stephanie Kleine-Ahlbrandt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Global Post
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2010


    Title: China’s Myanmar Strategy: Elections, Ethnic Politics and Economics
    Date of publication: 21 September 2010
    Description/subject: OVERVIEW: Myanmar’s 2010 elections present challenges and opportunities for China’s relationship with its south-western neighbour. Despite widespread international opinion that elections will be neither free nor fair, China is likely to accept any poll result that does not involve major instability. Beijing was caught off-guard by the Myanmar military’s offensive into Kokang in August 2009 that sent more than 30,000 refugees into Yunnan province. Since then it has used pressure and mediation to push Naypyidaw and the ethnic groups that live close to China’s border to the negotiating table. Beyond border stability, Beijing feels its interests in Myanmar are being challenged by a changing bilateral balance of power due to the Obama administration’s engagement policy and China’s increasing energy stakes in the country. Beijing is seeking to consolidate political and economic ties by stepping up visits from top leaders, investment, loans and trade. But China faces limits to its influence, including growing popular opposition to the exploitation of Myanmar’s natural resources by Chinese firms, and divergent interests and policy implementation between Beijing and local governments in Yunnan. The Kokang conflict and the rise in tensions along the border have prompted Beijing to increasingly view Myanmar’s ethnic groups as a liability rather than strategic leverage. Naypyidaw’s unsuccessful attempt to convert the main ceasefire groups into border guard forces under central military command raised worries for Beijing that the two sides would enter into conflict. China’s Myanmar diplomacy has concentrated on pressing both the main border groups and Naypyidaw to negotiate. While most ethnic groups appreciate Beijing’s role in pressuring the Myanmar government not to launch military offensives, some also believe that China’s support is provisional and driven by its own economic and security interests. The upcoming 7 November elections are Naypyidaw’s foremost priority. With the aim to institutionalise the army’s political role, the regime launched the seven-step roadmap to “disciplined democracy” in August 2003. The elections for national and regional parliaments are the fifth step in this plan. China sees neither the roadmap nor the national elections as a challenge to its interests. Rather, Beijing hopes they will serve its strategic and economic interests by producing a government perceived both domestically and internationally as more legitimate. Two other factors impact Beijing’s calculations. China sees Myanmar as having an increasingly important role in its energy security. China is building major oil and gas pipelines to tap Myanmar’s rich gas reserves and shorten the transport time of its crude imports from the Middle East and Africa. Chinese companies are expanding rapidly into Myanmar’s hydropower sector to meet Chinese demand. Another factor impacting Beijing’s strategy towards Myanmar is the U.S. administration’s engagement policy, which Beijing sees as a potential challenge to its influence in Myanmar and part of U.S. strategic encirclement of China. Beijing is increasing its political and economic presence to solidify its position in Myanmar. Three members of the Politburo Standing Committee have visited Myanmar since March 2009 – in contrast to the absence of any such visits the previous eight years – boosting commercial ties by signing major hydropower, mining and construction deals. In practice China is already Myanmar’s top provider of foreign direct investment and through recent economic agreements is seeking to extend its lead. Yet China faces dual hurdles in achieving its political and economic goals in Myanmar. Internally Beijing and local Yunnan governments have differing perceptions of and approaches to border management and the ethnic groups. Beijing prioritises border stability and is willing to sacrifice certain local commercial interests, while Yunnan values border trade and profits from its special relationships with ethnic groups. In Myanmar, some Chinese companies’ resource extraction activities are fostering strong popular resentment because of their lack of transparency and unequal benefit distribution, as well as environmental damage and forced displacement of communities. Many believe such resentment was behind the April 2010 bombing of the Myitsone hydropower project. Activists see some large-scale investment projects in ceasefire areas as China playing into Naypyidaw’s strategy to gain control over ethnic group territories, especially in resource- rich Kachin State..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Briefing N° 112)
    Format/size: pdf (1.06MB)
    Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


    Title: China and Myanmar Strategic Interests, Strategies and the Road Ahead
    Date of publication: September 2010
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "Since the end of the bipolar system and the rise of globalization, the world has become interconnected and interdependent through culture, economy, and the polity. In order to provide an accurate strategic foresight of Sino-Myanmar relations, it is necessary to understand the historical and present context, national ambitions, and the current means available to achieve these goals. At the same time, to offer a precise forecast, there is a need to hypothesize the possible obstacles to these ambitions. The paper concludes that the period of the next 5-10 years, from a Chinese standpoint, will be one of balancing between securing its economic investment through bilateral relations between China and ethnic groups, China and the Junta, and its wish for stronger involvement in the political arena. In this quest, China will outbid all other players; provide economic assistance; infrastructure building; and a political umbrella to the international community. Nonetheless, China will have to face certain obstacles to achieve these goals, mainly the growing resentment of local Chinese presence in Myanmar; border instability; weak Myanmar governance; and stronger international sanctions. Alternatively, from a Myanmarese standpoint, due to the Junta’s controversial history, it wants to prove to the regional and international community that it is a legitimate government. Through the Seven Step Roadmap to Democracy and the election later this year, the Junta wants to show its credibility as the government of Myanmar. The Junta has been successful at making regional actors compete for its natural resources and its strategic importance works in its favor. When China, India, and ASEAN compete for access to Myanmar, they are supporting the Junta with financially, which gets translated into political support. Also, the Junta does not want foreign involvement in its national affairs. Therefore, it purposely keeps a low profile in the international arena. The obstacles to the achievement of Myanmar’s goals would be an increase in international criticism that would pressure China to further influence the Junta, and ethnic groups uniting against the government, which would weaken furthermore the credibility of the Junta. In conclusion, in the near future, China’s economic thirst will be challenged by its wish to become a regional and international superpower on the one hand, and on the other, Myanmar’s Junta will try to convince its neighbors and the world that its government is legitimate..."
    Author/creator: Billy Tea
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies - Delhi (IPCS Research Paper 26)
    Format/size: pdf (281K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


    Title: Peace, Conflict, and Development on the Sino-Burmese Border
    Date of publication: 02 December 2009
    Description/subject: "On August 27-30, 2009, fighting broke out between the Kokang ceasefire group (MNDAA) and the Myanmar/ Burma government army, sending 30,000 refugees across the border into Yunnan province in southwest China. To some observers, the timing of the conflict -- less than a fortnight after a visit to Myanmar/Burma by U.S. Senator Jim Webb -- seemed to indicate a calculated maneuver on the part of the ruling generals in Nay Pyi Taw to test international reactions as well as responses from its neighbors with regards to its exercise of power in the country's borderlands. The actuality is that the event itself was part of a political process that the military government embarked upon already twenty years ago. What is special about this summer's conflict itself, though, is where it occurred and the ethnicity of the population involved, which has implications for peace on the border and ultimately for bilateral relations between China and Myanmar/Burma."
    Author/creator: Xiaolin Guo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
    Format/size: pdf (116K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2010


    Title: Playing with Superpowers
    Date of publication: November 2009
    Description/subject: Burma’s generals have a history of juggling relations with Washington and Beijing... "If ever the Burmese regime made it clear it preferred “Made in America” to “Made in China,” it would be no surprise to see relations between China and Burma suffer a severe hiccup. China is now keenly observing Washington’s new policy toward the Burmese regime and Burma’s opposition movement. At the same time, Beijing is observing the unpredictable Naypyidaw regime’s paukphaw (kinship) commitment to China. Burma’s former dictator, Ne Win, (left) met then US President Lyndon Johnson in 1966. Burmese military officers used Western weapons to counter Chinese-backed insurgents in the past. They have long memories of Chinese chauvinism and Beijing’s efforts to export communism to Burma and install a government sympathetic to Mao Zedong’s communist ideology. Those days are long gone. China became Burma’s staunchest ally after the regime brutally crushed the pro-democracy uprising in 1988. For the past 21 years, China has adopted its paukphaw policy toward Burma and played an influential role there..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17143
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: PRC/BURMA: A/S CAMPBELL'S MEETING WITH ASIAN AFFAIRS DG YANG YANYI
    Date of publication: 14 October 2009
    Description/subject: SUMMARY: In an October 13 meeting with EAP A/S Kurt Campbell, MFA Asian Affairs Department Director General Yang Yanyi said that China saw many positive aspects in the U.S. review of its Burma policy and suggested proceeding based on its conclusion, despite PRC concern over continuing sanctions. Yang asserted that the junta was committed to building a peaceful, modern, democratic Burma, but stability remained paramount to them "for now." She claimed the regime was committed to a fair election in 2010 and was renewing efforts on developing the economy. DG Yang cautioned that the regime could not be replaced, and counseled patience on development and democratization efforts given the complexity of Burmese society. Chinese officials had told the Burmese to consider China's legitimate interests in dealing with the situation in Kokang, but also stressed that China would not interfere in the internal affairs of Burma. A/S Campbell cautioned that steps by the regime toward progress on nuclear technology would make dialogue more difficult and the U.S. and China had a shared interest in partnering to prevent such progress. END SUMMARY.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Title: Peace in Name only
    Date of publication: October 2009
    Description/subject: War and refugees will remain a fact of life in Burma as long as the root causes of conflict in the country’s borderlands remain unaddressed... "The rout of the ethnic Kokang militia, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army, in northern Burma in late August has brought into stark relief what millions of people live with in Burma every day: conflict between the central state and non-state armed militias. For decades, clashes between the Burmese regime’s army and its myriad enemies have been forcing people into hiding or across borders. What is different about the recent fighting is that it involved China—not usually a country that tolerates refugees from Burma or instability along its borders..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


    Title: SEPTEMBER 29 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: IRAN, NORTH KOREA, BURMA, TIBET, SCO
    Date of publication: 29 September 2009
    Description/subject: "...Reports that Burma had begun expelling Chinese citizens from its territory were "not in line with the facts."..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: CHINESE MFA SAYS ONGOING CRISIS IN BURMA STILL NOT THREAT TO REGIONAL PEACE
    Date of publication: 28 September 2009
    Description/subject: Summary: "In a meeting with Western Embassy officials on September 28, MFA Asia Department Deputy Director General Yang Yanyi delivered now familiar points on China's position on the crisis in Burma: China is concerned and supports UN efforts; the Burmese government should "properly handle" the situation; sanctions are not the solution; and the UN Security Council is not the appropriate venue to address the Burma situation. Yang said criticism of China's role in solving the crisis is unfair and "slanderous." Discussing whether the ongoing crisis affects regional peace and security, Yang reiterated that the situation is still only a "yellow light" and that China still believes the situation does not merit UN Security Council attention." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: CHINA'S MYANMAR DILEMMA
    Date of publication: 14 September 2009
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY" "Each time global attention is focused on events in Myanmar, concerned stakeholders turn to China to influence the military government to undertake reforms. Yet simply calling on Beijing to apply more pressure is unlikely to result in change. While China has substantial political, economic and strategic stakes in Myanmar, its influence is overstated. The insular and nationalistic leaders in the military government do not take orders from anyone, including Beijing. China also diverges from the West in the goals for which it is prepared to use its influence. By continuing to simply expect China to take the lead in solving the problem, a workable international approach will remain elusive as Myanmar continues to play China and the West against each other. After two decades of failed international approaches to Myanmar, Western countries and Beijing must find better ways to work together to pursue a wide array of issues that reflect the concerns of both sides. The relationship between China and Myanmar is best characterised as a marriage of convenience rather than a love match. The dependence is asymmetric -- Myanmar has more to lose should the relationship sour: a protector in the Security Council, support from a large neighbour amid international isolation, a key economic partner and a source of investment. While China sees major problems with the status quo, particularly with regards to Myanmar's economic policy and ethnic relations, its preferred solution is gradual adjustment of policy by a strong central government, not federalism or liberal democracy and certainly not regime change. In this way, it can continue to protect its economic and strategic interests in the country. In addition to energy and other investments, Myanmar's strategic location allows China access to the Indian Ocean and South East Asia. But Beijing's policy might ultimately have an adverse effect on Myanmar's stability and on China's ability to leverage the advantages it holds. Political instability and uncertainty have resulted in a lack of confidence in Myanmar's investment environment, and weak governance and widespread corruption have made it difficult for even strong Chinese companies to operate there. Myanmar's borders continue to leak all sorts of problems -- not just insurgency, but also drugs, HIV/AIDS and, recently, tens of thousands of refugees. Chinese companies have been cited for environmental and ecological destruction as well as forced relocation and human rights abuses carried out by the Myanmar military. These problems are aggravated by differences in approach between Beijing and the provincial government in Yunnan's capital Kunming, which implements policies towards the ethnic ceasefire groups. At the same time, resentment towards China, rooted in past invasions and prior Chinese support to the Communist Party of Burma, is growing. Myanmar's leaders fear domination by their larger neighbour, and have traditionally pursued policies of non-alignment and multilateralism to balance Chinese influence. Increasing competition among regional actors for access to resources and economic relationships has allowed Myanmar to counterbalance China by strengthening cooperation with other countries such as India, Russia, Thailand, Singapore, North Korea and Malaysia. The military government is intensely nationalistic, unpredictable and resistant to external criticism, making it often impervious to outside influence. While China shares the aspiration for a stable and prosperous Myanmar, it differs from the West on how to achieve such goals. China will not engage with Myanmar on terms dictated by the West. To bring Beijing on board, the wider international community will need to pursue a plausible strategy that takes advantage of areas of common interest. This strategy must be based on a realistic assessment of China's engagement with Myanmar, its actual influence, and its economic and strategic interests. The West could better engage China to encourage Myanmar's government to commit to a truly inclusive dialogue with the opposition and ethnic groups. In addition to talks on national reconciliation, dialogue should also address the economic and humanitarian crisis that hampers reconciliation at all levels of society. At the same time, China should act both directly and in close cooperation with ASEAN member countries to continue support for the good offices of the United Nations as well as to persuade the military to open up."
    Language: English, Chinese
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report No. 177)
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/north-east-asia/177_chinas_myanmar_dilemma.ashx (English)
    http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/north-east-asia/Chinese/177_chinas_myanmar_dilemma_ch... (Chinese)
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2009


    Title: BURMA/PRC BORDER SITUATION UPDATE
    Date of publication: 01 September 2009
    Description/subject: Summary: "As cross-border refugees from Burma's Kokang region continue to return to Burma, local residents and remaining refugees in China's Nansan border region told ConGenOff September 1 that refugee flows had moved to border crossings in Yunnan province adjacent to ethnic Wa-controlled territory. Many refugees expressed discontent with the PRC government's perceived weak response to the outbreak of violence in Kokang that resulted in the destruction of PRC citizens' property. China's official reaction praised Yunnan province's response to the refugee flows and called on Burma to maintain stability. PRC netizens' response to violence in the Kokang region appeared to have been tightly controlled, with very few dissenting postings remaining online." End summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: SEPTEMBER 1 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: BURMA BORDER, NORTH KOREA, JAPAN ELECTION, INDIA BORDER, AFGHAN ELECTION
    Date of publication: 01 September 2009
    Description/subject: "...-- China hoped that the Burmese Government would properly handle its domestic issue and guarantee the safety of Chinese citizens and their property in that country. -- The Burmese Government had apologized to China for Chinese casualties, thanked China for accepting those who escaped the fighting, promised to protect Chinese citizens and their property and restore peace and stability along the border..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: China's Troublesome Little Brother
    Date of publication: September 2009
    Description/subject: Behind displays of friendship, Beijing is showing signs that it is losing patience with Burma's politically inept ruling generals... "When Vice Snr-Gen Maung Aye, the second most powerful figure in Burma's ruling junta, led a high-level delegation to Beijing in mid-June, China's state-run Xinhua news agency dutifully reported that the visit's third in six years—was aimed at strengthening friendly and cooperative ties between the two neighboring countries. Behind the scenes of the outwardly amicable visit, however, the story was not so simple. According to businessmen close to the regime in Naypyidaw, before departing for Beijing, Maung Aye complained that China was meddling in Burma's affairs. A former commander of the Burmese army's northern region who once fought several fierce battles against the Chinese-backed Communist Party of Burma in the 1970s and 1980s, Maung Aye has never really trusted Beijing. Now, he grumbled, Chinese leaders were trying to tell Naypyidaw how it should deal with Aung San Suu Kyi, who was facing imprisonment on charges of violating the terms of her house arrest..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


    Title: Is China Two-timing the Generals?
    Date of publication: September 2009
    Description/subject: Burma's military junta has to compete with ethnic groups such as the Wa, the Kokang and the Shan to win Beijing's favor... "China is the Burmese military junta's most influential partner” economically, politically and militarily. But despite the close relationship, Beijing has long enjoyed a discreet affair -- a private relationship with the ethnic groups along Burma's northeastern frontier..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


    Title: PRC DOWNPLAYS CONFLICT IN BURMA'S KOKANG REGION
    Date of publication: 31 August 2009
    Description/subject: Summary. "China's Nansan border region adjacent to the Kokang region of Burma is calm, and refugees have already begun to return to Burma, ConGenOff observed August 30 and ¶31. PRC government statements and Chinese media accounts downplayed the seriousness of the conflict between ethnic Kokang fighters and Burmese military forces and disputed UNHCR claims that 10,000-30,000 refugees had fled to China. Chinese scholars did not anticipate that recent events would impact China-Burma relations and suggested that current instability could create an opportunity for increased U.S.-China cooperation on Burma." End summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: MEDIA REACTION: U.S-JAPAN-CHINA, U.S. BURMA POLICY, CHINA TRADE RELATIONS
    Date of publication: 17 August 2009
    Description/subject: The China Radio International sponsored newspaper World News Journal (Shijie Xinwenbao) (08/17): "U.S. Senator Jim Webb's visit to Burma has political implications. It demonstrates that the U.S. government's policy of sanctioning Burma has changed into one of 'contact and dialogue.' The improvement in U.S.-Burma relations is not only helpful for the U.S. to obtain Burmese oil resources, but also to strengthen the U.S.'s presence in Southeast Asia to counter China's influence in the region. The U.S. policy change with regard to Burma is another example of Secretary Clinton's 'smart power.' Obama is using 'smart power' to deal with hostile countries, including Cuba, Venezuela, and North Korea. The U.S. government has realized that suppressing Burma will not help win that country over..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: DEPUTY SECRETARY STEINBERG’S MAY 30, 2009 CONVERSATION WITH SINGAPORE MINISTER MENTOR LEE KUAN YEW
    Date of publication: 04 June 2009
    Description/subject: "...China is active in Latin America, Africa, and in the Gulf. Within hours, everything that is discussed in ASEAN meetings is known in Beijing, given China’s close ties with Laos, Cambodia, and Burma, he stated..."...."...Beijing is worried about its dependence on the Strait of Malacca and is moving to ease the dependence by means like a pipeline through Burma..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Singapore, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2010


    Title: BURMA: MFA DG QUESTIONS EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW UNSC STATEMENT
    Date of publication: 19 May 2009
    Description/subject: "The Charge delivered ref A points on May 18 urging PRC support for UN Security Council action in response to the trial of Aung San Suu Kyi to MFA North American and Oceanian Affairs Department Director General Zheng Zeguang. In response, DG Zheng suggested that a statement from the UN Security Council would not be the most effective way to address the issue and expressed hope that the United States was open to "other options" to deal with the situation. Zheng said China's "clear and consistent" position on the issue had been to encourage the regime in Burma to promote reconciliation and cooperate with UN Secretary General Special Advisor Ibrahim Gambari..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: China-Burma Ties in 1954: The Beginning of the “Pauk Phaw” Era
    Date of publication: May 2009
    Description/subject: "Although Burma was the first non-socialist country to recognize new China, the favorable beginning failed to facilitate development of China-Burma relations in the early period (1949-1953). On the contrary, their relations were “noncommittal and very cold”.1 Both sides were suspicious and mistrustful to each other. China regarded Burma as an underling of imperialist countries. Burma feared that China would invade it and threaten its national security. The cold condition began to alter when two countries’ Premiers visited each other in 1954. After 1954, Beijing and Rangoon began to contact closely and frequently, and China-Burma relations entered the friendly “Pauk Phaw” (fraternal) era during the Cold War. Some have been written about general China-Burma relations in the Cold War, but little as yet has been done in the detail of their ties, particularly the shift in 1954. This study focuses on the manifestation, the causes and impact of the relations change. The turn of 1954 basically consisted of two dimensions: political and economic relations..."
    Author/creator: Fan Hongwei
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies University of Malaya - ICS Working Paper No. 2009-21
    Format/size: pdf (352K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 March 2010


    Title: UNSYG SPECIAL ADVISER GAMBARI DISCUSSES BURMA VISIT AND BEIJING MEETINGS
    Date of publication: 11 February 2009
    Description/subject: Summary: "The Burmese military regime's objective is to organize elections in 2010 that will be won by a military-based political party, UN Special Adviser on Burma Ibrahim Gambari told the Charge and four other Beijing-based Western mission representatives February 10. Gambari added that the military will then take control of the three most important ministries (Defense, Internal Affairs, and Territorial Affairs). Gambari reported that PRC Vice Foreign Minister He Yafei had earlier reiterated to him China's position that the situation in Burma does not constitute a threat to international peace or security and therefore should not be discussed in the UN Security Council. Gambari suggested that pointing out to China the possibility that the non-participation in the 2010 elections of the Burmese opposition party National League of Democracy would cause instability in Burma might convince China to bring pressure on the Burmese regime." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: Regional Political Economy of China Ascendant:- Pivotal Issues and Critical Perspectives. Chapter 4: China Engages Myanmar as a Chinese Client State?
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Introduction: The Role of Energy in Sino-Myanmar Relations; Myanmar Plays the China Card; China Engages Myanmar in the ASEAN Way; Conclusion: Norms, Energy and Beyond: "Conclusion: Norms, Energy and Beyond This chapter has demonstrated two points. First, although ASEAN, China, India, and Japan form partnership with Myanmar for different reasons, interactions among the regional stakeholders with regard to Myanmar have reinforced the regional norm of non-intervention into other states’ internal affairs. Both India and Japan, the two democratic countries in the region, have been socialized, though in varying degrees, into the norm when they engage Myanmar as well as ASEAN.67 The regional normative environment or structure in which all stakeholders find themselves defines or constitutes their Asian identities, national interests, and more importantly, what counts as rightful action. At the same time, regional actors create and reproduce the dominant norms when they interact with each other. This lends support to the constructivist argument that both agent and structure are mutually constitutive.68 This ideational approach prompts us to look beyond such material forces and concerns as the quest for energy resources as well as military prowess to explain China’s international behaviour. Both rationalchoice logic of consequences and constructivist logic of appropriateness are at work in China’s relations with Myanmar and ASEAN. But pundits grossly overstate the former at the expense of the latter. To redress this imbalance, this chapter asserts that China adopts a “business as usual” approach to Myanmar largely because this approach is regarded as appropriate and legitimate by Myanmar and ASEAN and practised by India and Japan as well, and because China wants to strengthen the moral legitimacy of an international society based on the state-centric principles of national sovereignty and nonintervention. As a corollary, we argue that regional politics at play have debunked the common, simplistic belief that Myanmar is a client state of China and that China’s thirst for Myanmar’s energy resources is a major determinant of China’s policy towards the regime. A close examination of the oil and gas assets in Myanmar reveals that it is less likely to be able to become a significant player in international oil politics. Whereas Myanmar may offer limited material benefits to China, it and ASEAN at large are of significant normative value to the latter. Ostensibly China adopts a realpolitik approach to Myanmar; however, the approach also reflects China’s recognition of the presence and prominence of a regional normative structure and its firm support for it.".....11 pages of notes and bibliographic references
    Author/creator: Pak K. Lee, Gerald Chan and Lai-Ha Chan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies, University of Malaya
    Format/size: pdf (892K - OBL version; 1.2MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/China_engages_Myanmar_as_client_state.pdf-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 17 September 2011


    Title: China Builds Fence on Part of Burma’s Kachin Border
    Date of publication: 23 December 2008
    Description/subject: Chinese authorities are building a fence along the Burmese border near Laiza in Kachin State, reportedly to deter drug traffickers. Awng Wa, of the Kachin Development Networking Group, based on the Sino-Burmese border, told The Irrawaddy on Tuesday that work began on the fence last month. He said it is expected to be at least 10 km long.
    Author/creator: WAI MOE
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 September 2010


