Shwe gas field and pipeline -- reports and articles
|Title:|| ||The Shwe Gas Movement
|Description/subject:|| ||"The SHWE Gas Movement is concerned with a natural gas pipeline project presently unfolding in Western Burma...
In cooperation with Burma's military junta, a consortium of Indian and Korean corporations are currently exploring gas fields off the coast of Arakan State in Western Burma. Discovered in December 2003, these fields--labeled A-1, or "Shwe" (the Burmese word for gold)--are expected to hold one of the largest gas yields in Southeast Asia. These Shwe fields could well become the Burmese military government's largest single source of foreign income...
However, for the people of Burma this project will likely bring more suffering than benefits. It is the opinion of the SHWE Gas Movement that the following issues are very likely outcomes if the pipeline project goes ahead unchecked:...
Exploitation of the Voiceless:
In order to transport the gas to India, a pipeline corridor is already being cleared in the minority Burmese states of Arakan and Chin. Moreover, the area is becoming increasingly militarised and forced labour is occurring in the context of infrastructure development...
Large-scale Human Rights Abuses and Militarisation:
As experience with two previous international Burmese gas pipeline projects -- the Yadana and the Yetagun -- suggest, forced relocation of villagers, forced labour, torture, rape and extrajudicial killings will result from the Shwe project...
Environmental and Cultural Destruction:
Because proper social and environmental impact assessments have not been carried out, the extent of the project's impact on the local population and environment can hardly be determined, but the Burmese military has a long history of environmental and cultural degradation...
The Entrenchment of the Burmese Military Regime:
Just as the Yadana and Yetagun projects provided a context for the Burmese military regime to extend its reach into minority and opposition areas, so too is the Shwe project providing an excuse to further militarize and exploit the frontier areas of Arakan and Chin state. Meanwhile, when the money from this project begins flowing into the junta's coffers, this will only increase the military's grip over the rest of Burma.
Burma's current state of affairs is well known. The regime's poor human rights record has led most governments and many international organisations and institutions to condemn Burma's state terror and pass sanctions and investment bans against the country. This approach, also supported by the majority of Burma's opposition movement and Nobel Peace Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, is meant to apply economic and political pressure on the regime and kick-start a process of democratisation.
At the same time, several countries, such as the regional neighbours Thailand, India, China and Malaysia, promote constructive engagement with the regime as opposed to international isolation. According to their arguments, constructive engagement will promote economic development, integrate the country into the international community, and eventually instigate a full transfer to democracy.
To date, however, progress in democratisation and human rights is yet to show, which seriously questions the viability of constructive engagement. Indeed, most foreign investment and development projects have caused more suffering than good because of the direct involvement of Burma's military. Thus, as argued by the Nobel Laureate and winner of the 1990 elections in Burma, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, "until we have a system that guarantees rules of law and basic democratic institutions, no amount of aid or investment will benefit our people."
We, the SHWE Gas Movement, ask the governments and corporations involved to halt the project until there is assurance that the people of the whole of Burma and Western Burma in particular can participate in the decision-making process and benefit from this project and not suffer the same fate as the people affected by the Yadana and the Yetagun pipelines. We ask you for your support in achieving this goal."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||The Shwe Gas Movement|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||04 March 2005|
|Title:|| ||Statement by Local Residents at Ramree Island regarding Shwe Gas Project, Deep Sea Port, and Oil and Gas Pipeline (English, Burmese, Chinese)
|Date of publication:|| ||02 May 2013|
|Description/subject:|| ||"Construction of Daewoo’s Shwe gas project, as well as CNPC’s Maday deep sea port and oil and gas pipeline have damaged our (local people’s) livelihoods and environment in Kyauk Phu Township since 2009. Additionally, there has been ongoing forcible land confiscation, providing no compensation or a limited amount of compensation for the confiscated rice farms and lands.
