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Landmines

  • Anti-Personnel Landmines - Specialist organisations and commentary

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "Landmine Monitor" Home Page
    Description/subject: "In June 1998, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines established "Landmine Monitor," a unique and unprecedented civil society based reporting network to systematically monitor and document nations' compliance with the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty and the humanitarian response to the global landmine crisis. Landmine Monitor complements the existing state-based reporting (external link) and compliance mechanisms established by the Mine Ban Treaty..." Landmine Monitor Core Group: Human Rights Watch · Handicap International (Belgium) Kenya Coalition Against Landmines · Mines Action Canada Norwegian People's Aid
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.icbl.org
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Geneva Call - Burma-Myanmar page
    Description/subject: Geneva Call has been engaging NSAs in Burma/Myanmar in an AP mine ban since 2006. Dialogue with the political and military leaders of the NSAs is complemented by activities aimed at encouraging and supporting civil society organizations to undertake mine action activities, supporting efforts to create a change in the Myanmar government’s AP mine policy, and supporting the monitoring of the AP mine ban commitments made by NSAs. To date 6 NSAs have signed the Deed of Commitment banning AP mines:
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Geneva Call
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 February 2010


    Title: Geneva Call - Engaging Non-State Actors
    Description/subject: "Geneva Call is an international humanitarian organization dedicated to engaging armed non-State actors (NSAs) to respect and to adhere to humanitarian norms, starting with the ban on anti-personnel (AP) mines. Geneva Call is committed to the universal application of the principles of international humanitarian law and conducts its activities based on the principles of neutrality, impartiality and independence. Geneva Call provides an innovative mechanism for NSAs, who do not participate in drafting treaties and thus may not feel bound by their obligations to express adherence to the norms embodied in the 1997 anti-personnel mine ban treaty (MBT) through their signature to the "Deed of Commitment for Adherence to a Total Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines and for Cooperation in Mine Action" [PDF File]. The Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva serves as the guardian of these Deeds. Under the Deed of Commitment, signatory groups commit themselves: • To a total prohibition on the use, production, acquisition, transfer and stockpiling of AP mines and other victim-activated explosive devices, under any circumstances. • To undertake, to cooperate in, or to facilitate, programs to destroy stockpiles, clear mines, provide assistance to victims and promote awareness. • To allow and to cooperate in the monitoring and verification of their commitments by Geneva Call. • To issue the necessary orders to commanders and to the rank and file for the implementation and enforcement of their commitments. • To treat their commitment as one step or part of a broader commitment in principle to the ideal of humanitarian norms. Thirty-five armed groups in Burma, Burundi, India, Iran, Iraq, the Philippines, Somalia, Sudan, Turkey and Western Sahara have agreed to ban AP mines through this mechanism. The ultimate indicator of progress however, is not the number of Deeds signed but an effective ban and the practice of humanitarian mine action. Geneva Call is pledged to promote the implementation of humanitarian mine action programmes in mine-affected areas under NSA control, to assist signatory groups to fulfil their obligations under the Deed of Commitment and to monitor compliance."...See also the Resources section.
    Language: Arabic, English, Espanol (Spanish) Francais (French),
    Source/publisher: Geneva Call
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2008


    Title: Geneva International Centre for Humanitatian Demining
    Description/subject: Mine action topics... What we do... Where we work... About us... Mine action resources....."In a world where human security is still hindered by explosive hazards, the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) works to eliminate mines, cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war. To achieve this, the GICHD supports national authorities, international organisations and civil society in their efforts to improve the relevance and performance of mine action. Core activities include furthering knowledge, promoting norms and standards, and developing in-country and international capacity. This support covers all aspects of mine action: strategic, managerial, operational and institutional. The GICHD also works for mine action that is not delivered in isolation, but as part of a broader human security framework; this effort is facilitated by the GICHD's new location within the Maison de la Paix in Geneva..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Geneva International Centre for Humanitatian Demining
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 October 2014


    Title: International Campaign to Ban Landmines
    Description/subject: "The ICBL calls for: An international ban on the use, production, stockpiling, and sale, transfer, or export of antipersonnel landmines The signing, ratification, implementation, and monitoring of the mine ban treaty Increased resources for humanitarian demining and mine awareness programs Increased resources for landmine victim rehabilitation and assistance."
    Language: English | Deutsch | Español | Français | Italiano | Portugês
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Mine-Free Myanmar
    Description/subject: "Mine Free Myanmar was formerly known as Halt Mine Use in Burma. This campaign was originally launched in 2004 as a country focused campaign of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL). This website is aimed at an international audience and seeks to provide regularly updated information regarding efforts to achieve a landmine ban in Myanmar, or Burma as it is also known. Since 2012, a national campaign has been launched, comprised of local NGOs and situated in Rangoon. The ICBL is a global network in over 90 countries that works for a world free of antipersonnel landmines, where landmine survivors can lead fulfilling lives. The Campaign was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of its efforts to bring about the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty. Since then, we have been advocating for the words of the treaty to become a reality, demonstrating on a daily basis that civil society has the power to change the world. As of 1 January 2014, 161 countries, 80% of the world’s governments, have ratified or acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. Myanmar/Burma is not one of them."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2014


    Title: Nonviolence International SE Asia Home Page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Nonviolence International
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor Country Profile for Myanmar/Burma (updated 9 October, 2014)
    Date of publication: 09 October 2014
    Description/subject: Updated Content: Mine action
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.the-monitor.org/index.php/cp/display/region_profiles/theme/3703
    Date of entry/update: 09 October 2014


    Title: Border Prosthetics - Helping amputees with specially made prosthetics on the Myanmar-Thailand border (video)
    Date of publication: 24 June 2014
    Description/subject: "Decades of ethnic conflict have left south eastern Myanmar one of the most landmine-ridden regions in the world. Few landmine victims get the treatment they need inside the country, formerly known as Burma, and so spend days travelling to neighbouring Thailand for medical support. The Mae Tao Clinic provides healthcare to more than 150,000 displaced people every year, from vaccinations, to eye surgery and emergency operations on gunshot wounds. In the clinic’s prosthetics department, where many of the staff are themselves former landmine victims, more than 250 prosthetic limbs are fitted each year. Nidhi Dutt travels to the border town of Mae Sot to meet the people making tailored prosthetics from the simplest of tools for whoever needs them, no matter which side of Myanmar’s civil conflict they are on..."
    Author/creator: Nidhi Dutt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (The Cure)
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (11 minutes, 19 seconds)
    Date of entry/update: 28 June 2014


    Title: LAND RIGHTS AND MINE ACTION IN MYANMAR
    Date of publication: February 2014
    Description/subject: LAND RIGHTS AND MINE ACTION IN MYANMAR - DO NO HARM: PROPOSALS FOR A SET OF EIGHT CORE PRINCIPLES AND A 14-STEP SEQUENCING PROCESS FOR LAND RIGHTS-SENSITIVE MINE SURVEY AND CLEARANCE IN MYANMAR..... "Vast areas of land in Myanmar are currently contaminated by landmines and other explosive remnants of war (ERW) as a legacy of decades of armed conflict between the national government and a wide range of ethnic armed groups. However, the political climate in Myanmar has been rapidly changing, peace talks have been progressing, and plans are being developed to commence demining of contaminated lands. Programme and policy formulation by mine action related organisations in Myanmar is currently underway, and landmine and ERW survey and clearance operations are expected to commence in the near future. In addition, the Myanmar Mine Action Center (MMAC) is about to be established under the Myanmar Peace Centre (MPC) and, once it has been activated, will be expected to play the key governmental role in mine action efforts. 2. Mine action is a vital component of broader strategies to secure sustainable peace in countries emerging from conflict and instability. At the same time, mine action is inextricably linked to broader land rights questions because demining frees land that was previously unusable and/or difficult and dangerous to access. If managed poorly or if carried out purely on a technical basis without taking land rights questions into account, de-mining can re-ignite or create new land conflicts, facilitate land grabbing for resource extraction or other large-scale business activities, lead to forced displacement, serve to reinforce or exacerbate economic inequalities, and trigger a range of other undesirable outcomes. It is thus vital that demining efforts in Myanmar be subject to policies and agreements that can prevent such outcomes. It is essential, in other words, that the landmine survey and clearance efforts Do No Harm..." .
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
    Format/size: pdf (1.29MB)
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2014


    Title: Cautious hope for Burma’s ‘second-class citizens’
    Date of publication: 12 December 2011
    Description/subject: "No one knows how many people have been affected by landmines in Burma, the only state to consistently lay mines since 1997. Some who step on mines die immediately, but most will survive to live with severely disabling injuries. For the latter there is little in the way of immediate or long-term medical assistance available from the country’s impoverished medical system. Hope is on the horizon, however. On Friday last week the UN announced the accession of Burma to the Convention on the Rights of Disabled People (CRPD). This rights-based document could bring about a significant improvement in the quality of life for landmine victims and other people living with disabilities in the country. For that improvement to happen in the lifetime of current survivors, the convention needs to be implemented, meaning Burma must focus on generating necessary services in the areas where survivors live – given that landmines are mostly laid in the country’s remote border regions whose development has never taken place, this will be no easy feat..."
    Author/creator: YESHUA MOSER PUANGSUWAN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


    Title: Myanmar takes major step in addressing the needs of Landmine Victims
    Date of publication: 12 December 2011
    Description/subject: "Myanmar Accedes to the international Convention on the Rights of Disabled People (CRPD)...The ICBL had previously been informed by Foreign Ministry officials that the legal review of this convention had been completed, but that the Convention would have to forwarded to the new Parliament for debate and approval. On 9 December, the United Nations received the accession from Myanmar, which will go into effect 6 January 2012. Myanmar’s adherence to the CRPD will be significant for increasing assistance to the countries landmine, and other, disabled..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


    Title: The Geneva Call Progress Report 2000-2007
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: Abstract: Since the launch of Geneva Call in 2000, significant progress has been made. 34 NSAs from Burma/Myanmar, Burundi, India, Iraq, the Philippines, Somalia, Sudan, Turkey and Western Sahara have signed the “Deed of Commitment”, an innovative mechanism that enables NSAs, which by definition cannot accede to the 1997 Ottawa Convention, to subscribe to its norms. Signatory groups have, by and large, complied with their obligations, refraining from using anti-personnel mines and cooperating in mine action with specialized organizations. In addition, nine other NSAs have pledged to prohibit or limit the use of anti-personnel mines, either unilaterally or through a ceasefire agreement with the government. In some countries, the signing of the “Deed of Commitment” by NSAs facilitated the launch of much-needed humanitarian mine action programs in areas under their control, as well as the accession by their respective States to the Ottawa Convention. Of course, many challenges remain, notably the continued use of anti-personnel mines by non-signatory groups, the lack of technical and financial resources to support implementation of the “Deed of Commitment” and insufficient cooperation from some concerned States. Yet, this report illustrates how NSA engagement can be effective in securing their compliance with international humanitarian norms.
    Language: English,
    Source/publisher: Geneva Call
    Format/size: pdf (1.62MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots591=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8...
    Date of entry/update: 28 July 2010


  • Anti-Personnel Landmines - Standards and mechanisms

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty
    Description/subject: Treaty... Mine Ban Treaty 101... Text of the Mine Ban Treaty... States Parties... States not Parties... Prohibitions... Definitions... Stockpiles... Mine Action... Victim Assistance... Article 7 Reporting... Compliance... National Legislation... Treaty Meetings... United Nations.
    Language: Arabic, Deutsch, English, Espanol, Francais, Italiano, Chinese, Portuguese, Russian
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2008


    Individual Documents

    Title: Text of the Mine Ban Treaty
    Date of publication: March 1999
    Description/subject: Translations also in: Italian, Japanese, Laotian Lithuanian, Macedonian, Nepali, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, Vietnamese....The date given for the treaty, March 1999, is the date of its entry into force.
    Language: Albanian, Arabic, Azeri, Bosnian, Burmese, Chinese, Dutch, English, French, Georgian, Greek,
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.un.org/Depts/mine/UNDocs/ban_trty.htm
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2008


    Title: Text of the Mine Ban Treaty in Burmese
    Date of publication: March 1999
    Description/subject: The date given is that of the entry into force of the treaty...Burma is not a State Party.
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: pdf (107K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 July 2010


  • Reports and maps covering anti-personnel landmines and Burma/Myanmar

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Deeds of Commitment under Geneva Call made by 26 Armed Non-State Actors in Burma/Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2012
    Description/subject: Regarding: Use of anti-personnel landmines; Use of child soldiers; Protection of Children from the Effects of Armed Conflict...made between 2003 and 2012...full texts in English.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Geneva Call
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2012


    Title: Maps: Townships affected by mines, 2010-2011 - Townships with mine incidents
    Date of publication: November 2011
    Description/subject: "The Myanmar Information Management Unit [UN MIMU] has released two maps which show townships with a known hazard due to the presence of antipersonnel mines, and the number of victims per township in 2010-2011. This is the third map produced in a collaboration between MIMU in Yangon and Landmine & Cluster Munition Monitor, since 2009. These maps document how many townships in the countries are known to have some level of mine pollution, and the number of known landmine victims from the townships in the 2010-2011 period. The maps do not provide precise details on the location of mined areas..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: MIMU via http://burmamineban.demilitarization.net
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 November 2011


    Title: Mine-Free Myanmar
    Description/subject: "Mine Free Myanmar was formerly known as Halt Mine Use in Burma. This campaign was originally launched in 2004 as a country focused campaign of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL). This website is aimed at an international audience and seeks to provide regularly updated information regarding efforts to achieve a landmine ban in Myanmar, or Burma as it is also known. Since 2012, a national campaign has been launched, comprised of local NGOs and situated in Rangoon. The ICBL is a global network in over 90 countries that works for a world free of antipersonnel landmines, where landmine survivors can lead fulfilling lives. The Campaign was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of its efforts to bring about the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty. Since then, we have been advocating for the words of the treaty to become a reality, demonstrating on a daily basis that civil society has the power to change the world. As of 1 January 2014, 161 countries, 80% of the world’s governments, have ratified or acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. Myanmar/Burma is not one of them."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2014