    Title: CHINA ON UNGA THIRD COMMITTEE IRAN, BURMA AND DPRK RESOLUTIONS
    Date of publication: 07 November 2008
    Description/subject: "PolOff on November 7 delivered to MFA International Organizations and Conferences Department Human Rights Division Deputy Director Yao Shaojun ref A points urging China to support or at least to abstain on UNGA Third Committee resolutions on Iran, Burma and the DPRK. PolOff stressed that even if China is unable to support the resolutions, the United States strongly urges China to oppose or at least abstain on no action motions, which stifle even discussion of these important human rights issues. Yao said he took note of our concerns and would pass them on to his superiors. However, because of "China's own experience with human rights resolutions," the Chinese Government disagrees with the U.S. view. China, Yao said, will oppose all the resolutions and support the no action motions."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: Burma’s Coco Islands: rumours and realities in the Indian Ocean
    Date of publication: November 2008
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "Over the past 20 years, a number of myths have arisen about the Coco Islands. Despite repeated warnings from some Burma-watchers, and attempts by a few scholars to set the record straight in academic publications, these myths have proven remarkably resilient. There are a number of reasons for this. One is simply the lack of verifiable information about the islands, a problem exacerbated by the unreliability of official statements issued by both the Burmese and Chinese governments. The issue has been greatly complicated, however, by credulous reporting in the news media and the efforts of activists and others to pursue their own policy agendas. There are several groups of different nationalities which stand to benefit from continuing international concerns about perceived Chinese military expansion into Burma and the Indian Ocean. The historical record is sketchy, and reliable data is still scarce, but an accurate and balanced assessment of developments in the region is critical for an understanding of Burma’s security, and its influence on the strategic environment. Serious consideration of these issues demands careful research and objective analysis, not a reliance on rumours and other ‘marvellous tales’."
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: City University of Hong Kong, SEARC Working Paper Series No. 101
    Format/size: pdf (104K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.cityu.edu.hk/searc/WP101_08_ASelth.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 06 January 2009


    Title: Sino-Burmese Relations 1949-1953: Suspicions and Equivocations
    Date of publication: October 2008
    Description/subject: "During the cold war, the relations between China and its peripheries were critical in China’s foreign relations. Thereinto, China-Burma relations were one of highlights in Beijing’s peripheral diplomacy. Nevertheless, this issue, rich in significance, has been not enough understood, particularly the Sino-Burma bonds in the early period (1949-1953) after the establishment of diplomatic relations. Until now, detailed and in-depth research on 1949-1953 Sino-Burma relations has not come forth. Although the early days of the relations were not long, from a small clue one can see that was coming , and it revealed some impetus and restrictive factors for the relations, such as ideology, geo-politics, history, and the Cold War setting..."
    Author/creator: Fan Hongwei
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies University of Malaya - ICS Working Paper No. 2008-19
    Format/size: pdf (317K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 March 2010


    Title: PRC: MFA OFFICIAL CALLS FOR PATIENCE ON BURMA
    Date of publication: 18 September 2008
    Description/subject: Summary: "China supports UN Special Advisor Gambari's mission to Burma and the United States is "too impatient" with Gambari's mission and the political transition process in Burma, according to MFA Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam Division Deputy Director Chen Chen. Acknowledging that the planned 2010 elections in Burma will leave the military holding power, Chen said the elections will serve as "a soft landing" for the regime. Continuing economic woes in Burma are a result of U.S. sanctions, and as a "neighbor," China opposes sanctions on Burma. Chen said the Burmese regime is interested in improving relations with the United States." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


    Title: CHINA IN BURMA: THE INCREASING INVESTMENT OF CHINESE MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN BURMA’S HYDROPOWER, OIL AND NATURAL GAS, AND MINING SECTORS
    Date of publication: September 2008
    Description/subject: Updated September 2008...INTRODUCTION: Amidst recent international interest in China’s moves to secure resources throughout the world and recent events in Burma1, the international community has turned its attention to China’s role in Burma. In September 2007, the violent suppression of a peaceful movement led by Buddhist monks in Burma following the military junta’s decision to drastically raise fuel prices put the global spotlight on the political and economic relationships between China and neighboring resource-rich Burma. EarthRights International (ERI) has identified at least 69 Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs) involved in at least 90 hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma. These recent findings build upon previous ERI research collected between May and August 2007 that identified 26 Chinese MNCs involved in 62 projects. These projects vary from small dams completed in the last two decades to planned oil and natural gas pipelines across Burma to southwest China. With no comprehensive information about these projects available in the public domain, the information included here has been pieced together from government statements, English and Chinese language news reports, and company press releases available on the internet. While concerned that details of the projects and their potential impacts have not been disclosed to affected communities of the general public, we hope that this information will stimulate additional discussion, research, and investigation into the involvement of Chinese MNCs in Burma. Concerns over political repression in Burma have led many western governments to prohibit new trade with and investment in Burma, and have resulted in the departure of many western corporations from Burma; notable exceptions include Total of France and Chevron3 of the United States. Meanwhile, as demand for energy pushes many Asian countries to look abroad for natural resources, Burma has been an attractive destination. India, Thailand, Korea, Singapore, and China are among the Asian countries with the largest investments in Burma’s hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining sectors. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Burma’s oil and natural gas sectors, for example, more than tripled from 2006 to 2007, reaching US$ 474. million, representing approximately 90% of all FDI in 2007. While China has embraced a foreign policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, the line between business and politics in a country like Burma is blurred at best. In pursuit of Burma’s natural resources, China has provided Burma with political support, 6 military armaments,7 and financial support in the form of conditions-free loans.8 Investments in Burma’s energy sectors provide billions of US dollars in financial support to the military junta, which devotes at least 40% of its budget to military spending, 9 only slightly more than 1% on healthcare, and around 5% on public education.10 These kinds of economic and political support for the current military regime constitute a concrete involvement in Burma’s internal affairs. The following is a brief introduction to and summary of the major completed, current and planned hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma with Chinese involvement. All information is based on Chinese and English language media available on the internet and likely represents only a fraction of China’s actual investment.
    Language: English, Burmese, Chinese, Spanish
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (825K; 3.22MB- original, Alternate URL; 1.85MB - Burmese; 1.3MB - Chinese; 3.52MB - Spanish)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/publication/china-burma-increasing-investment-chinese-multinational-corp...
    http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-English.pdf (English)
    http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Burmese.pdf (Burmese)
    http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Chinese.pdf (Chinese)
    http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Spanish.pdf (Spanish)
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


    Title: CHINESE MFA VIEWS POSITIVELY GAMBARI VISIT TO BURMA
    Date of publication: 27 August 2008
    Description/subject: "In an August 27 meeting also devoted to Georgia (septel), MFA International Organizations and Conferences Department UN Division Acting Director Sun Xiaobo told PolOff (and accompanying UK and French Embassy PolOffs) that during the recent visit of UN Special Advisor Gambari the Burmese Government "had shown flexibility" and "made some efforts" to be accommodating. Though Gambari did not meet Burmese Senior General Than Shwe, he did meet Prime Minister Thein Sein and other senior officials. Though opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi refused to meet Gambari, Gambari succeeded in meeting other senior National League for Democracy (NLD) figures. Moreover, the Burmese Government offered responses on each of Gambari's five substantive proposals. In sum, China believes that during his visit Gambari "made some achievements."..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: SHAPING POST-CYCLONE ASSISTANCE IN BURMA
    Date of publication: 26 June 2008
    Description/subject: PolOff on June 26 delivered to MFA reftel points seeking China's help in shaping the international responses to a revised UN appeal and the imminent UN report on needs in Burma after Cyclone Nargis. Drawing on reftel points, PolOff emphasized that China should join the international community in making clear to Burmese authorities that further assistance will depend on full access, transparency and accountability. PolOff added that donors should provide assistance according to proven international models that rely on community input, that assistance should not reinforce Burmese Government abuses and that underlying problems in Burma are political. ¶2. (C) MFA International Organizations and Conferences Department UN Division Deputy Director Sun Xiaobo said he would convey U.S. views to senior MFA officials. He said his initial reaction was that China's views on the situation in Burma are somewhat different. China believes it is imperative that the international community continue assistance to the Burmese Government and the Burmese people. An ASEAN-led mechanism is in place to act as a bridge between the Burmese Government and donors. Donors should make full use of this mechanism to sort out differences but assistance should not be delayed. Finally, Sun said, the international community should not link humanitarian assistance to human rights issues. "There are appropriate fora to discuss human rights issues," but such discussions should not be related to humanitarian assistance, Sun said.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: MAY 15 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: SICHUAN EARTHQUAKE RELIEF, BURMA DISASTER RELIEF
    Date of publication: 15 May 2008
    Description/subject: "...Asked to comment on reports that Burma was diverting aid from cyclone victims, Qin said the international community should "respect the will of the Burmese." Describing Burma as a friendly neighbor of China, Qin expressed China's empathy for the victims of the cyclone disaster and said he hopes the international community and Burma can agree "through friendly consultations" on the aid Burma needs..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: PRC REPORTS BURMA WILL ACCEPT RELIEF TEAMS FROM FOUR NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES; CHINA STILL OPPOSED TO UNSC ACTION ON BURMA
    Date of publication: 14 May 2008
    Description/subject: Summary: "Chinese Assistant Foreign Minister He Yafei told the Ambassador May 14 that Burma is inviting rescue teams from Bangladesh, China, India and Thailand to assist with relief efforts following Cyclone Nargis. Stressing the "positive change" in the attitude of the Burmese Government toward accepting assistance, AFM He noted that representatives of the EU and UAE and Thai PM Samak Sundaravej will also discuss disaster relief with Burmese authorities in Rangoon. AFM He said that the situation in Burma does not warrant consideration by the UN Security Council. The Ambassador countered that UN Security Council action is needed, because the Burmese Government is not doing enough to provide assistance, thereby needlessly endangering the lives of its citizens." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: MFA PRESS BRIEFING: SICHUAN EARTHQUAKE, BURMA DISASTER ASSISTANCE, SIX-PARTY TALKS
    Date of publication: 13 May 2008
    Description/subject: "Qin said that China has expressed "its solicitude with Burma" following the May 3 cyclone and is monitoring developments there. He noted that China has sent two shipments of assistance and provided money for disaster relief. Asked if the Sichuan earthquake would impact China's assistance with disaster relief in Burma, Qin said that China will continue to help "according to our capabilities." ¶8. Asked for his views on actions by the Burmese government to limit the arrival of foreign assistance into Burma, Qin said that Burma has recently welcomed assistance from the international community. He said that China provides assistance on the basis of the principles of equality and mutual respect, respecting the will of the receiving party and based on its "receiving capability."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: MAY 8 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: BURMA, ZIMBABWE, HU JAPAN VISIT, DALAI TALKS, CHINESE IN KOREA, VATICAN, GRAIN PRICES
    Date of publication: 08 May 2008
    Description/subject: "...At the May 8, 2008 regular MFA press briefing, MFA Spokesman Qin Gang urged the Burmese Government to "cooperate" and "consult" with the international community on disaster relief efforts. International assistance should "follow the principle of equality and mutual respect" and should "respect Burma's sovereignty." Qin also urged patience and communication when dealing with Burma. China is prepared to send rescue and medical teams provided the Burmese Government agrees..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: MFA PRESS BRIEFING: IRAN, TIBET, VISAS, BURMA, XINJIANG, HU VISIT TO JAPAN, CHINESE SUBMARINE BASE, MORE
    Date of publication: 06 May 2008
    Description/subject: "...To assist in Burma's reconstruction efforts in the wake of a disastrous cyclone, China has decided to send a "first batch" of USD 1 million in aid, including "cash and materials," said the spokesman in a prepared announcement. The Chinese Government is in close contact with the Chinese Embassy in Burma and is very concerned about Chinese people working and studying in Burma. President Hu, PM Wen and FM Yang have all sent messages to Burma expressing condolences to the victims of the cyclone...."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: REFERENDUM IN BURMA DEMARCHE
    Date of publication: 14 March 2008
    Description/subject: "PolOff on March 14 conveyed to MFA reftel points urging China to make clear to the Burmese regime that the planned May referendum on the regime's draft constitution should adhere to internationally accepted standards for free and fair elections and referenda. MFA International Organizations and Conferences Department UN Division Deputy Director Sun Xiaobo said China has not received a briefing from UN Special Advisor Gambari on the results of his trip to Burma and does not want to jump to conclusions. However, China's preliminary view is that Gambari "achieved some progress," though China does not deny there remain "reasonable concerns." Sun said Gambari has emphasized that his work is "a process," and China believes engagement with Burma will require "patience and persistence" and problems "cannot be resolved by one or two visits." On the prospect of UN Security Council action, Sun said China's view is that the Security Council is not an appropriate forum to discuss Burma. Other fora, like the UN Secretary General's "Friends of Burma" group, are more appropriate and useful."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: DEMARCHE ON GAMBARI VISIT TO BURMA
    Date of publication: 07 March 2008
    Description/subject: "...PolOffs on March 7 discussed with MFA International Organizations and Conferences Department UN Division Deputy Director Yao Shaojun and Asian Affairs Department Counselor Yang Jian reftel points (delivered to MFA March 6) urging China to press the Burmese regime to cooperate with UN Special Advisor Gambari and to adhere to international standards in the conduct of the planned May referendum. Yao said that China "does not need the United States to tell it to press Burma to cooperate with Gambari." "China has been doing, is doing, and will do its job" on Burma. China has been conveying its opinions to the Burmese government "in a constructive manner," Yao said, and Burma "clearly understands China's signals.".."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: Beijing Needs to Stop Playing Games
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: China has come a long way since the days of ping-pong diplomacy. As host of this year’s Olympic Games, Beijing will finally have a chance to demonstrate the emerging economic powerhouse’s status as one of the world’s great nations. But before that can happen, China must show that it knows how to wield its growing global influence responsibly...It would be unrealistic to expect China to relinquish its strategic interests in Burma. But it is possible that China, along with India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, could reach an understanding that would diminish the need of each of these parties to curry favor with the Burmese generals. Although other considerations come into play—chiefly, a desire for a share of Burma’s natural riches and, in the case of India, security concerns along its northeastern frontier—China is frequently cited as the key reason Burma’s closest neighbors have chosen to engage the junta. There is genuine concern that a resurgent China will use Burma as a base to project its power at the expense of other regional players..."
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: GAMBARI CONFIRMS MARCH VISIT TO BURMA; ASKS USG FOR "SPACE" TO CARRY OUT MISSION
    Date of publication: 20 February 2008
    Description/subject: Summary: "Drawing from Ref A talking points, the Ambassador encouraged UN Special Envoy Gambari February 19 to push for more concrete progress in Burma. Gambari confirmed that he will return to Burma "in the first week of March," though the Burmese Government has not yet confirmed the date nor issued him a visa. Echoing his comments in his October 2007 meeting with the Ambassador (Ref B), Gambari affirmed continuing Chinese support for his mission and asked for the United States to limit its public pressure on him in order to create "space" to carry out his good offices mission." End Summary
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: China's New Dictatorship Diplomacy - Is Beijing Parting With Pariahs?
    Date of publication: February 2008
    Description/subject: Summary: Beijing has recently stepped back from its unconditional support for pariah states, such as Burma, North Korea, and Sudan. This means China may now be more likely to help the West manage the problems such states pose -- but only up to a point, because at heart China still favors nonintervention as a general policy....."...China's patience with the Burmese junta has been wearing thin recently. For several years, Beijing encouraged it to undertake Chinese-style economic and political reforms in order to help the regime consolidate its rule, ensure stability, and regain international acceptability. It supported former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt, whom it considered a Deng-style reformist -- only to see him ousted in 2004. As the Burmese regime hardened further, China's confidence in the junta's capacity or willingness to reform faded. But Beijing moved from providing encouragement to exerting pressure on the regime only after its support for the regime was exposed in the UN Security Council. In mid-2006, the United States circulated a resolution in the Security Council demanding the release of political prisoners, condemning Burma's human rights practices, and calling for the establishment of a political process that would lead to a genuine democratic transition. China twice managed to prevent the measure from being considered, and when the United States and the United Kingdom finally brought it to a vote, last January, China vetoed it (as did Russia) -- the first time since 1973 that Beijing vetoed any matter unrelated to Taiwan. At the same time, however, Beijing called on the regime to "listen to the call of its own people . . . and speed up the process of dialogues and reforms... Shifts in China's policy toward pariah states have been experimental, tentative, and incremental -- and are likely to remain so in the near future. But the strength of China's position with respect to many pariah states is a reality -- and an opportunity. Although there is little reason to believe that China is moving toward full alignment with Western policy, it may be prepared to distance itself from the worst autocracies and rogue states. Even if Beijing's list of such states is likely to remain short, it is bound to include a number of states that pose important security and humanitarian problems to the United States. In just two years, China has moved from outright obstructionism and a defensive insistence on solidarity with the developing world to an attempt to balance its material needs with its acknowledged responsibilities as a major power. And so when Washington and its allies formulate their policies toward pariah states, they should assume that China, although in some respects an obstacle, is now also a critical partner."
    Author/creator: Stephanie Kleine-Ahlbrandt and Andrew Small
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Foreign Affairs", January/February 2008
    Format/size: pdf (113K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


    Title: MFA SAYS BURMA MAKING PROGRESS ON DEMOCRACY; REGIME RELUCTANT TO RECEIVE GAMBARI
    Date of publication: 31 January 2008
    Description/subject: Summary: "In China's view, the Burmese Government is progressing on the democratic process and in dialogue with Aung San Suu Kyi, MFA Asia Department Deputy Director General Yang Yanyi told PolMinCouns January 30 during an official readout of the January 20-21 visit to China of Burmese Special Envoy U Maung Myint. However, Burma "has a problem" with another visit by UN Special Advisor Gambari, Yang said. Welcoming China's efforts to hasten Gambari's visit to Burma, PolMinCouns countered Yang's positive assessment on Burma. PolMinCouns pointed out the lack of progress in the dialogue between the Burmese Government and Aung San Suu Kyi and cited the recent charging of democracy activists for peaceful activities as evidence of the worsening political situation in Burma." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: CHINA SUGGESTS BURMA RECONSIDER GAMBARI VISIT DATE; ENCOURAGES CONTINUING DIALOGUE WITH ASSK
    Date of publication: 25 January 2008
    Description/subject: Summary: "Chinese officials suggested to Burmese Special Envoy and Deputy Foreign Minister U Maung Myint during his January 21 visit to Beijing that the Burmese regime reconsider UN Special Advisor Gambari's request to visit Burma prior to the April timeframe offered by Burma, MFA Asia Department Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam Division Deputy Director Chen Chen told PolOff January 25. Chen said Chinese officials encouraged continuation of the dialogue between the regime and democratic opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi. PolOff delivered ref B points on banning imports of Burmese gems and hardwood. Chen promised to convey the points to his superiors." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: CHINESE LOSING PATIENCE WITH BURMA
    Date of publication: 18 January 2008
    Description/subject: "...The Chinese Ambassador no longer tried to defend the regime, and acknowledged that the generals had made a bad situation worse. The Chinese have used their access to the generals to push for change, without much observable result, but remain interested in working with us to promote change. The Ambassador indicated that fear of losing power and economic interests may be the key obstacles keeping the generals away from the negotiating table..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


    Title: MFA AND SCHOLARS DESCRIBE CHINA’S EFFORTS ON BURMA
    Date of publication: 11 January 2008
    Description/subject: Summary: "China has made great efforts to improve the situation in Burma, stretching the boundaries of its policy of non-interference, MFA and Chinese think tank interlocutors told HFAC and SFRC staff members January 10-11. MFA says China is contemplating next steps to address the current “standstill” in Burma, but Chinese scholars said domestic events and other international issues will draw China’s attention away from Burma. MFA officials and the scholars continue to encourage direct talks between the United States and the Burmese regime." End summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Title: MFA AND SCHOLARS DESCRIBE CHINA’S EFFORTS ON BURMA
    Date of publication: 11 January 2008
    Description/subject: Summary: "China has made great efforts to improve the situation in Burma, stretching the boundaries of its policy of non-interference, MFA and Chinese think tank interlocutors told HFAC and SFRC staff members January 10-11. MFA says China is contemplating next steps to address the current “standstill” in Burma, but Chinese scholars said domestic events and other international issues will draw China’s attention away from Burma. MFA officials and the scholars continue to encourage direct talks between the United States and the Burmese regime." End summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: EAP DAS CHRISTENSEN PRESSES CHINA ON IRAN, BURMA, SUDAN, DPRK, HUMAN RIGHTS
    Date of publication: 14 December 2007
    Description/subject: "...China should encourage the regime to reach out to the opposition and engage in genuine dialogue, DAS Christensen said. He expressed appreciation for China's previous efforts on behalf of dialogue in, and Special Advisor Gambari's visits to, Burma, but stressed U.S. unhappiness with the lack of results. We want Gambari's January visit to achieve real results. Gambari should be allowed unfettered access to truly engage with all sides. Aung Sang Suu Kyi (ASSK) should be allowed full access to opposition and ethnic minority representatives. Pursuit of a new constitution under the regime's "road map" without the input of the opposition would lead to instability, not stability. Likewise, the status quo does not constitute stability..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: AMBASSADOR URGES CHINESE ACTION ON BURMA
    Date of publication: 06 December 2007
    Description/subject: "...Drawing upon Ref A talking points, the Ambassador in a December 6 meeting with Assistant Foreign Minister He Yafei urged China to press the Burmese regime to engage in an authentic dialogue with the opposition and include the opposition in efforts to draft a constitution. Drawing upon Ref B talking points, the Ambassador conveyed the U.S. request that China, as we are requesting of other purveyors of arms to the regime, stop conventional arms sales to Burma...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: Ein Freund und Helfer - China unterstützt aus strategischen und wirtschaftlichen Gründen das Militärregime in Myanmar
    Date of publication: December 2007
    Description/subject: Staaten wie Russland, Indien, Serbien und die Ukraine liefern bedenkenlos militärische Güter in das Land, dessen Bevölkerung seit Jahrzehnten brutal unterdrückt wird. Insbesondere China verkauft der Junta Waffen in großem Stil: Die Volksrepublik hat sich in den letzten Jahren zu einem der weltweit größten Rüstungsexporteure entwickelt, und auch Myanmar steht auf der Empfängerliste. Waffenlieferungen aus China; Interessen Chinas in Burma; Rolle der UN; Rolle der EU; Military support from China; chinese ambitions in Burma; role of UN; role of EU;
    Author/creator: Verena Harpe
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: Html (21kb)
    Date of entry/update: 27 May 2008