We, the local affected people, were not informed or consulted by the companies regarding the positive or negative impacts of the projects before the implementation of these projects until today. Furthermore, we were not informed of whether an EIA or SIA had been conducted before the implementation of the projects. Therefore, we have been deeply concerned about the possibility of the total destruction of our major livelihoods such as farming and fishing, as the projects have already negatively impacted our livelihoods..."|
|Language:|| ||English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ, Chinese|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Local Residents at Ramree Island (20 local groups and villages)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (64K-English; 63K-Burmese; 144K-Chinese)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Ramree_Oil_and_Gas_Statement-bu.pdf
|Date of entry/update:|| ||02 May 2013|
|Title:|| ||Danger Zone - Giant Chinese industrial zone threatens Burma’s Arakan coast (English and Burmese)
|Date of publication:|| ||17 December 2012|
|Description/subject:|| ||"China’s plans to build a giant industrial
zone at the terminal of its Shwe gas
and oil pipelines on the Arakan coast
will damage the livelihoods of tens of
thousands of islanders and spell doom
for Burma’s second largest mangrove
The 120 sq km “Kyauk Phyu Special
Economic Zone” (SEZ) will be managed
by Chinese state-owned CITIC group
on Ramree island, where China is
constructing a deep sea port for
ships bringing oil from the Middle
East and Africa. An 800-km railway
is also being built from Kyauk Phyu
to Yunnan, under a 50 year BOT
forging a Chinese-managed trade
corridor from the Indian Ocean across
Burma. Investment in the railway
and SEZ, China’s largest in Southeast
Asia, is estimated at US $109 billion
over 35 years.
Construction of the pipelines and
deep-sea port has already caused
large-scale land confiscation. Now 40
villages could face direct eviction from
the SEZ, while many more fear the
impacts of toxic waste and pollution
from planned petrochemical and metal
industries. No information has been
provided to local residents about the
It is urgently needed to have stringent
regulations in place to protect
the people and environment before
projects such as these are implemented
|Language:|| ||English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Arakan Oil Watch|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (810K-English; 1MB-Burmese)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Danger-Zone-bu-red.pdf|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||16 December 2012|
|Title:|| ||Pipeline Nightmare (English and Burmese)
|Date of publication:|| ||07 November 2012|
|Description/subject:|| ||"Shwe Pipeline Brings Land Confiscation, Militarization and Human Rights Violations to the Ta’ang People.
The Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) released a report today called “Pipeline Nightmare” that illustrates how the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, which will transport oil and gas across Burma to China, has resulted in the confiscation of people’s lands, forced labor, and increased military presence along the pipeline, affecting thousands of people.
Moreover, the report documents cases in 6 target cities and 51 villages of human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army, police and people’s militia, who take responsibility for security of the pipeline.
The government has deployed additional soldiers and extended 26 military camps in order to increase pressure on the ethnic armed groups and to provide security for the pipeline project and its Chinese workers. Along the pipeline, there is fighting on a daily basis between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army – North and Ta’ang National Liberation Army in Namtu, Mantong and Namkham, where there are over one thousand Ta’ang (Palaung) refugees.
“Even though the international community believes that the government has implemented political reforms, it doesn’t mean those reforms have reached ethnic areas, especially not where there is increased militarization along the Shwe Pipeline, increased fighting between the Burmese Army and ethnic armed groups, and negative consequences for the people living in these areas,” said Mai Amm Ngeal, a member of TSYO.
The China National Petroleum Corporation and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise have signed agreements for the Shwe Pipeline, however the companies have not conducted any Environmental Impact Assessments or Social Impact Assessments. While the people living along the pipeline bear the brunt of the effects, the government will earn an estimated USD$29 billion over the next 30 years.
“The government and companies involved must be held accountable for the project and its effects on the local people, such as increasing military presence and Chinese workers along the pipeline, both of which cause insecurity for the local communities and especially women. The project has no benefit for the public, so it must be postponed,” said Lway Phoo Reang, Joint Secretary (1) of TSYO.
TSYO urges the government to postpone the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, to withdraw the military from Shan State, reach a ceasefire with all ethnic armed groups in the state, and address the root causes of the armed conflict by engaging in political dialogue."|
|Language:|| ||English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (English, 2MB-OBL version; 6.77-original; 1.45-Burmese-OBL version)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Pipeline%20Nightmare%20report%20in%20English%20version%20(Final).pdf (original)
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Pipeline_Nightmare-bu-op--red.pdf (full report in Burmese)
http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Immediate%20Release%207%20N... (Summary in Burmese)
http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/For%20Immediate%20Release%2... (Summary in Thai)
http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/2012-11%20Shwe%20Pipeline%2... (Summary in Chinese)
|Date of entry/update:|| ||07 November 2012|
|Title:|| ||Sold Out - Launch of China pipeline project unleashes abuse across Burma (English, Burmese - မန္မာဘာသာ)
|Date of publication:|| ||07 September 2011|
|Description/subject:|| ||"Construction of various project components
to extract, process, and export the Shwe
gas - as well as oil trans-shipments from
Africa and the Middle East - is now well
underway. Local peoples are losing their land
and fishing grounds without finding new job
opportunities. Workers that have found lowpaying
temporary jobs are exploited and fired for
demanding basic rights. Women face unequal
wages, discrimination in the compensation
process, and vulnerabilities in the growing sex
industry around the project.