    Title: Search for "landmines" on the KHRG site
    Description/subject: Use the drop-down menu of the Database Search. Click on Landmines.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2008


    Individual Documents

    Title: Hpapun Incident Report: Home guard killed by Tatmadaw landmine in Lu Thaw Township, January 2014
    Date of publication: 23 June 2014
    Description/subject: This Incident Report describes the death of a home guard on January 24th 2014 after he stepped on a Tatmadaw landmine whilst hunting for birds in the forest. Home guards are villagers who provide security for communities of civilians in hiding. Widespread displacement occurred in Lu Thaw Township during Tatmadaw offensives in 1997 and between 2005 and 2008. Since then, many of those displaced have lived in make-shift, temporary housing in the jungle and mountainous areas with inadequate health and education facilities and without access to land on which to grow food for daily consumption. Villagers living in these areas have demanded that local Tatmadaw bases be closed so they can return to their homes, and have highlighted a range of risks associated with living in internal displacement sites, including exposure to landmines.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (908K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/14-14-i4_pdf.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 December 2014


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report Myanmar/Burma, 2013 ( Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
    Date of publication: 26 December 2013
    Description/subject: Includes Cluster Munition Monitor Report, 2013
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines
    Format/size: pdf (646K-reduced version; 1.16MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://demilitarization.net/docs/lmreports/MBMonitor2013MYN.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2014


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report Myanmar/Burma, 2013 (English)
    Date of publication: 26 December 2013
    Description/subject: Includes Cluster Munition Monitor Report, 2013
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines
    Format/size: pdf (540K-OBL version; 1.77MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://demilitarization.net/docs/lmreports/MBMonitor2013ENG.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2014


    Title: Landmine injuries in Mone Township, Nyaunglebin District since January 2013
    Date of publication: 08 July 2013
    Description/subject: "This news bulletin describes two landmine incidents occurring in February and June 2013 in Mone Township, Nyaunglebin District. On February 2nd 2013, 22-year-old Saw H--- from S--- village was walking home after collecting firewood in Maw Lay Forest when he stepped on a landmine, sustaining temporary injuries to his leg. On June 1st, 45-year-old Maung W--- stepped on a landmine at Chauck Kway. The landmine shrapnel caused major damage to his left leg, and it was amputated as a result. In both incidents, landmines were detonated on frequently used paths, indicating that the mines were likely to have been planted recently. Based on the information submitted from the community member, the Tatmadaw and KNLA are active in these areas, but it is not clear which actor is responsible for originally planting the mines in either incident. This bulletin is based on information submitted to KHRG in February and June 2013 by a community member in Nyaunglebin District who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (60.8K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b44_0.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


    Title: Incident Report: Villager tortured by Tatmadaw commanders in Papun District, December 2012
    Date of publication: 27 June 2013
    Description/subject: "This incident report was submitted to KHRG in January 2013 by a community member describing events occurring in Dwe Lo Township, Papun District in December 2012. The community member who wrote this report described an incident that occurred on December 28th 2012, when a female buffalo stepped on a landmine that was placed by Karen National Liberation Army soldiers. Coincidently, on the same day, Saw U---, also known as Saw P---, a 34 year old man from T--- village, went to take a bath in Buh Loh River and while he was on his way back home, he encountered two Tatmadaw soldiers, who called Saw U--- over to them. They were Tatmadaw LID #44, IB #9 Company Commander/ Camp Commander Ko Ko Lwin and Platoon Commander Kyaw Thu. As soon as Saw U--- reached them, Company Commander Ko Ko Lwin punched him in his chest and Platoon Commander Kyaw Thu punched him ten times across both sides of his face. While the soldiers did not ask Saw U--- any questions, they accused him of being in the KNLA; according to the community member who wrote this report and spoke directly with the villager, Saw U--- is not a soldier, but a villager who works on farms."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (272K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b37.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


    Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: Kyauk Kyi Township, July to September 2012
    Date of publication: 20 June 2013
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in September 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Nyaunglebin District between July and September 2012, including the imposition of taxes by Tatmadaw soldiers on villagers mining gold, use of a landmine by KNLA soldiers and the distribution of humanitarian aid by multiple international and local organizations. Specifically, the report describes Tatmadaw IB #57 imposing taxation over 40 villagers mining gold for their livelihoods. The report also describes the attempt of the Myanmar Peace Support Initiative to send food supplies by truck to Hsaw Mee Luh base camp in August 2012, as well as the placing and marking of an anti-vehicle mine by KNLA Battalion #9 soldiers between Kat Pe base camp and Mu Theh village. Flooding in Kyauk Kyi area that started in July is also reported, which caused villagers problems with travel and work and destroyed rice paddies. World Food Programme staff visited flood victims and provided some relief during this time as well and, in August, Back Pack Health Worker Team members distributed rice on behalf of Emergency Assistance Team-Burma and also delivered soap and medicine to flood victims in Ma Au Pin village tract. During the period of flooding, villagers were worried that if gold mining operations continued along the Tha Ye stream that polluted water would contaminate their paddies and cause destruction. Villagers thus requested that gold mining stop during the floods. This request was not heeded, and all paddies in 30 acres of flat field farms died during flooding. The report also details that road builders and village officials demanded 200 kyat (US $.21) from each traveler along the road through M--- village, including students from the M--- primary school. Additionally, it details financial offers made to villagers by the Burma government, as well as issues villagers have had with accessing deposits."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (287K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b36_0.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


    Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, January to March 2013
    Date of publication: 18 June 2013
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in March 2013 by a community member describing events occurring in Papun District between January and March 2013. The report describes the use of villagers from approximately 40 villages in Htee Th'Daw Hta village tract for forced labour. The perpetrators were led by the presiding monk of Myaing Gyi Ngu, U Thuzana. Villagers, including elderly people, women and children, have been forced to work on the construction of the Htee Lah Eh Hta Bridge. Villagers are required to perform labour for consecutive days and are not informed of what length of time they will be required to work before the project's completion. The report also describes a landmine incident on February 11th 2013, which occurred between P--- village and S--- village in K'Ter Tee village tract, Bu Tho Township. A landmine exploded while five villagers were transporting sand by car for the Green Hill Company and all five villagers in the vehicle were killed. No armed group took responsibility for the incident, though the Green Hill Company compensated 300,000 kyat (US $318.13) to the family of each victim. Additionally, the manager of the company, Ko Myo, donated 200,000 (US $212.10) kyat to each of the victims' families."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (268K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b35.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


    Title: Landmine explosion and death of villagers in Papun District
    Date of publication: 13 May 2013
    Description/subject: "This report is based on information submitted by community members in March 2013 describing events occurring in Papun District in February 2013. On February 11th 2013, a landmine exploded in K'Ter Tee village tract, Dwe Lo Township, Papun district. A total of five villagers were killed in the explosion, three of whom were under the age of 18. The villagers were hit by the landmine while transporting sand in a car for the Green Hill Company, a company affiliated with BGF Battalions #1013 and #1014. The group who planted the landmine is unknown. While no groups have taken responsibility for the incident, Green Hill Company paid 300,000 kyat (US $341) to the family of each victim, alongside the manager of the Company, Ko Myo, personally contributing 200,000 kyat (US $227) to each family. This and other landmine incidents received by KHRG between August 2012 and March 2013 were published in a Briefer; see "Landmines shatter peace for villagers in eastern Burma," April 2013.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (282K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b22.html
    http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b22.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 June 2013


    Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, November 2011 to July 2012
    Date of publication: 12 April 2013
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2012 by a community member, describing events occurring in Papun District from November 2011 to July 2012. The report describes restrictions placed upon villagers' movement by Major Thi Ha of Tatmadaw LIB #212; villagers were told not to travel to their farms and were threatened with being shot at if they were seen outside of their village. Villagers also faced restrictions on their movement as a result of unexploded landmines. The community member also describes the use of villagers for forced labour in May 2012 by BGF Battalions #1013 and #1014, including the collection of materials for the building of an army camp for Battalion #1013. The village heads of P---, as well as two villagers, were ordered to stay at BGF #1014's camp in order to work in the camp and porter for the soldiers. Also described, is an incident prompting fear amongst villagers, in which KNLA Battalion #102 Major Saw Hsa Yu Moo shot a gun in front of a villager's house. The community member raises concerns that, despite the ceasefire, cases of villagers being threatened, forced labour, and risks from landmines, continue to pose serious problems for villagers..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (267K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b20.html
    http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b20.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


    Title: Landmines shatter peace for villagers in eastern Burma
    Date of publication: 08 April 2013
    Description/subject: "To mark International Mine Awareness Day, Karen Human Rights Group published new data collected by community members in eastern Burma that describes the ongoing devastation caused by landmines. Each year the United Nations International Mine Awareness Day draws attention to the global impact of landmines and notes progress towards their eradication. Landmines continue to disrupt the potential for civilians to return to their way of life even after the conflict has subsided. Old landmines pose serious restrictions on villagers' ability to travel safely or resume farming and reconstruction of previously abandoned homes. Fatalities and injuries to people and livestock occur frequently, especially when there is no prior knowledge of the mined areas, making displaced communities particularly vulnerable."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (274K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13_landmine.html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


    Title: Landmine death and injuries, old mines continue to make travel unsafe in Pa'an District
    Date of publication: 11 December 2012
    Description/subject: "This report is based on information submitted to KHRG in November 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Pa'an District, between August 28th 2012 and November 1st 2012, where one landmine exploded in Htee Klay village tract, one landmine exploded in Noh Kay village tract and one landmine exploded in Htee Kyah Rah village tract. These explosions injured a 21-year-old man named Saw P---, who died, a man of around 40-years-old, named Saw B---, who lost one leg, and an unknown Tatmadaw soldier from Light Infantry Battalion #275, who lost both of his legs. One explosion also destroyed the leg of Saw P---'s cow, when it stepped on the mine that killed him. Based on information from a community trained by KHRG, landmines have been planted by both the Border Guard and the Karen Nation Liberation Army, in Noh Kay village tract, T'Nay Hsah Township, Pa'an District, and in Htee Kyah Rah village tract, the community member reported that landmines have been planted by the Tatmadaw and the Karen National Liberation Army."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (117K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b83.html
    Date of entry/update: 23 December 2012


    Title: Landmine & Cluster Munition Monitor Report Myanmar/Burma 2012
    Date of publication: 03 November 2012
    Description/subject: Myanmar/Burma:- Mine Ban Treaty status: Not a State Party... Pro-mine ban UNGA voting record: Abstained on Resolution 66/29 in December 2011, as in previous years... Participation in Mine Ban Treaty meetings: Attended the Eleventh Meeting of States Parties in Phnom Penh in November–December 2011... Key developments: Foreign Minister stated Myanmar is considering accession to the Mine Ban Treaty. President Thein Sein requested assistance for clearance of mines. Parliamentarians raised the need for mine clearance.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Landmine & Cluster Munition Monitor
    Format/size: pdf (654K-English; 617K-Burmese); html
    Alternate URLs: http://demilitarization.net/docs/lmreports/LM2012MYR.pdf (Burmese)
    http://www.the-monitor.org/cp/MM/2012
    http://burmamineban.demilitarization.net/?page_id=280 (links to current and earlier reports back to 1999)
    Date of entry/update: 05 November 2012


    Title: Burma (Myanmar) country profile on Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor (Update 2012-10-02)
    Date of publication: 02 October 2012
    Description/subject: Mine Ban Policy; Casualties and Victim Assistance; Cluster Munition Ban Policy; Support for Mine Action; Mine Action; Complete Profile.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor (2 October 2012 update)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.the-monitor.org/index.php/publications/display?url=lm/2006/burma.html
    http://www.icbl.org/index.php/icbl/content/view/full/2
    Date of entry/update: 11 December 2010


    Title: Myanmar/Burma - Mine Action Contamination and Impact Mines
    Date of publication: 19 September 2012
    Description/subject: An update was made to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor Country Profile for Myanmar/Burma. Updated Content: Mine Action... Mines are believed to be concentrated on Myanmar’s borders with Bangladesh and Thailand, but are a particular threat in eastern parts of the country as a result of decades of post-independence struggles for autonomy by ethnic minorities. Some 47 townships in Kachin, Karen (Kayin), Karenni (Kayah), Mon, Rakhine, and Shan states, as well as in Pegu (Bago) and Tenasserim (Tanintharyi) divisions[1] suffer from some degree of mine contamination, primarily from antipersonnel mines. Karen (Kayin) state and Pegu (Bago) division are suspected to contain the heaviest mine contamination and have the highest number of recorded victims. The Monitor has also received reports of previously unknown suspect hazardous areas (SHAs) in townships on the Indian border of Chin state.[2] No estimate exists of the extent of contamination, but the Monitor identified SHAs in the following divisions and townships: Karenni state: all seven townships; Karen state: all seven townships; Kachin state: Mansi, Mogaung, Momauk, Myitkyina, and Waingmaw; Mon state: Bilin, Kyaikto, Mawlamyine, Thanbyuzayat, Thaton, and Ye; Pegu division: Kyaukkyi, Shwekyin, Tantabin and Taungoo; Rakhine state: Maungdaw; Shan state: Hopong, Hsihseng, Langkho, Mawkmai, Mongpan, Mongton, Monghpyak, Namhsan Tachileik, Nanhkan, Yaksawk, and Ywangan; Tenasserim division: Bokpyin, Dawei, Tanintharyi, Thayetchaung and Yebyu; and Chin state...."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Landmines and Cluster Munitions Monitor
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


