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Health of Burmese refugees and migrants

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Die Burma-Fluechtlingshilfe: Mae Tao Clinic
Description/subject: Medizinische Grundversorgung unter den Fl�chtlingen an der thail�ndisch-burmesischen Grenze. Die Klinik wurde von Dr. Cynthia gegr�ndet. Im Mittelpunkt stehen Ausbildung von medizinischen Hilfskr�ften und Hebammen sowie Kurse in Gesundheitslehre f�r die M�tter und ihre Kinder, ein mobiler medizinischer Hilfsdienst, der Gebiete Burmas besucht, die keine eigene medizinische Versorgung haben, sowie ambulante und station�re medizinische Versorgung der Klinik. keywords: primary health care, IDP in Burma, education of health care personnel.
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Helfen ohne Grenzen
Description/subject: HELFEN ohne GRENZEN ist ein gemeinnütziger Verein, der von jungen SüdtirolerInnen ins Leben gerufen wurde und betrieben wird. Ausgangspunkt war das Leid der burmesischen Flüchtlinge, die vor der Brutalität, Willkür und Unmenschlichkeit ihrer Landsleute zur Flucht gezwungen sind. Unterstützung von Dr. Cynthisa Clinic. Help without borders is a charitable organisation. Reports about current activities, support of Mae Tao Clinic. Inhalt/content: Projekte - Rundbrief Okt.2002 - Rundbrief Feb.2003 - 1. Bericht (10.Dez.) - 2. Bericht (15.Dez.) - 3. Bericht (20.Dez.) - 4. Bericht (27.Dez.) - Reisebericht (PDF:2,4 MByte) - Newsletter - Fotos
Author/creator: Benno Röggla
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Helfen ohen Grenzen
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 June 2003

Title: IOM Health Programme
Description/subject: Downloadable reports relating to migrant health in Thailand in English and/or Thai: "HIV Triangulation Report" (English)- June 2010..."Migrant Health Program Model" (Thai)- June 2010..."Migration and HIV/AIDS in Thailand: A desk review of Migrant Labour Sectors" (English)- September 2008..."Healthy Migrants, Healthy Thailand: A Migrant Health Programme Model" (English) - September 2009..."Assessment of Mobility and HIV Vulnerability among Myanmar Migrant sex workers and factory workers in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand" Assessment of Mobility and HIV Vulnerability among Myanmar Migrant sex workers and factory workers in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand, 2007 (English) - September 2009..."Financing Healthcare for Migrants: A case Study from Thailand" (English) - September 2009..." Avian and Human Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plan in 4 Piloted Districts of Chiang Rai Province, 2008" (English, Thai) เตรียมพร้อมรับการระบาดใหญ่ของโรคไข้หวัดนก และโรคไข้หวัดใหญ่สายพันธุ์ใหม่ ใน 4 อำเภอนำร่อง จังหวัดเชียงราย พ.ศ. 2551..."Activity Manual for Immigration Officers and Relevant Persons in Migrant Health Care, 2008" (English)... คู่มือกิจกรรมการพัฒนาบทบาท ของเจ้าหน้าที่ตำรวจตรวจคนเข้าเมืองและผู้ที่เกี่ยวข้อง ในการดูแลสุขภาพผู้ย้ายถิ่น (Thai)
Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012

Title: Mao Tao Clinic
Description/subject: Mission statement:- Mission: The Mae Tao Clinic (MTC) is a health service provider and training centre, established to contribute and promote accessible quality health care among displaced Burmese and ethnic people along the Thai-Burma border. In addition to the comprehensive services provided at its onsite facilities, MTC also promotes general health through partnerships with other community based organisations. We work together to implement and advocate for social and legal services, as well as access to education for people living along the border... Vision: The future vision for MTC is to continue providing quality health and social services. MTC is endeavouring to further promote health education, and improve access to and utilisation of its health services. MTC will also advocate for improved access to quality education for migrant children in the Mae Sot area and work to strengthen the child rights and child protection network among local and international human rights institutions. MTC serves a broader role as a community centre and centre for advocacy with respect to issues related to Burma and the displaced community... Mae Tao Clinic Objectives: *To improve health status among target communities along the border *To improve quality of service of MTC through trained workers *To provide quality education and livelihood for displaced children *To improve the relationship between MTC and NGOs, GOs and CBOs *To monitor the quality of health services
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 May 2012