Resentment against the so-called Shwe Gas
Project is growing and communities are beginning
to stand up against abuses and exploitation.
Despite threats and risk of arrest, farmers and
local residents are sending complaints to local
authorities. Laborers are striking for better pay
and working conditions and women running
households are demanding electricity.
Burma’s military government is exporting massive world-class natural gas
reserves found off the country’s western coast, sacrificing the country’s future
economic security and dashing chances of electrification and job creation. The
“Shwe” offshore fields will produce trillions of cubic feet of natural gas that
could be used to spur economic and social development in one of the world’s
least developed nations. Instead it will be piped across the country to China,
fuelling abuses and conflict along its path.
Meanwhile active fighting has broken out between
armed resistance groups and government troops
in the area of the pipeline corridor in northern
The Korean, Chinese and Indian companies
involved in this project are taking tremendous
risks with their reputations and investments.
Social tensions, armed conflict, human rights
abuses, and lack of project standards have
raised concerns in investor circles and caused at
least one pension fund to divest from the Korean
fi rm Daewoo International, the main developer of
the gas fields.
Genuine development can only be achieved
when community rights and the environment are
protected, affected peoples share in benefits, and
transparency and accountability mechanisms
are in place. The Shwe Gas and China-Burma
Pipelines projects must be suspended and all
financing frozen or divested until such conditions
|Language:|| ||English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Shwe Gas Movement|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (2.9MB - English; 5.2MB - Burmese)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/SoldOut-Launch_of_China_pipeline_project-bu.pdf
http://www.shwe.org/campaign-update/sold-out-new-report/ (Press release in English, Burmese, Chinese, Thai, French)
|Date of entry/update:|| ||07 September 2011|
|Title:|| ||Broken Ethics:The Norwegian Government’s Investments in Oil and Gas Companies Operating in Burma (Myanmar)
|Date of publication:|| ||15 December 2010|
|Description/subject:|| ||"The Norwegian government has been accused of complicity in illegal land seizures, forced labour and killings, by investing national funds in international companies that operate inside Burma on projects where widespread abuses are alleged to have taken place.
A state-controlled pension fund that is a repository for some of Norway's own oil wealth has invested up to $4.7bn in 15 oil and gas companies operating inside the South-east Asian country.
The companies are accused of participating in projects where various human rights violations have taken place. Activists claim the pension fund is in breach of its own guidelines for responsible investment. The allegations come just days after Norway hosted the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony.
Land confiscation, forced labour and other abuses are happening in connection with several gas and oil pipeline projects in Burma, according to Naing Htoo of EarthRights International, which is today publishing a report detailing the alleged abuses being committed by the Burmese government. "There's every indication abuses connected to these projects will continue, and, in some cases, worsen," he said.
A number of those companies in which the Norwegian fund has investments have previously been accused in relation to controversial projects in Burma which has been controlled by a military junta since 1962. Among them are Total Oil of France, in which the Norwegian fund has an investment of $2.6bn, and the US-based Chevron Corp, in which the fund has $900m invested.