    Title: Dooplaya Situation Update: Kawkareik Township and Kya In Township, April to June 2012
    Date of publication: 14 September 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in June 2012 by a community member who described events occurring in Dooplaya District during the period between April 2012 and June 2012, specifically in relation to landmines, education, health, taxation and demand, forced labour, land confiscation, displacement, and restrictions on freedom of movement and trade. After the 2012 ceasefire between the Burma government and the KNU, remaining landmines still present serious risks for local villagers in Kawkareik Township because they are unable to travel. Details are provided about 57-year-old B--- village head, Saw L---, 70-year-old Saw E--- and Saw T---, who each stepped on landmines. During May 2012, Tatmadaw soldiers ordered three villagers' to supply hand tractors to transport materials for them from Aung May K' La village to Ke---, plus Tatmadaw soldiers ordered five hand tractors to transports materials from Kyaik Doh village to Kya In Seik Gyi Town. Also described in the report are villagers' opinions on the ongoing ceasefire and whether or not they feel it is benefiting them, as well as village responses to land confiscation by Tatmadaw forces. After a village head was informed that any empty properties found would be confiscated, villagers in the area stayed temporarily in other peoples' houses on request of the owner..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (215K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b76.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2012


    Title: Papun Interview: Saw D---, January 2012
    Date of publication: 19 July 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during January 2012 in Bu Thoh Township, Papun District, by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed Saw D---, the 44-year-old L--- village head, who described forced labour, Tatmadaw and Border Guard targeting of civilians, demands for food, and denial of humanitarian services, such as a school. He specifically described that both the Border Guard and the KNLA planted landmines around the village and, as a result, the villagers had to flee to another village because they were afraid and unable to continue with their farming. Saw D--- also mentioned that the Tatmadaw often made orders for forced portering without payment, or if they did pay, the payments were not fair for the villagers, including one villager who stepped on a landmine while portering. In addition, he described an incident in which one villager was shot at and arbitrarily tortured while returning from Myaing Gyi Ngu town to L--- village. Saw D--- also raised concerns regarding food shortages and the adequate provision of education for children."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (306K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b66.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


    Title: Papun Interview: Saw Kr---, October 2010
    Date of publication: 18 July 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during October 2010 in Lu Thaw Township, Papun District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed Saw Kr---, a 23-year-old hill farmer from L--- village, Pla Koh village tract, who described an incident where he was injured after stepping on a landmine while on Home Guard duty in Kaw Mu Day, which resulted in him losing his left leg. Saw Kr--- describes how the Tatmadaw deliberately laid landmines on a public pathway, knowing that villagers were likely to tread on the devices. He also mentions that local villagers are active in defending themselves against Tatmadaw troops in Lu Thaw Township, Papun District. This incident is also described in the report Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma, published by KHRG on May 21, 2012."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (283K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b65.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


    Title: Papun Interview: Saw T---, December 2011
    Date of publication: 16 July 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during December 2011 in Bu Tho Township, Papun District by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed a 40-year-old Buddhist monk, Saw T---, who is a former member of the Karen National Defence Organisation (KNDO), Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) and the Border Guard, who described activities pertaining to Border Guard Battalion #1013 based at K'Hsaw Wah, Papun District. Saw T--- described human rights abuses including the forced conscription of child soldiers, or the forcing to hire someone in their place, costing 1,500,000 Kyat (US $1833.74). This report also describes the use of landmines by the Border Guard, and how villagers are forced to carry them while acting as porters. Also mentioned, is the on-going theft of villagers money and livestock by the Border Guard, as well as the forced labour of villagers in order to build army camps and the transportation of materials to the camps; the stealing of villagers' livestock after failing to provide villagers to serve as forced labour, is also mentioned. Saw T--- provides information on the day-to-day life of a soldier in the Border Guard, describing how villagers are forcibly conscripted into the ranks of the Border Guard, do not receive treatment when they are sick, are not allowed to visit their families, nor allowed to resign voluntarily. Saw T--- described how, on one occasion a deserter's elderly father was forced to fill his position until the soldier returned. Saw T--- also mentions the hierarchical payment structure, the use of drugs within the border guard and the training, which he underwent before joining the Border Guard. Concerns are also raised by Saw T--- to the community member who wrote this report, about his own safety and his fear of returning to his home in Papun, as he feels he will be killed, having become a deserter himself as of October 2nd 2011."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (331K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b63.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


    Title: Pa'an Situation Update: T'Nay Hsah Township, September 2011 to April 2012
    Date of publication: 06 July 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in May 2012, by a community member describing events occurring in Pa'an District during the period between September 2011 and April 2012. It describes the planting of landmines by Border Guard soldiers near Y--- and P--- villages, resulting in villagers from B---, N--- and T--- being injured, and some villagers committed suicide after sustaining injuries. It also includes demands for forced labour by Tatmadaw LIBs #358, #547 and #548, in which villagers were required to harvest paddy on government land; this information concerning forced labour is also described in a news bulletin published by KHRG on June 22nd 2012, "Forced labour and extortion in Pa'an District." This report also includes information about the removal of 30 landmines by the Border Guard, before a landmine injury to one soldier halted the removal operations. In order to deal with problems related to insufficient landmine removal, villagers have taken precautions to limit their activities to areas unlikely to be mined. Due to limited opportunities for villagers to earn their livelihoods, some have begun to commercially produce charcoal and alcohol, or breed their livestock for consumption. Parents in these areas are also reportedly sending their children to Bangkok to assist the family income; young girls have also begun to work using their vocational skills to weave traditional bags."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (453K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b62.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2012


    Title: Pa'an Interview: Saw Bw---, September 2011
    Date of publication: 13 June 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during September 2011 in Lu Pleh Township, Pa'an District by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed Saw Bw---, a 25-year-old logger from Eg--- village, who described events that occurred while he was carrying out logging work between the villages of A--- and S---. He provides information on military activity in the area, specifically about shifting relations between armed groups, with Border Guard and DKBA troops ceasing to cooperate, and a heightened Tatmadaw presence in the area. Saw Bw--- also explained the disruptive impact of fighting between Border Guard and armed groups in the area on A--- villagers, who are described as fleeing to avoid conflict, as well as providing information on one instance in which A--- villagers were ordered to relocate by the commander of Border Guard Battalion #1017, but instead chose strategic displacement into hiding. He mentions the difficulties that he had in logging following the Border Guard's increased presence in the area. Saw Bw--- also described the presence of landmines in the area around A--- and how his employer paid approximately US $1222.49 to DKBA troops to have them removed. This incident concerning landmines is also described in a thematic report published by KHRG on May 21st, 2012, Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (164K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b58.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 July 2012


    Title: Incident Report: Killings in Papun District, March 2012
    Date of publication: 28 May 2012
    Description/subject: "The following incident report was written by a community member who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights abuses. It describes an incident involving four villagers at A---, including two home guard members and their relatives, as they were trying to covertly cross a Tatmadaw-controlled road near See Day army camp. Two home guard villagers, Saw M--- and Saw W---, were shot by Tatmadaw soldiers, resulting in the death of Saw M--- and injuring Saw W---. The community member also described a previous incident that took place while home guard villagers were monitoring Tatmadaw troop movements in their area, during which Tatmadaw soldiers reportedly stepped on landmines and were killed during the confrontation."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (254K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b49.html
    Date of entry/update: 25 June 2012


    Title: Pa'an Interview: Saw Ht---, March 2012
    Date of publication: 26 May 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during March 2012 in T'Nay Hsah Township, Pa'an District by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed Saw Ht---, from M--- village, who described being injured by a landmine planted by Border Guard forces near villagers' plantations. Saw Ht--- described receiving no assistance from the Border Guard, neither with transportation to hospital or money for medical costs, and explained how he was instead taken to hospital by friends, and his medical treatment fees paid by a local humanitarian organisation. This interview is also available in a thematic report published by KHRG on May 21st, 2012, Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (55K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b47.html
    Date of entry/update: 25 June 2012


    Title: Pa'an Interview: Saw Ng---, March 2012
    Date of publication: 26 May 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during March 2012 in T' Nay Hsah Township, Pa'an District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed Saw Ng---, who described his experience while he was hospitalised for a week after stepping on a landmine while out fishing. Saw Ng--- also raised concerns regarding food and livelihood security due to a blast from the landmine that resulted in the deaths of other villagers' livestock. This incident is also described in the report Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma, published by KHRG on May 21, 2012."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (147K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b48.html
    Date of entry/update: 25 June 2012


    Title: Pa'an Interview: Saw Hn---, March 2012
    Date of publication: 25 May 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during May 2012 in T'Nay Hsah Township, Pa'an District by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed 25-year-old Saw Hn---, from H--- village, who described an incident in which he was injured by a landmine when returning from a fishing excursion to his village in November 2011. Saw Hn--- describes how he was taken to hospital for medical treatment, where he had his leg repaired with a steel plate. Such abuses are also described in a thematic report published by KHRG on May 21st, 2012, Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (147K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 June 2012


    Title: Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma
    Date of publication: 21 May 2012
    Description/subject: "Analysis of KHRG's field information gathered between January 2011 and May 2012 in seven geographic research areas indicates that, during that period, new landmines were deployed by government and non-state armed groups (NSAGs) in all seven research areas. Ongoing mine contamination in eastern Burma continues to put civilians' lives and livelihoods at risk and undermines their efforts to protect against other forms of abuse. There is an urgent need for humanitarian mine action that accords primacy to local protection priorities and builds on the strategies villagers themselves already employ in response to the threat of landmines. In the cases where civilians view landmines as a potential source of protection, there is an equally urgent need for viable alternatives that expand self-protection options beyond reliance on the use of mines. Key findings in this report were drawn based upon analysis of seven themes, including: New use of landmines; Movement restrictions resulting from landmines; Marking and removal of landmines; Forced labour entailing increased landmine risks; Human mine sweeping, forced mine clearance and human shields; Landmine-related death or injury; and Use of landmines for self-protection."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (2.8MB-OBL version; 4.3MB-original), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg1201.html
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg1201.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 21 May 2012


    Title: Pa’an Situation Update: September 2011
    Date of publication: 12 May 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in October 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Pa’an District, in the period between September and October 2011. Villagers in T’Nay Hsah Township are reported to be subject to demands for forced labour by Border Guard Battalion #1017, specifically to work on Battalion Commander Saw Dih Dih’s own plantations. Information is also provided on an incident that occurred in T’Nay Hsah Township in which the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) Battalion #101’s temporary camp in Kler Law Seh village was attacked with heavy weapons by Border Guard Battalions #1017 and #1019, and by Tatmadaw Light Infantry Division (LID) #22. Since the takeover of the KNLA Battalion #101 camp by Border Guard troops, villagers in T’Nay Hseh Township have experienced an increase in demands for forced labour such as portering, as well as demands for villagers to cook at the Border Guard base and to serve as soldiers in the Border Guard, with payment demanded in lieu of military service. Such abuses are also described in the report, "Pa'an Situation Update: September 2011", published by KHRG on October 24th 2011, and "Pa'an Situation Update: September 2011 to January 2012", published by KHRG on May 2nd 2012. Border Guard troops have also embarked on the extensive laying of landmines near Th--- village, including near villagers' fields, and one villager was reported to have been seriously injured by a landmine whilst serving as a soldier in the Border Guard. Villagers are said to be concerned about the potential impact of the landmines on the welfare of their livestock, with one villager reportedly confronting a Border Guard soldier over this issue."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (129K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b41.html
    Date of entry/update: 15 May 2012


    Title: Abuses since the DKBA and KNLA ceasefires: Forced labour and arbitrary detention in Dooplaya
    Date of publication: 07 May 2012
    Description/subject: "In the six months since DKBA Brigade #5 troops under the command of Brigadier-General Saw Lah Pwe ('Na Kha Mwe') agreed to a ceasefire with government forces, and in the four months since a ceasefire was agreed between KNLA and government troops, villagers in Kawkareik Township have continued to raise concerns regarding ongoing human rights abuses, including the arbitrary detention and violent abuse of civilians, and forced labour demands occurring as recently as February 24th 2012. One of the villagers who provided information contained in this report also raised concerns about ongoing landmine contamination in two areas of Kawkareik Township, despite the placing of warning signs in one area in January 2012 and the incomplete removal of some landmines by bulldozer from another area in March 2012. The same villager noted that the remaining landmines, some of which are in a village school compound and in agricultural areas, continue to present serious physical security risks to local villagers, as well as disrupt livelihood activities and children's education."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (296K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12f2.html
    Date of entry/update: 10 May 2012


    Title: Pa'an Situation Update: September 2011 to January 2012
    Date of publication: 02 May 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in January 2012 by a villager describing events occurring in Pa'an District between September 2011 and January 2012, and contains updated information concerning military activity in the area, specifically Border Guard Battalion #1017's use of forced labour and their planting of landmines. In September 2011, over 200 villagers from Th---, Sh---, G--- and M--- were forced to harvest beans and corn, an incident which is also described in the report "Pa'an Situation Update: September 2011", published by KHRG on November 25th 2011. Villagers are also described as being forced to porter rations, ammunition and landmines, and carry out various tasks at Battalion #1017's camp. The pervasive presence of landmines has resulted in the deaths of two villagers and injuries to eight others in Sh--- and K--- village tracts, as well as the deaths of villagers' livestock. Information is also provided on the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) ceasefire with the Tatmadaw and their subsequent transformation into the Border Guard, and how this has reduced the capacity of soldiers to engage in mining and logging enterprises. The subsequent increase in pressure on villagers by DKBA and Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) troops to resist Border Guard military recruitment demands had meant that village heads often fled, rather than serve their one-year term. Villagers' perspectives on the January 2012 ceasefire agreement between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Burma government are also outlined, as are villagers' responses to abuses, including the introduction of a village head system that rotates on a monthly basis..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (242K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b40.html
    Date of entry/update: 10 May 2012