    Title: CHINA SUPPORTS BURMA GROUP OF FRIENDS IF BURMA SUPPORTS AND PARTICIPATES
    Date of publication: 29 November 2007
    Description/subject: "...MFA International Organizations and Conferences Department UN Affairs Division Deputy Director Sun Xiaobo on November 29 told PolOff that China is willing to consider various proposals in the UN conducive to helping Burma solve its current problems. Specifically, China can support a Burma "Group of Friends" or "Core Group" in the UN (reftel), but only if the Government of Burma supports the proposal and participates in the group. China's experience in the Six-Party Talks (on denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula) has shown that it is very important that the "concerned government" participate in any mechanism to solve an international problem, Sun said..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: VFM WANG YI BRIEFS AMBASSADOR ON BURMA VISIT; NATIONAL RECONCILIATION EFFORT IS "DOMESTIC AFFAIR"
    Date of publication: 21 November 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "Briefing the Ambassador on his recent trip to Burma, Vice Foreign Minister Wang Yi said the ongoing "political reconciliation and democratic process" are the domestic affairs of Burma and should therefore be addressed by the Burmese Government and people themselves. The international community could be of assistance, but otherwise should not interfere. VFM Wang said Burmese leaders described the ongoing dialogue with opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi as "still in the confidence-building period, clarifying misunderstandings and misgivings." ASSK, the Burmese leaders complained, is "stubborn," "feels she is always right and everyone else is always wrong," and is "hard to talk to." VFM Wang also reported that Burmese leaders expressed eagerness to resume bilateral dialogue with the United States; Wang asked pointedly about U.S. willingness. Drawing upon ref email points, the Ambassador urged China to use its influence with the regime to promote genuine dialogue, which would require the rel ease of opposition leaders from arrest and detention." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: S/P GORDON BILAT WITH VFM WANG YI: IRAN, BURMA, NORTHEAST ASIA SECURITY, AFRICA, ENERGY
    Date of publication: 14 November 2007
    Description/subject: "...Director Gordon said an "historic opportunity" exists to achieve political reconciliation in Burma. Aung San Su Kyi and the military regime are both showing some flexibility. The unity of the international community, Gordon emphasized, is crucial if we hope to make a difference in the behavior of the Burmese regime. VFM Wang acknowledged that events in Burma were a problem, but described the unrest in Burma as an "internal affair" that does not impact regional stability. Ultimately, VFM Wang said, it is up to the parties in Burma to reach a solution. China welcomes the role played by the international community so long as those efforts are consistent with encouraging a Burmese solution..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: NOVEMBER 1 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: DALAI LAMA, BURMA, SIX-PARTY TALKS, IRAN, TIBETAN REFUGEES, GATES VISIT
    Date of publication: 01 November 2007
    Description/subject: "...Asked about Chinese pressure on Burma and the upcoming Burma trip of UN Special Envoy to Burma Ibrahim Gambari, Liu said China has normal relations with Burma and hopes that the relevant parties exercise restraint and hold dialogue to solve problems and realize national reconciliation. Gambari will go to Burma on November 3. China supports Gambari's mediation efforts and hopes they produce positive result..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: MFA SAYS GAMBARI TO PUSH FOR DIALOGUE IN BURMA; CHINA TO CONTINUE SUPPORT FOR "ROADMAP"
    Date of publication: 30 October 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "The Burmese Government has agreed to a November 5 visit by UN Special Envoy Gambari, and during that visit Gambari hopes to push for dialogue between the regime and Aung San Suu Kyi, a more inclusive constitutional process and measures to improve economic development, an MFA International Organizations Department official briefed us October 30. Sun said China hopes Burma will "speed up" the democratic process but, as Assistant Foreign Minister told the Ambassador October 25 (reftel), continues to support the Burmese government's seven-step "roadmap." China remains open to the Gambari's Burma core group concept, but only with Burmese government agreement." End summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: PRC LIMITS COVERAGE OF BURMA "DISTURBANCE," FORBIDS DISCUSSION OF CHINA'S ROLE
    Date of publication: 26 October 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: Despite having taken a largely hands off approach to managing coverage of Burma by relying on editors to engage in "self-censorship," Chinese authorities nevertheless have required reporters to restrict their description of events in Burma to words like "disturbance," so as not to legitimize the actions of anti-junta demonstrators. Discussion of China's role in Burma is forbidden. While Burma is a sensitive story given China's experience during the 1989 democracy movement, some journalists tell us that Burma is also just one of many international stories and is not particularly newsworthy to Chinese readers. End summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: GAMBARI TO PUSH DIALOGUE IN BURMA; CHINA STILL SUPPORTS "ROADMAP"
    Date of publication: 25 October 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "Drawing from Ref A talking points, the Ambassador encouraged UN Special Envoy Gambari October 25 to push for more concrete progress in Burma. Gambari confirmed that he will return to Burma "in the first week of November." In addition to praising Chinese efforts on his behalf, Gambari asked for the United States and the UK to limit their public pressure on him in order to create "space" to carry out his good offices mission, and he suggested the formation of a core group on Burma, including the P5, India, Japan, Norway and ASEAN. Gambari confirmed that he passed Aung San Suu Kyi's message regarding the Beijing Olympics to Chinese officials and that he will continue to push for dialogue between Aung San Suu Kyi and Burmese military leaders. Gambari stressed that he provided his briefing to the Ambassador "early" because the United States had provided exceptional assistance. He urged the Ambassador to keep the fact of the briefing confidential. ¶2. (C) Summary continued: In an earlier meeting on October 25 with Assistant Foreign Minister He Yafei (other subjects reported septels), AFM He affirmed Chinese Government support for Gambari's mission and reiterated PRC opposition to sanctions. AFM He expressed support for the Burmese "roadmap to democracy" and said China would be amenable to forming a core group, contingent on GOB agreement. The Ambassador noted that while the United States is open to initiatives that will show results on the ground in Burma, the "roadmap" has been around a long time and has yielded little progress to date." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: BURMA POINTS DELIVERED TO MFA
    Date of publication: 23 October 2007
    Description/subject: "...Poloff conveyed ref A points on Burma and ref B information regarding latest USG sanctions October 23 to MFA Burma, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam Division Deputy Director Liang Jianjun and United Nations Affairs Division Deputy Director Yao Shaojun. Liang had no substantive comment. Yao, while not formally responding to the demarche points, commented "personally" that the United States is adding too many conditions to the dialogue process. Both interlocutors promised to convey the points and information to their superiors..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: BEIJING-BASED G-5 CHIEFS OF MISSION ON BURMA, THE EAST CHINA SEA AND UPCOMING HIGH-LEVEL FRENCH VISITORS.
    Date of publication: 12 October 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "At the October 12 bi-weekly G-5 Chiefs of Mission gathering, UK Ambassador William Ehrman said that China's concerns in Burma are driven by the long common border, the 2.5 million ethnic Chinese in Burma, the 150,000 PRC citizens living there and the 3,000 Chinese companies active in the country. French DCM Nicholas Chapuis argued that PRC support for a UN Security Council Presidential Statement on Burma marks a major policy shift for the Chinese. Japanese DCM Umeda reported no progress on Sino-Japanese resource cooperation in the East China Sea, citing the median line, China's prior investment in the area and territorial concerns as stumbling blocks. The French DCM reported that preparations for French President Nicolas Sarkozy's November 25-27 visit to China are not yet finalized." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: OCTOBER 11 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: BURMA, ARREST OF DPRK ASYLUM SEEKERS, DALAI LAMA AND MORE
    Date of publication: 11 October 2007
    Description/subject: "...The situation in Burma is "relaxing" and is "turning in a good direction." The international community should offer "constructive" help to allow Burma to realize stability, reconciliation, democracy and development..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: OCTOBER 9 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: BURMA UNREST, SIX-PARTY TALKS, IAEA INDIA VISIT, CURRENCY EXCHANGE
    Date of publication: 09 October 2007
    Description/subject: "...Burma has "become calmer" through the efforts of both the Burmese government and the international community. Any action by the UN Security Council should be "cautious and prudent" and calculated to promote "stability" within Burma. The "pressure of sanctions" will not help. China has adopted a "constructive" policy on Burma, and critics of China's policy should not attempt "to reach ulterior motives" by linking it to the 2008 Olympics..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: SEPTEMBER 27 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: BURMA, SIX PARTY TALKS, MISSING RUSSIANS
    Date of publication: 27 September 2007
    Description/subject: "...At the September 27 regular MFA press briefing, spokeswoman Jiang Yu said China has been closely following the situation in Burma and hopes that all parties exercise restraint so as to avoid escalation or a negative effect on regional stability. She also expressed hope that the press would report on the situation in Myanmar truthfully with no "exaggerated hype." Some in the press had attacked China out of "ulterior motives," she said. Asked to clarify, Jiang said everyone had read the reports and seen examples. Asked if China would support a UN Security Council Resolution on Burma, she said the Security Council had discussed this topic and the Chair had spoken to the press. She said the international community should provide "constructive assistance" to relax the situation in Myanmar and China supports the mediation of the UN Secretary General. Asked if any high-level visits had taken place between China and Burma, she said she had no information but had already made China's position clear. Asked specifically if China condemned the violence in Myanmar, Jiang refused to answer because the journalist asking "had come late to the press conference."..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: SEPTEMBER 25 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: BURMA DEMONSTRATIONS, NEW JAPAN PM, SIX-PARTY TALKS, MERKEL-DALAI LAMA MEETING, LIMATE CHANGE, RUSSIA
    Date of publication: 25 September 2007
    Description/subject: "...At the September 25 regular MFA press briefing, spokeswoman Jiang Yu said stability in Burma serves the interests of Burma and the international community and that China sticks to a policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, in response to several questions on China's reaction to demonstrations in Burma. China hopes and believes Burma's Government and people can handle the current situation and achieve stability and economic development..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: CHINA TO CONSIDER FORMAL UNSC BRIEFING ON BURMA, OPPOSES "TOO MUCH" PRESSURE ON RANGOON
    Date of publication: 10 September 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "China will consider supporting a formal briefing of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) by Special Envoy Gambari (reftel), MFA Burma, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam Division Deputy Director Liang Jianjun told us September 10. Liang said the MFA had conveyed to the Burmese government Gambari's request to travel twice to Burma and that the Burmese were receptive to a possible trip after September 20. China's Ambassador in Burma has conveyed to senior Burmese officials China's desire that Rangoon resolve the ongoing crisis "in the proper way." Liang described Burma's National Convention as a positive political development. In any case, Liang said, encouragement and engagement, not pressure and sanctions, are the best way to move Burma toward political and economic reform." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: CHINA TELLS BURMA TO RECEIVE GAMBARI QUICKLY, SUGGESTS UNITED STATES CONTINUE DIALOGUE WITH BURMA
    Date of publication: 27 July 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "In response to the Ambassador per ref A urging China to press the Burmese regime to exercise restraint, begin an inclusive dialogue on democracy, and accept a visit of UN Special Envoy Gambari immediately, Chinese Assistant Foreign Minister He Yafei stressed in a meeting on September 27 that China has repeatedly communicated its concerns to Burmese authorities over the current situation. China views unrest in Burma as an internal matter and not appropriate for UN Security Council consideration. However, consistent with its support for the UN Secretary-General, China has told Burmese officials that UN Special Envoy Gambari should visit Burma as soon as possible. AFM He complained that international media unfairly assigned China responsibility for resolving the current turmoil in Burma. He suggested the United States continue its recent dialogue with Burma. The Ambassador responded that, as Burma's primary business partner and a neighboring state, China has both influence and responsibility." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: APRIL 26 MFA PRESS BRIEFING: BDA, DPRK-BURMA...
    Date of publication: 26 April 2007
    Description/subject: "...DPRK-Burma Resume Relations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: DAS JOHN DISCUSSES BURMA, VIETNAM AND JOINT INTERESTS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA WITH CHINESE ACADEMICS
    Date of publication: 08 March 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "Chinese scholars of Southeast Asian affairs told EAP DAS Eric John that Burma presents a major challenge and opportunity for United States-China relations following China's veto blocking a Burma resolution in the UN Security Council (UNSC). The academics said China wants to cooperate with the United States and continues to pressure Burma to reform, but may emphasize economic reform and resolving ethnic conflicts more than the political inclusiveness that the United States stresses. Zhai said China thinks Burma's plans for a new constitution are "better than nothing" and that America's criticism of procedural and other flaws in the regime's roadmap toward national reunification might be lost on Beijing. DAS John countered that a bad constitution is worse than nothing if it permanently excludes from the political process any legitimate opposition. Elsewhere in Southeast Asia, the United States and China share many interests, including promoting economic growth, increasing cooperation on nontraditional security issues and fighting terrorism. The weakness and indecisiveness of ASEAN creates problems for building regional architecture. China sees Southeast Asia as a growing market, especially for exports from China's border provinces. Vietnam is rapidly growing more powerful and this causes China some concern, according to the scholars." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: DAS JOHN DISCUSSES BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA WITH AFM CUI TIANKAI AND DG HU ZHENGYUE
    Date of publication: 05 March 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "If the United States wants to make a difference on Burma, it should engage directly with General Than Shwe, Assistant Foreign Minister Cui Tiankai told EAP DAS Eric John on March 5. In a separate meeting, MFA Director General for Asian Affairs Hu Zhengyue stressed that State Councilor Tang "really worked on" the Burmese during his recent visit to Burma, delivering the message that Burma needs to respond to the concerns of the international community. DAS John underlined that the United States is worried that Burma is headed at high speed in the wrong direction. If it adopts a constitution excluding certain parties from the political process, the United States and China could be locked into a cycle of confrontation over Burma at the United Nations. DAS John and AFM Cui also discussed the United States' and China's overlapping interests in Southeast Asia. With DG Hu, DAS John emphasized the importance of Indonesia and discussed instability in East Timor, positive progress in the Philippines and the situation in post-coup Thailand. EAP DAS Thomas Christensen joined DAS John at the meetings." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Title: DAS JOHN DISCUSSES BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA WITH AFM CUI TIANKAI AND DG HU ZHENGYUE
    Date of publication: 05 March 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "If the United States wants to make a difference on Burma, it should engage directly with General Than Shwe, Assistant Foreign Minister Cui Tiankai told EAP DAS Eric John on March 5. In a separate meeting, MFA Director General for Asian Affairs Hu Zhengyue stressed that State Councilor Tang "really worked on" the Burmese during his recent visit to Burma, delivering the message that Burma needs to respond to the concerns of the international community. DAS John underlined that the United States is worried that Burma is headed at high speed in the wrong direction. If it adopts a constitution excluding certain parties from the political process, the United States and China could be locked into a cycle of confrontation over Burma at the United Nations. DAS John and AFM Cui also discussed the United States' and China's overlapping interests in Southeast Asia. With DG Hu, DAS John emphasized the importance of Indonesia and discussed instability in East Timor, positive progress in the Philippines and the situation in post-coup Thailand. EAP DAS Thomas Christensen joined DAS John at the meetings." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: Towards Resolution: China in the Myanmar Issue
    Date of publication: March 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: The issue of Myanmar has been in the limelight of international affairs for almost two decades now. Economic sanctions and political isolation have consistently been the principal policies of the international community in dealing with the incumbent government in Myanmar. Despite the mounting pressure, the country’s military rulers have so far chosen to defy the international outcry, and as a result, a political stalemate has persisted, while the population of the country continues to struggle to make ends meet. Twenty years after 1987, Myanmar remains on the UN list of the world’s Least Developed Countries. Yet, the government that stole the country’s election is still in power. The impasse itself now becomes a problem, and the practice, if not the concept, of intervention is open to scrutiny. Whatever problems Myanmar has today and however severe they may be, they did not just spring up overnight after the military took power — the country’s history, beleaguered by violence and turmoil in the past two centuries, tells us that. Recounting the country’s struggle for independence and the political upheavals in the decades that followed allows us to gain insights into the nature of the problems with which the country is grappling today. Accountable for the problems that presently hinder the democratic process in Myanmar is a combination of colonial legacy, multi-ethnicity, a wide range of political interests across communities and, above all, a lack of national identity that bonds the country together. Without the necessary step of state building and a process of national reconciliation from within, a host of political, economic, and ethnic problems cannot be solved. In regard to the issue of Myanmar, China has all along spoken with a different voice. The difference is rooted in regional identity and shared views of history and development. Like many Asian countries, China has had peaceful as well as troubled relations with Myanmar. The export of Mao’s revolution and fervent support for ‘a people’s war’ to bring about regime change in neighboring countries and beyond during the most radical period of China’s modern history bears a striking resemblance to international 10 developments unfolding on the Indo-China Peninsula and elsewhere in the world today. China’s current foreign policy and, in particular, China’s stance on the issue of Myanmar, reflects lessons that China has drawn from its own experience in the past. Economic reform that prospered and served to stabilize China in the post-Mao era is now making its way to neighboring Myanmar. This cross-border development (in part joined by ASEAN) has brought significant changes to the war-torn country of Myanmar; and more coordinated efforts from the international community along the same lines would certainly benefit the country and its people in a meaningful way. Intention and sincerity are crucial in the search for solutions, as indeed the Six-Party Talks on North Korea demonstrate.
    Author/creator: Xiaolin Guo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program - Silk Road Paper, March 2007
    Format/size: pdf (2.23 MB) - 92 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: CHINESE STATE COUNCILOR TANG'S VISIT TO BURMA
    Date of publication: 27 February 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "China encouraged Burma to accelerate its democratic and national reconciliation processes, develop its economy and improve the lives of the Burmese people, State Councilor Tang Jiaxuan told Burmese generals on his February 25-27 visit to Burma. According to a readout provided to the DCM by MFA Director General for North American Affairs Liu Jieyi, Tang said Burma's internal affairs should be settled through consultation between the government and the people and noted that the international community can provide "constructive help" in this regard. Burmese officials told Tang they are prepared to have formal written communication with Aung San Suu Kyi, to engage with the international community and to continue progress in their roadmap toward eventual elections. The generals' priorities remain domestic stability, economic development and training of personnel. DG Liu's readout was notable for its promptness, provided on the same day that Tang and his delegation departed Burma. The Chinese provided the same prompt readout to our Russian, Japanese and ASEAN colleagues." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: PRC-BURMA: MFA ON NEXT STEPS FOR INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND SPECIAL ENVOY
    Date of publication: 27 February 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "An MFA International Organizations Department official told us that State Councilor Tang Jiaxuan discussed Beijing's ideas about Burma's political situation during his visit to Burma that ended February 27. Responding to reftel demarche on next steps for the international community regarding Burma, the official said China believes that U/SYG Gambari has been a useful Special Envoy whose term might merit extension. Beijing is willing to cooperate with other stakeholders to address the situation in Burma in relevant international fora but stands by its view that the UN Security Council "should not interfere" in Burma's affairs, the official said." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: DAS CHRISTENSEN DISCUSSES BURMA WITH MFA ASIAN AFFAIRS DG HU ZHENGYUE
    Date of publication: 06 February 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "EAP DAS Thomas Christensen underscored the need for continued international attention to Burma in a meeting with MFA Asian Affairs Director General Hu Zhengyue on February 6. The United States was disappointed by China's veto of the Security Council resolution on Burma. China should find ways to promote reform in Burma. The United States is ready to discuss these issues with China, he noted. DG Hu said cooperation on Burma should be an important part of closer coordination between the United States and China on Asian affairs. China continues to urge Burmese leaders to seek national reconciliation and believes that ASEAN and the United Nations, but not the Security Council, can play a constructive role on Burma. DAS Christensen asked whether China pressed Burmese General Thura Shwe Mann on reform last week when he visited China. DG Hu said General Thura Shwe Mann met with Premier Wen and Chinese military leaders and Chinese officials urged the regime to respond to international concerns, but also repeated China's standard positions about not interfering in Burma's internal affairs. DAS Christensen asked Hu about his perceptions of the Burmese regime's relations with Aung San Suu Kyi. DG Hu responded that the regime does not see her as a threat. Even if she were in power she would not be able to lead the country effectively, given the complexity of the problems Burma faces, DG Hu said. DAS Christensen said it is the current Burmese regime, not Aung San Suu Kyi, that has demonstrated a lack of capacity to handle the complexities of the challenges that face Burma." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: A/S SILVERBERG AND AFM CUI DISCUSS BURMA, HAITI, IRAN, UNSC REFORM, SUDAN AND HUMAN RIGHTS
    Date of publication: 26 January 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "United Nations successes in 2006 benefited from P-5 cooperation, especially between the United States and China, Assistant Secretary for International Organizations (IO) Affairs Kristen Silverberg told Assistant Foreign Minister Cui Tiankai. U.S.-China cooperation resulted in the selection of an exceptionally qualified new UNSYG and a new WHO head, A/S Silverberg noted. AFM Cui said that U.S.-China cooperation also made it possible to pass resolutions on the DPRK and Iran nuclear issues. A/S Silverberg said Burma and Haiti still require attention. Cui said China is open to bilateral talks on Burma, will "stand on principle" on the renewal of the MINUSTAH mandate in Haiti and believes further sanctions on Iran will strengthen the hand of hardliners. China considers India, as a representative of the developing world, more deserving of a permanent UNSC seat than Japan, Cui said. A/S Silverberg urged China not to allow the Human Rights Council to be a forum for Israel-bashing, asked Beijing to support the Ugandan candidate for the Global Fund and reiterated invitations to Cui and IO Director General Wu Hailong to visit Washington." End Summary.
    Language: Engish
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: CHINESE OPPOSITION TO BURMA RESOLUTION UNCHANGED; BEIJING WILL VETO; FEARS COSTS OF CONFRONTATION
    Date of publication: 11 January 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "Calling the Charge to a 9:00 pm "urgent meeting," Assistant Foreign Minister Cui Tiankai said China has "clearly" told the United States that Burma is a matter of national security for China, that there is no present threat from Burma to regional peace and security, that none of Burma's neighbors support a UNSC resolution and that China will "vote against" a Burma resolution if it is brought to a vote. The PRC will inform other UNSC members and make a public announcement of its opposition unless a solution is reached imminently, but, in any case, China will vote against a resolution. CDA stressed the need for a resolution, highlighted that we have kept the PRC informed of our views and said we planned for a vote on January 12. Cui said China and the United States have recently worked well together on tough issues such as Iran and North Korea at the UNSC. He feared that by forcing a confrontation, the United States will endanger that cooperation. Asked about whether the revisions to the draft text would have an impact on Beijing's position, a working-level official said that the PRC opposition is to a resolution and not specific text." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: BURMA NEEDS A GOVERNMENT THAT REPRESENTS ITS PEOPLE, CHINESE MFA OFFICIAL TELLS VISITING EAP DAS CHRISTENSEN
    Date of publication: 05 January 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "Burma needs a government that represents the Burmese people and that provides more freedom to its citizens, MFA Asian Affairs Department Director General Hu Zhengyue told visiting EAP Deputy Assistant Secretary Thomas Christensen on December 21. Hu said that China has been "working on" Burma by urging the regime to begin ethnic and political reconciliation, encouraging UN U/SYG Gambari to visit the country, and urging the Burmese regime to become a country that ASEAN could accept as a responsible member. Hu claimed that China had achieved "significant progress" in replacing opium as a key agricultural product in certain areas of Burma. DAS Christensen stressed that Burma,s domestic problems remain a serious threat to regional stability and that the regime continues to eschew reform. Hu asserted that the United States and China share a common goal in a stable Burma and should coordinate our Burma policy." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: PRC/BURMA: MESSAGE ON UNSC RESOLUTION DELIVERED; BEIJING STILL OPPOSED
    Date of publication: 05 January 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "The PRC is prepared to block a UN Security Council resolution on Burma but appears confident there will not be enough support to bring such a resolution to a vote, according to MFA IO Department UN Division Deputy Director Cong Jun. MFA Director General for International Organizations told CDA that China agrees with many of the U.S. points about the bad behavior of the Burmese regime, commenting that he and other MFA officials had raised PRC concerns with the Burmese Ambassador in Beijing. Wu claimed that Beijing has also pushed ASEAN countries to take a stronger stance toward Burma and expressed a desire for better cooperation with the United States. China does not believe that a UNSCR will be effective and worries that it could open the door to further resolutions that will lead to a deterioration of the situation in Burma, he stressed. MFA IO Department UN Division Deputy Director Cong Jun later told us that Beijing remains strongly opposed to a Burma resolution and, noting previous discussions about the possible use of the PRC veto, said China "will not permit passage of the resolution." Commenting that vote-counting is best done in New York, Cong expressed confidence that fewer than nine countries would be willing to vote in favor of the resolution." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: Chinese Whispers: The Great Coco Island Mystery
    Date of publication: January 2007
    Description/subject: How a single news agency report led to the accepted belief that China has a sophisticated intelligence post in Burmese waters For almost 15 years, there has been a steady stream of newspaper stories, scholarly monographs and books that have referred inter alia to a large Chinese signals intelligence (SIGINT) station on Burma’s Great Coco Island, in the Andaman Sea. Yet it would now appear that there is no such base on this island, nor ever has been. The explosion of this myth highlights the dearth of reliable information about strategic developments in Burma since the creation of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in 1988.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2006


    Title: Chinese Military Bases in Burma: The Explosion of a Myth
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: For 15 years, there has been a steady stream of newspaper stories, scholarly monographs and books that have referred inter alia to the existence of Chinese military bases in Burma. This apparent intrusion by China into the northern Indian Ocean has strongly influenced the strategic perceptions and policies of Burma’s regional neighbours, notably India. Reports of a large signals intelligence collection station on Great Coco Island in the Andaman Sea, for example, and a naval base on Hainggyi Island in the Irrawaddy River delta, have been cited as evidence that Burma has become a client state of China. Other observers have seen the existence of such bases as proof of China’s expansionist designs in the Indian Ocean region and its global ambitions. Few of these reports drew on hard evidence or gave verifiable sources to support their claims, but repeated denials of a Chinese military presence in Burma by Rangoon and Beijing were brushed aside. As these reports proliferated, they were picked up by respected commentators and academics and given fresh life in serious studies of the regional strategic environment. Each time they were cited in books and reputable journals they gained credibility, and it was not long before the existence of Chinese bases in Burma was widely accepted as an established fact. In 2005, however, the Chairman of the Indian Defence Force’s Chiefs of Staff Committee conceded that reports of a Chinese intelligence facility on one of Burma’s offshore islands were incorrect. At the same time, he announced that there were no Chinese naval bases in Burma. There are a number of possible explanations for these statements, but this remarkable about-face, on two issues that have preoccupied Indian defence planners for more than a decade, must throw doubt on the claims of other “Chinese bases” in Burma. It also raises a number of serious questions about current analyses of China’s relations with Burma, and of China’s strategic interests in the northern Indian Ocean region. It is possible to identify three schools of thought regarding China’s relations with Burma. The “domination” school believes that Burma has become a pawn in China’s strategic designs in the Asia–Pacific region, and is host to several Chinese military facilities. The “partnership” school sees a more balanced relationship developing between Beijing and Rangoon, but accepts that China has acquired bases in Burma as part of a long term strategy to establish a permanent military presence in the Indian Ocean. The “rejectionist” school, however, emphasises Burma’s strong tradition of independence and Rangoon’s continuing suspicions of Beijing. This school claims that, despite the conventional wisdom, Burma has been able to resist the enormous strategic weight of its larger, more powerful neighbour. Some members of this school argue that Burma has the whip hand in its relations with China, and has been able successfully to manipulate Burma’s sensitive geostrategic position to considerable advantage. While acknowledging the close bilateral ties that have developed since 1988, they are sceptical of claims that China has any military bases in Burma.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Griffith Asia Institute
    Format/size: pdf (210K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.griffith.edu.au/search/cache.cgi?collection=Internet&doc=http%2Fwww.griffith.edu.au%...
    Date of entry/update: 31 May 2007