EarthRights International insists that widespread violations continue to be committed by the Burmese army in support of many oil and gas projects that earn the regime millions of dollars. The group says that troops providing security for the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines have carried out extra-judicial killings..." ["The Independent"]|
|Author/creator:|| ||Matthew Smith, Naing Htoo, Zaw Zaw, Shauna Curphey, Paul Donowitz, Brad Weikel, Ross Dana Flynn, and Anonymous Field Teams|
|Source/publisher:|| ||EarthRights International|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1.2MB)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||15 December 2010|
|Title:|| ||Overview of Land Confiscation in Arakan State
|Date of publication:|| ||June 2010|
"The following analysis has been compiled to bring attention to a wider audience of many of
the problems facing the people of Burma, especially in Arakan State. The analysis focuses
particularly on the increase in land confiscation resulting from intensifying military
deployment in order to magnify security around a number of governmental developments
such as the Shwe Gas, Kaladan, and Hydropower projects in western Burma of Arakan State...Conclusion: "The SPDC's ongoing parallel policy of increasing militarisation while increased forced land
confiscation to house and feed the increasing troop numbers causes widespread problems
throughout Burma. By stripping people of the land upon which peopl's livelihoods are based,
whilst providing only desultory compensation if any at all, many citizens face threats to their
food security as well as water shortages, a decrease or abolition of their income, eradicating
their ability to educate their children in order to create a sustainable income source in the
future. Additionally, the policy of using forced labour in the Government's construction and
development projects, coupled with the disastrous environmental effects of many of these
projects, continues to create severe health problems throughout the country whilst
simultaneously stifling the local economy so that varied or sustainable work is difficult to
become engaged in. All of this often leads to people fleeing the country in search of a better
|Source/publisher:|| ||All Arakan Students' and Youths' Congress (AASYC)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (2.3MB)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||16 June 2010|
|Title:|| ||Corridor of Power - China’s Trans-Burma Oil and Gas pipelines
|Date of publication:|| ||07 September 2009|
|Description/subject:|| ||Introduction: "On June 16, 2009 China's Vice-President Xi Jinping and Burma's Vice-Senior General Maung Aye signed a memorandum of understanding relating to the development, operation and management of the "Myanmar-China Crude Oil Pipeline Projects." After years of brokering deals and planning, China has cemented its place not only as the sole buyer of Burma's massive Shwe Gas reserves, but also the creator of a new trans-Burma corridor to secure shipment of its oil imports from the Middle East and Africa.
China's largest oil and gas producer -the China National Petroleum Corporation or CNPC - will build nearly 4,000 kilometers of dual oil and gas pipelines across the heartland of Burma beginning in September 2009. CNPC will also purchase offshore natural gas reserves, handing the military junta ruling Burma a conservative estimate of one billion US dollars a year over the next 30 years.
Burma ranks tenth in the world in terms of natural gas reserves yet the per capita electricity consumption is less than 5% that of neighbouring Thailand and China. Burma already receives US$ 2.4 billion per year - nearly 50 percent of revenues from exports - from natural gas sales but spends a pittance on health and education; one reason it was ranked as the second-most corrupt country in the world in 2008. Entrenched corruption combined with energy shortages have led to social unrest in the conflict-ridden country; unprecedented demonstrations in 2007 were sparked by a spike in fuel prices.
An estimated 13,200 soldiers are currently positioned along the pipeline route. Past experience has shown that pipeline construction and maintenance in Burma involves forced labour, forced relocation, land confiscation, and a host of abuses by soldiers deployed to the project area. A lack of transparency or assessment mechanisms leaves critical ecosystems under threat as well.
Yet it is not only the people of Burma who are facing grave risks from these projects. The corporations, governments, and financiers involved also face serious financial and security risks. A re-ignition of fighting between the regime and ceasefire armies stationed along the pipeline route; an unpredictable business environment that could arbitrarily seize property or assets; and public relations disasters as a result of complicity in human rights abuses and environmental destruction all threaten investments.
The Shwe Gas Movement is therefore calling companies and governments to suspend the Shwe Gas and Trans-Burma Corridor projects; shareholders, institutional investors and pension funds to divest their holdings in these companies; and banks to refrain from financing these projects unless affected peoples are protected."|
|Language:|| ||English, Burmese (press releases in also in Chinese and Thai)|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Shwe Gas Movement|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (2.5MB, 2.3MB, English version; 7.7MB, Burmese version)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.shwe.org/ (press releases in English, Burmese, Chinese and Thai)
|Date of entry/update:|| ||07 September 2009|
|Title:|| ||A Governance Gap: The Failure of the Korean Government to hold Korean Corporations Accountable to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises Regarding Violations in Burma
|Date of publication:|| ||15 June 2009|
|Description/subject:|| ||Executive Summary: "This report is intended to inform the upcoming meetings of the OECD Investment
Committee in Paris, France in 2009. It documents substantive errors in the Korean NCP’s
interpretations of the OECD Guidelines, and its failure to achieve functional equivalence
with other NCPs. EarthRights International (ERI) and the Shwe Gas Movement (SGM)
request the Investment Committee to address the governance gap within the OECD
Guidelines system of implementation by acknowledging the Korean NCP’s errors in
interpretation, and by clarifying certain aspects of Guidelines with respect to the Korean
NCP’s decision in the Shwe case.