    Title: Toungoo Situation Update: August to October 2011
    Date of publication: 17 April 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Toungoo District between August and October 2011. It contains information concerning military activity in the district, specifically demands for forced labour by Tatmadaw Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) #375. Villagers from D--- and A--- were reportedly forced to clear vegetation surrounding their camp and some A--- villagers were also used to sweep for landmines. Villagers in the A--- area faced demands for bamboo poles and some villagers from P--- were ordered to undertake messenger and portering duties for the Tatmadaw. The situation update provides information on two incidents that occurred on September 21st 2011, in which several villagers from Y--- were shot, and four other Y--- villagers were arrested by Tatmadaw Infantry Battalion (IB) #73 and detained until the Y--- village head paid 300,000 kyat (US $366.75) to secure their release. It also provides details of the arrest of five villagers from D--- village by LIB #375 in August 2011, who remained in detention as of November 2011. It documents the killing of two villagers from E--- village by Military Operations Command (MOC) #9, and the shooting of 54-year-old A--- villager, Saw O---, by LIB #375 for violating movement restrictions. Information was also given concerning a mortar attack on W--- village by LIB #603 and IB #92, which was previously reported in the KHRG News Bulletin "Tatmadaw soldiers shell village, attack church and civilian property in Toungoo District, November 2011", in which shells hit the village church and destroyed five villagers’ houses. Tatmadaw soldiers also shot the statue of Mother Mary in W--- village and damaged pictures on the church walls; stole villagers' belongings, including money and staple foods; and destroyed villagers’ household supplies, livestock, and food."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (132K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b36.html
    Date of entry/update: 21 April 2012


    Title: Toungoo Interview: Saw E---, September 2011
    Date of publication: 06 April 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during September 2011 in Daw Pah Koh Township, Toungoo District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed D--- village head, Saw E---, who described being forced to serve as a guide for Tatmadaw soldiers in an area known to contain landmines. He also provided information about an incident in which two L--- villagers, Saw M--- and Saw P---, were killed by landmines on June 15th 2011 whilst being forced to guide a group of Tatmadaw soldiers. Saw E--- raised concerns regarding villagers' livelihoods, which have been undermined as a result of abnormal weather conditions. He also explained that the standard of education at D--- village school has suffered as a result of the schoolteachers' absences. To counter forced labour demands levied by the Tatmadaw, Saw E--- described challenging the soldiers for whom he was forced to guide by demanding to know their battalion number and commander's name. He also reported that he had on an occasion only partially complied with their demands, supplying 10 villagers as opposed to the 20 ordered, and discussed how he successfully negotiated with Tatmadaw soldiers to reduce the number of times that he was forced to meet with them each week."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (167K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b34.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


    Title: Toungoo Situation Update: November 2011 to January 2012
    Date of publication: 01 March 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in February 2012, by a villager describing events occurring in Toungoo District during the period between November 2011 and January 2012. It discusses augmented troop rotations, resupply operations and the sending of bulldozers to construct a new vehicle road between the 20-mile point on the Toungoo – Kler La road and Kler La. It also contains reports of forced labour, specifically the use of villagers to porter military equipment and supplies, to serve as set tha, and the clearing of vegetation by vehicle roads. Movement restrictions were also highlighted as a major concern for villagers living both within and outside state control, as the imposition of permission documents and taxes limits the transportation of cash crops, and impacts the availability of basic commodities. The villager who wrote this report raised villagers' concerns about rising food prices, the lack of medicine due to government restrictions on its transportation from towns to mountainous areas, and the difficulty in obtaining an education in rural villages beyond grades three and four. The villager who wrote this report flagged the ongoing use of landmines by armed groups and noted that this poses serious physical security risks, particularly where villagers are not notified of landmine-contaminated areas, but also noted that some villagers view the use of landmines by non-state armed groups in positive terms as a deterrent of Tatmadaw activity."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (122K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b22.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


    Title: Papun Interview: Saw H---, March 2011
    Date of publication: 08 February 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during March 2011 in Bu Tho Township, Papun District, by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Saw H---, a 34-year-old hillfield farmer and the head of N--- village. Saw H--- described an incident in which a 23-year-old villager stepped on and was killed by a landmine at the beginning of 2011, at the time when he, Saw H--- and three other villagers were returning to N--- after serving as unpaid porters for Border Guard soldiers based at Meh Bpa. Saw H--- also detailed demands for the collection and provision of bamboo poles for construction of soldiers’ houses at Gk’Ter Tee, as well as the payment of 400,000 kyat ((US $ 519.48) in lieu of the provision of porters to Maung Chit, Commander of Border Guard Battalion #1013, by villages in Meh Mweh village tract. These payments were described in the previous KHRG report "Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, April 2011." Saw H--- also described demands for the provision of a pig to Border Guard soldiers three days before this interview took place and the beating of a villager by DKBA soldiers in 2010. He noted the ways in which movement restrictions that prevent villagers from travelling on rivers and sleeping in or bringing food to their farm huts negatively impact harvests and food security. Saw H--- explained that villagers respond to such concerns by sharing food amongst themselves, refusing to comply with forced labour demands, and cultivating relationships with non-state armed groups to learn the areas in which landmines have been planted."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (297K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b14.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 February 2012


    Title: Papun Interview: Saw T---, August 2011
    Date of publication: 27 January 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during August 2011 by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Saw T---, a 74 year-old Buddhist village head who described the planting of what he estimated to be about 100 landmines by government and non-state armed groups in the vicinity of his village. Saw T--- related ongoing instances of forced labour, specifically villagers forced to guide troops, porter military supplies and sweep for landmines, and described an incident in which two villagers stepped on landmines whilst being forced to serve as unpaid porters for Tatmadaw troops. He described a separate incident in which another villager stepped on and was killed by a landmine whilst fleeing from Border Guard soldiers who were attempting to force him to porter for one month. In both cases, victims' families received no compensation or opportunity for redress following their deaths. Saw T--- noted that landmines planted in agricultural areas have not been removed, rendering several hill fields unsafe to farm and resulting in the abandonment of crops. He illustrated the danger to villagers who travel to their agricultural workplaces by recounting an incident in which a villager's buffalo was injured by a landmine. He further explained that villagers' livelihoods have been additionally undermined by frequent demands for food and by looting of villagers' food and animals. Saw T--- highlighted the fact that demands are backed by explicit threats of violence, recounting an instance when he was threatened for failing to comply quicky by a Tatmadaw officer who held a gun to his head. Saw T--- noted that villagers have responded to negative impacts on their food production capacity by performing job for daily wages and sharing food with others and, in response to the lack of health facilities in their community, travel over two hours by foot to the nearest clinic in another village."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (299K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b9.html
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2012


    Title: Pa'an Situation Update: September 2011
    Date of publication: 03 November 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in September 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in T'Nay Hsah Township, Pa'an District during September 2011. It details an incident in which a soldier from Tatmadaw Border Guard #1017 deliberately shot at villagers in a farm hut, resulting in the death of one civilian and injury to a six-year-old child. The report further details the subsequent concealment of this incident by Border Guard soldiers who placed an M16 rifle and ammunition next to the dead civilian and photographed his body, and ordered the local village head to corroborate their story that the dead man was a Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) soldier. The report also relates villagers' concerns regarding the use of landmines by both KNLA and Border Guard troops, which prevent villagers from freely accessing agricultural land and kill villagers' livestock and pets, and also relates an incident in September 2011 in which a villager was severely maimed when he stepped on a landmine that had been placed outside his farm."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (219K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b43.html
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


    Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, August 2011
    Date of publication: 06 October 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in August 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Papun District in January 2011 and human rights consequences for local communities. It contains updated information concerning Tatmadaw military activities and details the following human rights abuses: coordinated attacks on villages by Tatmadaw and Border Guard troops and the firing of mortars and small arms in civilian areas, resulting in displacement of the civilian population and the closure of two schools; the use of landmines by the Tatmadaw and non-state armed groups; and forced portering for the Tatmadaw and Tatmadaw Border Guards. The report also mentions government plans for a logging venture and the construction of a dam. Moreover, it documents villagers’ responses to human rights concerns, including strategic displacement to avoid attacks and forced labour entailing physical security risks to civilians; advance preparation for strategic displacement in the event of Tatmadaw attacks; and seeking the protection of non-state armed groups against Tatmadaw attacks and other human rights threats."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (266K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b35.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2012


    Title: Tenasserim Interview: Saw K---, August 2011
    Date of publication: 15 September 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in August 2011. The KHRG researcher interviewed Saw K---, a 30-year-old medic with the Backpack Health Worker Team (BPHWT), an organisation that provides health care and medical assistance to displaced civilians inside Burma. Saw K--- described witnessing a joint attack by Tatmadaw soldiers from three different battalions on a civilian settlement in Ma No Roh village tract, Te Naw Th'Ri Township, Tenasserim Division in January 2011. Saw K--- reported that mortars were fired into P--- village, causing residents and Saw K---, who was providing healthcare support in P--- village at that time, to flee. Saw K--- reported that Tatmadaw soldiers subsequently entered P--- village and burned down 17 houses, as well as rice barns and food stores belonging to villagers, before planting landmines in the village. According to Saw K---, the residents of P--- have not returned to their homes, and have been unable to coordinate to restart the school that was abandoned in P--- because most households now live at dispersed sites in the area."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (150K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b30.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


    Title: Papun Interview: Maung Y---, February 2011
    Date of publication: 02 September 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted in February 2011 in Dweh Loh Township, Papun District, by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Maung Y---, a 32 year-old married hill field farmer, who described an incident that occurred on February 5th 2011, in which he and eight other villagers were arrested at gunpoint by Tatmadaw Border Guard Battalion #1013 soldiers and arbitrarily detained. During this time, Maung Y--- reported that they were forced to porter military rations and sweep for landmines using basic tools. He described how one villager was denied access to medical treatment and forced to porter despite serious illness, and reported that families of the detained villagers were forced to pay arbitrary amounts of money to the Battalion #1013 troops in order to secure their release. Maung Y--- also reported that, after this incident, his village was ordered by Battalion #1013 to produce and deliver 7,000 thatch shingles, as well as to provide four more villagers to serve as porters. In response to this, Maung Y--- reported that villagers had, at the time of interview, refused to comply with these forced labour demands."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (684K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b28.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


    Title: Papun Situation Update: Dweh Loh Township, May 2011
    Date of publication: 02 September 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in May 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Dweh Loh Township, Papun District between January and April 2011. It contains information concerning military activities in 2011, specifically resupply operations by Border Guard and Tatmadaw troops and the reinforcement of Border Guard troops at Manerplaw. It documents twelve incidents of forced portering of military rations in Wa Muh and K'Hter Htee village tracts, including one incident during which villagers used to porter rations were ordered to sweep for landmines, as well as the forced production and delivery of a total of 44,500 thatch shingles by civilians. In response to these abuses, male villagers remove themselves from areas in which troops are conducting resupply operations, in order to avoid arrest and forced portering. This report additionally registers villagers' serious concerns regarding the planting of landmines by non-state armed groups in agricultural workplaces and the proposed development of a new dam on the Bilin River at Hsar Htaw. It includes an overview of gold-mining operations by private companies and non-state armed groups along three rivers in Dweh Loh Township, and documents abuses related to extractive industry, specifically forced relocation and land confiscation."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (628K - OBL version; 1.1MB - original), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b26.html
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b26.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


    Title: Papun Incident Reports: November 2010 to January 2011
    Date of publication: 24 August 2011
    Description/subject: This report contains 12 incident reports written by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions, based on information provided by 12 different villagers living in hiding sites in Lu Thaw Township, Papun District between November 2010 and January 2011.[1] The twelve villagers described human rights concerns for civilians prior to and during displacement to their current hiding sites, including: deliberate firing of mortars and small arms into civilian areas; burning and destruction of houses, food and food preparation equipment; theft and looting of villagers' animals and possessions; and use of landmines by the Tatmadaw, non-state armed groups, and local gher der 'home guard' groups in civilian areas, resulting in at least one civilian death and two civilian injuries. The reports register villagers' serious concerns about food security in hiding areas beyond Tatmadaw control, caused by effective limits on access to arable land due to the risk of attack when villagers cultivating land proximate to Tatmadaw camps, depletion of soil fertility in cultivable areas, and a drought during the 2010 rainy season which triggered widespread paddy crop failure.[2] To address the threat of Tatmadaw attacks targeting villagers, their food stores and livelihoods activities, villagers reported that they form gher der groups to monitor and communicate Tatmadaw activity; utilise early-warning systems; and communicate amongst themselves and with non-state armed groups to share information about Tatmadaw troop movements. Two villagers stated that the deployment of landmines by gher der groups and KNLA soldiers prevents access to civilian areas by Tatmadaw troops and facilitates security for villagers to pursue their agricultural activities. Another villager described how his community maintained communal agricultural projects to support families at risk from food shortages. These reports were received by KHRG in May 2011, along with other information concerning the situation in Papun District, including 11 other incident reports, 25 interviews, 137 photographs and a general update on the situation in Lu Thaw Township.[3]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (840K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b25.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 February 2012


    Title: The world's longest ongoing war (video)
    Date of publication: 11 August 2011
    Description/subject: "For more than 60 years, Karen rebels have been fighting a civil war against the government of Myanmar...In February 1949, members of the Karen ethnic minority launched an armed insurrection against Myanmar's central government. In pictures: Sixty years of war. Over 60 years later, the conflict continues, with more than a dozen ethnic rebel groups waging war against the army in their fight for self-rule. Now, the war is entering a new and bloody stage. Myanmar is the only regime still regularly planting anti-personnel mines. But it is not only the army that uses them. Rebel groups also regularly use homemade landmines or mines seized from the military. As the conflict escalates, civilians are trapped in the middle of some of the worst fighting in decades. 101 East travels to Myanmar, home to the world's longest running civil war."
    Language: English, Karen (English sub-titles)
    Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (101 East)
    Format/size: html, Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
    Date of entry/update: 27 December 2011


    Title: Pa'an interviews: Conditions for villagers returned from temporary refuge sites in Tha Song Yang
    Date of publication: 06 May 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcripts of seven interviews conducted between June 1st and June 18th 2010 in Dta Greh Township, Pa'an District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed seven villagers from two villages in Wah Mee Gklah village tract, after they had returned to Burma following initial displacement into Thailand during May and June 2009. The interviewees report that they did not wish to return to Burma, but felt they had to do so as the result of pressure and harassment by Thai authorities. The interviewees described the following abuses since their return, including: the firing of mortars and small arms at villagers; demands for villagers to porter military supplies, and for the payment of money in lieu of the provision of porters; theft and looting of villagers' houses and possessions; and threats from unexploded ordnance and the use of landmines, including consequences for livelihoods and injuries to civilians. All seven interviewees also raised specific concerns regarding the food security of villagers returned to Burma following their displacement into Thailand."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (836K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b5.html
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