    Title: PRC/BURMA: BEIJING'S OPPOSITION TO UNSC RESOLUTION UNCHANGED
    Date of publication: 27 December 2006
    Description/subject: The PRC continues to "strongly oppose" a UN Security Council Resolution on Burma and though ready for a "political confrontation" with the United States in order to block a resolution, prefers to work with Washington to find "more effective" ways to communicate dissatisfaction to the Burmese regime, according to MFA International Organizations Department UN Affairs Division Director Yang Tao. Yang told Poloff December 27 that Beijing was surprised that the United States backed off from pushing for an early vote on a Burma resolution so quickly and with so little warning, adding that the PRC was also surprised that the United States had not suggested the possibility of a Presidential Statement (PRST). Arguing that, as a neighbor, China has a much greater interest than in Burma than does the United States, Yang repeated his previous statement that Beijing will not accept any linkage of a possible UNSC veto of a Burma resolution to overall U.S.-China relations.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: PRC/BURMA: BEIJING'S OPPOSITION TO UNSC RESOLUTION UNCHANGED
    Date of publication: 27 December 2006
    Description/subject: The PRC continues to "strongly oppose" a UN Security Council Resolution on Burma and though ready for a "political confrontation" with the United States in order to block a resolution, prefers to work with Washington to find "more effective" ways to communicate dissatisfaction to the Burmese regime, according to MFA International Organizations Department UN Affairs Division Director Yang Tao. Yang told Poloff December 27 that Beijing was surprised that the United States backed off from pushing for an early vote on a Burma resolution so quickly and with so little warning, adding that the PRC was also surprised that the United States had not suggested the possibility of a Presidential Statement (PRST). Arguing that, as a neighbor, China has a much greater interest than in Burma than does the United States, Yang repeated his previous statement that Beijing will not accept any linkage of a possible UNSC veto of a Burma resolution to overall U.S.-China relations.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: CHINA SEEKS ACCOMMODATION ON UNSC BURMA RESOLUTION; WARNS CONFLICT COULD DAMAGE COOPERATION IN OTHER AREAS
    Date of publication: 19 December 2006
    Description/subject: Summary: "The United States and China share many common interests in the United Nations Security Council and with regard to Burma, none of which would be served by conflict over a Burma resolution in the UNSC, MFA Director General for International Organizations Wu Hailong told the DCM. Wu urged the United States to drop the resolution or seek another way forward. China will oppose a UNSC Resolution on Burma because Burma's political situation is showing progress, the country's problems involve internal affairs and are outside the UNSC's area of responsibility. The United States has tabled a resolution on Burma because we seek real progress and want to support Undersecretary Gambari's efforts under the Secretary General's Good Offices mission, the DCM said. Problems such as drugs, unrest, human trafficking and infectious disease caused by Burma's government threaten stability in the region. China should back the Burma resolution, he emphasized." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: URGING CHINA TO ACCEPT UNSC RESOLUTION ON BURMA
    Date of publication: 14 December 2006
    Description/subject: Summary: China should reconsider its opposition to a UN Security Council Resolution on Burma, Polmincouns stressed to MFA Deputy Director General for Southeast Asia Tong Xiaoling on December 14. The situation in Burma is harming the peace and security of the region. Tong said China remains opposed to a resolution. Separately, the Chinese warned the French Charge that China has used its veto rarely but might do so on a Burma resolution. A lower-ranking MFA official told the French that China remains open to a "strong" Presidential Statement. End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: PRC/BURMA: BEIJING STRONGLY OPPOSES UNSC RESOLUTION
    Date of publication: 13 December 2006
    Description/subject: Summary: The PRC "strongly opposes" a UN Security Council Resolution on Burma and would consider using its veto, MFA International Organizations Department UN Affairs Division Director Yang Tao told Poloffs December 13 in response to reftel message. Though the PRC shares many of the U.S. concerns about the worsening problems in Burma, Beijing rejects the idea that they pose a threat to international peace and security warranting action by the Security Council. Highlighting our desire to work with the PRC on Burma, Poloffs urged China not to block the resolution from moving forward and cautioned against casting a veto. End Summary
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


    Title: Economic and Military Cooperation between China and Burma
    Date of publication: September 2006
    Description/subject: (A brief report on China’s support of economic and military development in Burma) Contents: Introduction, Contract and Memoranda of Understanding, Aids and Loans, Trade, Seaports and Highways Projects, Gas Pipeline and Water Dam Projects, Military Supplies and Navy Ports , Conclusion, References.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Western News
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: A/S HILL'S MAY 25 WORKING LUNCH WITH VFM WU DAWEI
    Date of publication: 02 June 2006
    Description/subject: "...Visiting EAP Assistant Secretary Christopher R. Hill urged VFM Wu Dawei to improve relations with Japan and use PRC influence to push the Burmese regime to release Aung San Suu Kyi (ASSK) during a May 25 working lunch. A/S Hill also noted the negative impact of PRC/Taiwan competition on Pacific Island states. Wu stressed that Beijing seeks improvement of relations with Tokyo but has no choice in its response if Japan does not handle history issues properly. He expressed satisfaction with the meeting between Foreign Ministers Li and Aso. Wu complained about the Burmese regime, noting that the PRC has raised ASSK but that the senior military leadership views her as a threat and is unlikely to release her. Wu closed by urging U.S. participation in the East Asia Summit and saying that China will not challenge the U.S. role and our interests in East Asia. End Summary..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Defending Burma, Protecting Myanmar
    Date of publication: May 2006
    Description/subject: "Over half a century has wrought profound changes in Burmese strategic perspectives that should be understood by those concerned about stability in the region..."
    Author/creator: David I Steinberg
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


    Title: Strategic Memory Lane
    Date of publication: November 2005
    Description/subject: It is known as the “Road to Nowhere” or “Ghost Road,” but there are hopes that political and strategic problems can be sidetracked to resurrect the World War II-era Ledo Road, running between India and China through Burma..."...India and China have sometimes made calls to reopen the Ledo Road. They have come from a visiting delegation from the Yunnan Provincial Chamber of Commerce at an international trade fair in Guwahati, the capital of Assam; from the Federation of Indian Export Organizations in Calcutta; and increasingly from a number of individual politicians and members of state governments in India’s northeast, especially from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. Academics have also raised the issue. A handful of people are upbeat about the tourism prospects—of driving air-con jeeps across the mountains and through jungles and exotic places from India to China. China appears to be the most prepared. It has already greatly upgraded its section of the Burma Road, built in 1937-38, into a modern, partly six-lane mountain highway..."
    Author/creator: Karin Dean
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: Living Under the Eye of the Dragon
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: "Members of the Communist Party of Burma who have lived in southern China since the party was fractured by a mutiny in 1989 have to be careful not to talk about Beijing’s warm relations with their former enemies in Rangoon China is watched with awe worldwide as its economy grows at an alarming rate; and with its military might expanding apace, it is already regarded by the US and the West as a superpower. This and the fact that it is the Burmese military regime’s closest ally concerns not just western countries but also many Burmese at home and abroad. Except for one group of Burmese, who both admire China’s swift rise and act as apologists for Beijing over its relations with Rangoon. They are members of the Communist Party of Burma, long regarded previously as a Chinese-supported threat to Rangoon; now, the less-than 500 CPB members live in the southern Chinese city of Kunming, where they are no longer a threat to anyone..." Describes the situation of former CPB leaders living in China, including Brig. Gen. Kyaw Zaw.
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Rangoon the Economic Spoiler
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: Burma’s narrow-minded generals are a barrier to Asian development... The Burmese junta doubtless believes it is clever in the way it plays its close relationship with China to gain leverage with India and even with fellow Asean members. The play is well recognized internationally, not least in India where realpolitik is adjudged to override commitment to democratic government. But what is less often realized is the damage that Burma’s combination of incompetent and thuggish government is doing to Asian development as a whole...Burma is not just an economic disaster in its own right, it is a major barrier to closer cooperation between South and Southeast Asia. The damage this does becomes clearer as the economies of India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh open up to the outside world, more aware of the benefits of trade and investment flows. South Asia as a whole may finally be about to make some progress towards a trade grouping and India is talking about a deal with Asean. But, as ever, Burma remains a physical obstacle to interaction between South and Southeast Asia as well as casting a shadow over the whole Asean process..."
    Author/creator: Philip Bowring
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: GATEWAY TO THE EAST
    Date of publication: June 2005
    Description/subject: a symposium on Northeast India and the look east policy... The Problem: Posed by Sanjib Baruah, Visiting Professor, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi... NORTHEAST INDIA IN A NEW ASIA: Jairam Ramesh, Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha)... ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES OR CONTINUING STAGNATION: Sushil Khanna, Professor of Economics and Strategic Management, Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata... WATERS OF DESPAIR, WATERS OF HOPE: Sanjoy Hazarika, Managing Trustee, Centre for Northeast Studies and Policy Research, New Delhi and Guwahati... PROSPECTS FOR TOURISM: M.P. Bezbaruah, Former Secretary, Ministry of Tourism, Government of India... OPERATION HORNBILL FESTIVAL 2004: Dolly Kikon, Member, Working Group, Northeast Peoples' Initiative, Guwahati... GUNS, DRUGS AND REBELS: Subir Bhaumik, East India Correspondent, BBC, Kolkata... A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE: Jayeeta Sharma, Assistant Professor of History, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA... TERRITORIALITIES YET UNACCOUNTED: Karin Dean, Asia Correspondent, 'Postimees', Bangkok... COMMUNITY, CULTURE, NATION: Mrinal Miri, Vice Chancellor, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong... THE TAI-AHOM CONNECTION: Yasmin Saikia, Assistant Professor of History, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA... THE ETHNIC DIMENSION: Samir Kumar Das, Reader, Department of Political Science, Calcutta University... BOOKS: Reviewed by Nandana Datta, Dulali Nag, Bodhisattva Kar, Nimmi Kurian and M.S. Prabhakara... FURTHER READING: Compiled by Sukanya Sharma, Fellow, Centre for Northeast India, South and Southeast Asia Studies, Guwahati... COMMUNICATION: Received from C.P. Bhambhri and B.K. Banerji.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Seminar magazine
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: A Prosperous Burma Would Benefit China
    Date of publication: July 2004
    Description/subject: "China's stability would be strengthened if Burma were economically stable and prosperous. Thus it should increase efforts to work for the economic and political changes in Burma that would allow the country to receive international assistance. The modernization of China initiated by Deng Xiaoping involved a shift in the conception of national power from a narrow military perspective to Comprehensive National Power, or CNP, currently seen as consisting of the "eight capabilities" of domestic economic activities, science and technology, foreign economic activities, social development, military, government regulation and control, foreign affairs and natural resources..."
    Author/creator: David Arnott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 October 2004


    Title: Ming China and Southeast Asia in the 15th Century: A Reappraisal
    Date of publication: July 2004
    Description/subject: Abstract / Description: "The 15th century was a period of intense interaction between Ming China and Southeast Asia. The period saw the Ming invade Ðại Việt, expand the scope of the Chinese polity by exploiting and then incorporating Tai polities of upland Southeast Asia, and launch a succession of hugely influential maritime armadas which travelled through Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. It is argued that these three aspects of Ming policy can be seen as differing types of Ming colonialism greatly affecting Southeast Asia during the 15th century and beyond. A chronological study of the policies relating to Southeast Asia of the successive Ming rulers is followed by a thematic overview of how the Ming policies actually affected Southeast Asia in the 15th century. This includes reference to effects in the political, economic and cultural topography of Southeast Asia The beginnings of a non-state-sponsored maritime trade between China and Southeast Asia is also investigated."...Keywords: Ming, Southeast Asia, 15th century, Zheng He, Dai Viet, Tai, Malacca.....20 references to Burma
    Author/creator: Geoffrey Wade
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute National University of Singapore Working Paper 28
    Format/size: pdf (2.42MB)
    Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


    Title: The Chinese Conundrum
    Date of publication: July 2004
    Description/subject: "What role does Burma really play in Beijing’s policy plans? Eleven bilateral agreements. A commitment to cooperate in the war on drugs and cross-frontier crime. And a large measure of mutual praise. Those were the official and much-publicized results of the week-long visit to China in mid-July by Burmese Prime Minister Gen Khin Nyunt. ... Central to China’s regional concerns is its very real interest in seeing a stable and economically viable Burmese state on its western frontiers. Some Chinese officials have openly linked stability to "democracy", and Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Zhang Qiyue is on record as urging a "good internal and external environment for Myanmar’s [Burma’s] democratization"..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


    Title: BURMA’S CHINA CONNECTION AND THE INDIAN OCEAN REGION
    Date of publication: September 2003
    Description/subject: Abstract: Since abandoning its neutral foreign policy in 1988, Burma’s close relationship with China has caused considerable unease in the Asia- Pacific region. While some reporting on the defence and intelligence links between Rangoon and Beijing has been inaccurate and misleading, it has helped create the perception of an expansionist China and led in turn to significant policy changes on the part of regional countries, particularly India. The future of China’s relationship with Burma has been interpreted in three ways. The ‘domination school’ sees Burma overwhelmed by China and becoming a client state. The ‘partnership school’ predicts a close and mutually supportive strategic relationship. The ‘rejectionist school’ believes that Burma can resist China’s enormous strategic weight and remain independent. All three schools seem to agree, however, that the Rangoon regime will do whatever is necessary to survive in the face of increasing international pressure.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SDSC Working Paper 377
    Format/size: pdf (73K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2009


    Title: Chinese gaze at the Indian Ocean: Recent development of bilateral relationship between China and Burma
    Date of publication: 31 January 2003
    Description/subject: What lies beneath: Recent closer cooperation between China and Burma... Chemical warfare: Chinese military connection... India's irritation: Chinese dream of direct access to the Indian Ocean... Pave the way southward: China's fungible usage of Japanese ODA... Imminent political crisis?
    Author/creator: Schu Sugawara
    Language: Japanese
    Source/publisher: BurmaInfo (Japan)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org (home page of publisher)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Sowing disorder: Support for the Burmese junta backfires on China
    Date of publication: November 2002
    Description/subject: "In the early 1990s China’s sale of arms to Burma played a crucial role in keeping the Burmese military in power. But this support for the generals in Rangoon is now backfiring, as many of the negative consequences spill over the border into China, writes Andrew Bosson. While China has generally taken a passive stance towards international efforts to pressure Burma to improve its rights record, it would be in Beijing’s best interests to push Rangoon towards economic and political reform, he argues. The relationship between Burma and China has been harmful to both countries, especially following the Chinese arms deals which preserved the junta in power and locked Burmese political and economic life into a stasis from which it has yet to emerge. The generals seem to have very little idea of how a modern economy functions and are essentially running the country as they would an army. Military expenditures continue to take up about 60 percent of the national budget. Thus it comes as no surprise that the economy is in an advanced state of failure. China also has been damaged economically: Burma’s lack of access to economic development assistance and its collapsed economy leave a gaping hole in the regional development projects the impoverished provinces of southwest China so badly need. China also suffers from the massive spread of HIV/AIDS, drug addiction and crime that have accompanied the massive quantities of heroin being trafficked from Burma into Yunnan Province. The growth of the drug economy in Burma may be traced directly to the lack of the necessary economic and political remedies, which is an indirect result of China’s intervention..."
    Author/creator: Andrew Bosson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: China Rights Forum Journal 2002-03
    Format/size: pdf (140K)
    Alternate URLs: http://iso.hrichina.org/public/contents/article?revision%5fid=3346&item%5fid=3345
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: Burma and superpower rivalries in the Asia-Pacific
    Date of publication: April 2002
    Description/subject: "The Western democracies have declared that their strong stances against the current military regime in Burma reflect principled stands against the 1988 massacres of pro-democracy demonstrators, the failure of the regime to recognize the results of the 1990 general elections (which resulted in a landslide victory for the main opposition parties), and the regime?s continuing human rights abuses. Yet it can be argued that such a strong and sustained position would have been less likely had the Cold War not ended and Burma?s importance in the global competition between the superpowers not significantly waned. Lacking any pressing strategic or military reason to cultivate Burma, and with few direct political or economic interests at stake, countries like the United States and the United Kingdom can afford to isolate the Rangoon regime and impose upon it pariah status. If this was indeed the calculation made in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it is possible that the changes that have occurred in the strategic environment since then may prompt a reconsideration of these policies. Burma lies where South, Southeast, and East Asia meet; there the dominant cultures of these three subregions compete for influence. It lies also across the ?fault lines? between three major civilisations?Hindu, Buddhist, and Confucian.1 At critical times in the past, Burma has been a cockpit for rivalry between superpowers. Today, in the fluid strategic environment of the early twenty-first century, its important position is once again attracting attention from analysts, officials, and military planners. Already, Burma?s close relationship with China and the development of the Burmese armed forces have reminded South and Southeast Asian countries, at least, of Burma?s geostrategic importance and prompted a markedly different approach from that of the West..." The PDF version (222K) has a map and a 4-page presentation of Burma's geostrategic position not contained in the html version.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Naval War College Review, Spring 2002, Vol. LV, No. 2
    Format/size: html (Google cache), pdf (226K)
    Alternate URLs: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JIW/is_2_55/ai_88174228
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Political Economy of China - Myanmar Relations: Strategic and Economic Dimensions
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: The main thesis of this paper is to argue that Myanmar is neither a strategic pawn nor an economic pivot of China in the short and immediate term. Since 1988, Sino-Myanmar entente is uneven, asymmetrical, but nevertheless reciprocal and mutually beneficial. The strategic entente and economic relations are a marriage of convenience. However, Myanmar’s strategic location on a trijunction between South Asia, Southeast Asia and China is nevertheless economically and strategically significant. Economically, Myanmar is important for China as a trading outlet to the Indian Ocean for its landlocked inland provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan. Strategically, Myanmar is potentially important for China to achieve its strategic presence in the Indian Ocean and its long-term two-ocean objective. Furthermore, a China-Myanmar nexus is strategically useful for China to contain India’s influence in Southeast Asia. Finally, Myanmar is part and parcel of China’s grand strategic design to achieve its goal of becoming a great power in the 21st century. Despite the more extensive growing Chinese influence over Myanmar, it is unlikely that Rangoon will become a strategic satellite base for China. Myanmar’s strong sense of nationalism, its past ability to successfully deal with foreign powers to preserve its independence and cultural identity, will likely make Myanmar withstand most odds.
    Author/creator: Poon Kim Shee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The International Studies Association of Ritsumeikan University
    Format/size: pdf (59 KB)
    Date of entry/update: 15 June 2006


    Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 3 - China–Burma relations
    Date of publication: 14 December 2001
    Description/subject: I Historical preface; II Strategic relations; III Drugs in the China–Burma relationship; IV China-Burma border: the HIV/AIDS nexus; V Chinese immigration: cultural and economic impact; VI Opening up southwest China; VII Gains and losses for various parties where Burma is (a) democratizing or (b) under Chinese “suzereinty”; VIII Possible future focus; IX Conclusions. " This paper has argued that China’s support for the military regime in Burma has had negative consequences for both Burma and China. The negative impact on Burma of its relationship with China is that it preserves an incompetent and repressive order and locks the country into economic and political stagnation. The negative impact on China is that Burma has become a block to regional development and an exporter of HIV/AIDS and drugs. China’s comprehensive national interests would be best served by an economically stable and prosperous Burma. China could help the development of such an entity by encouraging a political process in Burma that would lead to an opening up of the country to international assistance and a more competent and publicly acceptable administration..."
    Author/creator: David Arnott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (274K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2003


    Title: China Cutting Through to Bengal
    Date of publication: June 2001
    Description/subject: Three Chinese-made dredgers worth US$ 8.9 million have been delivered to Burma as part of an effort to develop the Irrawaddy River waterway as a new trade route for China. "The neighbouring country expects to expand trade operations for its products, via the [Irrawaddy] river as a gateway to the Bay (of Bengal)", said a Rangoon-based shipping manager. The dredgers are being used to improve river transport from Bhamo, newr the Chinese border, to Minbe, which is to be connected to the Arakan coast by a new highway.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
    Format/size: This is the whole of the item, which has disappeared from the Irrawaddy website.
    Alternate URLs: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:ihMo_FzJljYJ:www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.p...
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


    Title: The Political Economy of China-Myanmar Relations: Strategic and Economic Dimensions
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: The main thesis of this paper is to argue that Myanmar is neither a strategic pawn nor an economic pivot of China in the short and immediate term. Since 1988, Sino-Myanmar entente is uneven, asymmetrical, but nevertheless reciprocal and mutually beneficial. The strategic entente and economic relations are a marriage of convenience. However, Myanmar’s strategic location on a trijunction between South Asia, Southeast Asia and China is nevertheless economically and strategically significant. Economically, Myanmar is important for China as a trading outlet to the Indian Ocean for its landlocked inland provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan. Strategically, Myanmar is potentially important for China to achieve its strategic presence in the Indian Ocean and its long-term two-ocean objective. Furthermore, a China-Myanmar nexus is strategically useful for China to contain India’s influence in Southeast Asia. Finally, Myanmar is part and parcel of China’s grand strategic design to achieve its goal of becoming a great power in the 21st century. Despite the more extensive growing Chinese influence over Myanmar, it is unlikely that Rangoon will become a strategic satellite base for China. Myanmar’s strong sense of nationalism, its past ability to successfully deal with foreign powers to preserve its independence and cultural identity, will likely make Myanmar withstand most odds.
    Author/creator: Poon Kim SHEE
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: China Statistical Yearbook 2001, No. 20, National Bureau of Statistics, Source: China Statistics Press
    Format/size: pdf (48.24 K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Imagining a New Role for China
    Date of publication: June 2000
    Description/subject: Even the current regime in Beijing must recognize that military rule in Burma is damaging to its own interests as well as those of the Burmese people.
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Beijing's New Flexibility
    Date of publication: May 1997
    Description/subject: China's relationship with Burma
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: PEKING AND THE BURMESE COMMUNISTS: THE PERILS AND PROFITS OF INSURGENCY - MEMORANDUM FOR RECIPIENTS
    Date of publication: July 1971
    Description/subject: "This study documents a case where Peking's policy towards a client Communist movement has been guided throughout by primary regard for China's national interest.This is illustrated in the study's examination of Peking's facility in conducting a two-level policy, state-to-state and support of 'insurrection of Peking's readiness to subordinate Burmese Communist interests to those of China where necessary; of China's present direction of a "Burmese Communist" insurgency whose basis is for the most part neither Burman nor Communist; and of the apparent insistence of Peking that resolution of continuing state-to-state differences shall occur only on its own terms . The study also illustrates that Chinese material support of Communist insurrection was in fact significantly less than seemed to be the case prior to the rupture of Sino-Burmese relations in 1967, and has been significantly greater since that time than has come to light...".....The CAESAR, POLO, and ESAU Papers -- Cold War Era Hard Target Analysis of Soviet and Chinese Policy and Decision Making, 1953-1973 -- were made public in May 2007 under the US Freedom of Information Act
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN Govt. (The CAESAR, POLO and ESAU Papers)
    Format/size: pdf (7MB)
    Date of entry/update: 17 August 2009


    Title: CHINA ADVISES BURMA TO RECONSIDER GAMBARI
    Description/subject: "Responding to reftel points delivered by PolOff, MFA Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam Division Deputy Director Chen Chen on April 30 said that the Chinese Government has "advised" the Burmese Government to "positively reconsider" previous suggestions offered by UN Special Adviser Gambari to help ensure that the May 10 referendum is free and fair. China specifically suggested that Burma allow international observers to monitor the referendum, Chen said. Chen mentioned that within the last ten days, high-level Foreign Ministry officials from China and Burma had discussed the referendum process on the sidelines of an international meeting. (Note: Chen did not specify which officials or what meeting.)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 September 2011


  • China-Burma-India relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: CHINA - BURMA - INDIA
    Description/subject: Remembering the Forgotten Theater of World War II 65 books and other articles
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: CHINA - BURMA - INDIA (CBI)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://cbi-theater.home.comcast.net/~cbi-theater/menu/cbi_home.html#NEW
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_Burma_India_Theater_of_World_War_II
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: Website of Renaud Egreteau
    Description/subject: "Welcome to my Site ! Let me introduce myself. As a French researcher in International Relations, I have been working for the last 7 years on geopolitics in Asia, with a special focus on India and Burma (Myanmar). In December 2006, I successfully defended my Ph.D Dissertation (Political Science, Asian Studies) at the Institute of Political Science, Paris, France : "India, China and the Burmese Issue : Sino-Indian Rivalry through Burma/Myanmar and its Limits since 1988" (with distinction). You will find in this website a glimpse of the works I have done so far on those issues (articles, publications, fieldworks) as well as some links and contacts which could be of interest on these matters. Enjoy the visit "... Dr. Renaud EGRETEAU
    Language: Francais, French, English
    Source/publisher: Renaud Egreteau
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 June 2007