Chapter 1 provides an updated context of the situation in Burma, highlighting the
environmental and human rights, political, and economic situations, with particular
attention to updates on the impacts of natural gas development in the country.
Chapter 2 describes the OECD Guidelines specific instance procedure and the
complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. in October 2008.
Chapter 3 explains structural shortcomings and conflicts of interest at the Korean
NCP, noting that these are problems that appear to pervade the NCP system, raising
important questions about the ability of the Guidelines to have their desired effect.
Chapter 4 describes specific substantive problems with the Korean NCP’s
decision in the Shwe case, noting how the NCP decided in favor of the companies on
every count, concluding that the complaint did not merit further attention.
Chapter 5 highlights the ways in which the Korean NCP’s decision is
inconsistent with decisions of other NCPs, most notably with decisions by the French and
Chapter 6 makes specific requests of the OECD Investment Committee with
respect to clarifying certain aspects of the Guidelines and taking effective action to
improve the performance of the Korean NCP.
Appendix A of this report is an unofficial English translation of the Korean NCPs
decision. The text of the complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. is available at
|Source/publisher:|| ||EarthRights International, Shwe Gas Movement|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (496MB)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/A_Governance_Gap-ERI.pdf|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||20 August 2010|
|Title:|| ||COMPLAINT TO THE SOUTH KOREA NATIONAL CONTACT POINT UNDER THE SPECIFIC INSTANCE PROCEDURE OF THE OECD GUIDELINES FOR MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES
|Date of publication:|| ||29 October 2008|
|Description/subject:|| ||REGARDING NATURAL GAS DEVELOPMENT BY DAEWOO INTERNATIONAL AND
KOREA GAS CORPORATION (KOGAS) IN BURMA (MYANMAR)...
FILED BY EARTHRIGHTS INTERNATIONAL (ERI) ON BEHALF OF
THE SHWE GAS MOVEMENT (SGM)...
THE KOREAN HOUSE FOR INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY (KHIS);
KOREAN CONFEDERATION OF TRADE UNIONS (KCTU);
FEDERATIONS OF KOREAN TRADE UNIONS (FKTU);
CITIZEN'S ACTION NETWORK (CAN);
PEOPLE FOR DEMOCRACY IN BURMA;
WRITERS FOR DEMOCRACY OF BURMA;
HUMAN RIGHTS SOLIDARITY FOR NEW SOCIETY;
THE ASSOCIATION FOR MIGRANT WORKERS' HUMAN RIGHTS;
BURMA ACTION KOREA...
OCTOBER 29, 2008....."...EarthRights International (ERI), on behalf of the Shwe Gas Movement (SGM), brings this complaint
alleging that Daewoo International and the Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) have breached and will
continue to breach a number of the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (the “Guidelines”)
related to their activities in Burma (Myanmar).1 These breaches are related to the companies’
exploration, development, and operation of the natural gas project in Burma known as the Shwe Gas
Project, meaning “gold” in Burmese (hereinafter “Shwe Project”)....".....CONTENTS:
I. Introduction 4
i. Identity and Interest of the Complainants 4
ii. Identity of the Corporations Involved 4
iii. Previous Contact between the Corporations and the Complainants 5
iv. Summary of Breaches by Daewoo International and KOGAS in Burma 5
v. Specific Requests of the South Korean NCP 7
II. Applicability of the Guidelines 8
i. Why Daewoo International and KOGAS, and this Complaint, are Subject to the
ii. Why NCP Involvement is Requested and Necessary at this Time 8
III. Background on Burma 9
i. Geography and Demographics 9
ii. Government and Politics 10
iii. Economy 11
iv. Cyclone Nargis 13
v. Military Support 14
vi. Human Rights 14
IV. Background to this Complaint 17
i. Previous Natural Gas Projects and Human Rights Abuses: The Yadana and Yetagun
ii. The Shwe Natural Gas Project of Daewoo International, KOGAS, et al 20
V. Specific Breaches of the Guidelines by Daewoo International and KOGAS 23
i. Section II.1, Enterprises should contribute to economic, social and environmental
progress with a view to achieving sustainable development. 23
a) International Standards 24
b) Breaches of Section II.1 24
ii. Section II.2, [Enterprises should] Respect the human rights of those affected by their
activities consistent with the host government's international obligations and
a) Customary International Human Rights Obligations 26
b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 27
c) Breaches of Section II.2 28