    Title: Landmine & Cluster Munition Monitor - Myanmar/Burma
    Date of publication: 01 March 2011
    Description/subject: "The Myanmar Army (Tatmadaw) has used antipersonnel mines extensively throughout the long-running civil war. It appears that the army’s use of mines decreased significantly during 2009 and 2010, as the level of conflict with the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) waned, and the army withdrew from many frontline bases where it previously laid mines. In one specific report of army use, in June 2009, Light Infantry Battalions 372 and 373 reportedly laid antipersonnel mines in the Saw Wa Der area, Taungoo district, in northern Karen (Kayin) state, which resulted in the death of a 20-year-old villager. Myanmar Defense Products Industries (Ka Pa Sa), a state enterprise at Ngyaung Chay Dauk in western Pegu (Bago) division, produces fragmentation and blast antipersonnel mines, including a non-detectable variety. Authorities in Myanmar have not provided any information on the types and quantities of stockpiled antipersonnel mines. Landmine Monitor has previously reported that, in addition to domestic production, Myanmar has obtained and used antipersonnel mines of Chinese, Indian, Italian, Soviet, United States, and unidentified manufacture. Myanmar is not known to have exported antipersonnel mines... Non-state armed groups: Many ethnic rebel organizations exist in Myanmar. At least 17 non-state armed groups (NSAGs) have used antipersonnel mines since 1999, however some of these groups have ceased to exist or no longer use mines..." ..... N.B. BURMESE TRANSLATION (MARCH 2011)
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Landmine & Cluster Munition Monitor
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.the-monitor.org/custom/index.php/region_profiles/print_profile/125
    Date of entry/update: 02 March 2011


    Title: Human rights abuses and obstacles to protection: Conditions for civilians amidst ongoing conflict in Dooplaya and Pa'an districts
    Date of publication: 21 January 2011
    Description/subject: "Amidst ongoing conflict between the Tatmadaw and armed groups in eastern Dooplaya and Pa'an districts, civilians, aid workers and soldiers from state and non-state armies continue to report a variety of human rights abuses and security concerns for civilians in areas adjacent to Thailand's Tak Province, including: functionally indiscriminate mortar and small arms fire; landmines; arbitrary arrest and detention; sexual violence; and forced portering. Conflict and these conflict-related abuses have displaced thousands of civilians, more than 8,000 of whom are currently taking refuge in discreet hiding places in Thailand. This has interrupted education for thousands of children across eastern Dooplaya and Pa'an districts. The agricultural cycle for farmers has also been severely disrupted; many villagers have been prevented from completing their harvests of beans, corn and paddy crops, portending long-term threats to food security. Due to concerns about food security and disruption to children's education, as well as villagers' continuing need to protect themselves and their families from conflict and conflict-related abuse, temporary but consistent access to refuge in Thailand remains vital until villagers feel safe to return home. Even after return, food support will likely be necessary until disrupted agricultural activities can be resumed and civilians can again support themselves."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (Main text, 688K; Appendix 188K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11f2_appendixes.pdf (Appendix)
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11f2.html
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2012


    Title: Humanitarian Impact of Landmines in Burma/Myanmar
    Date of publication: January 2011
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "While the existing data available on landmine victims indicate that Burma/Myanmar1 faces one of the most severe landmine problems in the world today, little is known about the actual extent of the problem, the impact on affected populations, communities’ mine action needs and how different actors can become more involved in mine action. The Government of Burma/Myanmar has prohibited almost all forms of mine action with the exception of a limited amount of prosthetic assistance to people with amputated limbs through general health programmes. Some Mine Risk Education (MRE) is also conducted in areas which are partly or fully under the control of armed non-State actors (NSAs) as is victim assistance and some survey work, however, without Government authorisation. Since starting operations in 2006, Geneva Call and DCA Mine Action, like other local and international actors wishing to undertake mine action, have been struggling to identify how best to do this in the limited humanitarian space available in Burma/Myanmar. Lack of Government permission to start mine action activities and difficult access to mine-affected areas are two of the main obstacles identified by these actors. In response to this apparent conflict between interest and opportunity, Geneva Call and DCA Mine Action decided to produce a report on the landmine problem in Burma/Myanmar, which would pay particular attention to what can be done to address the identified needs. The report is based on research carried out between June and September 2010. Thirty two different stakeholders in Burma/Myanmar, Thailand, Bangladesh and China were interviewed in order to better understand the current, medium- and long-term effects of the landmine problem on affected local communities and to identify possible mine action interventions. The problem with anti-personnel mines in Burma/ Myanmar originates from decades of armed conflict, which is still ongoing in some parts or the country. Anti-personnel mines are still being used today by the armed forces of the Government of Burma/ Myanmar (the Tatmadaw), by various non-State actors (NSAs), as well as by businessmen and villagers. Ten out of Burma/Myanmar’s 14 States and Divisions are mine contaminated. The eastern States and Divisions bordering Thailand are particularly contaminated with mines. Some areas bordering Bangladesh and China are also mined, and mine accidents have occurred there. An estimated five million people live in townships that contain mine-contaminated areas, and are in need of Mine Risk Education (MRE) to reduce risky behaviour, and victim assistance for those already injured. With estimates of mine victim numbers still unclear due to a lack of reliable data, the report finds that a significant proportion of the children affected in landmine accidents in NSA areas are child soldiers. In Karenni/Kaya State every second child is a child soldier; in Karen/Kayin State every fourth child is a child soldier. The Government’s refusal to grant permission for mine action activities and the ongoing conflict have left no real space for humanitarian demining in Burma/Myanmar. However, some demining activities are being undertaken by the Tatmadaw and by NSAs, although it is unclear whether these activities should be regarded as military or humanitarian demining. Similarly, the complicated domestic situation only leaves limited space for implementing comprehensive surveys. Those surveys that have been carried out by Community Based Organizations (CBO), show significant mine contamination. However such surveys can only be an indicator of the reality on the ground as they are limited in geographical scope. At present, local CBOs and national NGOs have better access to mined areas than the UN and international NGOs. However, CBOs and national NGO mine action activities are limited to MRE and victim assistance-related activities because of the Government restrictions placed on other forms of mine action. These activities are only conducted on a discreet level – MRE is provided under general Risk Reduction or health programmes while victim assistance falls under general disability assistance programmes. A national ban on anti-personnel mines and a ban by the major NSA users of landmines do not seem to be realistic in the near future. Nevertheless, the success of local/regional bans on anti-personnel mines, especially in the western part of Burma/Myanmar could serve as an inspiration and a positive harbinger of progress for this country marred by decades of internal strife and war."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Geneva Call, DCA Mine Action
    Format/size: pdf (2.87MB - original; 2.5MB - OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/2011_GC_BURMA_Landmine_RPT_CD-Rom_ENG-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


    Title: Myanmar/Burma - The World's Least Known Landmine Tragedy
    Date of publication: 2011
    Description/subject: 15 images of landmine victims..."Myanmar, or Burma, is home to one of the world's longest running civil wars. Conflict has occurred since the country gained independence in 1947. Mine warfare has been a feature of the conflict throughout that time. Mines are thought to be used by all parties to the conflict. No one knows how many people have been killed or maimed by mines. This photo exhibit provides a glimpse into the lives of a few of those who survived their mine injury and now live tenuous lives near the border with Thailand..." This exhibition has been co-sponsored by DanChurchAid (DCA) and the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Author/creator: Photo: Giovanni Diffidenti; Art installation: Laura Morelli; Text: Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Giovanni Diffidenti, Photojournalist
    Format/size: html; jpeg
    Date of entry/update: 13 May 2012


    Title: Villagers injured by landmines, assisted by neighbours in southern Toungoo
    Date of publication: 22 October 2010
    Description/subject: "In a span of just four days at the end of March 2010, two civilians from Wo--- village were injured by landmines while engaging in regular livelihoods activities outside their village in southern Toungoo District. In both cases, fellow community members assisted the injured villagers, carrying them to the nearest medical facility, nearly two hours away on foot. These incidents illustrate the risks mines pose to communities and local livelihoods in southern Toungoo. Local villagers believe risks from the continued deployment of landmines around their villages, agricultural projects and other areas essential to civilian livelihoods are exacerbated by lack of access to information about mined areas."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010-B10)
    Format/size: pdf (637K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2010/khrg10b10.html
    Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


    Title: Townships with Known Hazard of Antipersonnel Mines
    Date of publication: 15 June 2010
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU). Map ID: MIMU195v02
    Format/size: pdf (678K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 July 2010


    Title: Exploitative abuse and villager responses in Thaton District
    Date of publication: 25 November 2009
    Description/subject: "...SPDC control of Thaton District is fully consolidated, aided by the DKBA and a variety of other civilian and parastatal organisations. These forces are responsible for perpetrating a variety of exploitative abuses, which include a litany of demands for 'taxation' and provision of resources, as well as forced labour on development projects and forced recruitment into the DKBA. Villagers also report ongoing abuses related to SPDC and DKBA 'counter insurgency' efforts, including the placement of unmarked landmines in civilian areas, conscription of people as porters and 'human minesweepers' and harassment and violent abuse of alleged KNLA supporters. This report includes information on abuses during the period of April to October 2009..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F20)
    Format/size: html, pdf (531 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f20.html
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2009


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 4: Landmines and Other Explosive Devices
    Date of publication: 23 November 2009
    Description/subject: "...Throughout 2008, the HRDU documented a total of at least 28 deaths and a further 64 injuries occurring through explosions and explosive devices in Burma. Each of these incidents is described in detail over the following pages. However, it must be noted here, as elsewhere throughout the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008, that while these figures are high, the HRDU believes that they are still quite conservative and that the number of fatalities arising from exposure to landmines and other explosive devices in Burma is higher than that reported..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
    Format/size: pdf (1.17MB)
    Date of entry/update: 05 December 2009


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2009: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 10 November 2009
    Description/subject: Ten-Year Summary" "The Union of Myanmar has remained outside efforts to ban antipersonnel mines. Government forces and armed ethnic groups have used antipersonnel mines regularly and extensively throughout the last decade. Between 2003 and 2007, six insurgent groups agreed to ban antipersonnel mines. Myanmar remains one of the few countries still producing antipersonnel mines. Continuing hostilities between the Myanmar government and ethnic minority armed opposition groups have increased mine contamination, but political conditions have not permitted any humanitarian mine clearance program. The precise extent of mine or explosive remnants of war (ERW) contamination, although significant, remains unknown. Landmine Monitor identified 2,325 casualties (175 killed, 2002 injured, and 148 unknown) from 1999 to 2008. Despite this high level of casualties, mine/ERW risk education was either non-existent or inadequate in areas with reported casualties. Assistance to mine/ERW survivors and persons with disabilities in Myanmar is marginal due to many years of neglect of healthcare services by the ruling authority. Myanmar governing authorities have not developed a victim assistance program or strategy..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf (Burmese version 438K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/LandmineMonitor09Bur.pdf (Burmese)
    Date of entry/update: 24 November 2009


    Title: The Enemy Underfoot
    Date of publication: August 2009
    Description/subject: Landmines are a threat to life and limb in Karen State... "The victims face a future without an arm or a leg, or with just one eye if they have not been blinded for life. Some try to sleep, groaning when they roll over. Others sit up and talk with relatives, trying to come to terms with the disability that will afflict them for the rest of their lives. These are the victims of landmines who have been lucky enough to make it to Mae Sot General Hospital, near the Thai-Burmese border in Thailand�s Tak Province. a 23-year-old KNla soldier, Saw Naing Naing, lost his right eye and both hands in a landmine explosion. (Photo: Alex Ellgee/The Irrawaddy) Formerly enemies on the battlefield, soldiers from both the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) and the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) who were injured during three weeks of clashes in the KNLA Brigade 7 area in June now find themselves lying in adjacent beds in this small district hospital..."
    Author/creator: Saw Yan Naing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


    Title: Townships [in Burma/Myanmar] with Known Hazard of Antipersonnel Mines
    Date of publication: 13 May 2009
    Description/subject: Data compiled by Landmine Monitor. This map does not indicate how extensive mine pollution is in any indicated Township. Explosive symbol denotes townships in which antipersonnel mines have claimed casualties between 1 January 2007 to 1 June 2009. All other data 1 January 2008 to 1 June 2009.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: MIMU, Landmine Monitor/ International Campaign to Ban Landmines (Map ID/ေျမပံု အမွတ္- MIMU195v01)
    Format/size: pdf (489K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 July 2009


    Title: Insecurity amidst the DKBA - KNLA conflict in Dooplaya and Pa'an districts
    Date of publication: 06 February 2009
    Description/subject: "The DKBA has intensified operations across much of eastern Pa'an and north-eastern Dooplaya districts since it renewed its forced recruitment drive in Pa'an District in August 2008. These operations have included forced relocations of civilians, a new round of forced conscription and attacks on villages. The DKBA has also pushed forward in its attacks on KNLA positions in both districts in an apparent effort to eradicate the remaining KNLA presence and wrest control of lucrative natural resources and taxation points in the lead up to the 2010 elections. Skirmishes between DKBA, SPDC and KNLA forces have thus continued throughout this period. Local villagers have faced heightened insecurity in connection with the ongoing conflict. DKBA, SPDC and KNLA forces all continue to deploy landmines in the area and DKBA forces have fined or otherwise punished local villagers for attacks by KNLA soldiers. This report documents incidents of abuse in Dooplaya and Pa'an districts from August 2008 to February 2009..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F3)
    Format/size: pdf (978 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f3.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 October 2009


    Title: "Inside News" December 2008 - Volume 3 Issue 4
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: BURMA LANDMINE ISSUE 2009: UN Security Council - act now!...Understand us...KNU LANDMINE POLICY...Mine incidents rise...Landmine deaths double...Pizza-oven helps mine victims walk...Worried about mines, but who will feed us?...How to help -- when there's no doctor...Ranger's deliver aid...No place to call home...Landmines show no mercy...Once were enemies...More attacks - more landmines...Uncle Maw Keh offers hope to landmine victims...Burma's Killing Fields...Lucky to be alive...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People (CIDKP)
    Format/size: pdf (2MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.newsinside.wordpress.com/ ("Inside News" blog)
    Date of entry/update: 31 March 2009