    Individual Documents

    Title: The Strategic Importance of Myanmar for India
    Date of publication: 12 August 2014
    Description/subject: "...If India is to become an assertive regional player in Asia, it has to work toward developing policies that would improve and strengthen it domestically, which will encourage more confidence in its ability to lead the region and be an important global player. Competition with China should also be considered and taken seriously. China’s growing influence in the region would lead to a more one-sided dynamic in the region. China has asserted itself through its soft power as well as through its trade and economic relations with Myanmar by taking up large infrastructure projects in the country. India on the other hand needs to use its soft power more effectively, and at the same time strengthen itself domestically and regionally. There are several advantages that India has over China with regard to Myanmar. One is the democratic process, which results in different governments at the center and states through free and fair elections. There is also the respect for institutions that are strong enough to hold the country together. Finally, cooperation in different multilateral forums such as ASEAN and BIMSTEC strengthen the relationship between the two countries. Apart from these reasons, India has sent a clear signal that while economic ties are important, it is keen to build a holistic relationship and is prepared to assist in institution building in Myanmar..."
    Author/creator: Sridhar Ramaswamy & Tridivesh Singh Maini
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


    Title: India-China make a Myanmar tryst
    Date of publication: 13 August 2013
    Description/subject: "As India and China have emerged as major powers in Asia, their interests and concerns have transcended their geographical boundaries. There is particularly the case in Myanmar, where those interests have converged. This is largely due to the fact that Myanmar shares common borders with both the countries. Myanmar shares a 2,185-kilometer border with China, and 1,643-kilometer border with India. It has long been argued that Myanmar has always been a strategic concern for governing the dynamics of India-China relations. Myanmar's strategic location is considered as an important asset for India and China that offers tremendous opportunities for the countries of the region. Therefore, recent developments in Myanmar are a matter of concern for both India and China..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: Between China And India Lies Myanmar's Future - Interview by Host Scott Simon with Thant Myint U (audio and transcript)
    Date of publication: 24 September 2011
    Description/subject: "Myanmar mostly makes news in the West these days with blood and iron, when the brutal military regime cracks down on monks and others protesting for democracy. Host Scott Simon chats with Thant Myint-U, author of "Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia", who says the country may have a bright and bold future as a bridge between China and India's growing economies."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: National Public Radio (NPR)
    Format/size: MP3 (audio - 6 min 23 sec ) and html (transcript)
    Date of entry/update: 25 September 2011


    Title: "Where China Meets India" by Thant Myint-U - review
    Date of publication: 19 August 2011
    Description/subject: "A welcome study of Burma's relations with its powerful neighbours..."..."A country that sits between two aspiring superpowers has some very complicated choices to make. Yet Burma, whose entire upper half is wedged between north-eastern India and south-western China, seems to have consistently made the wrong choices through much of the 20th century and all of the 21st..."
    Author/creator: Siddhartha Deb
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Guardian.UK
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 September 2011


    Title: Bangladesh-Myanmar border, maritime boundary disputes: China wants solution through peaceful negotiations: Envoy
    Date of publication: 30 August 2010
    Description/subject: China and India have overlapping ambitions in the Indian Ocean. So as China flexes its naval reach, India is left debating how to assume leadership in the Indian Ocean.
    Author/creator: Ben Arnoldy, Staff writer
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Christian Science Monitor
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.csmonitor.com/layout/set/print/content/view/print/322797
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Ledo Road Leading Nowhere
    Date of publication: 27 January 2010
    Description/subject: "The historic Ledo Road, more popularly known as the Stilwell Road, was constructed by the Allied forces during the Second World War as an alternative for the Burma Road on the China-Burma-India theatre, to supply the forces fighting against the Japanese. The road which is 1,736 kilometres long, starts from Ledo in Assam and passes through Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India to enter Myanmar through the Pangsau Pass ultimately ending at Kunming, the capital of Yunnan province in Southwest China...The issue of opening the Ledo Road has been brought up time and again by both India and Myanmar, so much so that it has become an annual ritual, but each time it has remained a diplomatic non-starter. New Delhi should see this as an opportunity to strengthen its engagement with Myanmar in the larger strategic and economic perspective and make adequate use of the Ledo Road..."
    Author/creator: Mirza Zulfiqur Rahman
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


    Title: China-Myanmar Energy Engagements Challenges and Opportunities for India
    Date of publication: December 2009
    Description/subject: In the context of energy diplomacy and security, for India and China, Myanmar is rapidly emerging as the primary gateway to their much needed energy supplies, particularly China having already established itself as the first investor in Myanmar. Recent gas discoveries by Daewoo in the Bay of Bengal have now attracted major Indian and Chinese operators to carve out a share of the significant gas and petroleum potential, and plans are being finalized for a petroleum pipeline linking south-western China to the Bengal coastline of Myanmar.
    Author/creator: Tuli Sinha
    Language: Englsih
    Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi) - IPCS ISSUE BRIEF No. 134
    Format/size: pdf (164K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


    Title: China and India's Competitive Relations with Myanmar
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: Abstract: "China has since the late 1980s been heavily involved in Myanmar strategically and economically. The Indian government was particularly worried about the China- Myanmar’s growing strategic links, and is as well making overt efforts to court the military junta and establish a stronger presence there. How strategically important is Myanmar to these two big countries? Will India surpass China’s influence in Myanmar?".... Key words: China-India, Myanmar, rivalry, energy
    Author/creator: Zhao Hong
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies University of Malaya - ICS Working Paper No. 2008-14
    Format/size: pdf (348K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 March 2010


    Title: Wer lässt wen im Stich?
    Date of publication: 30 January 2008
    Description/subject: Die jüngsten Demonstrationen in Burma sind eine erneute Bewährungsprobe für demokratische Werte in einer Welt, die zumindest in politischer Hinsicht größtenteils demokratisch ist. Ebenso wie der Kampf der Werte auf den blutigen Straßen in Teilen Burmas sichtbar war, beschloss die benachbarte "größte Demokratie der Welt", die gleichzeitig ein strategischer Partner des Landes ist, eben jene Werte, die es tendenziell vertritt, aufs Spiel zu setzen. Der Rest der Welt – insbesondere die USA und Europa – tat kaum mehr als diplomatische Statements abzugeben und Indien und China zu drängen, entschieden vorzugehen. Indisch-burmesische Beziehungen, Burma-US Amerikanische Beziehungen, Burma-EU Beziehungen, Sanktionen; Indian-burmese, US-Burmese, EU-Burmese relations; sanctions;
    Author/creator: Sachin Joshi
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Südasien
    Format/size: Html (41k)
    Date of entry/update: 03 February 2008


    Title: Es besteht Nachholbedarf
    Date of publication: 11 January 2008
    Description/subject: Es erhob sich in letzter Zeit der Ruf nach einem energischen Auftreten Indiens gegen das Militärregime in Burma immer lauter. Die Rufer übersahen allerdings, dass die indisch-burmesischen Beziehungen, wie auch die zum Rest Südostasiens, alles andere als eng und damit die Möglichkeiten der Einflussnahme ausgesprochen gering sind. Außenpolitik Indiens; Indisch-chinesische Beziehung; Südostasien; SEATO; India`s foreign policy; Indian-Burmese Relations; Indian-Chinese Relations; Southeast Asia; Uprising 2007
    Author/creator: Amit Das Gupta
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus
    Format/size: Html (47 kb)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.asienhaus.de/public/archiv/2007-4-008.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008


    Title: CHINA AND INDIA COURTING MYANMAR FOR GOOD RELATIONS
    Date of publication: 06 December 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: 1. On January 12, 2007, at the United Nations Security Council, China vetoed a draft resolution tabled by the U.S. and UK, which called on the Myanmar government to release all political prisoners. 2. India was also urged by the Bush Administration to be more active in pressing for democracy in Myanmar after the Junta’s crackdown on the pro-democratic movement led by monks in September 2007, but New Delhi calls “democracy and human rights internal Myanmar issues”. 3. China’s and India’s stances on the Myanmar issue are based on their strategic thinking in this country. China has since the late 1980s been heavily involved in Myanmar strategically and economically. Myanmar is not only a potential supply route bypassing the Malacca Strait, but also a strategic staging point for controlling access to Malacca Strait’s western approaches. 4. Myanmar is part and parcel of China’s strategic design to develop its western region. Myanmar is the only passage for China to reach South Asia from Yunnan and an important access to the Indian Ocean. Counter-narcotic trafficking, money laundering and smuggling of arms are also important issues for both countries. 5. The Indian government was particularly worried about the China-Myanmar strategic links and the prospects of the Chinese navy gaining a foothold in the Bay of Bengal. Myanmar’s location is central to strengthening India’s Look- East policy, energy security and counterbalancing China’s influence in Southeast Asia. 6. India’s growing interest in Myanmar could be seen in the shift in its low-key policies in the 1980s and the early 1990s -- from an emphasis on human rights and democracy to an emphasis on a pragmatic strategic policy toward Rangoon. ii 7. China and India’s competition is best manifested in the energy field. Myanmar is rich in oil and natural gas. New large finds in three fields in the Gulf of Bengal have sparked an intense bidding war among Bangkok, Beijing and New Delhi. It was with PetroChina that Myanmar eventually signed a gas export Memorandum of Understanding in early 2006. 8. Just before the pro-democracy protests were crushed in Myanmar this September, the junta withdrew India’s status of preferential buyer of its offshore natural gas fields and instead declared its intent to sell the gas to PetroChina. India has thus lost an important diplomatic initiative to counter Chinese influence in Myanmar. 9. However India’s current setback in the field of energy rivalry is unlikely to dampen its attempts to compete with China in other fields, and win greater cooperation from Myanmar over counter-insurgence efforts and establish a stronger presence there. 10. Myanmar has been described as a “de facto Chinese client state”, “a virtual Chinese satellite”, and also “a critical nexus in the China-Indian regional rivalry”. Nevertheless, Myanmar is fully aware of the potential dangers of being too close to China, and has been diversifying its foreign relations, allowing itself to be courted by India, Russia and other big countries. 11. Although China’s leverage in Myanmar has been decreasing, it still enjoys a privileged position there, particularly at the time when Myanmar is not opened to the world. It would be unrealistic to expect Beijing to displace the regime that is serving as a guarantor of China’s access to the Indian Ocean.
    Author/creator: ZHAO Hong
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: (East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore, EAI Background Brief No. 360
    Format/size: pdf (134K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2009


    Title: Einige Aspekte der Situation in Birma/Myanmar
    Date of publication: 01 October 2007
    Description/subject: Die Zuspitzung der von buddhistischen Mönchen angeführten Proteste gegen das Militärregime in Birma bzw. Myanmar sowie das harte Vorgehen der Militärjunta haben Birma in den Blickpunkt der Weltöffentlichkeit gerückt. Seit Jahren wird von seiten vor allem der US-Regierung, aber auch Großbritanniens und teils auch der EU Propaganda gegen das Militärregime dort gemacht, wurden Drohungen ausgesprochen und Sanktionen verhängt. Und sie drängen auch jetzt zu verschärften Maßnahmen gegenüber Birma und setzen zunehmend China, Indien und die ASEAN-Staaten unter Druck, gegen die Militärjunta vorzugehen und noch mehr, sie drängen dazu, zu einem Machtwechsel in Birma beizutragen.USA-Burma Beziehungen, Aufstände 2007; USA-Burma relations; uprisings 2007
    Author/creator: Uwe Mueller
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Neue Einheit
    Format/size: Html (17 kb)
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: India-Myanmar-China relations
    Date of publication: 22 July 2007
    Description/subject: Since the World War II, Myanmar better known the world over as Burma, had never attracted so much international attention as now. Actually, there are reasons both global and local for this development. The rise of China as a major global economic power and the unlocking of India's potential to grow as yet another global economic power are redefining international relationships in South and Southeast Asia. Myanmar is now viewed as a critical area of interest to China and India. It is of special interest to the U.S. which would like to check the over riding influence of China in this region while cruising on its journey to the status of a contending global power. While China has developed close political, military and economic relations with Myanmar, India is in the process of following suite. A study of India-Myanmar and Sino-Myanmar relations offer some interesting aspects of how they are adopting the geo-strategic setting and political environment of the region to their advantage.
    Author/creator: Col R Hariharan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Tribune
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: INDIA-CHINA-MYANMAR RELATIONS
    Date of publication: 21 July 2007
    Description/subject: [A presentation made by the author at an Interaction on “Emerging India-China-Myanmar Relations”, jointly organised by the Chennai Centre For China Studies (www.c3sindia.org) and the Department of International Relations of Stella Maris College, Chennai, at the college on July 19, 2007]
    Author/creator: Col R Hariharan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: South Asia Analysis Group
    Format/size: pdf (15.42 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://intellibriefs.blogspot.com/2007/07/india-china-myanmar-relations.html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: Burma. Ein Mosaikstein indischer Ost-Politik. Pragmatismus gegenüber der Militärjunta
    Date of publication: 25 April 2007
    Description/subject: Seit Beginn der 1990er Jahre arrangierten sich alle indischen Regierungen mit dem östlichen Nachbarn. Die größte Demokratie der Welt zeigte sich sehr zurückhaltend gegenüber der kürzlichen Protestbewegung in Burma. Energieinteressen, die burmesische Hilfe bei der Bekämpfung von Rebellen im indischen Nordosten und die angestrebte Neutralisierung des mächtigen chinesischen Einflusses führten zu einem sichtbaren Appeasement gegenüber der ebident die Menschenrechte verletzenden burmesischen Junta. Es mangelt an einer überzeugenden Initiative der indischen Regionalmacht, das Thema Burma offensiv anzugehen; chinesischer Einfluss in Burma; Geo-Politik Burmas; indische Wirtschaftsinteressen in Burma; indisch-burmesische Militärkooperationen; chinese Influence in Burma; geo-politics of Burma; indian economic interests in Burma; indian-burmese military cooperation
    Author/creator: Klaus Julian Voll
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008


    Title: India and China Compete for Burma's Resources
    Date of publication: 21 August 2006
    Description/subject: The Great Game of the 19th Century was played between empire builders Britain and Russia, using Afghanistan as their football in seeking control of central Asia. Today, there is a new great game under way between two very different competitors -- China and India. But this time the ball is Burma. In much the same way that Afghanistan was a poor and undeveloped but strategic piece of territory, so Burma now fits that role for the two burgeoning economic giants. But Burma is more than simply a slice of well-placed geography: It is rich in energy resources, which China and India crave.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Politics Review
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Myanmar im Spannungsfeld indisch-chinesischer Rivalität
    Date of publication: July 2003
    Description/subject: Gliederung: 1 Einleitung 2 Geostrategische und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung von Myanmar 3 Grundzüge der myanmaischen Außenpolitik 3.1 Historische Entwicklung nach der Unabhängigkeit 3.2 Interessen und Ziele 4 Myanmar und die VR China 4.1 Grundzüge der chinesischen Außenpolitik 4.2 Geschichte der chinesisch-myanmaischen Beziehungen 4.3 Chinesische Interessen und Ziele 4.4 Die Myanmarpolitik der VR China 4.4.1 Wirtschaftlich-technische Kooperation 4.4.2 Militärische Zusammenarbeit 4.4.3 Diplomatische Unterstützung 5 Myanmar und Indien 5.1 Grundzüge der indischen Außenpolitik 5.2 Geschichte der indisch-myanmaischen Beziehungen 5.3 Indische Interessen und Ziele 5.4 Die Myanmarpolitik Indiens 5.4.1 Wirtschaftliche Kooperation 5.4.2 Militärische Zusammenarbeit 5.4.3 Diplomatische Kontakte 6 Zusammenfassung und Bewertung....."Die Präsenz Myanmars, vor allem in der westlichen Öffentlichkeit, steht im Gegensatz zu seiner derzeitigen und insbesondere seiner zukünftigen Bedeutung für das Verhältnis der beiden asiatischen Regionalmächte, der Indischen Union (im Weiteren Indien) und der VR China (im Weiteren China). Die Lage in Myanmar und seine Außenpolitik haben damit Einfluss auf die Machtkonstellationen zwischen den staatlichen Akteuren in Asien und der Welt. Intention dieses Aufsatzes ist es aufzuzeigen, welche Interessen China und Indien in Myanmar verfolgen und durchsetzen, und wie sich die myanmaische Außenpolitik unter diesen Bedingungen darstellt. Bei Ausführungen, die sich auf die Zeit vor 1988 beziehen, wird der Begriff Birma verwendet, für die Zeit nach 1988 Myanmar..."
    Author/creator: Alexander Dörffel
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: SÜDOSTASIEN aktuell
    Format/size: pdf (250K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2010


    Title: China-Burma-India Intelligence
    Date of publication: 21 May 1998
    Description/subject: Indian defense analysts say China is developing a presence on islands off Burma for access to the Indian ocean and what will be a vital trade route in the 21st century. New Delhi correspondent Douglas Bakshian talks with Indian defense experts about the matter.
    Author/creator: Douglas Bakshian
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Voice of America
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • China-Burma-US relations

    Individual Documents

    Title: Of pragmatism and politics
    Date of publication: 14 August 2014
    Description/subject: "China’s rise means the US will turn a blind eye to Burma’s limited democracy, writes Gareth Robinson... The recent upholding of constitutional rules preventing Aung San Suu Kyi from running in Burma’s 2015 presidential elections has prompted some strong criticism from Western governments. However, it is unlikely to damage America’s resolve to continue engaging with the country for one reason in particular; China’s rising power in the region. In a recent article for The Irrawaddy, journalist and long-time Burma hand Bertil Lintner argued that Western governments may be more interested in re-establishing defence ties with Burma’s military, the Tatmadaw, than with pursuing political and human rights issues. It is an argument supported by the State Department’s muted response to Aung San Suu Kyi’s continued barring from presidential elections. Although the department did issue a statement calling for constitutional reforms to be adopted, there was no threat of introducing new sanctions or of downgrading diplomatic ties. The US’s continuing support for the Burmese hybrid civilian-military government is a clear sign that Washington’s concern over China’s growing regional presence is of greater importance than democratic reform. In the past China has exerted a great deal of influence over Burma. After much of the world abandoned the country due to the annulment of democratic elections in 1990, China continued to provide significant economic and military aid to keep Burma afloat. This wasn’t resisted by the US because it did not perceive strong strategic interests in the country after the end of the Cold War. Since the opening of Burma to external economic and political input after the 2010 national elections, China has lost its exclusive access to the country. Now, Burma may become a rook in America’s attempts to mediate Chinese expansion...Given the time and attention, Burma could become one of America’s middle power partners in Asia. But this may cost the US its commitment to seeing the country become a fully functional and effective democracy..."
    Author/creator: Gareth Robinson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


    Title: China, the United States and the Kachin Conflict
    Date of publication: January 2014
    Description/subject: KEY FINDINGS: 1. The prolonged Kachin conflict is a major obstacle to Myanmar’s national reconciliation and a challenging test for the democratization process. 2. The KIO and the Myanmar government differ on the priority between the cease-fire and the political dialogue. Without addressing this difference, the nationwide peace accord proposed by the government will most likely lack the KIO’s participation. 3. The disagreements on terms have hindered a formal cease-fire. In addition, the existing economic interest groups profiting from the armed conflict have further undermined the prospect for progress. 4. China intervened in the Kachin negotiations in 2013 to protect its national interests. A crucial motivation was a concern about the “internationalization” of the Kachin issue and the potential US role along the Chinese border. 5. Despite domestic and external pressure, the US has refrained from playing a formal and active role in the Kachin conflict. The need to balance the impact on domestic politics in Myanmar and US-China relations are factors in US policy. 6.A The US has attempted to discuss various options of cooperation with China on the Kachin issue. So far, such attempts have not been accepted by China.
    Author/creator: Yun Sun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Stimson Center (Great Powers and the Changing Myanmar - Issue Brief No. 2)
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research-pdfs/Myanmar_Issue_Brief_No_2_Jan_2014_WEB.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2014


    Title: Myanmar, North Korea stay brothers in arms
    Date of publication: 05 September 2013
    Description/subject: "If a press statement from the US Department of Defense is to be believed, President Barack Obama is quite pleased with the reform process underway in Myanmar, especially recent progress ''that's been made on human rights''. The message was conveyed by US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in late August when he met with his counterparts from the 10 member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Brunei, including Lieutenant-General Wai Lwin, the current defense minister of Myanmar, a former pariah state turned darling of the West. But there was an important caveat in Hagel's statement that indicated Washington's main concern in Myanmar is not democracy and human rights. Rather, he stressed ''it's important that Myanmar sever ties with North Korea''. Evidently Myanmar has not rolled back relations with Pyongyang despite persistent pressure from Washington, including during then secretary of state Hillary Clinton's historic visit to Myanmar in December 2011, and believed behind-the-scenes prodding from Japan and South Korea..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: Myanmar morphs to US-China battlefield
    Date of publication: 02 May 2013
    Description/subject: "...A new reality is emerging amid all the hype about Myanmar's democratization process and moves to liberalize its political landscape. Myanmar's drift away from a tight relationship with China towards closer links with the West is signaling the emergence of a new focal point of confrontation in Asia, one where the interests of Washington and Beijing are beginning to collide. Rather than being on a path to democracy, Myanmar may find itself instead in the middle of a dangerous and potentially volatile superpower rivalry. That means the traditionally powerful military may not be in the mood to give up its dominant role in politics and society any time soon. According to sources in Washington, US President Barack Obama's administration has made Myanmar one of its top foreign policy priorities. Trade and other exchanges are being encouraged, and, on April 25, acting US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Joseph Yun told Congress the administration is even "looking at ways to support nascent military engagement" with Myanmar as a way of encouraging "further political reforms"..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 May 2013


    Title: China counter-pivots on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 18 March 2013
    Description/subject: "A quiet, modulated dance is being played out in Myanmar. It is not a waltz, with its rhythmical, proper movements, and only on the surface are events in Myanmar equally decorous. If China and the United States are the dancers, then Myanmar is the master of ceremonies. Underlying this proper facade rivalries are apparent. When and how the music will stop is unclear. The US explicitly has ''pivoted'' toward Asia, and more specifically Southeast Asia. It has in a sense returned after years of inattention. This policy has several elements: some enhanced naval capacity in the region, a couple of thousand marines in China counter-pivots on Myanmar By David I Steinberg WASHINGTON - A quiet, modulated dance is being played out in Myanmar. It is not a waltz, with its rhythmical, proper movements, and only on the surface are events in Myanmar equally decorous. If China and the United States are the dancers, then Myanmar is the master of ceremonies. Underlying this proper facade rivalries are apparent. When and how the music will stop is unclear. The US explicitly has ''pivoted'' toward Asia, and more specifically Southeast Asia. It has in a sense returned after years of inattention. This policy has several elements: some enhanced naval capacity in the region, a couple of thousand marines in Australia, increased positive involvement with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and allies in the Philippines and Thailand as well as near-ally Singapore, and concerns over Chinese claims of sovereignty of the South China Sea. But in this equation, China regards with suspicion the US's changed, positive policy toward Myanmar, also known as Burma. Chinese concerns are evident. This, they claim, is the second US containment policy of China. The first was during the Cold War, but this second is in some sense more urgent. China during the Cold War was struck by the internally destructive forces of the Cultural Revolution. It tried to project Maoist thought through its embassies overseas, but this was internal political rhetoric, not external reality..."
    Author/creator: David I Steinberg
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 May 2013


    Title: Myanmar: Now a Site for Sino–US Geopolitical Competition?
    Date of publication: November 2012
    Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "As the Obama administration is keen to support Thein Sein’s dual project of political reconciliation and economic reforms, with China’s rise clearly in mind, the geopolitical competition over Myanmar between Washington and Beijing is set to intensify. The present US role in Myanmar’s political and economic reforms will in all likelihood lead in the future to a greatly expanded presence in the country. By comparison, China’s often much exaggerated political hold over Naypyidaw has taken a knock with US-Myanmar rapprochement. Its significant economic presence in Myanmar will continue, however. Significantly, far from pulling back, the Chinese leadership also seems eager to continue to boost the bilateral relationship with Naypyidaw, which will probably prompt more rounds of competition for greater influence between Beijing and Washington concerning Myanmar. By normalising relations with Washington, Naypyidaw will have gone some way to restoring the balance historically favoured in Myanmar’s external relations. To progress with its domestic reform agenda, the Thein Sein government seems committed both to warmer relations with Washington as well as pursuing the comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership it agreed with China. However, evidence suggests that the Thein Sein government knows it will need to carefully manage the attention and interest from both Beijing and Washington. Finally, one should not assume that developments in Myanmar over the next three years will necessarily amount to an entirely smooth political transition. So far the NLD has been the major beneficiary in party political terms from the present process of reconciliation long urged by Washington. With the political future of representatives and officials of the previous regime possibly in doubt, there is at least the question over how much internal pressure the President will yet face and be able to resist regarding a possible recalibration of the current political course and concessions in the name of national reconciliation. In turn, the resulting decisions of this process are likely to affect Nypyidaw’s relationship with Washington and Beijing."
    Author/creator: Jürgen Haacke
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: London School of Economics (LSE)
    Format/size: pdf (326K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/publications/reports/SR015.aspx
    Date of entry/update: 31 May 2013