Title: Thai Burma Border Health Initiative
Description/subject: The Thai Burma Border Health Initiative is a non-governmental organization dedicated to helping to improve the health and well being of the people living along the border in Kanchanaburi province Thailand and the adjacent area in Burma...TBBHI supported local health care providers perform the following: *Provide health education to local people. This includes individual instruction to patients and their families, and group talks to local villagers. We help to provide ongoing education to health care providers in the area. *Provide direct medical care to patients in their own homes and in local outreach clinics. *Help people overcome obstacles to obtaining health care at local hospitals. We provide transportation, food, and translation. When necessary we help patients pay their medical bills. *Provide health materials to prevent local diseases. This includes malaria nets and mats, and campaigns to provide immunizations, vitamins and worm treatments.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Thai Burma Border Health Initiative
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2010

Individual Documents

Title: Photo Essay: Mae Tao Clinic moves to new grounds
Date of publication: 18 June 2016
Description/subject: "The existing grounds of Mae Tao are a mixture of concrete slabs and dirt roadways between the various buildings. The grounds are cramped, with patients and health professionals weaving around potholes, stray dogs and open drains. The new grounds will have proper drainage and leveled concrete ground running between buildings. Donations from the Japanese government made it possible for Mae Tao clinic to buy the land for the new clinic. The border clinic relies on donations for its operating expenses, and Dr Cynthia says that although more aid is being directed into Burma, it’s important for the international community not to forget the cross-border services vital for displaced people.he new grounds will provide services that are unique to the Mae Tao Clinic, including two free meals a day and accommodation for patients and their families during treatment..."
Author/creator: Libby Hogan
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Democratic Voice of Burma" (DVB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 June 2016

Title: Between HIV And “Male Sex Workers” I dentity: Young Shan Men And The Presentation Of Enviable Life In Chiang Mai
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Integrated in the global economy of HIV intervention, young and mobile Shan men in Chiang Mai who work as hosts, dancers and masseurs in gay establishments are now plugged into discrete health categories (i.e. men who have sex with men MSM), male sex workers (MSW), “Burmese” migrants, “hidden population”, etc.). Current HIV intervention has employed information communication technology (ICT), which produces standardized HIV information dissemination, testing and treatment. This paper examines Shan men’s use of their mobile phones. Using Miller and Slater’s (2000) concept of dynamics of objectification, I analyze the creative use of mobile phones as realizing aspired and ascribed identities, characterized as presentation of enviable life in Chiang Mai. On Facebook, they engage in political discussion, conduct religious activities, and manage their social networks. I argue that the presentation of enviable identities reflects notions of masculinity and health, which determine Shan men’s access to, awareness of and management of health information. HIV testing is crucial in HIV prevention, but Shan men value their role as economic providers more than spending for personal health and undergoing an HIV test. They perform Buddhist rituals as supplication for a healthy body. The paper illustrates the failure of dissemination models and the importance in knowing the situated knowledge of Shan men’s sex work in order to provide effective HIV intervention."
Author/creator: Nikos Dacanay
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (217K)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015