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2008: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 21 November 2008
    Description/subject: Mine Ban Treaty status: Not a State Party... Use: Government and NSAG use continued in 2007 and 2008.... Stockpile: Unknown... Contamination: Antipersonnel and antivehicle mines, ERW... Estimated area of contamination: Extensive... Demining progress in 2007: None reported... Mine/ERW casualties in 2007: Total: 438 (2006: 243); Mines: 409 (2006: 232); Unknown: 29 (2006: 11)... Casualty analysis: Killed: 47 (2006: 20); Injured: 338 (2006: 223); Unknown: 53 (2006: 0)... Estimated mine/ERW survvors: Unknown, but substantial... RE capacity: Unchanged�inadequate... Availability of services in 2007: Inadequate... Funding in 2007: International: $185,000 (2006: none reported)... Key developments since May 2007: 2007 saw a very substantial increase in reported casualties, despite government claims of reduced conflict. ICRC support of government rehabilitation centers was suspended.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html (English); pdf (1.3MB - Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/LandmineMonitor08bu-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 July 2010


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007: Landmines
    Date of publication: 09 September 2008
    Description/subject: "Antipersonnel landmines continued to be deployed in significant numbers in Burma during 2007, despite a growing international consensus that the use of landmines is unacceptable and that their use should be unconditionally ceased. As of mid-August 2007, 155 countries, or 80 percent of the world’s nations were State Parties to the 1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (also known as and henceforth referred to as the ‘Mine Ban Treaty’), leaving only 40 countries outside the treaty. [1] Such widespread support of the Mine Ban Treaty recognises that landmines often kill indiscriminately, and in doing so, pose an unacceptable level of risk to civilian and non-combatant populations. According to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), the “Mine Ban Treaty has made the new use of antipersonnel mines, especially by governments, a rare phenomenon”. However, the ICBL concedes that Burma is one of only two countries (along with Russia) which represents the exception to the “near-universal stigmatization of the use of antipersonnel mines”, and that the most extensive deployment of antipersonnel landmines by “government forces” during 2007 occurred in Burma. [2] A report released in September 2007 speculated that as many as two million landmines were buried in Burma, with the vast majority of these deployed in the ethnic minority territories bordering neighbouring countries..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/HRDU-archive/Burma%20Human%20Righ/pdf/landmines.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2008


    Title: Mortar attacks, landmines and the destruction of schools in Papun District
    Date of publication: 22 August 2008
    Description/subject: "SPDC abuses against civilians continue in northern Karen State, especially in Lu Thaw township of Papun District. Because these villagers live within non-SPDC-controlled "black areas", the SPDC believes it has justification to attack IDP hiding sites and destroy civilian crops, cattle and property. These attacks, combined with the SPDC and KNLA's continued use of landmines, have caused dozens of injuries and deaths in Papun District alone. Such attacks target the fabric of Karen society, breaking up communities and compromising the educations of Karen youth. In spite of these hardships, the local villagers continue to be resourceful in providing security for their families and education for their children. This report covers events in Papun District from May to July 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F12)
    Format/size: pdf (687 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f12.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Landmines: reason for flight, obstacle to return
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: "Burma/Myanmar has suffered from two decades of mine warfare by both the State Peace and Development Council and ethnic-based insurgents. There are no humanitarian demining programmes within the country. It is no surprise that those states in Burma/Myanmar with the most mine pollution are the highest IDP- and refugee-producing states. Antipersonnel mines planted by both government forces and ethnic armed groups injure and kill not only enemy combatants but also their own troops, civilians and animals. There is no systematic marking of mined areas. Mines are laid close to areas of civilian activity; many injuries occur within half a kilometre of village centres. Although combatants have repeatedly said that they give ‘verbal warnings’ to civilians living near areas which they mine, no civilian mine survivor interviewed by the International Campaign to Ban Landmines reported having had verbal warnings..."
    Author/creator: Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 293K; Burmese, 175K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/9.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2007: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 06 November 2007
    Description/subject: Mine Ban Treaty status: Not a State Party... Stockpile: Unknown... Contamination: APMs; some AVMs and ERW... Estimated area of contamination: Extensive... Demining progress in 2006: None reported... MRE capacity: Increased but remains inadequate... Mine/ERW casualties in 2006: Total: 243 (2005: 231)... Mines: 232 (2005: 231): Unknown devices: 11 (2005: 0)... Casualty analysis: Killed: 20 (2 civilians, 2 children, 6 military, 10 unknown) (2005: 5); Injured: 223 (4 civilians, 2 children, 16 military, 201 unknown) (2005: 225)... Estimated mine/ERW survivors: 10,605 (2005: 8,864)... Availability of services in 2006: Decreased-inadequate... Key developments since May 2006: Both the military junta and non-state armed groups continued to use antipersonnel mines extensively. Prolonged military operations in eastern states bordering Thailand increased mine contamination; Burmese migrants gave first reports of mine contamination in Mandalay division. Mine/ERW casualties increased in 2006. ICRC closed five field offices and was unable to serve conflict casualties in border areas. A survey identified 464 mine/ERW casualties in Karen state.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf (602K - Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/LandmineMonitor07Bur.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2008


    Title: Landmine chapter of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006
    Date of publication: June 2007
    Description/subject: "Landmines continued to be deployed in Burma during 2006. According to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), only three countries; namely: Burma, Nepal and Russia, continued to use landmines during 2006; with the most extensive use reported to have occurred in Burma. [1] Meanwhile, there is a growing international consensus on the need to ban the use of landmines across the globe. This consensus is reflected both in the 1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, commonly known as the Mine Ban Treaty (MBT), and in various recent United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions that call for the universalization of this treaty. [2] The MBT has now been ratified by three-quarters of the world's nations. This growing consensus reflects a common recognition of the destructive and indiscriminate effects of anti-personnel landmines. Landmines can remain functional years after hostilities have ceased, and often inflict injury in situations that might otherwise appear peaceful. Civilians may falsely perceive that their environment is safe following the cessation of conflict, unaware of the concealed threat posed by existing landmines..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html, pdf (892K - Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/LandmineMonitor06Bur.pdf
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006_19-Landmines_Ch16.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2008


    Title: "Inside News" January-March 2007 - Volume 2 Issue 10
    Date of publication: March 2007
    Description/subject: SPECIAL ISSUE ON LANDMINES:- Burma's Landmine Tragedy...EDITORIAL: Landmines have no friends...Human mine sweepers...Beaten, starved and forced through mine fields...Explosive Nightmares...Reducing the risk of landmine injury...Beware landmines!...Avoid the following places...KNU landmine policy...Landmine Monitor Report 2006...Where's there no doctor — treating a landmine victim...Soldiers destroy village life...Landmines — a chronic emergency...Mines are deadly!...Landmines are never safe...Villagers used to clear mines...Clear Path offers help...Landmines — everyone suffers
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People (CIDKP)
    Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.newsinside.wordpress.com ("Inside News" blog)
    Date of entry/update: 31 March 2009


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2006: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: October 2006
    Description/subject: "Key developments since May 2005: Both the military junta and non-state armed groups have continued to use antipersonnel mines extensively. The Myanmar Army has obtained, and is using an increasing number of antipersonnel mines of the United States M-14 design; manufacture and source of these non-detectable mines—whether foreign or domestic—is unknown. In November 2005, Military Heavy Industries reportedly began recruiting technicians for the production of the next generation of mines and other munitions. The non-state armed group, United Wa State Army, is allegedly producing PMN-type antipersonnel mines at an arms factory formerly belonging to the Burma Communist Party. In October 2005, the military junta made its first public statement on a landmine ban since 1999. There were at least 231 new mine casualties in 2005. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-France closed its medical assistance program and withdrew from Burma, due to restrictions imposed by the authorities."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/LandmineMonitor06Bur.pdf (Burmese)
    Date of entry/update: 24 July 2010


    Title: Landmine chapter of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005
    Date of publication: July 2006
    Description/subject: "The deployment of anti-personnel landmines increased by the SPDC and its forces Burma during 2005. This increase has transpired despite widespread international condemnation over the use of landmines due to the extensive indiscriminate humanitarian consequences of the devices. As a result of growing international consensus against the manufacture, deployment and trade of landmines, government and non-governmental bodies drafted the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (a.k.a., the Mine Ban Treaty) in 1997. This treaty to date has been signed by 122 countries. Burma, however, has refused to sign the treaty. More recently, the United Nations General Assembly voted in favor of Resolution 59/84, which called for universally accepting the Mine Ban Treaty, in December 2004. Burma was one of 22 countries that abstained from the voting process. In addition, Burma failed to send an observer to the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty that took place in Nairobi, Kenya in November-December 2004 (source: Landmine Monitor Report 2005: Toward a Mine-Free World, ICBL, 23 November 2005). The SPDC claims that ongoing insurgency and armed conflict within the country prevent them from acceding to the Mine Ban Treaty..."
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2008


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2005: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: October 2005
    Description/subject: "Key developments since May 2004: Myanmar"atrocity demining") was reported in 2004-2005, as in previous years. No humanitarian mine clearance has taken place in Burma. No military or village demining has been reported since May 2004. At a UNHCR seminar in November 2004, the mine threat was identified as one of the most serious impediments to the safe return of internally displaced persons and refugees. Mine risk education is carried out by NGOs on an increasing basis, in refugee camps and within other assistance efforts. The number of mine incidents and casualties remains unknown, but NGOs providing assistance to mine survivors indicate that casualties have increased. Mine action and other humanitarian assistance programs were disrupted by changes in the government in October 2004..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf (262K - Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/LandmineMonitor05Bur.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2005


    Title: Burma’s Killing Fields
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: Landmines take a heavy toll in lives and livelihoods... "A dozen or so years ago, Mee Reh was helping to secure a rebel-held area of Burma’s eastern Karenni State with landmines. Today he is helping to secure a new life for landmine victims. Mee Reh, 38, is one of 11 workers making artificial limbs at a small workshop in a Karenni refugee camp in Thailand’s northern Mae Hong Son province. The enterprise is run by Handicap International, an international organization working to ban the use of landmines and to help landmine victims. Mee Reh is himself the victim of a landmine explosion, losing a leg while he was in action with Karenni National Progressive Party forces against Burma Army troops in the early 1990s. He found medical care in neighboring Thailand, where he was fitted with an artificial leg. After his recovery he found work in the Handicap International Workshop, which has so far manufactured around 100 prostheses. Although there are no official statistics on landmine casualties in Burma, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines estimates that around 1,500 people die or suffer serious injury every year..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Landmine chapter of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2004
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: "...The immense violence that has been inflicted upon civilians throughout the world from anti-personnel landmines has led to the growing international acceptance of the necessity of their eradication. On 5 December 1997, in response to this realization, 122 countries came together and signed the Mine Ban Treaty (also known as the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction). In opposition to the worldwide trend however, Burma has to date not acceded to nor signed the treaty and continues to be not only a regular user of landmines, but also a producer. Since the Mine Ban Treaty’s inception in 1997, Burma has abstained from voting on every resolution of the UN General Assembly which supports it and continues to state that the problem of insurgency prevents them from signing the treaty. Anti-personnel landmines are victim-activated weapons that indiscriminately kill and maim civilians, soldiers, elderly people, women, children and animals. These devices can remain functioning long after military personnel have departed and even after the cessation of hostilities. As a result of their autonomous nature, landmines often inflict injury in situations that might otherwise appear peaceful. Civilians often perceive environments to be safe after the cessation of open conflict and attempt to resume their means of livelihood. Accordingly, one study suggests that a third of Burma’s landmine casualties are civilians. Despite the numerous ceasefires that have been signed between the Burmese government and various insurgent groups, landmine casualties in the country still appear to be rising. Burma currently suffers amongst the highest numbers of landmine victims each year of any country. Despite the growing carnage resulting from the use of landmines, Burma remains, along with Russia, the only other country to have been deploying them on a regular basis since 1999..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2008


    Title: The Wounds of War
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: Battered Burma’s unanswered question: when will the fighting end?... "The horrors of war are all too visible on Myo Myint’s scarred body. The former Burma Army trooper has only one arm and one leg. The fingers of one hand are just stumps, he’s almost blind in one eye and pieces of landmine shrapnel still lodge in his body. Myo Myint: Crippled and disillusioned by war Myo Myint is one of countless thousands of men and women maimed for life in Burma’s ongoing civil war, which has been raging for more than half a century—one of Asia’s longest unsolved conflicts..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    Title: Border landmines have far reaching effects
    Date of publication: 14 December 2004
    Description/subject: Dhaka, Dec 14: "The demarcation of border areas, under the joint-border forces of Burma and Bangladesh, have been suspended since 1998, due to the presence of landmines in those areas. The absence of joint-border forces of the two countries has increased the occurrences of cross border arms smuggling, drug and human trafficking, and cross border robberies, said a report in a weekend journal of Bangladesh. The demarcation of the border area under the joint forces of the two countries began in 1984, but ended after only 14 years..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Narinjara News
    Format/size: html (7K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 December 2004


    Title: Landmine chapter of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003-2004
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: "...The atrocities related to landmines in Burma are not limited to the injury and death of non-military personnel but also include their use to violate Article 13 of the UN Declaration of Human rights, that of an individual’s freedom of movement both internally and internationally. In order to restrict the movement of supplies and information to insurgent groups, well-established routes to and from villages have been mined. Villages themselves have also been mined in attempts to prevent the return of both forcibly relocated communities as well as, in some areas, refugees. Though totals are not known, the number of casualties related to landmines appears to be increasing. This has been especially noticeable over the last five to six years. The growth of landmine related casualties is at least partially the result of the cumulative effect of continued deployment over the years. As of 2003, nine out of Burma’s fourteen states and divisions were mine-affected..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2008