    Title: China's new leaders on a tightrope
    Date of publication: 12 September 2012
    Description/subject: "...America bids to remove Myanmar from China's sphere of influence and intervenes in the Spratly Islands dispute. Whilst not totally out of the blue, the visit to Myanmar by Hillary Clinton, the United States Secretary of State, in November 2011, came as a surprise to many Chinese leaders. Notwithstanding the quasi-democratic election of Myanmar's new president, Thein Sein, supported by the military junta, the country had in fact failed to make much headway on humanitarian issues. The dissident Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi was still under house arrest and a true democratic system, which for 20 years had been the official reason for American hostility towards Myanmar, had not yet been implemented. So why did the United States rush to support a junta which for decades it had heavily berated? In 1972, with Richard Nixon's Beijing visit, the Chinese had had first-hand experience of such political gyrations. In that period, the Americans had rehabilitated China in order to isolate Vietnam and at the same time strike a formidable blow against the Soviet Union, which would find itself with one more declared adversary on its southern border, and, what is more, an adversary supported by the United States. Just as in the 1970s when the United States used China to isolate the USSR, now they were going to play the Myanmar card in order to complete the encirclement of China. This was the logical conclusion that the Chinese leaders came to in light of their past political experience. In reality, this paradigm change was not totally unexpected. At the beginning of his presidency, in 2009, in his dealings with the Chinese, Barack Obama had gone out on a limb, quietly downplaying human rights issues and even offering to sell them sensitive technology..."
    Author/creator: Francesco Sisci
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 May 2013


    Title: China keeps wary eye on U.S.-Burma relations
    Date of publication: 04 November 2009
    Description/subject: China is concerned over the possibility of betterment of relations between the U.S. and Burma, local sources say. The Chinese government's security agents on the Sino-Burma, say that China feels betterment of relations between the U.S. and Burma will threaten the national security of communist China.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma News International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: Playing with Superpowers
    Date of publication: November 2009
    Description/subject: Burma’s generals have a history of juggling relations with Washington and Beijing... "If ever the Burmese regime made it clear it preferred “Made in America” to “Made in China,” it would be no surprise to see relations between China and Burma suffer a severe hiccup. China is now keenly observing Washington’s new policy toward the Burmese regime and Burma’s opposition movement. At the same time, Beijing is observing the unpredictable Naypyidaw regime’s paukphaw (kinship) commitment to China. Burma’s former dictator, Ne Win, (left) met then US President Lyndon Johnson in 1966. Burmese military officers used Western weapons to counter Chinese-backed insurgents in the past. They have long memories of Chinese chauvinism and Beijing’s efforts to export communism to Burma and install a government sympathetic to Mao Zedong’s communist ideology. Those days are long gone. China became Burma’s staunchest ally after the regime brutally crushed the pro-democracy uprising in 1988. For the past 21 years, China has adopted its paukphaw policy toward Burma and played an influential role there..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17143
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: LOOKING AT THE NEXT 30 YEARS OF THE U.S.-CHINA RELATIONSHIP
    Date of publication: 06 January 2009
    Description/subject: "...As evidenced by Chinese policies toward pariah states like Sudan, Zimbabwe, Burma and Iran, China is still willing to put its need for markets and raw materials above the need to promote internationally accepted norms of behavior. However, the possible secession of southern Sudan (where much of the country’s oil is found) from the repressive Khartoum-based Bashir regime, the erratic treatment of foreign economic interests in Zimbabwe by Robert Mugabe, the dangers to regional safety and stability posed by Burma’s dysfunctional military junta,
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Prospects for U.S.-China Relations
    Date of publication: 24 February 2008
    Description/subject: "...China's cooperation on Burma and Iran has been grudging and limited, but real. We have been able to leverage China's growing interdependence and concern for its global public image into support for multilateral actions that further U.S. goals..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: DAS JOHN DISCUSSES BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA WITH AFM CUI TIANKAI AND DG HU ZHENGYUE
    Date of publication: 05 March 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "If the United States wants to make a difference on Burma, it should engage directly with General Than Shwe, Assistant Foreign Minister Cui Tiankai told EAP DAS Eric John on March 5. In a separate meeting, MFA Director General for Asian Affairs Hu Zhengyue stressed that State Councilor Tang "really worked on" the Burmese during his recent visit to Burma, delivering the message that Burma needs to respond to the concerns of the international community. DAS John underlined that the United States is worried that Burma is headed at high speed in the wrong direction. If it adopts a constitution excluding certain parties from the political process, the United States and China could be locked into a cycle of confrontation over Burma at the United Nations. DAS John and AFM Cui also discussed the United States' and China's overlapping interests in Southeast Asia. With DG Hu, DAS John emphasized the importance of Indonesia and discussed instability in East Timor, positive progress in the Philippines and the situation in post-coup Thailand. EAP DAS Thomas Christensen joined DAS John at the meetings." End Summary.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Beijing, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Title: Burma, China and the U.S.A
    Description/subject: First page only, full-text access may be available if you are affiliated with a participating library or publisher.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: JSTOR
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


  • China-India Relations

    Individual Documents

    Title: India and China : Towards a Competitive-Cooperative Relationship?
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: "One of the defining moments of the 21st century is the rise of China and the emergence of India, which, according to many analysts will possibly lead to a tectonic shift in the economic and strategic balance of power in the world from America and Europe to Asia. Some analysts estimate that if the two countries continue to grow at the rates they have grown in the past decade (India at 6-8 per cent and China at 10-12 per cent), China’s economy would be eight times bigger than India's in 30 years. China’s rise is faster, more spectacular, and managed deftly with a well-thought-out road map. It is not just the statistics that testifies to China’s rise, but Beijing has matched her achievements in economic development by positioning herself both economically and strategically in the world stage...The ever-expanding trade between the two countries automatically gives them a huge stake in keeping co-operation alive, despite occasional hiccups. There is enough room in the world for both economies to rise simultaneously..."
    Author/creator: Baladas Ghoshal
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies - Delhi (IPCS Issue Brief 153)
    Format/size: pdf (142K)
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: India-China Relations Impressions from a Dialogue with Beijing
    Date of publication: April 2010
    Description/subject: "...the visit provided a refreshing opportunity to engage the Chinese strategic think-tank community on a host of bilateral and regional issues. The visit is part of a project that aims to develop better understanding and greater cooperation between India and China for a more sustainable relationship that would help shape the Asian destiny over the coming years. Being a Track II process the exchanges were marked by free and candid expression of views by all participants. The main focus of the visit was to discuss confidence building measures (CBMs) in diverse fields ranging from, strategic relations, maintaining peace and stability along the borders, promoting strategic stability through CBM’s in the nuclear field, enhancing antiterrorism cooperation, promoting maritime security and facilitating media and think tank interaction. The range of CBM’s discussed reflected the desire to move beyond the clichés of hostility and confrontation premised in the normal discourse on India-China relations to a level that promotes better understanding and more cooperative relationship..."
    Author/creator: Brig. Arun Sahgal
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies - Delhi (IPCS Issue Brief 146)
    Format/size: pdf (199K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2010


    Title: China at 60 - Sino-Indian Tensions
    Date of publication: 26 October 2009
    Description/subject: "...India and China have been indifferent neighbors in history with the high Himalayas intervening between them. The Indic and Sinic cultures are competitive, as clearly visible in Southeast Asia. Both countries offer competing models of development to achieve economic growth and social justice, distinguishing between the democratic and totalitarian paths. And, finally, history informs us hat large civilizational nations cannot be cordial neighbors, a modicum of normality is all that is possible in their relationship..."
    Author/creator: PR Chari
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2010


  • East Timor-Burma relations

    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma-Timor Leste Forge Closer Ties
    Date of publication: 23 August 2010
    Description/subject: BANGKOK — Burma Foreign Minister Nyan Win concluded a three-day goodwill visit to Timor Leste on Sunday, after being met by protestors at Dili's international airport on Friday. According to a Timorese journalist who requested that his name not be used, a small group of mainly university students clashed with police at Presidente Nicolau Lobato Airport on Friday.
    Author/creator: SIMON ROUGHNEEN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: E.Timor seeks ties with Burma
    Date of publication: 20 August 2010
    Description/subject: The visit by Burma Foreign Minister U Nyan Win was marked by protests, with clashes breaking out between police and human rights activists demanding Suu Kyi's release. Dozens of protesters gathered at Dili airport as Nyan Win arrived Friday to meet with Ramos-Horta and other senior officials, protest organisers said.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bangkok Post
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: East Timor President Calls for Review of Burma Sanctions Policy
    Date of publication: 12 January 2009
    Description/subject: East Timor President Jose Ramos-Horta criticized the West’s sanction policy on Burma on Sunday, saying that the country’s people should not be punished for “the perceived sins of their leaders.” Ramos-Horta said at a talk in Bangkok that the United States and European Union should review their policy of economic sanctions against Burma’s military junta, according to Deutsche Presse Agentur. The talk, “Is long lasting peace an attainable dream?” was held at Bangkok’s Foreign Correspondent Club of Thailand and was organized by the International Peace Foundation.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: From Dili to Rangoon
    Date of publication: June 2003
    Description/subject: "Not long ago, East Timorese were oppressed and struggling for independence. What lessons does the former Indonesian colony hold for the people of Burma?..."
    Author/creator: Benedict Rogers
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 September 2003


    Title: Gusmao Offers Support for Suu Kyi and Burma
    Date of publication: July 1999
    Description/subject: "...East Timorese activist and Nobel Prize winner Gusmao Xanana proclaimed his support for the Burmese people and soli­darity with the Burmese democracy movement in an interview with the Nation. When asked about his sympathies for the Burmese pro‑democracy move­ment, Gusmao responded, "It is a ques­tion of feeling the same suffering a Burmese people. . . . [W]e, the East Timorese, suffer very much, 'we can un­derstand ... the suffering of other people in Asia..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The "Burmese" connection in the Timor Gap dispute
    Date of publication: 05 November 1995
    Description/subject: SOME pro-democracy activists in Burma had asked me, whether a campaign against the oil company Unocal would also helped the cause of East Timor. This has led me to investigate the oil companies role in the East Timor dispute, and interestingly enough, I found a historical "Burmese connection" in the Timor Gap case. Burmah Oil, a British company was set up in Burma during the colonial time to drill oil in what was then the first British-controlled territory where oil was discovered. The company was founded by Lord Strathcona, a rich Scots millionaire who had financed the Canadian Pacific Railway, and grew instantly into a big oil company thanks to the orders from the British imperial Navy.
    Author/creator: By George J. Aditjondro
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


  • European Union-Burma relations (commentary/analysis)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar’s ASEAN challenges
    Date of publication: 13 May 2014
    Description/subject: "What can Myanmar’s chairmanship learn from the European Union members’ divided position on external affairs, such as the deep, public disagreements associated with the Iraq war, the incapacity to produce collective action during the EU’s reaction to the 2011 Libyan crisis, and again the unwillingness to share a common initiative in response to the more recent developments in Mali? It is a discouraging question, particularly in the light of the EU High Representative’s apparent obsession with the ‘reality of 27 member states who are sovereign, who believe passionately in their right to determine what they do’, as Ashton argued in 2011. As disagreements within the European Union have seriously damaged the relations among the member states as well as the political development of the EU as a whole, a major message from a European view lies in the conviction that divisions weaken any project of integration and the attempt to create a united community, which ASEAN plans to achieve by 2015..."
    Author/creator: Ludovica Marchi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


    Title: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents
    Description/subject: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents... Supporting Burma/Myanmar’s National Reconciliation Process - Challenges and Opportunities... Brussels, Tuesday 5th April 2005... Most of the papers and reports focus on the "Independent Report" written for the conference by Robert Taylor and Morten Pedersen. They range from macroeconomic critique to historical and procedural comment.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: European Commission
    Format/size: html, Word
    Date of entry/update: 06 April 2005


    Title: Euro-Burma Office/Associates to Develop Democratic Burma (ADDB)
    Description/subject: EBO Political Monitors...Research papers: reports, statements and press releases...EBO Briefing Papers...News
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Euro-Burma Office
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 February 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: EU lifts sanctions on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 23 April 2013
    Description/subject: "EU foreign ministers agreed Monday to lift the last of the bloc's trade, economic and individual sanctions against Myanmar, hailing "a new chapter" with the once pariah state. Catherine Ashton, the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, pictured in Luxembourg on April 22, 2013. Photo: European Union Catherine Ashton, the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, pictured in Luxembourg on April 22, 2013. Photo: European Union "In response to the changes that have taken place and in the expectation that they will continue, the Council [of ministers] has decided to lift all sanctions with the exception of the embargo on arms," said a statement approved without a vote. "The EU is willing to open a new chapter in its relations with Myanmar/Burma, building a lasting partnership," it added. The European Union began easing sanctions against Myanmar a year ago as the military, in power for decades, progressively ceded power to civilians and implemented wholesale reforms of the economy. Ministers noted, however, that there were "still significant challenges to be addressed", in particular an end to hostilities in Kachin State and improving the plight of the Rohingya people..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mizzima
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 April 2013


    Title: Offering Trade Benefits for More Inclusive Elections: EU Trade Sanctions Against Myanmar Hit the Wrong Targets
    Date of publication: 02 June 2010
    Description/subject: Abstract: "When it comes to sanctions against Myanmar, Western public debate has crystallized broadly into two schools of thought – either in favor of sanctions, as a reflection of a moral position, or against sanctions because of their perceived lack of overall effectiveness. This policy brief suggests a more targeted and evidence-based approach. To begin with it is essential to have a clear and precise understanding of what sanctions should accomplish as well as knowledge of the actual impact of those sanctions on the ground. Equally important is to thereafter promptly dismantle any misguided measures while maintaining and reinforcing those measures that work according to the objectives. Finally, the flow of information to the international community must concern the actual impact of sanctions rather than rhetoric and propaganda."
    Author/creator: Agnes Frittin, Niklas Swanström
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Security & Development Policy (Policy Brief 32)
    Format/size: pdf (694K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2010


    Title: After Renewing Sanctions, E.U. Seeks Face-Time with Burma Junta
    Date of publication: 03 May 2010
    Description/subject: European Union foreign ministers have renewed the bloc's "Common Position" on Burma, extending existing sanctions until April 2011. In a statement released April 26, the European Council expressed "serious concerns" that the recently published election laws "do not provide for free and fair elections" and restated its call "for the release of the political prisoners and detainees, including Aung San Suu Kyi."
    Author/creator: Simon Roughneen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 October 2010


    Title: Assessment of EU Policy on Burma
    Date of publication: 26 February 2010
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Last August, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton announced a reassessment of the U.S. stance towards Burma from the previous policy of disengagement. Bearing the U.S. policy reassessment in mind, now would be a good time for the EU to reassess its own Burma policy. A necessary first step would be to reconsider sanctions which may be technically effective but highly ineffective in accomplishing their stated aims."
    Author/creator: Oscar Bergman and Andreas Mälarstedt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Security & Development Policy (Policy Brief 20)
    Format/size: pdf (199K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2010


    Title: European sanctions against Myanmar
    Date of publication: 20 January 2010
    Description/subject: "The European Union's Myanmar policy has been paved with good intentions. The intention has been to help establish a legitimate, democratically elected civilian government in Myanmar. This would end repression, violation of fundamental freedoms and lead to prosperity. These are no small objectives and they are all published in the Council Conclusions and Presidency Statements. In addition to this, the personal interest of political leaders and the impact of European advocacy groups have lead to the perception that they are on "the right side of history"... One part of the positively-intended EU policy has been the imposition of sanctions. The existing ar-ray of sanctions are 1) unilaterally imposed as a result of the EU Common Policy; 2) unilaterally imposed by the EU through statutory regulations; and 3) informal sanctions applied by individual EU countries. All EU sanc-tions against Myanmar are autonomous measures, i.e. not endorsed by the UN. Apart from the US and Canada, whose sanctions are similar, there is no state or region that has the same comprehensive sanctions regime as the EU. EU sanctions against Myanmar have been a long line of failures, as most sanctions are. What we see today in Myanmar is not a weakened government and political change, but stronger governmental control of resources and people, and increased interaction with, and influence of primarily China, but also India, Thailand, Russia and other actors, with the marginalization of European inter-action and influence. This was not what the EU sought. An open-minded analysis needs to be made by the EU regarding the continuation of the its sanctions policy..."
    Author/creator: Agnes Frittin and Niklas Swanstrom
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
    Format/size: pdf (299K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2010


    Title: Intra-European Bargaining and the ‘Tower of Babel’ EU Approach to the Burmese Conundrum
    Date of publication: 09 September 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Since the 1990 imposition of an arms embargo, the European Union has kept on furthering its sanction policies towards Burma’s military regime in response to its poor record on human rights and authoritarian rule over the country. However, more than a decade after the 1996 EU Common Position on Burma, the European approach to the Burmese conundrum has still failed to achieve its initial objective of facilitating a transition to democracy and of stimulating aid and development in the country. This article seeks to underline the limits of the EU position by highlighting the internal and external obstacles the Europeans have been facing in their policymaking process towards Burma. It is argued that the varied and multiple interests of the 27 EU members; an influential European public opinion favouring an attitude of ostracism; and misunderstandings or miscalculations in appreciating the current state of Burmese affairs have hindered the EU from playing an efficacious role. Moreover these factors also impede its reappraisal." Keywords: Burma - Common position - Engagement - EU foreign policy - Myanmar - Ostracism - Sanctions
    Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Springer Netherlands ("East Asia", Volume 27, Number 1 / March, 2010)
    Format/size: pdf (227K) 19 pages
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2010


    Title: ARE EU TRADE SANCTIONS ON BURMA COMPATIBLE WITH WTO LAW?
    Date of publication: 19 September 2008
    Description/subject: I. Introduction For nearly twenty years, Burma has posed a seemingly insurmountable challenge to the international community. The former democracy is mired in economic and social stagnation, and its people are controlled by a repressive and abusive military regime. Faced with these obstacles, world leaders have struggled to develop an appropriate response. The United States has imposed an import and investment ban; the European Union and Japan have chosen more limited “targeted” sanctions. Still others such as China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have tried active engagement and cooperation. Despite these efforts, former Czech Republic President Václav Havel and Archbishop Desmond Tutu, who pressed for action on Burma in the U.N. Security Council, said that the country’s “troubles are causing serious and possibly permanent problems that go well beyond human rights violations . . . [it] has now become a problem for the region and international community.”1
    Author/creator: Robert L. Howse, Jared M. Genser
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: HOWSE&GENSER FTP 3_C.DOC
    Format/size: pdf (817.05 KB)
    Date of entry/update: 11 October 2010


    Title: De la neutralité à la conditionnalité politique des relations communautaires avec les pays en voie de développement: ... Quelles sont les effets de la politique européenne de sanctions à l’égard du My
    Date of publication: September 2007
    Description/subject: La conditionnalité, de par sa nature essentiellement politique, a souvent été étudiée par des politologues plutôt que par des juristes. Ce constat est attribuable à l´absence d´une réglementation juridique internationale relative à la conditionnalité, et à sa mise en oeuvre de nature essentiellement ad hoc, et non systématique. Tous les Etats n´appliquent pas la conditionnalité politique, ni ne l´appliquent-ils tous de manière homogène; et encore moins y sont-ils tous soumis équitablement. La conditionnalité est toujours subordonnée à des exigences géopolitiques, stratégiques, commerciales et économiques.1 Beaucoup d´arguments peuvent être mobilisés contre la conditionnalité: le principe de non ingérence, la critique du néocolonialisme, le relativisme culturel, etc. Toutefois, la nécessité de protéger et de promouvoir les droits de l´homme peut suffire à la légitimer, pour le moins d´un point de vue conceptuel. D´un point de vue juridique, reste encore à prouver la légalité de cette pratique dans le droit international. L´argument principal à cet effet réside dans l´article 2.1. du Pacte International sur les Droits civils et Politiques, ratifié par la communauté internationale, lequel suggère que tous les Etats parties prennent des initiatives, notamment par l´intermédiaire de l´aide internationale et de la coopération, pour parvenir à la réalisation complète des droits reconnus dans le Pacte.2 La Communauté européenne, au sortir de la Guerre Froide, adopte une nouvelle conception du développement et de sa mise en oeuvre ; une conception plus libérale, et qui engage davantage la responsabilité des PVD dans le processus de développement. Dans ce contexte surgit la notion de conditionnalité politique de l’aide : désormais, l’aide est délivrée à condition que les pays récipiendaires s’engagent à respecter les droits fondamentaux et les principes démocratiques. L’aide au développement communautaire n’a pas toujours impliqué cette notion de mérite ; nous le verrons dans la première partie. Les bases juridiques sur lesquelles a été conçue la politique d’aide au développement communautaire jusque dans les années 1990 datent du Traité de Rome. Les relations avec les « pays et territoires d’outre mer » constituaient à l’époque une partie substantielle du Traité, de manière à assurer la pérennité des relations entre les métropoles européennes et leurs colonies une fois leur indépendance acquise. La conception des relations entre les PVD et la CEE a donc été durablement marquée par les dispositions du Traité de Rome. Géographiquement, cela signifiait des relations zélées avec les pays ACP (regroupant, plus ou moins, les ex PTOM ), dans le cadre des Conventions successives de Lomé ; et des relations tardives et modestes avec les PVD non associés, selon la terminologie révélatrice de la réglementation communautaire. Politiquement, les Conventions de Lomé réglaient la coopération au développement communautaire avec les pays ACP sur base d’une relation neutre, sans condition politique ou économique préalable. L’échec de cette politique apparaît de plus en plus flagrant après la crise de la dette et l’incapacité des économies en développement, surtout des pays ACP, à s’insérer dans le système économique mondial globalisé. A la même époque, la fin de la Guerre Froide voit les démocraties libérales occidentales triompher. L’Union Européenne est créée en 1992 sur base des principes libéraux d’économie de marché, de bonne gouvernance, de démocratie et de respect des droits de l’homme. Désormais, ces principes imprègneront la politique extérieure communautaire définie dans le cadre de la PESC. Les relations communautaires avec les PVD doivent être revues dans cette optique libérale. La nouvelle politique des droits de l’homme va être mise en oeuvre à travers la conditionnalité politique de l’aide au développement. Désormais, la politique de développement ne doit plus être considérée de manière isolée mais comme un élément de la politique extérieure communautaire.3 Nous l’ observerons, en analysant les relations régionales eurasiatiques, dans la deuxième partie. Le partenariat avec l’ANASE a une portée allant de la coopération commerciale, économique et politique à la coopération au développement. Le dialogue intergouvernemental au sein de l’ASEM (qui réunit les 27 membres de l’UE et 16 pays asiatiques dont la Chine, le Japon, l’Inde, la Corée du Sud et les pays membres de l’ANASE ) a aussi un dessein multidimensionnel, confrontant les différentes parties relativement à leurs politiques étrangère, économique et financière. Dans la quatrième partie, nous étudierons le cas de la conditionnalité politique appliquée à la Birmanie, gouvernée depuis 40 ans par une junte militaire devenue la bête noire de la communauté internationale. Depuis 1997, la Birmanie ne bénéficie plus de préférences tarifaires pour ses exportations vers l’UE. Pas plus ne dispose-t-elle aujourd’hui de l’aide communautaire au développement. Apres une présentation générale du pays et son histoire contemporaine, nous tenterons d’évaluer les effets de la stratégie communautaire dans le cas birman et l’opportunité d’appliquer la conditionnalité politique (et les sanctions qu’elle implique) pour mener un pays à se réformer et à se développer.
    Author/creator: Louise Culot
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Université Libre de Bruxelles
    Format/size: pdf (481K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


    Title: The EU and Burma in 2006
    Date of publication: January 2006
    Description/subject: Despite some engagement in 2005, the EU is not softening its stance on Burma.. "Recent EU activities have raised eyebrows among Burmese democracy advocates: the opening of a Burmese embassy in Brussels; the opening of an office in Rangoon of the European Community Humanitarian Office; the visit to Rangoon of an EU mission to unveil an EU Country Strategy Paper for Burma outlining its aid strategy for 2007-13; and the commissioning at the beginning of 2005 of Robert Taylor, dubbed by many a Rangoon regime apologist, to write an EU policy review paper. These events all seem to indicate a relaxing of the EU’s policy towards Burma at a time when the military dictatorship itself seems to be hardening its stand on democracy and human rights. What is happening and what can we expect in 2006? If the ruling junta thinks it can expect an easy time from the EU in 2006, it is sadly mistaken. The EU’s Common Position on Burma has not changed and will not change in the foreseeable future. Unless, and until, the situation of a lack of democracy and human rights in Burma improves, there can be no way to change the Common Position. Even though certain countries like Austria, France, Germany and Italy are sometimes cited as “friends” of the regime, there is no country in the 25-nation EU which can support the regime’s repressive policies. The Common Position is exactly that. It reflects the consensus view of the EU. Each country stands by it without exception..."
    Author/creator: Harn Yawnghwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: Europe Plans More Engagement in Burma
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: "Sanctions will stay, but aid programs win support... Differences between the European Union and Asian governments over how best to deal with Burma’s military junta may soon be a distant memory. As Asean gets tougher with Burma’s generals, the EU is taking another look at its long-standing policy of isolating Rangoon. Demonstrators protest against the Burma Day meeting EU sanctions against the military rulers will stay in place. But the 25 nation bloc is also working on an unprecedented aid strategy for Burma, including funding for health, education and poverty alleviation projects. The EU’s determination to provide assistance for Burma’s long-suffering population was highlighted at a “Burma Day” meeting organized in Brussels by the European Commission in early April..."
    Author/creator: Shada Islam
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 13, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 April 2005