Title: Gender Dimensi on of HIV Health Care Services and Treatment of Myanmar Migrant Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Due to the long running civil war, poorly recorded human right abuse, lack of job opportunity, economic hardship and political instability tens of thousands of Myanmar citizens of people of diverse social backgrounds are fleeing their home land resorted to settle in neighboring country, Thailand. Most of them are ethnic minorities from rebel held areas such as Karan state, Shan state and Kachin state in search of better lifestyle , political freedom and higher income in economically better off its neighbor Thailand. There are also pull factors which contributed migrants to seek job opportunity in Thailand being the fact that some of them are persuaded by their relatives who have already existed in destination country. Moreover, relatively higher income also attracts migrants to settle down in Thailand.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Naing Aung and Lynn
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (546K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015

Title: Border Prosthetics - Helping amputees with specially made prosthetics on the Myanmar-Thailand border (video)
Date of publication: 24 June 2014
Description/subject: "Decades of ethnic conflict have left south eastern Myanmar one of the most landmine-ridden regions in the world. Few landmine victims get the treatment they need inside the country, formerly known as Burma, and so spend days travelling to neighbouring Thailand for medical support. The Mae Tao Clinic provides healthcare to more than 150,000 displaced people every year, from vaccinations, to eye surgery and emergency operations on gunshot wounds. In the clinic’s prosthetics department, where many of the staff are themselves former landmine victims, more than 250 prosthetic limbs are fitted each year. Nidhi Dutt travels to the border town of Mae Sot to meet the people making tailored prosthetics from the simplest of tools for whoever needs them, no matter which side of Myanmar’s civil conflict they are on..."
Author/creator: Nidhi Dutt
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (The Cure)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (11 minutes, 19 seconds)
Date of entry/update: 28 June 2014

Title: Briefing Regarding Myanmar Peace Team’s Meetings with Mae Tao Clinic Team 18 September 2012
Date of publication: 18 September 2012
Description/subject: Summary: "In June and August, the Myanmar Peace Team of the Burmese Government led by U Aung Min, then Railway Minister, met with Dr. Cynthia Maung, founder of Mae Tao Clinic, and members of the clinic. They also visited Mae Tao Clinic. The meetings to date have been informal. Nevertheless Dr. Cynthia has already clarified the three key points for her discussions with the team: · Improvement of local cross border collaborations between health services in Thailand and Burma. Specifically, she discussed the need for a system for referral between Myawaddy Hospital, Mae Tao Clinic and Mae Sot Hospital. · Developing solutions for addressing statelessness in children born on the Thai-Burma border to Burmese parents. Specifically, the need for the citizenship rights for children born at Mae Tao Clinic or Mae Sot Hospital whose parents are from Burma. · The need for accreditation and recognition of the skills of those working in health, education, community development and social work on the Thai-Burma border. These three points remain unaddressed; instead, informal references were made by members of the government team to news media suggesting that Dr. Cynthia return to Burma to set up a hospital there, resulting in widespread public misunderstanding. Dr. Cynthia has never had any intention to officially set up a hospital in Burma, and the Mae Tao Clinic’s stance has and continues to be that it is primarily the responsibility of the government to upgrade and strengthen existing health infrastructure, including the primary health work of ethnic health organizations (EHOs) and community based organizations (CBOs), whose long experience, trust and access, via existing health facilities and mobile health teams, to populations is essential for building an effective comprehensive health care system, one which can realize the goal of providing “health for all” in Burma. Thus far, serious discussions to begin the realization of this in ethnic areas of Burma have yet to begin. In particular, the community health approach utilized to expand healthcare access in many ethnic areas of Burma must be acknowledged, recognized and supported, an approach which has, for decades, enabled thousands of Burma’s peoples, particularly ethnic peoples living in rural Burma, access to essential basic health services unavailable through the current underfunded and highly centralized government health system. The three priority issues raised by Dr. Cynthia would be a key initial step towards such. The Mae Tao Clinic welcomes recent efforts by the Burmese government aimed at peace-building, as well as its initiation of dialogue with clinic staff and other health colleagues from Burma. We hope to see such efforts continue, and that they will lead to a genuine partnership to improve the health of the peoples of Burma. We will continue to support and advocate for community-managed primary health care systems in Burma, and are willing to engage in ongoing dialogue with the government Peace Team, in conjunction with our partners, EHOs working in eastern Burma, and others, including the Mae Sot Hospital and other Thai health institutions in order to continue expanding access to health services for the peoples of Burma. However, such dialogues must be inclusive and formalized, with substantive discussions and time-bound, concrete proposals to begin addressing the three priority areas that have been repeatedly raised by the clinic. We ultimately hope that this very preliminary process will transform into concrete measures that result in benefit for our patients and our communities..." ...For more information, please contact: Dr Cynthia Maung (USA from Sept 18 – 23): +1 240 370 5908 or info@maetaoclinic.org Eh Thwa (Thailand): +66 810448521
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic
Format/size: pdf (74K)
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2012