iii. Sections III.1 & V.2, Enterprises should 1) ensure that timely, regular, reliable and
relevant information is disclosed regarding their activities, structure, financial situation
and performance and 2) provide timely information and consult with affected
a) International Standards 30
b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 31
c) Breaches of Section III.1 32
d) Breaches of Section V.2 33
iv. Section IV.1(c), Enterprises should contribute to the elimination of all forms of forced
or compulsory labour. 34
a) Customary International Law Regarding Forced Labour and Forced
b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 35
c) Obligations Under National Law 35
d) Breaches of Section IV.1(c) 36
v. Section V.3, [Enterprises should] Assess environmental impact and prepare an
appropriate environmental impact assessment. 37
a) The Requirement for EIA Under Customary International Law 37
b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 39
c) Breaches of Section V.3 39
VI. Conclusion 42
VII. Contact Information of Representative of Complainants 43|
|Source/publisher:|| ||EarthRights International|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (249K)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/OECDComplaint10.29-ENGLISH.pdf|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||30 December 2008|
|Title:|| ||Blocking Freedom: A case study of China's oil and gas investmert in Burma
|Date of publication:|| ||21 October 2008|
|Description/subject:|| ||KEY POINTS - A Brief Summary:
* Oil exploration by Chinese companies in Arakan, western Burma, precipitated a rare explosion of local anger in April 2007, resulting in damage to a Chinese drilling site, a crackdown by Burmese forces, and seventy villagers fleeing their homes....
* Burma's oil and gas resources are being exported while a majority of the people has no electricity. Exploration operations carried out without prior knowledge or consent of local residents and without impact assessments resulted in social and environmental abuses contrary to the claims of corporate social responsibility reports by the Chinese companies involved....
* Chinese investment in Burma's oil and gas sector is growing, with 16 blocks under contract for exploration. This investment also includes the purchase ofhuge offshore natural gas reserves, construction of cross-country pipelines, and the development of a deep sea port, which stand to amplify abuses across the country....
* While the military regime now takes in US$2.7 billion a year from the sale of natural gas, less than half of the earnings are publicly recorded. Revenue from the sale of new natural gas finds are destined to triple in the coming years. This includes the sale of gas from the Shwe gas project, which would generate an estimated US$24 billion over the next twenty years....
* Without rule of law, accountability or transparency mechanisms in Burma, Chinese and other companies operating in the country will become complicit in military abuses and conflict....
* Without assurance of adherence to basic international standards, Chinese and multinational oil and gas corporations in Burma need to s top investment and operations in Burma's oil and gas sector until such time as Burma has a genuine democratically-elected government, rule of law, and legislation guaranteeing the protection of human rights and the environment. At the same time, s hareholders, investors, and banks that support Chinese and other multinational oil and gas companies must divest their funds from projects in Burma.|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Arakan Oil Watch|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (4.4MB - original; 3.9MB - burmalibrary version)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/Blocking_Freedom-en.pdf
|Date of entry/update:|| ||20 August 2010|
|Title:|| ||China’s Game Plan for Burma
|Date of publication:|| ||January 2008|
|Description/subject:|| ||China’s ability to elbow out other contenders for the Shwe gas—from Thailand, Japan and South Korea, as well as India—underlines Beijing’s rising influence within the Burmese regime|
|Author/creator:|| ||William Boot|
|Source/publisher:|| ||"The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||27 April 2008|
|Title:|| ||Natural Light
|Date of publication:|| ||April 2007|
|Description/subject:|| ||Table of Contents: Mangrove Deforestation, Shrimp Farming, and the Survival of the Coastal...
Land Confiscation in Burma: Whose land is it?...
Shwe Gas Pro ect and the Impact on Arakan State...