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2004: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: October 2004
    Description/subject: Key developments since May 2003: Myanmar"atrocity demining,"Halt Mine Use in Burma."... * Mine Ban Policy * Use; * Production, Transfer, Stockpiling; * Non-State Actors Use; * NSA-Production, Transfer, Stockpiling; * Landmine Problem; * Mine Clearance and Mine Risk Education; * Landmine Casualties68; * Survivor Assistance90; * Disability Policy and Practice.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International campaign to ban landmines
    Format/size: html (English); pdf (Burmese, 157K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 November 2004


    Title: Landmine chapter of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-2003
    Date of publication: October 2003
    Description/subject: "Anti-personnel landmines are victim-activated weapons that indiscriminately kill and maim civilians, soldiers, elderly people, women, children and animals. They can cause injury and death long after the end of hostilities. In Asia, Burma is currently second only to Afghanistan in the number of new landmine victims, surpassing even Cambodia. Contrary to trends in the rest of the world, the SPDC has not signed the Mine Ban Treaty and abstained from the 1999 UN General Assembly vote on the treaty. Of Burma’s 14 states and divisions, 9 of them are affected by landmines. Evidence suggests that in Karen State there is one landmine victim everyday. Civilians become landmine victims in two ways: when they are forced by the military to act as human minesweepers (see below); and when they accidentally step on mines planted in areas where civilians reside. More than 14 percent of mine victims in Burma stepped on landmines within half a kilometer from the center of their village. In efforts to block supply routes for armed ethnic organizations, the SPDC plants mines on supply and escape routes used by villagers and refugees. Villages from which people have fled or have been forcibly relocated from are also mined to prevent the villagers from returning, as well as to block access to food, supplies and intelligence to opposition groups. Landmines have also been planted along streams, paths, roads and passes that are used by civilians, including those fleeing Burma. It is estimated that there is one civilian death for every two military casualties associated with landmines. (Source: Landmine Monitor report-2002.)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentaion Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2003: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 09 September 2003
    Description/subject: Key developments since May 2002: "Myanmar’s military has continued laying landmines. At least 15 rebel groups also used mines, two more than last year: the New Mon State Party and the Hongsawatoi Restoration Party. Nobel Peace Laureate Jody Williams and ICBL Coordinator Liz Bernstein visited the country in February 2003."..."Myanmar’s ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. Myanmar abstained from voting on the pro-Mine Ban Treaty UN General Assembly Resolution 57/74 in November 2002. SPDC delegates have not attended any of the annual meetings of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty or the intersessional Standing Committee meetings...Myanmar has been producing at least three types of antipersonnel mines: MM1, MM2, and Claymore-type mines...Myanmar’s military forces have used landmines extensively throughout the long running civil war...Nine out of fourteen states and divisions in Burma are mine-affected, with a heavy concentration in East Burma. Mines have been laid heavily in the Eastern Pegu Division in order to prevent insurgents from reaching central Burma. Mines have also been laid extensively to the east of the area between Swegin and Kyawgyi...No humanitarian demining activities have been implemented in Burma...SPDC military units operating in areas suspected of mine contamination have repeatedly been accused of forcing people, compelled to serve as porters, to walk in front of patrols in order to detonate mines..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2003


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2002: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 13 September 2002
    Description/subject: "Key developments since May 2001: Myanmar?s military has continued laying landmines inside the country and along its borders with Thailand. As part of a new plan to ?fence the country,? the Coastal Region Command Headquarters gave orders to its troops from Tenasserim division to lay mines along the Thai-Burma border. Three rebel groups, not previously identified as mine users, were discovered using landmines in 2002: Pao People?s Liberation Front, All Burma Muslim Union and Wa National Army. Thirteen rebel groups are now using mines. Myanmar?s ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. Myanmar abstained from voting on the pro-Mine Ban Treaty UN General Assembly Resolution 56/24M in November 2001. SPDC delegates have not attended any of the annual meetings of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty or the intersessional Standing Committee meetings. Myanmar declined to attend the Regional Seminar of Stockpile Destruction of Anti-personnel Mines and other Munitions, held in Malaysia in August 2001. Myanmar did not respond to an invitation by the government of Malaysia to an informal meeting, held on the side of the January 2002 intersessional meetings in Geneva, to discuss the issue of landmines within the ASEAN context (other ASEAN non-signatories, such as Vietnam, did attend). Myanmar was one of the two ASEAN countries that did not participate in the seminar, ?Landmines in Southeast Asia,? hosted by Thailand from 13?15 May 2002. However, two observers from the Myanmar Ministry of Health attended the Regional Workshop on Victim Assistance in the Framework of the Mine Ban Treaty, held in Thailand from 6-8 November 2001, sponsored by Handicap International (HI). One health officer attending the meeting acknowledged that if Myanmar joined the mine ban it would be a good preventative health measure..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Landmine chapter of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "Landmines are weapons that kill and maim indiscriminately, whether it be civilians, soldiers, elderly people, women, children or animals. They cause injury and death long after the official end of a war. Contrary to trends in the rest of the world, rather than reduce or abolish the use of landmines, the SPDC has actually increased production of anti-personnel landmines and at least in the case of the Burma-Bangladesh border, is actively maintaining minefields. In Asia, Burma is currently second only to Afghanistan in the number of new landmine victims, surpassing even Cambodia. The SPDC has not signed the Mine Ban Treaty and abstained from the 1999 UN General Assembly vote on the treaty, saying, “A sweeping ban on landmines is unnecessary and unjustified. The problem is the indiscriminate use of mines, as well as the transfer of them.” Although the SPDC is not known to export landmines, mines from China, Israel, Italy, Russia and the United States have been found planted inside Burma, indicating past or present importation of them. By their own admission, accepting transferred (imported) landmines makes them part of the problem..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 17 -- Special Issue on Landmines
    Date of publication: August 2002
    Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Overview of Landmine Problems in Myanmar (Michiyo Kato &Yeshua Moser-Puangswan, NIV SEA); Basic Information about Landmines (Htun Htun Oo, TCFB); Trauma Care Foundation Burma (Htun Htun Oo, TCFB); Chain of Survival (Htun Htun Oo, TCFB); Mine Injuries and Their Management (Htun Htun Oo, TCFB)... FROM THE FIELD: Orthopaedic Programme of the ICRC-Myanmar (Marco Emery, ICRC, Myanmar); Data Collection on Mine Victims and the Impact of Landmines (Christophe Tiers, HI); Mental Health Assessment among Refugees in Three Camps in Mae Hong Son, Thailand (Dr. Ann Burton, IRC)...HEALTH EDUCATION: Mine Awareness (Christophe Tiers, HI); Eight Reasons to Ban Landmines (Christophe Tiers, HI)... SOCIAL: Real life stories (Christophe Tiers, HI).
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (963K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


    Title: Landmine chapter of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "Landmines are weapons that kill and maim indiscriminately, whether it be civilians, soldiers, elderly, women, children or animals and cause injury and death long after the official end of a war. Contrary to trends in the rest of the world, rather than reduce or abolish the use of landmines, the SPDC has actually increased production of anti-personnel landmines and at least in the case of the Burma-Bangladesh border, is actively maintaining minefields. In Asia, Burma is currently second only to Afghanistan in the number of new landmine victims, surpassing even Cambodia and the SPDC was one of only three government military forces in Asia to use anti-personnel landmines in 2000, the others being Sri Lanka and Pakistan..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: Yearbook main page: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2001: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 12 September 2001
    Description/subject: "Key developments since May 2000: Myanmar government forces and at least eleven ethnic armed groups continue to lay antipersonnel mines in significant numbers. The governments of Bangladesh and Thailand both protested use of mines by Myanmar forces inside their respective countries. In a disturbing new development, mine use is alleged to be taking place under the direction of loggers and narcotics traffickers, as well as by government and rebel forces."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: ICBL
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.the-monitor.org/lm/2001/print/lm2001_burma_burmese.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Landmines: a New Victim
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: Elephants are becoming the latest victims of landmines planted along the war-torn Thai-Burma border.
    Author/creator: Helen Anderson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Northeastern Pa'an District: Villagers Fleeing Forced Labour Establishing SPDC Army Camps, Building Access Roads and Clearing Landmines
    Date of publication: 20 February 2001
    Description/subject: Information on a new flow of refugees from northeastern Pa'an District into Thailand. The villagers say that they fled their village in mid-January 2001 because SPDC troops are using them as porters, forced labour on an access road, and Army camp labour in order to strengthen the regime's control over this contested area. Worst of all, the villagers say they are being ordered to clear landmines in front of the SPDC Army's road-building bulldozer, and to make way for new Army camps.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update #2001-U1)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Seeds of Destruction
    Date of publication: December 2000
    Description/subject: "The decades-long conflict between Burma's central government and its ethnic minorities over the control of ethnic states has resulted in landmine pollution that now ravages the country and its borders. A weapon that maims indiscriminately and whose vigilance never slackens, the landmine has become the source of prolonged suffering for the Burmese people. The number of landmine casualties in Burma is now believed to surpass even that of Cambodia, while at the same time, the manufacture of anti-personnel landmines is on the rise..." (article drawn from the Landmine Monitor Report 2000).
    Author/creator: Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" VOL. VII, NO. 4 WINTER 2000
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Landmines in Burma, The Military Dimension
    Date of publication: November 2000
    Description/subject: "...A wide range of anti-personnel (AP) and anti-vehicle (AV) landmines have been used in Burma over the years. Details are hard to obtain, but it would appear that before 1988 the Burma Army had access to common Eastern-bloc stake-mounted fragmentation mines such as the Soviet-designed POMZ-2 and POMZ-2M.4 (China also makes versions of these mines, designated the Type 58 and Type 59 respectively.) Over the past few years the Tatmadaw's supplies of these mines have apparently been boosted by a locally produced version of the POMZ-2, designated the MM-1. Another kind of stake-mounted fragmentation mine, quite similar in appearance to the POMZ-2 and POMZ-2M, has also been made and used in Burma in the past, but has yet to be fully identified...". This is an excerpt from Working Paper No. 352 of the same title, published by the Strategic Defense Studies Centre of the Australian National University, Canberra, November 2000.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VII, No. 4, Winter 2000
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma: One of the World's Landmine "Black Spots"
    Date of publication: October 2000
    Description/subject: Stephen Goose, co-founder of Nobel Peace Prize-winning International Campaign to Ban Landmines, is one of the world's foremost authorities on the use of anti-personnel landmines. In this exclusive interview with The Irrawaddy, he describes the situation inside Burma, where, he says, there are an estimated 1,500 landmine casualties each year.
    Author/creator: Stephen Goose
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2000: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: August 2000
    Description/subject: "Key developments March 1999-May 2000: Government forces and at least ten ethnic armed groups continue to lay antipersonnel landmines in significant numbers. Landmine Monitor estimates there were approximately 1,500 new mine victims in 1999. The Committee Representing the People's Parliament endorsed the Mine Ban Treaty in January 2000." Includes chart of Ethnic Political Organizations with Armed Wings in Burma.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html (English); pdf (Burmese, 200K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/LandmineMonitor00Bur.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 July 2010


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 1999: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: "Modern mine warfare began in 1969, and over the past thirty years mine pollution has increased greatly. Today mines are being laid on a near daily basis by both government forces and several armed ethnic groups. The military government of Burma, formerly known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), now calls itself the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.icbl.org/lm/1999/burma.html
    Date of entry/update: 27 July 2010


    Title: Notes on Landmine Use: SLORC and KNLA
    Date of publication: 03 March 1996
    Description/subject: "...The technical mine information below was obtained from KNLA sources and was current as of early 1994, though it is apparently still current. The notes regarding effect on civilians are mainly from KHRG observations. Abbreviations: SLORC = State Law & Order Restoration Council, the junta ruling Burma; KNLA = Karen National Liberation Army, the Karen resistance force; DKBA = Democratic Kayin Buddhist Army, a Karen faction allied with SLORC..." "...The most common landmine used is the American M-76, of which the Burmese now manufacture their own copies. Almost all of these found used to be American-made, but now more are the Burmese copies. They are the "classic" landmine design, made of heavy-duty metal, cylindrical, about 2" diameter and 4-5" high, with a screw-in top the diameter of a pencil which extends a couple of inches above the body of the mine - this screw-in top is surmounted by a plunger the size of a pencil eraser which is what sets off the mine. The safety pin goes through the plunger, and can be used to rig a tripwire. However, most common use is to bury the mine with only the plunger above ground, generally hidden by leaf litter. The body of the mine is Army green, stencilled with yellow lettering: for example "LTM-76 A.P. MINE / DI-LOT 48/84" (copied off a recovered SLORC mine). "A.P." means Anti-Personnel. This mine is designed to kill or maim people. The person who steps on it is almost certainly killed, and anyone in a 5-metre radius is wounded..." These informal notes were prepared in response for specific requests for information on landmine use. They are not intended to present a complete picture of landmine use.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2009


  • Atrocity demining
    Includes people being forced to walk in front of troops to explode any landmines.