Title: From Rice Cooker to Autoclave at Dr. Cynthia’s MAE TAO CLINIC
Date of publication: 11 March 2010
Description/subject: 20th Anniversary Book about Mae Tao Clinic...LETTER FROM DR. CYNTHIA MAUNG: "The role of health workers is much more than doing medical things. They need to rebuild the community as well…learn to work together, negotiate, build trust and empower the people. We want the young people to feel that they are the people who can make change. They are the people who can mobilize their community to know basic health rights. We especially hope the younger generation will get involved – as leaders. When I look at the clinic, I see people working very hard. Sometimes, there’s a lot of pressure both psychologically and fi nancially. Staff have been away from their family for many years, and they always hope to go back home. The people we serve have the same feelings. I think everybody has sad feelings: When can we go back to our homeland? But the problems in Burma cannot be solved quickly. Even if the SPDC collapses or the political opposition wins the election, the country is still traumatized by landmines, prostitution, street children, broken families. People have lost their dignity and identity. Health services and education are not accessible to the people. All this cannot be fi xed within a few years. So we will expand as long as we need to provide health services for people from Burma. Wherever and whenever there are poor people in the community, we will continue to serve. We at the Mae Tao Clinic invite you to join us in providing health care and building the community on the Thai-Burma border or wherever there is a need in the world. We hope you feel empowered by the clinic’s successes, rather than impressed or overwhelmed. We want you to understand that you, too, can take on such projects. The key is to start small and grow. We leave you with lessons we’ve learned over the past 20 years in hopes that our shared experiences may be helpful as you go forward to serve" -- Dr. Cynthia Maung and the Founders of the Mae Tao Clinic
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic
Format/size: pdf (6.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 March 2010

Title: A ‘climate of fear’ at the Thai-Burma border
Date of publication: 03 February 2010
Description/subject: The oppressive regime running Burma has both forced many Burmese into displaced person camps in Thailand. Young Burmese people are particularly vulnerable, especially due to issues such as sexual health education and trafficking. By any account, Burma is a beautiful, naturally rich country with a diverse ethnic history. It is also run by one of the most oppressive regimes in the world, the State Peace and Development Council, an 11-member group of military commanders. This junta, in power under different names since 1988, has been cited for countless human rights abuses. The SPDC also oversees a corrupt, inefficient economy. In spite of the country’s natural wealth, social-economic conditions continue to deteriorate, along with Burma’s schools and hospitals.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Conversation for A Better World
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010

Title: Thailand: Discrimination Against Burmese Migrants
Date of publication: 09 June 2009
Description/subject: On 4th December 2006, Nang Noom Mae Seng, a 37-year old Shan migrant worker from Burma, was left paralysed after being struck by a 300 kilogram mould at her worksite. Her official compensation claim was rejected by Thailand’s SSO. This was because she could not satisfy conditions for access to the WCF laid down in a 2001 SSO circular, requiring that: (1) Workers must possess a passport or alien registration documents; and (2) Their employers must have paid a dividend into the WCF. These conditions make it generally impossible for Burmese migrants to access the WCF.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 November 2010