A Brief History of Rice Agriculture and Chemical Fertilizer Use in Arakan State|
|Author/creator:|| ||Khaing Dhu Wan, Katie Ryder, Khaing Dhu Wan, David Le Blanc, Aung Marm Oo, Khaing Dhu Wan|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Network for Enriornment and Economic Development (NEED)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 12.2MB-original)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.need-burma.org/resources
|Date of entry/update:|| ||21 September 2015|
|Title:|| ||Erdgas in Burma - ein Rohstoff und seine Folgen
|Date of publication:|| ||15 November 2006|
|Description/subject:|| ||Ein Artikel über die Pläne der Shwe-Gas-Pipeline durch den koreanischen Daewoo-Konzern und andere internationale Teilhaber. Befürchtete Auswirkungen: Menschenrechtsverletzungen, Umweltzerstörung, Zerstörung der Lebensgrundlage, Einkommen für das Militärregime
Shwe-Gas-Pipeline, Daewoo, GAIL, India, Shwe Gas Movement, report "Supply and Command"|
|Author/creator:|| ||Andreas Berger|
|Language:|| ||Deutsch, German|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Burma.Initiative Asienhaus|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (322K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||20 December 2006|
|Title:|| ||Gas Politics: Shwe Gas Development in Burma
|Date of publication:|| ||November 2006|
|Description/subject:|| ||"In recent months, both China and India have signed agreements with the Burmese military junta
indicating their willingness to buy gas from the proposed Shwe gas project in western Burma,
with Thailand also expressing interest. If built, the Shwe project would be Burma’s largest gas
development project ever. Matthew Smith and Naing Htoo analyse the events surrounding the
recent agreements and the inevitable consequences if the project were to proceed..."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Matthew Smith and Naing Htoo|
|Source/publisher:|| ||EarthRights International, published in "Watershed" Vol. 11 No. 2, November 2005–June 2006|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (306K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||26 April 2008|
|Title:|| ||Supply and Command - Natural gas in western Burma set to entrench military rule
|Date of publication:|| ||July 2006|
|Description/subject:|| ||Executive Summary"
"A scramble for natural gas presently unfolding in western Burma is poised to provide the ruling military junta with its single largest source of income. The sale of the gas, mainly to regional neighbours, will further entrench the junta, insulating it from international pressure. The country's already abysmal human rights situation is set to worsen.
A consortium of Indian and Korean corporations, in cooperation with the regime, has been exploring gas fields off the coast of Arakan State after the discovery of a "world class gas deposit" in wells labelled "Shwe" (the Burmese word for gold) in late 2003. The Shwe wells are expected to lead to one of the largest gas yields in Southeast Asia. Burma's strategic location between two of the world's largest and most energy-hungry countries (China and India) has accelerated the exploration and extraction process.
Outcry over Burma's human rights record and its continued detention of democracy leader and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi has led to a series of actions by the international community, including moves to highlight Burma as a security threat at the UN Security Council. Yet the regime has continued its military expansion and offensives, particularly into ethnic border areas, in an effort to strengthen its hold. Since 1988, the number of infantry battalions based in the Western Command in Arakan and Chin states, the two western states that will be affected by the Shwe gas project, has increased from 3 to 43 battalions.
The increased militarization has led to human rights abuses including forced labour, confiscation of land and assets, extortion,
and violence. These abuses will surely be exacerbated by a further increase of troop levels to secure any gas pipeline in the area. Indeed, the effects of the project are already being felt by local fishermen. In April 2004, soldiers arrested fishermen inside an exclusion zone around exploratory rigs in the gas fields. The men were not aware of the restrictions as they had frequently gone fishing in that area. Regardless of this, they were beaten and thrown injail.
Gas from the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines in the east of the country is currently Burma's largest source of legal export revenue. The Shwe project, however, would increase the junta's income from gas by at least 150%. The junta stands to profit by approximately US$580-824 million per year or US$124 7 billion over the life of the project. Previous gas earnings have been directly linked with military arms purchases and allow the regime to continue its oppressive grip on the whole of Burma's population in defiance of international pressure.
While the regime purchases more arms with gas revenues, the local population remains in poverty. Arakan and Chin states are both excluded from the national electricity grid; ninety percent of the population uses candles for light and firewood as their primary source of cooking fuel. People are denied their rights to participate in decision-making about any development projects, including the extraction of local resources.