    Individual Documents

    Title: Incident Report: Papun District, June 2011
    Date of publication: 24 May 2012
    Description/subject: "The following incident report was written by a community member who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights abuses, and is based on information provided by 27-year-old Naw K---, a resident of Ny--- village in Dweh Loh Township. She described an incident that occurred on the evening of June 6th 2011, in which she was arrested by Tatmadaw IB #96 troops when returning to her home and forced to porter along with two other villagers, Saw W--- and Kyaw M--- before later escaping, an incident that was previously reported by KHRG in December 2012 in "Papun Situation Update: Dweh Loh Township, Received in November 2011". Security precautions taken by Tatmadaw troops on resupply operations are also mentioned, with Naw K--- describing how the two other villagers were shot at by IB #96 soldiers as they approached the agricultural area surrounding D--- village prior to their arrest. Naw K--- also highlights other issues associated with forced portering, specifically how requiring villagers to travel through unfamiliar areas contaminated by landmines places villagers at increased risk of landmine injury."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (255K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b44.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 June 2012


    Title: Ongoing forced labour and movement restrictions in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 12 March 2012
    Description/subject: "In Toungoo District between November 2011 and February 2012 villagers in both Than Daung and Tantabin Townships have faced regular and ongoing demands for forced labour, as well movement and trade restrictions, which consistently undermine their ability to support themselves. During the last few months, the Tatmadaw has demanded villagers to support road-building activities by providing trucks and motorcycles to send food and materials, to drive in front of bulldozers in potentially-landmined areas, to clean brush, dig and flatten land during road-building, and to transport rations during MOC #9 resupply operations as recently as February 7th 2012."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (314K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12f1.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


    Title: From Prison to Front Line: Analysis of convict porter testimony 2009 – 2011
    Date of publication: 13 July 2011
    Description/subject: "...Over the last two decades, KHRG has documented the abuse of convicts taken by the thousands from prisons across Burma and forced to serve as porters for frontline units of Burma’s state army, the Tatmadaw. In the last two years alone, Tatmadaw units have used at least 1,700 convict porters during two distinct, ongoing combat operations in Karen State and eastern Bago Division; this report presents full transcripts and analysis of interviews with 59 who escaped. In interviews with KHRG, every convict porter described being forced to carry unmanageable loads over hazardous terrain with minimal rest, food and water. Most told of being used deliberately as human shields during combat; forced to walk before troops in landmine-contaminated areas; and being refused medical attention when wounded or ill. Many saw porters executed when they were unable to continue marching or when desperation drove them to attempt escape. Abuses consistently described by porters violate Burma's domestic and international legal obligations. If such abusive practices are to be halted, existing legal provisions must be enforced by measures that ensure accountability for the individuals that violate them. This report is intended to augment "Dead Men Walking: Convict Porters on the Front Lines in Eastern Burma", a joint report released by KHRG and Human Rights Watch in July 2011..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (3.2MB - OBL version; 5.43MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg1102.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2011


    Title: Dead Men Walking: Convict Porters on the Front Lines in Eastern Burma
    Date of publication: 12 July 2011
    Description/subject: "...For decades the Burmese army has forced civilians to risk life and limb serving as porters in barbaric conditions during military operations against rebel armed groups. Among those taken to do this often deadly work, for indefinite periods and without compensation, are common criminals serving time in Burma’s prisons and labor camps. Escaped convict porters described to us how the authorities selected them in a seemingly random fashion from prison and transferred them to army units fighting on the front lines. They are forced to carry huge loads of supplies and munitions in mountainous terrain, and given inadequate food and no medical care. Often they are used as “human shields,” put in front of columns of troops facing ambush or sent first down mined roads or trails, the latter practice known as "atrocity demining.” The wounded are left to die; those who try to escape are frequently executed. Burma’s military government promised that the November 2010 elections, the country’s first elections in more than 20 years, would bring about human rights improvements. But soon after election day the Burmese army, the Tatmadaw, launched military operations that have been accompanied by a new round of abuses. In January 2011, the Tatmadaw, in collusion with the Corrections Department and the Burmese police, gathered an estimated 700 prisoners from approximately 12 prisons and labor camps throughout Burma to serve as porters for an ongoing offensive in southern Karen State, in the east of the country. The same month, another 500 prisoners were taken for use as porters during another separate military operation in northern Karen State and eastern Pegu Region, augmenting 500 porters used in the same area in an earlier stage of the operation in the preceding year. The men were a mix of serious and petty offenders, but their crimes or willingness to serve were not taken into consideration: only their ability to carry heavy loads of ammunition, food, and supplies for more than 17 Tatmadaw battalions engaged in operations against ethnic Karen armed groups. Karen civilians living in the combat zone, who would normally be forced to porter for the military under similarly horrendous conditions, had already fled by the thousands to the Thai border. The prisoners selected as porters described witnessing or enduring summary executions, torture and beatings, being used as “human shields” to trip landmines or shield soldiers from fire, and being denied medical attention and adequate food and shelter. One convict porter, Ko Kyaw Htun (all prisoner names used in this report are pseudonyms), told how Burmese soldiers forced him to walk ahead when they suspected landmines were on the trails: “They followed behind us. In their minds, if the mine explodes, the mine will hit us first.” Another porter, Tun Mok, described how soldiers recaptured him after trying to escape, and how they kicked and punched him, and then rolled a thick bamboo pole painfully up and down his shins. This report, based on Human Rights Watch and Karen Human Rights Group interviews with 58 convict porters who escaped to Thailand between 2010 and 2011, details the abuses. The porters we spoke with ranged in age from 20 to 57 years, and included serious offenders such as murderers and drug dealers, as well as individuals convicted of brawling and fraud— even illegal lottery sellers. Their sentences ranged from just one year to more than 20 years’ imprisonment, and they were taken from different facilities, including labor camps, maximum security prisons, such as Insein prison in Rangoon, and local prisons for less serious offenders. The accounts shared by porters about the abuses they experienced in 2011 are horrific, but sadly not unusual. The use of convict porters is not an isolated, local, or rogue practice employed by some units or commanders, but has been credibly documented since as early as 1992. This report focuses on recent use of convict porters in Karen State, but the use of convict porters has also been reported in the past in Mon, Karenni, and Shan States. The International Labour Organization (ILO) has raised the issue of convict porters with the Burmese government since 1998, yet the problem persists, particularly during major offensive military operations. Burma’s forcible recruitment and mistreatment of convicts as uncompensated porters in conflict areas are grave violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law. Abuses include murder, torture, and the use of porters as human shields. Those responsible for ordering or participating in such mistreatment should be prosecuted for war crimes. Authorities in Burma have previously admitted the practice occurs, but have claimed that prisoners are not exposed to hostilities. The information gathered for this report, consistent with the evidence gathered over the past two decades, demonstrates that this simply is not true. The practice is ongoing, systematic, and is facilitated by several branches of government, suggesting decision-making at the highest levels of the Burmese military and political establishment. Officials and commanders who knew or should have known of such abuses but took no measures to stop it or punish those responsible should be held accountable as a matter of command responsibility. The use of convict porters on the front line is only one facet of the brutal counterinsurgency practices Burmese officials have used against ethnic minority populations since independence in 1948. These include deliberate attacks on civilian villages and towns, large-scale forced relocation, torture, extrajudicial executions, rape and other sexual violence against women and girls, and the use of child soldiers. Rebel armed groups have also been involved in abuses such as indiscriminate use of landmines, using civilians as forced labor, and recruitment of child soldiers. These abuses have led to growing calls for the establishment of a United Nations commission of inquiry into longstanding allegations of violations of international humanitarian and human rights law in Burma. As the experiences contained in this report make clear, serious abuses that amount to war crimes are being committed with the involvement or knowledge of high-level civilian and military officials. Officers and soldiers commit atrocities with impunity. Credible and impartial investigations are needed into serious abuses committed by all parties to Burma’s internal armed conflicts. The international community’s failure to exert more effective pressure on the Burmese military to end the use of convict porters on the battlefield will condemn more men to take their place..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW), Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0711_OnlineVersion.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2011


    Title: Southwestern Papun District: Transitions to DKBA control along the Bilin River
    Date of publication: 18 August 2010
    Description/subject: "This report documents the human rights situation in communities along the Bilin to Papun Road and along the Bilin River in western Dweh Loh Township, Papun District. SPDC forces remain active in these areas, but DKBA soldiers from Battalions #333 and #999 have increased their presence; local villagers have reported that they continue to face abuses by both actors, but KHRG has received a greater number of reports of DKBA abuses, especially regarding exploitative demands, movement restrictions and the use of landmines in civilian areas. This report is the first of four reports detailing the situation in southern Papun that will be released in August 2010. Incidents documented in this report occurred between November 2009 and March 2010...Since late 2009, the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) has strengthened its presence in southwestern Dweh Loh Township, Papun District, increasing troop levels and camps, commencing gold mining operations on the Bilin River, and enforcing movement restrictions on the civilian population. Residents of the village tracts near the Bilin River and along the Bilin to Papun road, which follows the eastern bank of the Bilin River north through the centre of Dweh Loh Township (see map), have told KHRG field researchers that they have faced heavy demands for forced labour to support the increased DKBA presence, detracting from the time they can spend on livelihoods activities. Communities with a DKBA camp nearby have had livelihoods further curtailed, as DKBA soldiers have enforced strict curfews and other movement restrictions that have prevented villagers from spending sufficient time in their fields. Units from the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Army, meanwhile, remain deployed in southwestern Papun, and villagers living near active SPDC Army camps report that they continue to face exploitative demands and irregular violent abuses from SPDC troops. According to KHRG’s most recent information, as of March 2010 DKBA soldiers from Battalions #333 and #999 were occupying more than 28 camps in Wa Muh, Meh Choh, Ma Lay Ler, and Meh Way village tracts in western Dweh Loh Township; SPDC soldiers from Infantry Battalion (IB) #96 and Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) #704, under Military Operations Command (MOC) #4 Tactical Operations Command (TOC) #1,1 were also active in the same area. While there does not appear to have been a formal transfer of authority from SPDC to DKBA Battalions in these areas, reports from local villagers suggest that they now face greater exploitative demands and human rights threats from increased DKBA military control in southwestern Papun District. Troops from Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) 5th Brigade are also active in southwestern Papun, chiefly placing landmines and making sporadic ‘guerrilla’ style attacks on the SPDC and DKBA.2
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010-F5)
    Format/size: pdf (683K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 October 2010


    Title: Forced recruitment, forced labour: interviews with DKBA deserters and escaped porters
    Date of publication: 13 November 2009
    Description/subject: "...This news bulletin provides the transcripts of eight interviews conducted with six soldiers and two porters who recently fled after being conscripted by the DKBA. These interviews confirm widespread reports that the DKBA has been forcibly recruiting villagers as it attempts to increase troop strength as part of a transformation into a government Border Guard Force in advance of the 2010 elections. The interviews also offer further confirmation that the DKBA continues to use children as soldiers and porters in front-line conflict areas. Three of the victims interviewed by KHRG are teenage boys; the youngest was just 13 when he was forced to join the DKBA..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2009-B11)
    Format/size: pdf (629 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09b11.html
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2009


    Title: Human minesweeping and forced relocation as SPDC and DKBA step up joint operations in Pa'an District (English and Karen)
    Date of publication: 20 October 2008
    Description/subject: "Since the end of September 2008, SPDC and DKBA troops have begun preparing for what KHRG researchers expect to be a renewed offensive against KNU/KNLA-controlled areas in Pa'an District. These activities match a similar increase in joint SPDC-DKBA operations in Dooplaya District further south where these groups have conducted attacks against villagers and KNU/KNLA targets over the past couple of weeks. The SPDC and DKBA soldiers operating in Pa'an District have forced villagers to carry supplies, food and weapons for their combined armies and also to walk in front of their columns as human minesweepers. This report includes the case of two villagers killed by landmines during October while doing such forced labour, as well as the DKBA's forced relocation of villages in T'Moh village tract of Dta Greh township, demands for forced labourers from the relocated communities and the subsequent flight of relocated villagers to KNLA-controlled camps in Pa'an District as a means to escape this abuse; all of which took place in October 2008."
    Language: English, Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (English, 534K; Karen, 446K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/khrg08b11_karen_language.pdf
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08b11.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


    Title: Attacks, forced labour and restrictions in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 01 July 2008
    Description/subject: "While the rainy season is now underway in Karen state, Burma Army soldiers are continuing with military operations against civilian communities in Toungoo District. Local villagers in this area have had to leave their homes and agricultural land in order to escape into the jungle and avoid Burma Army attacks. These displaced villagers have, in turn, encountered health problems and food shortages, as medical supplies and services are restricted and regular relocation means any food supplies are limited to what can be carried on the villagers' backs alone. Yet these displaced communities have persisted in their effort to maintain their lives and dignity while on the run; building new shelters in hiding and seeking to address their livelihood and social needs despite constraints. Those remaining under military control, by contrast, face regular demands for forced labour, as well as other forms of extortion and arbitrary 'taxation'. This report examines military attacks, forced labour and movement restrictions and their implications in Toungoo District between March and June 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F7)
    Format/size: pdf (880 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f7.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Landmines, Killings and Food Destruction: Civilian life in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 09 August 2007
    Description/subject: "The attacks against civilians continue as the SPDC increases its military build-up in Toungoo District. Enforcing widespread restrictions on movement backed up by a shoot-on-sight policy, the SPDC has executed at least 38 villagers in Toungoo since January 2007. On top of this, local villagers face the ever present danger of landmines, many of which were manufactured in China, which the Army has deployed around homes, churches and forest paths. Combined with the destruction of covert agricultural hill fields and rice supplies, these attacks seek to undermine food security and make life unbearable in areas outside of consolidated military control. However, as those living under SPDC rule have found, the constant stream of military demands for labour, money and other supplies undermine livelihoods, village economies and community efforts to address health, education and social needs. Civilians in Toungoo must therefore choose between a situation of impoverishment and subjugation under SPDC rule, evasion in forested hiding sites with the constant threat of military attack, or a relatively stable yet uprooted life in refugee camps away from their homeland. This report documents just some of the human rights abuses perpetrated by SPDC forces against villagers in Toungoo District up to July 2007..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F6)
    Format/size: pdf (1.24 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f6.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009


    Title: Provoking Displacement in Toungoo District: Forced labour, restrictions and attacks
    Date of publication: 30 May 2007
    Description/subject: "The first half of 2007 has seen the continued flight of civilians from their homes and land in response to ongoing State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military operations in Toungoo District. While in some cases this displacement is prompted by direct military attacks against their villages, many civilians living in Toungoo District have told KHRG that the primary catalyst for relocation has been the regular demands for labour, money and supplies and the restrictions on movement and trade imposed by SPDC forces. These everyday abuses combine over time to effectively undermine civilian livelihoods, exacerbate poverty and make subsistence untenable. Villagers threatened with such demands and restrictions frequently choose displacement in response - initially to forest hiding sites located nearby and then farther afield to larger Internally Displaced Person (IDP) camps or across the border to Thailand-based refugee camps. This report presents accounts of ongoing abuses in Toungoo District committed by SPDC forces during the period of January to May 2007 and their role in motivating local villagers to respond with flight and displacement..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F4)
    Format/size: pdf (527 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f4.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009