Title: Problem Pregnancies
Date of publication: July 2008
Description/subject: Low paid jobs for Burmese migrants are plentiful—but no babies, please... MAE SOT, Thailand — "A pregnant woman sits on her hospital bed, loudly pleading for an abortion. In the same ward, another woman gazes with devotion at her own newly born child. A third woman attracts my attention because of her dark eyes, wide and innocent, in a pale face, damp with sweat. Ma Khaing is her name. She says she also wanted to abort her baby, by taking the traditional purgative kay thi pan. The herbal concoction only made her ill. The unborn baby was unharmed, although 23-year-old Ma Khaing was clearly not pleased to hear the news from medical staff at Dr Cynthia Maung’s Mae Tao clinic in the Thai-Burmese border town of Mae Sot. She looked downcast as a medic told her the baby would survive. Ma Khaing earns 160 baht (US $5) a day working on a sugar cane plantation near Mae Sot. Pregnancy and the prospect of an infant to care for pose a real threat to her livelihood—and I’m not surprised when she says: “I don’t want the baby. I want to work and save money.” Ma Khaing’s story is typical, according to Mae Tao staffer Naw Pine Mu. She has seen many abortion cases in her five years at the clinic. “All are migrant women, working in the factories or in the sugar cane fields,” Naw Pine Mu says. Pregnancy and motherhood cost them their jobs and push them back into poverty..."
Author/creator: Aye Chan Myate
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2008

Date of publication: 2008
Description/subject: This cross-sectional study examined HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and modifiable factors for prevention of HIV/AIDS among Myanmar Migrant labors in Khao San Road tourism area in Bangkok. 210 participants (Male 108, Female 102) age between 18 to 35 years were selected and a self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect data of this study with snowball sampling technique. For data analysis, descriptive statistics was used for all variables and chi-square test, odds ratio and 95% CI were used to describe association between studied factors. ..... KEY WORDS: HIV/AIDS RISK BEHAVIORS/ MYANMAR MIGRANTS/ KHAO SAN ROAD BANGKOK
Author/creator: Nan Shwe Nwe Htun*, Wiput Phoolcharoen and Usaneya Perngparn
Language: English
Source/publisher: College of Public Health Sciences Chulalongkorn University
Subscribe: http://cuir.car.chula.ac.th/handle/123456789/15543
Format/size: pdf (814.35 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.cphs.chula.ac.th/J%20Health%20Res/files/FullText/23/Supplement/Nan.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2010

Title: Where It's Needed Most - An Interview with Dr. Cynthia Maung
Date of publication: July 2005
Description/subject: Nobel Peace Prize nominee's work far from complete... "Dr Cynthia Maung was born in Insein Township, Rangoon, in 1959 but grew up in Moulmein in Mon State. She graduated in medicine in 1985 and practiced in Bassein, Irrawaddy Division, and Karen State before fleeing to the Thai border when the military assumed power in September 1988. There she treated Burmese pro-democracy activists, many of whom were suffering from severe malaria, and went on to open a small medical center. In 1992-93 her health care service expanded to cater for internally displaced people in Burma, coordinating with other Burmese exile groups involved in providing public health care. She talked to The Irrawaddy about her work and her nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 13, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006

Date of publication: December 2004
Description/subject: Table Of Contents: Acronyms ... Map of Border Provinces and Nine Refugee Camp Locations ... Executive Summary 1. Introduction 2. Situation Assessment 2.1 Camp Refugees 2.2 Migrants 2.3 Cross-border humanitarian programs (IDPs) 2.4 Coordination 2.5 Repatriation – Contingency plans 3. Conclusions and Recommendations 3.1 Camp Refugee health programs 3.2 Migrants 3.3 Cross-border Programs (Burmese IDPs) 3.4 Coordination 3.5 Repatriation – Contingency Plans Appendix 1: Persons Interviewed Appendix 2: Documents Reviewed Appendix 3: Draft RFA Appendix 4: NGO Organizational Chart Appendix 5: CCSDPT Coordination of Burmese Refugee Activities Appendix 6: Morbidity and Mortality Statistics Appendix 7: Refugees and Migrants Appendix 8: Coordination
Author/creator: Donald W. Belcher
Language: English
Source/publisher: USAID, MSI
Format/size: pdf (545.45 K)
Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010