Two proposed pipeline routes to India traverse four areas classified as crucial to the conservation of global biodiversity, including one of the ten most vulnerable ecoregions in the world. Clearance paths either side of a pipeline that would disrupt animal migratory paths and the building of roads and infrastructure are â¢ foreign governments, institutions, and civil society,
of particular concern in these areas. The fate of at least three particularly in the region, to pressure businesses
critically endangered animal species, the Arakan forest turtle, involved in the Shwe gas project to freeze all current
the dugong, and the Irrawaddy river dolphin, will also be put into business with the military regime and refrain from
question by the Shwe project. Environmental dangers involved further investment.
in the commercial production and transport of natural gas such
as chemical leakage and gas blowouts are a further concern. â¢ the broader international community to continue to
expose the dangers posed by the Shwe gas project. Several ancient historical sites - including the third Dhanyawaddy City that dates back to 580 BC - that are significant not only to Arakan people but to the understanding of the history of Southeast Asia lie within twenty kilometres of the proposed Shwe gas pipelines. Given the SPDC's record of destruction and disregard for culturally and historically important sites, including those in Arakan State, this proximity makes them vulnerable to ransacking and destruction during the development of the Shwe pipelines and associated infrastructure such as roads and military barracks.
In order to address the potential social, economic, and environmental impacts of the Shwe gas project and to enable its benefits to be distributed equitably, Burma needs a democratic system of governance in which people can voice their concerns without fearing persecution. Without this, the Shwe project must not go forward.
The Shwe Gas Movement urges:
â¢ all corporations and businesses involved in the Shwe project, either state or privately owned, to freeze all current business with the military regime and refrain from further investment and exploration until a dialogue can be held with a democratically-elected government."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Shwe Gas Movement|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1.09MB)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://burmacampaign.org.uk/media/shwe_gas.pdf|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||14 July 2006|
|Title:|| ||Another Yadana: The Shwe Natural Gas Pipeline Project (Burma-Bangladesh-India)
|Date of publication:|| ||27 August 2004|
|Description/subject:|| ||"In Burmese, Yadana refers to objects of religious veneration and, by extension, to people and objects of great worth. The construction and maintenance of the Yadana Pipeline has forever changed that. For the thousands of people adversely affected by this multi-national energy project, the word has a very different meaning. Yadana is now synonymous with forced labor and severe human rights violations.
Another Yadana, sadly, is in the making. In January 2004, with the approval of the Burmese government, a consortium of South Korean and Indian companies announced plans to develop a massive natural gas field in the Gulf of Bengal, off the coast of western Burma. This new project, known as Shwe, which means “gold” in Burmese, is still in its early planning stages. In EarthRights International’s (ERI) view, an alarming number of similarities already exist between the Yadana Pipeline and the proposed Shwe Pipeline. If nothing is done, it appears likely that history will repeat itself. Forced labor and human rights abuses are still an ongoing problem throughout Burma, and it can be assumed that these violations will continue at any major development project site.
At this point, little information on the proposed Shwe Project is publicly available. To help counter this problem ERI is now collaborating with a growing number of groups in the tri-state border region (Burma-Bangladesh-India) where the transnational pipeline is likely to be constructed. Together, the groups are working to raise local, regional and international awareness concerning the social and environmental impacts the massive Shwe Project is likely to have regionally. The Project is expected to cost between one and three billion U.S. dollars to build. Future reports based on careful fact-finding are planned, as is an international campaign should the energy consortium move forward with the project..." N.B. map in pdf version.|
|Source/publisher:|| ||EarthRights International|
|Format/size:|| ||html, pdf (324K)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/The_Shwe_Project.pdf|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||27 August 2004|
|Title:|| ||Four articles on new gas field off Arakan
|Date of publication:|| ||20 January 2004|
|Description/subject:|| ||1. Daewoo makes giant gas discovery in Rakhine basin off northwestern
Myanmar, "Oil and Gas Journal", Jan. 16;
2. Giant natural gas discovery off Myanmar, UPI, Jan. 16;
3. GAIL set to invest Rs 4000 crore to cart Myanmar gas, "Business
Standard", Jan. 17;
4. Massive natural gas reserve confirmed in Rakhine State, Myanmar "Times", Jan. 19-25..."Daewoo International Corp., Seoul, and Korea Gas
Corp. discovered 4 to 6 tcf of recoverable gas on Block A-1 in the
nonproducing Rakhine basin shelf in the Bay of Bengal off northwestern
Myanmar and plans to pursue other similar objectives on the block.
The Shwe-1/1A wildcat is the first wildcat drilled in the
Plio-Pleistocene section off northwestern Myanmar and the country's
first offshore discovery since Yetagun gas field in the Gulf of Martaban
12 years ago, Daewoo said. This is Daewoo's first well on its first
project as operator..."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||IFI Discussion Group|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||27 January 2004|