    Title: The European Union and Burma: The Case for Targeted Sanctions
    Date of publication: March 2004
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: The political stalemate in Burma will not be broken until the military regime considers it to be in its own self-interest to commence serious negotiations with the democratic and ethnic forces within the country. This paper outlines how the international community can bring about a political and economic situation which will foster such negotiations. Burma is ruled by a military dictatorship renowned for both oppressing and impoverishing its people, while enriching itself and the foreign businesses that work with it. The regime continues to ignore the 1990 electoral victory of Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. The regime has shown no commitment to three years of UN mediation efforts. It has failed to end the practice of forced labour as required by its ILO treaty obligations and demanded by the International Labour Organization. It continues to persecute Burma’s ethnic peoples. It continues to detain more than 1,350 political prisoners including Aung San Suu Kyi. Any proposal of a road map to political change in Burma will fail to bring about democracy in this country unless it is formulated and executed in an atmosphere in which fundamental political freedoms are respected, all relevant stakeholders are included and committed to negotiate, a time frame for change is provided, space is provided for necessary mediation, and the restrictive and undemocratic objectives and principles imposed by the military through the National Convention (ensuring continued military control even in a “civilian” state) are set aside.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK
    Format/size: pdf (120K)
    Date of entry/update: 28 March 2004


    Title: Wege aus der Isolation. Birmas nationaler und internationaler Aussöhnungsprozess
    Date of publication: August 2003
    Description/subject: Zu Beginn der neunziger Jahre reagierten die EU und die USA auf die 1988 erfolgte Machtübernahme des Militärs in Birma und die Nichtanerkennung des 1990 errungenen Wahlsiegs der Opposition mit der öffentlichen Verurteilung dieses Regimes und einer Reihe wirtschaftlicher und politischer Sanktionen. Die ASEAN-Staaten wie auch UNO-Generalsekretär Kofi Annan setzten hingegen auf eine Strategie des »konstruktiven Engagements«, die durch einen intensiven Dialog mit der Regierung in Rangun den Weg zu politischen Reformen zu ebnen versuchte. Beide Strategien haben bislang nicht zu den beabsichtigten Ergebnissen geführt. Ausgangspunkt dieser Studie ist daher die Frage, welche Faktoren zu jener fast unauflöslich erscheinenden Konfrontation zwischen der Militärregierung einerseits und der birmanischen Opposition sowie den westlich orientierten Staaten andererseits geführt haben und welche Strategie von außen, vor allem von der EU, entwickelt werden sollte, um eine Neugestaltung der politischen Machtverhältnisse und eine Verbesserung der mehr als desolaten Lebensverhältnisse vieler Einwohner Birmas zu erzielen. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluß, daß die politische und wirtschaftliche Krise Birmas nur durch einen langfristigen und umfassenden Transformationsprozeß bewältigt werden kann, in dem Veränderungen der sozioökonomischen Basis und der politischen Strukturen eng miteinander zu verknüpfen sind. Von Seiten des Auslands - nicht zuletzt der EU - kann und sollte dieser Transformationsprozeß nach Kräften und in den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen gefördert werden. Hierbei müssen positive Anreize und Druck einander nicht ausschließen, sondern es wäre im jeweiligen Einzelfall zu prüfen, ob eine Zusammenarbeit möglich und nützlich erscheint oder aber verweigert werden muß. Ways out of isolation, Burma's national and international reconciliation process, transition and democratisation
    Author/creator: Gerhard Will
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2005


    Title: The EU's relations with Myanmar / Burma
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: Overview lists Political Context; Legal basis of EU relations; Trade/Economic Issues; Community Aid, General data. Other sections include: Conclusions of the General Affairs & External Relations Council (GAERC), Updates on the EU position.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: European Commission
    Format/size: pdf (71.51 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.europarl.europa.eu
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: The European Union’s sanctions related to Human rights: the case of Burma/Myanmar.
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: Table of contents: Foreword; Introduction; 1. European Union’s foreign policy, human rights and economics. 1.1. European Union’s promotion of human rights. 1.2. Legal base of sanctions in the European Union’s foreign policy. 2. Burma/Myanmar’s political history. 2.1. Ethnic composition of Burma/Myanmar. 2.2. Colonial past. 2.3. Post-colonial context. 2.4. The emergence of the Burmese democratic movement. 2.5. Military rule. 3. The European Union’s response. 3.1. Resolutions concerning the junta. 3.2. Aid campaign for up-rooted people and against AIDS’ spread. 4. The internationalisation of the Burma/Myanmar’s issue. 4.1. Non-states actors. 4.2. Big powers and neighbours states’ positions. 4.3. Intergovernmental institutions. 5. Sanctions in international relations: analysis of the European Union’s strategy. 5.1. Objectives: the choice of targeted or “smart” sanctions. 5.2. Methods of application. 5.3. Assessment of the sanction’s effectiveness. Conclusion. Bibliography. Acknowledgements. Appendix... Conclusion: "In the light of what have been said, many would have come to think that the European Union policy toward Burma/Myanmar is driven more by a desire to show to the international community that something is being done, than to genuinely address particularity of the Burmese issue. Indeed, the European Union is trading with many countries with questionable human rights records. Few of them are actually sanctioned by the European Union. This could be explained by their relative geo-strategic importance for the European Union, as it is the case for Pakistan for instance. On the contrary, Burma/Myanmar does not bear any particular value of this kind. Thus, it represents an easy means for the European Union to attest its “pro-active” attitude towards those who violate human rights. Nonetheless, the Burmese democratic movement is pushing for sanctions. Therefore, their interest could match those of the European Union. However, the sanctions implemented are by far too soft to provide and do not provide the strong incentive needed to persuade the junta to give up power. The European Union explains its weak attitude by humanitarian considerations: soft sanctions are thought to spare civilians, already affected by the junta’s mismanagement. However, as the NLD and some organisations, such as the Euro-Burma Office, suggest that the people cannot be affected by tougher economic sanctions, such as the import ban proposed by the US senate. Indeed, the Burmese economy chiefly relies on agriculture, with most of the population living on their own crops. Tourism, commercial and banking sectors that would be affected by economic and financial sanctions are all linked to the junta, if not state-owned. The European Union is well aware of these elements. Therefore, one could argue that the main reason for maintaining soft sanctions is related to trade considerations. We have showed indeed that imports from Burma/Myanmar to the European Union have sharply increased over the past years. Economic imperatives are thus the chief justification for the European Union inconsistent policy toward Rangoon. It clarifies the European Union attitude in the Massachusetts case, and the lack of cooperation with influent international actors, especially the United States. This tendency is particularly regrettable, as cooperation is a key requirement of sanctions’ effectiveness. Dealing with Burma/Myanmar democratic process entails more than lips-services. “Although most pro-sanction policies have a consistent objective in demanding a move towards democratic change, the exact mechanism for attaining these goals is less clear. The objectives of enhancing human rights and democracy are clearly enunciated in the US and EU’s positions but such abstract goals need to be operationalised. In other words, these positions need to be more oriented towards facilitating a focused objective rather than mere signalling of moral disapproval. By establishing a clear operational goal in place, disincentive polices could articulate specific but feasible objectives or benchmarks that signal the regime a clear message of what not to do, how to behave and which to concede.” Conclusively, the European Union policy is lacking of coherence and clarity, as far as the objectives of promoting democracy and human rights in Burma/Myanmar are concerned. The European Union did not shape its policy relatively to the specificity of the Burmese regime, held by a cohesive military elite who have been carried out a stable dictatorship for more than four decades. However, if the real aim of the European Union was to signal its own humanistic behaviour, the consequent instrumentalisation of the Burmese issue is a success. The European Union bears a significant potential of action on the junta, through trade and international bodies’ fora. One can therefore hope that the Community is soon going to use its influence with more determination..."
    Author/creator: Anais Tamen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Universite Libre de Bruxelles
    Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
    Date of entry/update: 10 April 2004


    Title: Special Reports: Myanmar just one side of the EU-Asean coin
    Date of publication: 09 December 2000
    Description/subject: 1. Ministerial meeting 2. The EU position on Myanmar 3. EU-Asean relations 1. Ministerial meeting Fifteen foreign ministers from the European Union (EU) and 10 from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) are due to meet for two days in the Laos capital of Vientiane beginning December 11 - their first gathering since talks were suspended in 1997.
    Author/creator: Fred Thurlow
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: EU/ASEAN end impasse over Burma for now
    Date of publication: December 1998
    Description/subject: "Since the Association of Southeast Asian Nations’ (Asean) inclusion of Burma in its regional grouping back in July of 1997, the European Union (EU) has cancelled bilateral meetings with Asean because of concerns over the Burmese government’s poor human rights record. But for now, the impasse between the EU and Asean over Burma has passed, and the delayed 13th Asean-EU Meeting is planned to be held in Bangkok..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 6 No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2009


    Title: Cook's Order
    Date of publication: September 1997
    Description/subject: Members of the Association of South East Asian Nations, ASEAN, knew there would be a price to be paid for admitting Burma in July to full membership of their well-regarded club. But they may not have guessed that they would have been faced with it so soon.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • France-Burma relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma–France relations
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Alternate URLs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Burma#France
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Title: France and Burma
    Description/subject: Update information of Political relations, Economic relations, Cultural, scientific and technical cooperation, Humanitarian actions...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: France Diplomatie
    Alternate URLs: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/recherche.php3?recherche=myanmar&rechercher=Ok
    http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/recherche.php3?recherche=burma&mode=simple&rechercher=Rech...
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Title: La France en Birmanie
    Description/subject: Actualités * Actualités de l’Alliance française * Actualité du Consulat * Actualité diplomatique L’Ambassade * L’Ambassadeur * Les services * Coordonnées * Les implantations Présence française * Services consulaires * Centre et instituts culturels * Enseignement * Organismes français Relations franco-birmanes * Présentation et historique * Accords et traités La France * Découvrir la France * La France en Europe * Aller en France Venir en Birmanie * Présentation * Conseils aux voyageurs * S’installer / Vivre en BIrmanie
    Language: Francais/ Français
    Source/publisher: La France en Birmanie
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Title: Ministere de Finances (France): Services d'Expansion Economique: Myanmar
    Description/subject: "N'hesitez pas de nous contacter, ecrivez nous"
    Language: Francais
    Source/publisher: Ministere de l'Economie, des Finances et de l'Industrie,
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Toutes les dernières minutes: BIRMANIE
    Date of publication: 03 September 2010
    Description/subject: Dernière Minute: Visas à l’arrivée, Elections 2010 .... Sécurité :Zones interdites et zones à éviter, Communications, Avertissement concernant la drogue, Risque sismique, Carte du pays .... Transports .... Entrée / Séjour .... Santé : Avant le départ : , Prévention des maladies transmises par les piqûres d’insectes, Vaccinations, Note sur la rage, Hygiène alimentaire, Diarrhées, Grippe Aviaire, Sida, En cas d’urgence médicale .... Compléments: Us et coutumes, Législation locale, Moyens de paiement
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Reuters
    Format/size: video
    Alternate URLs: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/cav-toutes.php3
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Title: France urges UN: Act now in Myanmar
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: France is suggesting the UN invoke what's known as a ''responsibility to protect.''
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Reuters
    Format/size: video
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Title: Rapport d'information N° 1859 depose par la Commission Des Affaires Étrangeres
    Date of publication: 13 October 1999
    Description/subject: Sur le rôle des compagnies pétrolières dans la politique internationale et son impact social et environnemental.
    Author/creator: Mme Marie-Helene Aubert, M. Pierre Brana, M. Roland Blum (rapporteurs)
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Assemblee Nationale (France)
    Format/size: 976K
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rapport d'information N°1859 (Sommaire Des Comptes Rendus d'Auditions)
    Date of publication: 12 October 1999
    Description/subject: sur le rôle des compagnies pétrolières dans la politique internationale et son impact social et environnemental. (Report by a French parliamentary commission on the political, social and environmental impact of oil companies, including Total's activities in Burma - French only)
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Assemblee Nationale (France)
    Format/size: 953K
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/i1859-02.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Association France-Myanmar des Affaires à Yangon
    Description/subject: L’Association France-Myanmar des Affaires (AFMA) a pris le relais de la French Business Association.
    Language: Francais/ Français
    Source/publisher: La France en Birmanie
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Title: Cyclone death toll may top 100,000
    Description/subject: More than 100,000 people are now thought to have perished in a powerful Cyclone which devastated Myanmar's Irrawaddy delta region.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Reuters
    Format/size: video
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Title: Organisations non-gouvernementales actives en Birmanie
    Language: Francais/ Français
    Source/publisher: La France en Birmanie
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


  • Germany-Burma relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Germany - Myanmar
    Description/subject: Germany-Myanmar Bilateral Relations... "Political relations ... Economic relations ... Development cooperation and humanitarian assistance ... Cultural relations"
    Language: Deutsch, German, English, Francais, Français, Spanish, Espanol
    Source/publisher: German Foreign Office
    Alternate URLs: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Laenderinformationen/01-Laender/Myanmar.html

    http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/en/Startseite.html
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Title: The German Embassy in Myanmar
    Description/subject: The Embassy represents Germany in Myanmar and promotes the political, economic, cultural and academic relations between both countries. The Embassy also offers consular protection to German nationals. As many EU member states are not represented locally in Myanmar, the German Embassy offers consular protection and processes visa applications also for the following countries: processing of Schengen visa applications for the countries Austria, Belgium, Finland, Greece, Iceland, Hungary, Luxemburg, Netherlands and Norway; consular protection also for the citizens of Austria, Hungary, Luxemburg, Netherlands and Poland. The main tasks of the Embassy include: * collecting information on political, economic, social and cultural developments in Myanmar, * reporting on issues of relevance to various authorities in Germany, * helping German citizens in emergencies, * processing of visa applications, * assisting German companies and institutions in Myanmar, * initiating and maintaining people-to-people contacts, * promoting cultural and academic exchange, * informing the Myanmar public about Germany, * preparing and escorting high-level visits from Germany.
    Language: English, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: The German Embassy in Myanmar
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Wirtschaftsentwicklung Myanmar 2008
    Date of publication: 02 April 2009
    Description/subject: Yangon (gtai) - Die derzeitige globale Weltwirtschaftskrise wirkt sich auch auf Myanmar aus. Aufgrund der relativ niedrigen Außenhandelsverflechtung ist das ASEAN-Land jedoch insgesamt weniger stark betroffen als beispielsweise Thailand. In einzelnen Bereichen gibt es Geschäftsmöglichkeiten für deutsche Unternehmen. Dabei handelt es sich etwa um Bestellungen von Maschinen durch myanmarische Staatsunternehmen sowie um Aufträge im Energiesektor (vor allem Wasserkraft). 1 Wirtschaftsstruktur und -lage 1.1 Charakterisierung von Wirtschaft und Entwicklungsstand 1.2 Wirtschaftsentwicklung und konjunkturelle Lage 1.3 Wirtschaftsstruktur und -klima 1.4 Offenheit gegenüber der Weltwirtschaft 1.5 Der Energiesektor als Export- und Wachstumsmotor 1.6. Wirtschaftsbeziehungen zu Deutschland ..... 2 Wirtschaftspolitik 2.1 Fiskal- und Geldpolitik, Finanzsektor 2.2 Strukturpolitik 2.3 Verschuldungs- und Wechselkurspolitik; Beziehungen zu IWF und Weltbank 2.4 Zusammenfassende Bewertung, Perspektiven
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Germany Trade & Invest
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: https://www.gtai.de/DE/Navigation/Metanavigation/Suche/sucheUebergreifendGT.html
    Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


    Title: “Strong and Fast”: German Arms in Burma
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: "English translation small arms newsletter of the German Campaign against small arms" _When recently the peaceful protests in Burma – re-named by the junta in Myanmar ("strong and fast") - were brutally suppressed, it was especially one picture that caused worldwide horror: the Japanese photographer Kenji Nagai being shot dead by a soldier. The assault rifle that fired the bullet looks like a G3 of Heckler & Koch (H&K), but might also be FAL of the Belgian producer FN Herstal. Either way there is a German connection: according to the well-informed Jane’s Infantry the Burmese army still uses the G3, which used to be the standard weapon No. 1 until a few years ago, as well as MG3 machine guns of Rheinmetall regularly. The FAL, according to the late grand expert on small arms Edward Ezell, had once been introduced to Burma from surplus stocks of the West German Bundeswehr-army._
    Author/creator: Roman Deckert
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Berlin Information Center for Transatlantic Security
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Title: Stark und schnell: Deutsche Waffen in Birma
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: Dem Informationsdienst Jane´s zufolge setzt die birmanische Armee noch immer massiv auf die "Braut des deutschen Soldaten", die bis vor wenigen Jahren ihre Standardwaffe Nr. 1 war, und auf MG3-Maschinengewehre von Rheinmetall. Das FAL war nach Angaben des renommierten Experten Edward Ezell einst aus Altbeständen der Bundeswehr eingeführt worden; Waffenlieferungen nach Burma; Rolle Fritz Werners in Birma; Rolle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Birma; German Arms transfers to Burma; Role of German Government in Burma; Role of the Fritz Werner Company in Burma
    Author/creator: Roman Deckert
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Berliner Informationszentrum fur transantlantische Sicherheit (BITS)
    Format/size: html (10k)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.bits.de/public/articles/kleinwaffen-nl11-07.htm
    http://www.bits.de/frames/publibd.htm
    Date of entry/update: 05 December 2007


    Title: Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Rainer Funke, Daniel Bahr (Münster), Rainer Brüderle, weiterer Abgeordneter und der Fraktion der FDP
    Date of publication: 09 March 2004
    Description/subject: Drucksache 15/2643 Engagement der Bundesregierung auf EU- sowie VN-Ebene zur Wahrung der Menschenrechte in Myanmar/Birma Response to the "Small Inquiry" to the German government; politics, parliamentary discussion, parliament
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Deutscher Bundestag
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.bundestag.de/bic/hib/2004/2004_074/04.html
    Date of entry/update: 18 May 2004


    Title: Kleine Anfrage: Engagement der Bundesregierung auf EU- sowie VN-Ebene zur Wahrung der Menschenrechte in Myanmar/Birma
    Date of publication: 11 February 2004
    Description/subject: Drucksache 15/2508. Kleine Anfrage der Freien Demokratischen Partei (FDP) an die Bundesregierung. "Small inquiry" by the Free Democratic Party to the German government with regard to the human rights situation in Myanmar/Burma, EU-Burma relations, UN-Burma relations, politics, parliamentary discussion, parliament
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Deutscher Bundestag
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://dipbt.bundestag.de/doc/btd/15/025/1502508.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


    Title: Bald Wiederaufnahme der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit mit Birma?
    Date of publication: 12 June 2002
    Description/subject: After the visit of the German Bundestag delegation of economic development the German attitude to development co-operation with Burma has to be revisited. Im April 2002 reiste eine sechsköpfige Delegation des Bundestagsausschusses für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung nach Indien und Burma. Nach ihren Gesprächen mit Militär, Opposition, Minderheitenvertretern und Aung San Suu Kyi brachten sie die Botschaft mit, die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit neu zu überdenken. Eindrücke des MdB und ehemaligen Bundesministers Norbert Blüm werden in dem Artikel wiedergegeben.
    Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Das Sanktionsregime hat ausgedient. Interview mit Angelika Köster-Loßack (MdB, Bündnis 90/ Die Grünen)
    Date of publication: 12 June 2002
    Description/subject: Interview with Member of Parliament (Green) about sanctions and development co-operation with Burma. Nur drei Wochen bevor der neunzehnmonatige Hausarrest von Aung San Suu Kyi aufgehoben wurde, bereiste eine Delegation des Bundesausschusses für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung Indien und Myanmar/Burma. Die Abgeordneten sprachen in Myanmar/Burma mit Politikern aus Regierungskreisen, mit Vertretern der Oppositionspartei Nationale Liga für Demokratie (NLD) sowie ethnischen Minoritäten. Höhepunkt war ein Gespräch mit Aung San Suu Kyi. In den Gesprächen ging es unter anderem um entwicklungspolitische Projekte, die als Teil internationaler Sanktionspolitik seit Jahren größtenteils eingefroren waren. Angelika Köster-Loßack, die die internationale Sanktionspolitik jahrelang mitgetragen hatte, hat nach ihrer Reise nun eine andere Sicht darauf.
    Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "Germans in Burma, 1837–1945"
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: This article gives an account of the Germans who lived in Burma or who visited the country between the beginnings of British rule in 1826 and the end of World War II. After surveying German-Burmese relations from 1826 until today, the manifold German engagement in Burma before World War I is detailed. This engagement was followed by a sharp decline in the number of Germans living in the country other than for short periods between the two great wars. After World War II, on the German side, there was almost no memory of German activities in Burma left. By contrast the Burmese kept and keep this memory very much alive.
    Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 7 (2002)
    Format/size: pdf (3.06MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/cseas/seap/jbsJ.html
    Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


    Title: Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Anfrage an den deutschen Bundestag zur Prfung einer Zusammenarbeit mit Myanmar auf nichtstaatlicher Ebene, insbesondere zur Strkung der Zivilgesellschaf
    Date of publication: 25 July 2000
    Description/subject: Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Anfrage vom 4.7.2000 aus der Bundestagsfraktion CDU/CSU. Bundestag: MYANMAR SOLLTE WEG DER NATIONALEN VERSHNUNG GEHEN (Answer. See adjoining link -- 4 July 2000 for question)
    Language: Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Deutscher Bundestag
    Format/size: PDF (66K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Anfrage an den deutschen Bundestag zur Prfung einer Zusammenarbeit mit Myanmar auf nichtstaatlicher Ebene, insbesondere zur Strkung der Zivilgesellschaft
    Date of publication: 04 July 2000
    Description/subject: Keywords: politics, parliamentary discussion, parliament. Bericht einiger Abgeordneter der CDU/CSU-Fraktion ber die Lage in Burma mit einer Anfrage an die Bundesregierung zur Einschtzung der Situation und Auswirkungen auf die deutsch-burmesischen Beziehungen. (Inquiry. See answer, 25 July 2000, in adjoining link)
    Language: Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Deutscher Bundestag
    Format/size: PDF (48K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma: Die Wiederkehr der Gleichen - Historische Reflexion zum 10. Jahrestag der Machtübernahme von SLORC
    Date of publication: October 1998
    Description/subject: Gedanken zur Geschichte Burmas, 10 Jahre nach der Machtübergabe an SLORC. Kurze Anmerkung zu deutsch-burmesischen Beziehungen, Kolonialzeit, König Thibaw. Reflections about Burma's history ten years after 1988. SLORC - SPDC, King Thibaw, Aung San, Aung San Suu Kyi, German-Burmese relations.
    Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg.14, Nr. 3 - Asienhaus
    Format/size: html (28,8K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


  • India-Burma relations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma Centre Delhi (BCD)
    Description/subject: "Burma Centre Delhi (BCD) is a non-profit organization which was formed with the aim to work for the restoration of peace, justice, democracy and human rights in Burma, India and other parts of the world. BCD strongly believes that India, the world’s largest democracy, can influence Burma and other countries of the world in bringing about peace and democratic transition. BCD also believes that the on-going political crisis in Burma is a clash between the oppressed and the oppressors and that only political dialogue can solve the problems that Burma has faced and continues to face. BCD firmly adheres to non-violent political methods. The Mission of BCD is to: provide update information on Burma's political, social and economic issues to the different levels of Indian people so as to raise the level of consciousness and actions for democracy movement in Burma strengthen relationship and building network between the people of India and Burma for better understanding and solidarity serve as a resource centre providing a platform for Burmese and Indian for sharing knowledge of two countries to know about each other observe Indo-Burma relations and take initiative role for appropriate campaign and lobby to urge the Indian Government to support the aspirations for democracy and human rights"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Centre Delhi (BCD)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 March 2012


    Title: Burma–India relations
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