Title: Border Health (Thailand - Myanmar)
Date of publication: 19 March 2004
Description/subject: The Meeting on Development of Health Collaboration along Thailand-Myanmar Border areas: Five Presentations on Situation on Migrants and Six Report on Selected Health Problems/Activities along the border
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organization /Thailand
Format/size: MS Office
Alternate URLs: http://www.whothailand.org/en/Section3/Section39/Section69_143.htm
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010

Title: Meeting at the crossroads: Myanmar migrants and their use of Thai health care services
Date of publication: 2004
Description/subject: This study assesses the use of health services among cross-border migrants from Myanmar who are now living in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. The migrants comprise three main ethnic groups, namely the Burmese, Karen and Mon, most of whom have no formal education and are agricultural workers. Results indicate that although the migrants can access government health facilities, they are still more likely to buy drugs or use herbal medicines for treating themselves when they have minor illnesses, while the Thais are more likely to seek medical care from government facilities. The main difficulties for migrants in accessing health services are their legal status, financial constraints, and an inability to speak Thai. Moreover, health beliefs also determine the health-seeking behaviors of migrants, particularly among the Karen who believe in spirits and herbal medicine, while very few of the Burmese and the Mon do so. This leads to the conclusion that ethnicity is an important determinant of the utilization of health services by migrants from Myanmar in Kanchanaburi.
Author/creator: Pimonpan Isarabhakdi
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian and Pacific migration journal via Mahidol University, THAILANDE
Format/size: pdf (2.44 MB)
Alternate URLs: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16017346
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010

Title: Nowhere to Run: Ethnic Burmese Living in Refugee-like Circumstances in Thailand
Date of publication: February 2000
Description/subject: "...[R]eport on the Women's Commission Reproductive Health Project site visit in February 2000 to the Mae Tao Clinic in Mae Sot, Thailand [Dr Cynthia's clinic]. One key finding in this report is that reproductive health data collection has steadily improved at the Mae Tao Clinic. This is a good sign of progress as data collection is essential to establish a baseline of information about the community that a provider is assisting. The data allows the Clinic staff to objectively identify and prioritize community health problems and thereby design their health services to address these problems. In addition, the Clinic family planning program contraceptive user-rate has increased annually due to family planning education conducted by the staff. The significant unmet need for family planning services, however, is evident in the numbers of women and girls presenting to the Clinic with complications of unsafe abortion. An alarming 23% of the 277 women presenting to the Clinic with abortion complications in 1999 were under 20 years old and almost the same percentage had already had one abortion."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.refworld.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rwmain?page=search&skip=0&query=Ethnic+Burmese+Living+in+...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Burma: Concerns for Refugee Protection
Date of publication: 20 October 1999
Description/subject: Since the financial crisis in southeast Asia began, a more severe policy towards refugees is visible in many parts of Asia. MSF is concerned that forced repatriations may begin in the near future.
Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Dr Cynthia Wins Recognition
Date of publication: June 1999
Description/subject: Dr. Cynthia Maung, a Karen woman who has been bringing health care and education to thousands of Burmese refugees since 1988, was recently named the first recipient of the Jonathan Mann Award. A member of Images Asia sent this report from Bangkok, where Dr. Cynthia addressed an international audience via satellite.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: A Land of War, a Journey of the Heart
Date of publication: 27 September 1997
Author/creator: Paula Bock
Language: English
Source/publisher: Seattle Times
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Refugee Health
Description/subject: Link to the Refugee Health page in the Refugees section
Language: English, Burmese
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006