    Title: Center for Justice and Peace in South Asia Cjesa
    Description/subject: "...news and discussion forum of CJPsa strives to achieve Justice and Peace to the indigenous and minority groups including women and children in South Asia by bringing diverse interest groups together to facilitate communications, action items, and propagation of pertinent information using the mass media. Our aim is to effect public opinion and thus facilitate political actions which will lead to justice and peace in South Asia..." [this is a very active group of over 300 members. It covers mainly the Indian subcontinent, with lots of postings on the Indian North-East, but also a number of messages about the India-Burma, Bangladesh-Burma borders - DA] INACTIVE (FEB 2009)
    Language: English
    Subscribe: cjesa-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Centre de Sciences Humaines - Delhi (Search results for "Myanmar")
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Centre de Sciences Humaines de New Delhi
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://csh-delhi.com/
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: India in the World: The International Relations of a Rising Power
    Description/subject: A wealth of online primary (1947-present) and secondary documents on India's foreign relations, including a number dealing with Burma/Myanmar, India's Look East policy etc. Go to http://www.thescotties.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/ for material on China and other parts of the Asia-Pacific
    Author/creator: David Scott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: David Scott
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.thescotties.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2008


    Title: Indian Parliament
    Description/subject: Contains email, street address and phone Nos. of parliamentarians
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Indo Myanmar page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Indo Myanmar
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: Indo-burma News
    Description/subject: "This website provides news and information resources related to Burma and India relations. News and information are being taken out from different sources, independent news agency and websites. India, being a biggest democratic country in the world, has recently changed its policy to support the oppressive Burmese military regime for its national interest and energy needs. The site provides resources and archives to help activists to lobby Indian political parties, civil societiy organizations, NGOs and individuals for the support of democracy movement in Burma and political activities of Burmese exiles in India."... Very sporadic -- some months or even years have no articles, but some periods have a lot.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Indo-burma News
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2008


    Title: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) Myanmar page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses
    Alternate URLs: http://www.idsa.in/search/node/myanmar (search page for "Myanmar")
    http://www.idsa.in/aboutidsa
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses [Delhi]
    Description/subject: One of the Delhi think tanks with an interest in Burma-Myanmar...Use the (google) search engine... Strong links with the Indian Ministry of Defence, though it (and its individual researchers) claim independence.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 November 2008


    Title: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies [Delhi]
    Description/subject: One of the Delhi-based think tanks with the greatest interest in India-Burma/Myanmar relations. A search for "Myanmar" on this site produced 168 articles and 796 news items (November 2008).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IDSA)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 24 November 2008


    Title: Mizzima
    Description/subject: A most impressive institution, much more than a news service, with an excellent website. Mizzima concentrates on India-Burma relations, events etc. Several Mizzima articles daily in English and Burmese which can be read on the site or delivered to your mailbox. The website has a browsable archive back to 98, which is an important resource. The search function does not work all that well (e.g. searching for "naga", it retrieved 5 documents, whereas there are several hundred accessible to the patient browser). Sections include: the Mizzima News; Mizzima News Archives; News in Burmese; Burma Related News (various sources); Nationalities Questions; Documents (nothing there yet); Debates; About Mizzima; About Burma; Mizzima's Activities; Seminars; Photo Gallery (mainly people sitting round tables); Media in Burma; Network Links; Chat Room; Burmese calendar; Research on Indo-Burma relations; English Language School; Art Exhibitions; Music Album; Mizzima Video Documentary; Affiliated Organizations; Mizzima Team.
    Language: English, Burmese.
    Source/publisher: Mizzima
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Observer Research Foundation (ORF) [Delhi]
    Description/subject: One of the Delhi think-tanks with a Burma/Myanmar interest (it has a Myanmar specialist, K Yhome) ... It has some Burma/Myanmar material, but since the rather eccentric website has no visible search engine this is best accessed via a google site-specific search: myanmar site:observerindia.com ... Even with a (free) subscription, one is often limited to executive summaries.... "OBSERVER RESEARCH FOUNDATION (ORF) is an endeavour to aid and influence formulation of policies for building a strong and prosperous India. The expectations of the global community from India are immense as the country is poised to play a leading role in the knowledge age. The Foundation believes that in the next 25 years India will be one of the great economic powers in the world and contribute to a significant transformation in the quality of life of humanity." .....
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Observer Research Foundation
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://orfonline.org
    Date of entry/update: 24 November 2008


    Title: Search result for " Myanmar" from Institute of Peace & Conflict Studies
    Description/subject: Study on India- Myanmar bilateral. Also regional involving Myanmar.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institue of Peace & Conflict Studies
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 October 2010


    Title: Search results for "Myanmar" in "Tehelka"
    Description/subject: 58 results (November 2010)... "Tehelka" - "India's Independent Weekly News"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Tehelka"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


    Title: Website of Renaud Egreteau
    Description/subject: "Welcome to my Site ! Let me introduce myself. As a French researcher in International Relations, I have been working for the last 7 years on geopolitics in Asia, with a special focus on India and Burma (Myanmar). In December 2006, I successfully defended my Ph.D Dissertation (Political Science, Asian Studies) at the Institute of Political Science, Paris, France : "India, China and the Burmese Issue : Sino-Indian Rivalry through Burma/Myanmar and its Limits since 1988" (with distinction). You will find in this website a glimpse of the works I have done so far on those issues (articles, publications, fieldworks) as well as some links and contacts which could be of interest on these matters. Enjoy the visit "... Dr. Renaud EGRETEAU
    Language: Francais, French, English
    Source/publisher: Renaud Egreteau
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 June 2007


    Individual Documents

    Title: The Strategic Importance of Myanmar for India
    Date of publication: 12 August 2014
    Description/subject: "...If India is to become an assertive regional player in Asia, it has to work toward developing policies that would improve and strengthen it domestically, which will encourage more confidence in its ability to lead the region and be an important global player. Competition with China should also be considered and taken seriously. China’s growing influence in the region would lead to a more one-sided dynamic in the region. China has asserted itself through its soft power as well as through its trade and economic relations with Myanmar by taking up large infrastructure projects in the country. India on the other hand needs to use its soft power more effectively, and at the same time strengthen itself domestically and regionally. There are several advantages that India has over China with regard to Myanmar. One is the democratic process, which results in different governments at the center and states through free and fair elections. There is also the respect for institutions that are strong enough to hold the country together. Finally, cooperation in different multilateral forums such as ASEAN and BIMSTEC strengthen the relationship between the two countries. Apart from these reasons, India has sent a clear signal that while economic ties are important, it is keen to build a holistic relationship and is prepared to assist in institution building in Myanmar..."
    Author/creator: Sridhar Ramaswamy & Tridivesh Singh Maini
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


    Title: How South Asia Resolves Maritime Disputes
    Date of publication: 10 July 2014
    Description/subject: "As Ankit noted earlier today, the Hague-based Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) ruled on the maritime dispute between India and Bangladesh in the Bay of Bengal this week. According to news reports, the court awarded 19,467 square kilometers (7,516 square miles) of a total disputed area of 25,602 km to Bangladesh. More importantly, both countries praised the ruling. “It is the victory of friendship and a win-win situation for the peoples of Bangladesh and India,” Bangladesh’s Foreign Minister Abul Hassan Mahmood Ali told a news conference on Tuesday, Reuters reported. He added: “We commend India for its willingness to resolve this matter peacefully by legal means and for its acceptance of the tribunal’s judgment.” India’s Ministry of External Affairs also released a statement hailing the court’s ruling in Bangladesh’s favor. “The settlement of the maritime boundary will further enhance mutual understanding and goodwill between India and Bangladesh by bringing to closure a long-pending issue,” the statement said. “This paves the way for the economic development of this part of the Bay of Bengal, which will be beneficial to both countries.” This is not the first time that India and Bangladesh have peacefully resolved a territorial dispute. Back in 2011, India and Bangladesh reached a bilateral agreement to resolve their disputed land borders This is also not the first time an international tribunal has peacefully resolved a maritime border dispute in South Asia. At the same time it filed the case with India, Bangladesh asked another tribunal to resolve its maritime dispute with Myanmar according to the terms of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Myanmar, like India, agreed to submit the case to the tribunal and abide by its ruling..."
    Author/creator: Zachary Keck
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 July 2014


    Title: The importance of Myanmar to Modi
    Date of publication: 13 June 2014
    Description/subject: "Prime Minister Narendra Modi's decisive victory in India's elections last month has opened a new chapter and emboldened the aspirations of over a billion Indians. There is also hope Modi will develop ties with neighboring countries, especially given his positive gesture of inviting South Asian leaders to his inauguration. Myanmar, India's "gateway" to Southeast Asia and having close cultural and historical ties, may also welcome this rise of a "right-wing" leadership in India. This an opening for both countries to come together, make use of the opportunities available and harness the potential strengths to gain a strategic advantage in the region..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2014


    Title: India-China make a Myanmar tryst
    Date of publication: 13 August 2013
    Description/subject: "As India and China have emerged as major powers in Asia, their interests and concerns have transcended their geographical boundaries. There is particularly the case in Myanmar, where those interests have converged. This is largely due to the fact that Myanmar shares common borders with both the countries. Myanmar shares a 2,185-kilometer border with China, and 1,643-kilometer border with India. It has long been argued that Myanmar has always been a strategic concern for governing the dynamics of India-China relations. Myanmar's strategic location is considered as an important asset for India and China that offers tremendous opportunities for the countries of the region. Therefore, recent developments in Myanmar are a matter of concern for both India and China..."
    Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: India Marginalized in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 20 July 2013
    Description/subject: "India has not gained much from Myanmar’s transition from military rule to a fledgling democracy. When Myanmar was ruled by a military junta and shunned by the West, India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) were seen as alternatives to Chinese influence. But as Myanmar opens up to the outside world after decades of isolation, it is turning more to the West, especially the United States, to balance China’s growing influence, and not to India. Increasingly, Delhi is seen as a defensive power, unwilling and incapable of contesting Chinese influence in Myanmar, and not central to what has been described as the emerging “Great Game East.”..."
    Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 July 2013


    Title: One cannot step into the same river twice: making the Kaladan Project people-centred
    Date of publication: 11 June 2013
    Description/subject: "The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project (hereafter “Kaladan Project”) will see the construction of a combined inland waterway and highway transportation system connecting Mizoram State in Northeast India with a Bay of Bengal deepsea port at Sitetway, Arakan State in Western Burma. The Indian government is entirely financing the Kaladan Project, and these funds are officially classified as development aid to Burma. Once completed, the infrastructure will belong to the Burma government, but the project is unquestionably designed to achieve India’s economic and geostrategic interests. The Kaladan Project - conceived in 2003, formalized in 2008 and slated for completion in 2015 - is a cornerstone of India’s “Look East Policy” aimed at expanding Indian economic and political influence in Southeast and East Asia. The Kaladan Project is being developed in Arakan and Chin States - Burma’s least-developed and most poverty-prone states - where improved infrastructure is badly needed. Yet it remains an open question whether the Kaladan Project will be implemented in a way that ensures the people living along the project route are the main beneficiaries of this large-scale infrastructure development. This report from the Kaladan Movement provides an update on the progress of the Kaladan Project; assesses the potential Project-related benefi ts and negative impacts for people living in the project area; provides an overview of the current on-the-ground impacts, focusing on the hopes and concerns of the local people; and makes a series of recommendations to the Burma and India governments......."Part 1: Introduction to the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project; 1.1 Specifications of the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project; 1.2 Context of the Kaladan Project: India-Burma relations; 1.3 Economies of Mizoram, Arakan, and Chin States; 1.4 The natural environment in the Kaladan Project area... Part 2: Potential Impacts of the Kaladan Project: 2.1 Potential beneficial impacts of the Kaladan Project; 2.2 Potential negative impacts of the Kaladan project... Part 3: Current Impacts of the Kaladan Project: 3.1 Lack of consultation; 3.2 Lack of information provided to the community and lack of government transparency; 3.3 Lack of comprehensive and public Environmental, Health and Social Impact Assessments; 3.4 Labour discrimination; 3.5 Land confi scation and forced eviction; 3.6 Destruction of local cultural heritage; 3.7 Riverine ecological destruction from aggregate mining and dredging..... https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/102872850/KM_Report_Eng.pdf
    Language: English (main text); Burmese (press release)
    Source/publisher: Kaladan Movement
    Format/size: pdf (4.8MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Kaladan_Movement-PR-2013-06-11-bu.pdf (Press Release - Burmese)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Kaladan_Movement-PR-2013-06-11-en.pdf (Press Release - English)
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


    Title: Myanmar conflict threatens regional stability
    Date of publication: 16 August 2012
    Description/subject: "AGARTALA and IMPHAL - As a rising number of Rohingya Muslims flee sectarian conflict in Myanmar and take sanctuary in India's northeastern states, the flow of refugees is putting a new strain on bilateral relations. New Delhi has called on Naypyidaw to stem the rising human tide, a diplomatic request that Indian officials say has so far gone unheeded. Ongoing sporadic violence between Rohingya Muslims and Buddhist Rakhines in western Myanmar has left more than 80 dead and displaced tens of thousands. The Myanmar government's inability or unwillingness to stop the persecution of Rohingyas has provoked strong international reaction, raising calls for retribution in radical corners of the Islamic world, including a threat from the Pakistani Taliban to attack Myanmar's diplomatic missions abroad. Fears are now rising that Myanmar-borne instability is spreading to India's northeastern frontier regions, threatening to spiral into a wider regional security dilemma. At the same time that Muslim Rohingyas and Buddhist Rakhines clashed in Myanmar, fighting erupted between Muslims and Hindus in India's northeastern Assam State. As in Myanmar, where the Rohingyas are considered illegal Bangladeshi settlers, the Muslims targeted in Assam are accused of being ethnic Bengalis who have migrated illegally from Bangladesh..."
    Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 September 2012


    Title: Indian rebels on the move in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 10 August 2012
    Description/subject: "NEW DELHI and TAMU - Despite India's repeated requests to act, Myanmar's government is still perceived by Indian officials as "going easy" on Indian separatists known to be operating out of Myanmar's northwestern fringes. More than two months after promising tough action against separatist rebels based in its territory during Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to Myanmar, President Thein Sein's quasi-civilian government is yet to commence any sort of crackdown against the rebels, many of whom are known to be based in Myanmar's Sagaing Division and border towns like Tamu. Indian officials raised the issue again during a visit to New Delhi in early August by Myanmar's chief of defense staff, General Ming Aung Hlaing. "We have got the usual assurance of action but we have to wait and see," said a senior Indian military official who requested anonymity..."
    Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 September 2012


    Title: India-Myanmar-Thailand 3,200km trilateral highway to be completed in 2016
    Date of publication: 04 August 2012
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Malaysian Times
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 October 2012


    Title: Indian intel makes fresh efforts to renew ties with KIO
    Date of publication: 25 December 2011
    Description/subject: Article on pps1 & 3
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Seven Sisters Post"
    Format/size: Adobe Flash
    Date of entry/update: 29 December 2011


    Title: Myanmar-Indian Joint Statement released
    Date of publication: 16 October 2011
    Description/subject: NAY PYI TAW, 15 Oct— President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar U Thein Sein held talks with Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh on matters of mutual interest between the two countries, at the Conference Room of Hyderabad House in New Delhi yesterday noon. After the meeting, the joint statement was released as follows:-
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar" 16 October 2011
    Format/size: pdf (355K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 October 2011


    Title: It Takes Two to Tango: The Delicate Dance between India and Burma
    Date of publication: 24 August 2010
    Description/subject: "India's decision to welcome Senior General Than Shwe, the head of the Burmese junta, in late July 2010 might have exhibited all the radiance of a reinvigorated relationship, but careful consideration of what exactly New Delhi has fostered with its eastern neighbor will reveal that Indo-Burmese relations remain uneasy. Despite enduring sympathies for Burma's pro-democracy stirrings since 1988, India is now convinced that it must engage Burma for strategic reasons. However, the engagement with Burma's praetorian leaders is simply not as constructive as often claimed. Furthermore, New Delhi seems divided over the issue of how exactly to engage Burma, and as a result has unintentionally abdicated the evolution of bilateral relations to Naypyidaw's whims. If it wants to strengthen its leverage, including its democratizing influence over Burma, India needs to reassess its current policy and emerge with a formidable but actionable vision to obtain that goal. As such, India's new Burma policy must be different from the Western sanctions-led approach, but it should also be better than the predatory arrangements imposed by Asian powers that seek to capture Burma's natural assets but leave behind few tangible benefits for the Burmese people..."
    Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Pacific Bulletin (No. 66)
    Format/size: pdf (66K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?lng=en&id=120524
    Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


    Title: Embracing Myanmar: India's Foreign Policy Realism
    Date of publication: 02 August 2010
    Description/subject: "India's constructive engagement with Myanmar has reached a new intensity with its hosting of Senior. General Than Shwe for five days at the end of July. Delhi's strong imperatives on counter-terror cooperation, border management, resource security, and overland transit routes mean there is no incentive at all for Delhi to elevate ideology above national interest in its policy towards Myanmar. India's decision to embrace Myanmar's Senior General Than Shwe — recently dubbed as one of the world's worst dictators by Washington's "Foreign Policy" magazine — has drawn much criticism from the West. In hosting Gen. Than Shwe for a five-day visit at the end of July, India would seem to have drifted a bit too far even by its new standards of realpolitik..."
    Author/creator: C. Raja Mohan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies Singapore
    Format/size: pdf (124K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2010


    Title: Prostration and Diplomacy
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: Junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe made a pilgrimage to India in search of bilateral accords, development aid, legitimacy and atonement. He got at least some of what he was after... "Burmese junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe’s five-day visit to India began with a pilgrimage to one of Buddhism’s most sacred shrines and ended with the signing of a wide range of agreements on finance, technology, arms and border issues.... As a result of these meetings, a series of bilateral treaties, memorandums of understanding and other agreements were signed..."
    Author/creator: Zarni Mann
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


    Title: India’s relations with Burma fail to address human rights concerns in run up to elections
    Date of publication: 19 June 2010
    Description/subject: With Burma’s first elections in two decades approaching, the three freedoms - of expression, association and peaceful assembly - essential for people to freely participate in the political process, are increasingly being denied. Aung San Suu Kyi is one of some 2,200 political prisoners in Burma. None of them will be able to participate in this year’s elections under new election laws - laws that the Indian government has failed to condemn. The Government of India claims to follow a ‘constructive’ approach in promoting human rights improvements in Burma. However, its response to the dire state of human rights in the country has been increasingly inadequate.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (Australia)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: India-Burma Relations Hitting a Dead End?
    Date of publication: 11 March 2010
    Description/subject: Over the past two decades, India's approach to Burma has undergone a complete turnaround, from support for the country’s democracy movement following the popular uprising in 1988 to today’s cozy relationship with its military dictators. The shift was motivated by three main goals: a desire to counter China’s growing influence in Burma; a wish to use Burma as a gateway to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) for trade and investment as part of India’s “Look East” policy; and a hope for assistance from Burma in cracking down on insurgency in the Northeast. But since India began to fundamentally reorient its Burma policy in the mid-1990s, it has had little to show for its closer ties with the Burmese generals.
    Author/creator: CAMILLA BUZZI and ÅSHILD KOLÅS
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=18006
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: India and Myanmar Looking East through a Strategic Bridge
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: "How significant is Myanmar to India’s calculations? This paper examines the feasibility of closer India- Myanmar relations, under the larger diagram of India’s Asia-centric Look East Policy (LEP). It delves into the major obstacles, the headway made so far and avenues that hold the potential for the same...India’s LEP has perhaps found its wings as far as building bilateral and multilateral alliances with most ASEAN member states in the commerce, cultural and defense sectors. However, the LEP is not yet on firm footing with its immediate neighbors (Myanmar and China) in the northeast. In this regard it is worth noting that neither of these countries are conventionally liberal market economies or democracies. Perhaps herein lays a rationalization for their natural camaraderie and also India’s inability to make substantial headway, competitively. In order to have an enduring and fruitful relationship with the Southeast Asian countries, India should go beyond the institutionalized avenues of ASEAN summits and partake in shrewd realpolitik. This warrants a competitive streak when it is open season for major commercial and defense agreements, especially with regards to a resource rich and strategically well placed country like Myanmar..."
    Author/creator: Harnit Kaur Kang
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi) (IPCS ISSUE BRIEF 144)
    Format/size: pdf (141K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


    Title: Reviving the Stilwell Road Challenges and Opportunities for India
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: There is a growing need to adapt a geostrategic perspective to assess the mutual benefits of linking India's northeast and Southeast Asia. It is a fact that the Northeast India is a resource rich, strategically positioned area which also shares an extensive international boundary of about 5500 km with India's neighbours. The region holds great significance in terms of India's connectivity and infrastructural ventures with Southeast and East Asian nations. Reopening and developing the historical Stilwell, originally known Ledo road, in the Northeast is of strategic importance. This essay is an effort to unravel the rationale, opportunities and challenges and the future of reopening of the Stilwell Road for being a potential gateway to Southeast Asia and East Asia.
    Author/creator: Tuli Sinha
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies - Delhi - (IPCS Issue Brief 143)
    Format/size: pdf (249K)
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: Why is Burma hoodwinking New Delhi on security issues?
    Date of publication: 06 February 2010
    Description/subject: "...During the last 15 years, New Delhi has been trying to pressurize Burma to cooperate in flushing out the insurgent outfits from northeast India. But, why did Senior-General Than Shwe’s soldiers fail to flush out the northeast insurgents? Or, will Brigadier-General Phone Swe’s recent promise to G.K. Pillai to flush out northeast insurgents be fulfilled? “The Burmese security agencies will never flush out the insurgents,” Lalngheta Sailo, a retired Director-General of Police of Mizoram said, adding that the guerillas from northeast India always pay monthly “protection fee” to a section of officials in the Burmese Army. Sailo said that a section of the Burmese Army officials, who enjoy financial support from the insurgents lead a lavish life. Otherwise, Burmese Army personnel don’t enjoy a large pay package, “So, why will they kill the golden goose?” he said..."
    Author/creator: Anirban Roy
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mizzima
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


    Title: Going Rogue in the Andaman Sea (Review of "Rogue Agent" by Nandita Haksar)
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: How international intrigue led to the deaths of six Burmese freedom fighters and nine years detention without trial for 34 others... "Why did India, once a supporter of democracy for Burma, become a friend of the military regime? This is the question asked repeatedly in “Rogue Agent” by its author, the prominent Indian human rights lawyer Nandita Haksar. Rogue Agent: How India’s Military Intelligence Betrayed the Burmese Resistance, by Nandita Haksar. Penguin Books India, 2009. P 242. While telling the story of the Operation Leech debacle, in which Rakhine and Karen “sea insurgents” were fatally betrayed by an Indian intelligence officer, Haksar never loses sight of the larger context of Indian Ocean geopolitics and the crushing of Burma between two mega-states, India and China..."
    Author/creator: Edith Mirante
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17506
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: India-Myanmar Relations: A Strategic Perspective
    Date of publication: 02 November 2009
    Description/subject: Consequent to several months of back channel negotiations, Kurt Campbell, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia, will lead a US delegation to Myanmar on November 3, 2009. This visit signifies the emerging consensus among Western democracies to review the failed economic sanctions and the arms embargo imposed on Myanmar and a desire to enter into a dialogue with the Generals before elections are held next year. At another level, the intention is clearly to gradually reduce China’s overpowering influence in the country. To discuss these issues, a seminar was held at the Brookings Institution and the School for Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Washington, D.C., on October 29-30, 2009.
    Author/creator: Gurmeet Kanwal
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Opinion Asia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: India-Myanmar Relations : A Review
    Date of publication: 30 October 2009
    Description/subject: Relations between India and Myanmar over nearly five decades have been governed by many complex factors. Amongst them are the strategic location of Myanmar, India’s commitment to idealism-driven support to the restoration of democracy in Myanmar, realism-driven need to deal with those actually governing the country, the implications of China’s increasing presence and role in Myanmar etc. China, fortunately for it, has been able to make its foreign policy decisions without having to bother about the nature of the regime in any country. India and Myanmar share a complicated and delicate history, marked as much by mistrust as amity. For those who may be interested, a “Historical Background” is annexed to this paper. POLITICAL: Pro-Democracy Protests in 2007... Aung San Suu Kyi ... Sanctions Regime ... Shifting US Position ... India-Myanmar Bilateral Relations : Realism Influencing Policy ..... ECONOMIC: Economic Cooperation ... Trade ... Border Trade ... Quest for Energy ... Infrastructure Projects ... Kaladan Project ... Cyclone Nargis ..... MILITARY: Insurgencies in Myanmar ... Insurgencies in India ... Defence Relations ... Some Conclusions ..... A N N E X U R E: Historical Background ... Military Rule ...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: South Asia Analysis Group
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


    Title: Indo-Myanmar Relations: Ideology vs Realism
    Date of publication: 17 August 2009
    Description/subject: "The nature of the alliance between Myanmar and India has been criticized for giving legitimacy to the non democratic rule of the junta and its violation of human rights. The condemnation of pro democracy movement leader, Aung Sang Suu Kyi to an extended term of house arrest is evidence that the junta is not willing to take chances by releasing the popular activist in the run up to the upcoming elections. General Than S